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Contents S.N. Chatper Particulars
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 1 1.1 1.2 2 2.1 2.2 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 Acknowlegement Focus Context and Preliminary Investigation Discription of the Project Project Development Plan Research and Analysis MIS Development Plan Project Functional Requirements System Design Use Case Diagram Database Table Diagram Access Control Conclusion

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2 2 3 4 6 7 8 12 16 17 19 25 30

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Working on a project requires immense patience, hard work, determination to achieve our goals. It also requires contributions from each of the team members, forgetting all their differences and work towards the goal. Above all it requires a guiding light to guide the students in times of need. The guiding light is in fact the faculty who shows the way to the students and helps them to overcome their hurdles and achieve success. So we are immensely thankful to our Information Technology for Managers faculty PROF. NIVEDITA ROY who was there to give her valuable suggestions whenever needed and was constantly encouraging us to learn new techniques while doing our project. She was always quick in showing real life picture to make us understand even the difficult concepts easily and solve our problems that we had during project time.

FOCUS
This project report primarily lays emphasis on the ‘ROLE OF IT IN REAL ESTATE INDUSTRY’. It covers all the primary as well as secondary areas of the uses and applications of IT in various areas and departments of the Real Estate industry.

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CHAPTER 1

CONTEXT AND PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION

Overview:
1.1 Description of the project 1.2 Project Development Plan Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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1.1 Description of the project 1.1.1 Project Background MIS Role in Business
Management Information Systems (MIS) is important because all businesses have a need for information. The task before businesses is to use information and technology as a tool for solving problems, and providing opportunities by increasing productivity and quality. Information has always been important but it has never been so available, so current, and so overwhelming. Great strides have been made in the collection, storage, and retrieval of information. As we approach the end of the century and the millennium, we witness the growing importance of computerized information systems. Increasingly, businesses are realizing the importance of computerized information systems simply to remain competitive. All companies today have in their agenda to make MIS that they can use to hold a competitive edge over the others. Everybody wants to use the technology available at hand and make the optimum utilization of it. Organizations today understand the concept of maintaining and updating all kind of records electronically which they can use for various strategic and management purposes. Such is the role that MIS plays in today’s competitive business environment. And Real Estate sector is also not left behind in realizing the importance and potential of a MIS in the business. The challenge remains in the selection, analysis and interpretation of the information to produce useful intelligence that will improve decision making and productivity.

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1.1.2 Project Goals
• • • • • • • • To develop a MIS that is able to support all Real Estate processes. Provides timely reports of all the phases involved in Real Estate. Analyzes all the data and interprets it according to the needs of the user. Provides strategic information to the management that can be used for decision making purposes. Easy to use by everyone in the organization. Helps in optimal utilization of the resources. Maintains integrity and access controls over the data. Provides features like concurrency control and recovery.

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1.2 Project Development Plan 1.2.1 Description of Primary and Secondary research Plan
Thorough research has been done to gather facts from the users as well as the technical issues of this proposed system. Gathering user’ requirement is a challenging task as good fact finding techniques must be used to solicit more accurate and relevant information from the users.

1.2.2 Description of System Analysis and Design Plan
Upon having gathered and understood the user’s requirements, system analysis and design can then take place. The development is done using certain steps of approach and this methodology is deemed to be the most suitable method for developing the telecommunication system within a given time frame.

1.2.3 Description of Implementation Plan
Upon having developed the proposed system, implementation plan tells you how actually the technical aspect and the documental aspect help in implementing the whole system.

1.2.4 Description of Testing Plan

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Upon having developed the proposed system, testing then takes place. Based on the test plan designs, intensive testing will be carried out. The completed system will be presented to the testers for user’s acceptance testing. Based on the feedback gathered, system refinement is done to improve the system.

CHAPTER 2

RESEARCH AND ANALYSIS

Overview:
2.1 MIS Development Model 2.2 Project Functional Requirements Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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2.1 MIS Development Model
A study in the Real Estate sector was necessary to identify the customer's need. This process is also called as market research. The already existing need and the possible future needs that were combined together for study. Once the study was done, the customer's need was used to develop a cost-effective system that could potentially solve customer's needs better than the competitors. Once the system is developed and tested in a hypothetical environment, the development team takes control of it. To develop the required MIS for Real Estate sector, the development model used was the System Development Life Cycle Model (SDLC Model). It is also called as the Classic Life Cycle Model (or) Linear Sequential Model (or) Waterfall Method. This model has the following activities. 1. System/Information Engineering and Modeling. 2. MIS Requirements Analysis. 3. Systems Analysis and Design. 4. Code Generation 5. Testing. 6. Maintenance.

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The Classic SDLC Model

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1) System/Information Engineering and Modeling
As MIS development is large process so work begins by establishing requirements for all system elements and then allocating some subset of these requirements to MIS. The view of this system is necessary when MIS must interface with other elements such as hardware, people and other resources. System is the very essential requirement for the existence of MIS in any entity. In some cases for maximum output, the system should be Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School 10

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re-engineered and spruced up. Once the ideal system is designed according to requirement, the development team studies the MIS requirement for the system.

2) MIS Requirement Analysis
MIS Requirement Analysis is also known as feasibility study. In this requirement analysis phase, the development team visits the customer and studies their system requirement. They examine the need for possible MIS automation in the given MIS system. After feasibility study, the development team provides a document that holds the different specific recommendations for the candidate system. It also consists of personnel assignments, costs of the system, project schedule and target dates. The requirements analysis and information gathering process is intensified and focused specially on MIS. To understand what type of the programs to be built, the system analyst must study the information domain for the MIS as well as understand required function, behavior, performance and interfacing. The main purpose of requirement analysis phase is to find the need and to define the problem that needs to be solved.

3) System Analysis and Design
In System Analysis and Design phase, the whole MIS development process, the overall MIS structure and its outlay are defined. In case of the client/server processing technology, the number of tiers required for the package architecture, the database design, the data structure design etc are all defined in this phase. After designing part a MIS development model is created. Analysis and Design are very important in the whole development cycle process. Any fault in the design phase could be very expensive to solve in the MIS development process. In this phase, the logical system of the product is developed.

4) Code Generation
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In Code Generation phase, the design must be decoded into a machine-readable form. If the design of MIS product is done in a detailed manner, code generation can be achieved without much complication. For generation of code, various databases like MS Access, Oracle, and SQL Server etc. are used.

5) Testing
After code generation phase the MIS program testing begins. Different testing methods are available to detect the bugs that were committed during the previous phases. A number of testing tools and methods are already available for testing purpose.

6) Maintenance
MIS will definitely go through change once when it is delivered to the customer. There are large numbers of reasons for the change. Change could happen due to some unpredicted input values into the system. In addition to this the changes in the system directly have an effect on the MIS operations. The MIS should be implemented to accommodate changes that could be happen during the post development period.

2.2 Project Functional requirements
This section lists the functional requirements in ranked order. Functional requirements describe the possible effects of a software system, in other words, what the system must accomplish. Other kinds of requirements (such as interface requirements, performance

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requirements, or reliability requirements) describe how the system accomplishes its functional requirements. Each functional requirement is specified as follows:

a) Report on various resources consumed.
1. Description A report on all the items that were consumed. This detailed description should give all the resources consumed by all the machines. These resources would be machines, raw materials, manpower etc. 2. Criticality It is a critical report as it will lead the top management as well as the process managers to find out how many resources are consumed and in what manner and thus they shall be able to take decisions to refine the process of Real Estate and make it more effective. 3. Risk If this report is not accurate and timely, it could lead to ineffective utilization of the resources and finally this would affect the overall productivity of the process. This could be critical in the business aspect. 4. Report type Daily, Monthly, Quarterly, Bi-annually, Annually.

b) Report on various resources bought from suppliers.

1. Description

A report on all the raw materials supplied by the suppliers and other vendors in what quantity at what time throughout the project should be available.

2. Criticality

It is an important report as it will allow the user to maintain records of the specific products and raw materials ordered from Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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SECTOR- REAL ESTATE the various suppliers. This will provide timely information to infer what products and raw materials are generally required at what times during the Real Estate project and thus the organization can formulate plans to keep the products available at the right time. This would ensure availability of raw materials at critical times during the project and there would never be a shortfall.

3. Risk

From the business aspect, it is very important as it will not just maintain records of the orders placed to the suppliers but will also help in strategic planning of the requirements of raw materials during the various phases of the project.

4. Report type

A push report produced as and when required.

c) Report on the progress of the Real Estate project.
1. Description A report that shows all the deadlines of the various phases involved in the Real Estate project as well as their actual completion dates. Moreover the MIS should also report the activities that can be carried out parallel with other activities. It should also provide the user with the earliest and latest completion times of the phases. 2. Criticality It is an important aspect of the MIS. It will help the decision Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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3. Risk

If this information is inaccurate, it will affect the overall project completion and would completely mess up the smooth functioning of various project activities. Moreover it could possibly delay the complete project which could lead to project failures or the company incurring heavy losses.

4. Report type

Weekly, Monthly, Quarterly, Bi-annually, Annually.

d) Report on the budgeting of the various activities of the Real Estate project.
1. Description A report that shows all the activities that are carried out in the project along with the costs incurred with those activities. It should provide the management with the detailed description of the various activities that are done for the successful completion of the project phase and what are the expenditures that the company incurs to complete that activity. 2. Criticality It is very critical to any Real Estate project. This will tell the Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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SECTOR- REAL ESTATE company where it is spending all the money and thus it will help the project managers to identify activities where cost cutting can be done. This will lead to effective cost management of the project and could also lead to cost cutting in the project. This will prove to be a very important requirement of the management.

3. Risk

The inaccuracy of this report could lead to over-spending in activities and there won’t be effective utilization of funds for the project. Thus the company could face financial losses and it will affect the overall net-profit of the company.

4. Report type

Basically after the completion of each phase of the project and before the starting of the next phase in the project.

CHAPTER 3

SYSTEM DESIGN

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Overview:
3.1 Use Case Diagrams 3.2 Database Tables 3.3 Data Dictionary

3.1 Use case Descriptions
(A) High Level Use Case –For the primary actor “Project Manager/Coordinator”:

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(B) Elaborated Use Case diagram of Actor (Project Manager/Project Coordinator) interacting with the MIS for a Real Estate Project:

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Inputs Password

Validates Password

Views Project Progress

Add material requirements Update supplier records Resource consumption

Views Supplier reports

Inputs resource consumption

Prepares report

3.2 Database Table Descriptions Table 1: Supplier Table
Primary Key: Sup_Code Foreign Key: Item_Code Field Name Sup_Code Data Type Alphanumeric Description Specific code given to the supplier. Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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SECTOR- REAL ESTATE The name of the supplier. The address of the supplier. The city from which the supplier operates. The code of the raw material that the supplier provides. This is the rating given to the supplier on the basis of his past record, quality of goods supplied, time taken, payment history etc. The last date on which any deal was made with the supplier. The last amount that was paid to the supplier for the order placed.

Sup_Rating

Numeric

Sup_LDD

Date

Sup_LDA

Number

Table 2: Resource Table
Primary Key: Item_Code Foreign Key: Sup_Code, Act_Code Field Name Item_Code Item_name Sup_Code Act_Code Data Type Alphanumeric Text Alphanumeric Alphanumeric Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School Description Specific code given to the raw material. The name of the raw material. The code of the supplier who supplies the product. The code of the activity that

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Item_Qty_Reqd Item_Qty_Avl

Number Numeric

material. The quantity of the raw material required. This is the quantity of the raw material that is available in the inventory at any particular given time. The last date on which an order of the product was placed with the supplier. The quantity in which the Product was last acquired By the company from the Supplier. The date on which the Supplier made the delivery Of the product.

Item_LDO

Date

Item_LQA

Number

Item_LQAD

Date

Table 3: Activity Table
Primary Key: Act_code Foreign Key: Item_Code Field Name Act_Code Data Type Alphanumeric Description The specific code given to each activity carried out for the completion of each Act_Name Act_Dur Text Number phase of the project. The name of the activity. The number of days the activity generally takes to Act_ESD Date complete. The earliest possible start date of the activity. Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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SECTOR- REAL ESTATE The latest possible start date of the activity which does not affect other activities. The earliest possible completion date of the activity. The latest possible completion date of the activity on which the activity should complete. The code of the raw materials that are required by the activity. The item quantity required.

Act_ECD

Date

Act_LCD

Date

Item_Code

Alphanumeric

Item_Qty

Number

Table 4: Budgeting Table
Primary Key: Act_code + Item_Code Foreign Key: None Field Name Act_Code Data Type Alphanumeric Description The specific code given to each activity carried out for the completion of each Item_Code Alphanumeric phase of the project. The code of the raw materials that are required Act_Cost Number by the activity. The cost incurred to carry out the specific activity using the specific item as mentioned.

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Table 5: Machinery Table
Primary Key: Mac_code Foreign Key: Act_Code, Item_Code, Emp_Code Field Name Mac_Code Mac_Name Act_Code Item_Code Mac_Uti Mac_Main Data Type Alphanumeric Text Alphanumeric Alphanumeric Number Date Description The specific code given to the machine. The name of the machine. The activity where the machine is utilized. The resource consumed by the machine. The number of hours the machine is utilized daily. The last date on which the machine was repaired or checked for faults or Emp_Code Alphanumeric inspected. The codes of the various employees who are Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School 23

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Table 6: Employee Table
Primary Key: Emp_code: Foreign Key: Act_Code Field Name Emp_Code Data Type Alphanumeric Description The specific code given to each employee of the Emp_Name Emp_Addr Emp_Cntct Emp_Email Act_Code Text Alphanumeric Number Text Alphanumeric company. The name of the employee. The address of the employee. The contact number of the employee. The e-mail address of the employee. The activity the employee is involved with in the project.

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3.3 Access control
The need of access starts with some responsible authority telling the system who has access to what data. Upon receipt of request for data, the system first authenticates the identification of the request (a person perhaps through program or at a particular location) and then check to ensure they are authorized to see the requested data or not. Access control encryptions are internal computer techniques to prevent the unauthorized access to any information that a person is not supposed to view or change. The term access control in the context of data control can include both retrieval and modification. The threat to data security can be internal or accidental. People can exploit loop-holes or abuse privilege to intentionally gain access to confidential data which in turn may prove as a threat to the organization. Accidental discourse can result from hardware, software or human failures or natural disasters. For example hardware failure in the middle of the execution of a program could leave the confidential data in the computer memory which could subsequently retrieved by another person knowingly or unknowingly. Access control become more important in an environment where data resources are shared which is the general scenario these days as most of the application developed these days are developed and maintain on a network big or small which increases the threat of confidential data access by unauthorized persons so to curb this not all the users

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are privileged to access and modify all the data and some mechanism has to control who does what to what data. A general requirement model of direct access control involves the following steps :1) Identification of user 2) Authentication to verify users purported identification 3) Authorization of certain action on certain data objects Password screens are most commonly used methods of direct access control. The data they are authorized to access the action or function. They can involved and condition which they must satisfied Once the user is identified their access privilege is defined and authorization setup, the DBMS can enforce the access control policies. Most system has some abilities to control Access abilities which must be exercised by the DBA When the DBA makes a decision to control access to data and define certain authorization the DB control system carry out these decisions. Indirect access involves the following activities:1) flow controls on data movement from one place to another 2) inference control on certified out put from confidential data on individual 3) encryption of transmitted or stored data 4) monitoring of system activities and user activities and interactions Several differences between operating system security and data security make it impractical to extend operating system to control access to data objects. 1) there are more objects (such as records) to protect in a data base 2) data has a longer life time then other operating system resources Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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3) DB security must operate at various levels of granularity- controlling access on the bases of whole files is unacceptable considering duel objectives of availability and integrity

Data control policies and approach • Centralized owner and control
The ability to grant data access privilege results with some central authority such as data base administrator or security officer. Ownership of the file is presumed to be corporate and DBS is agent of the organization and the user. This constraints with a policy where the definer/creator of the file is the owner and has a sole authority to grant access privileges to others such as decentralized control is characteristic of most operating system which make these inappropriate modules for data security

• Deny access unless authorized
With a default of no access user must justify their needs (to some central authority) and privileges must be explicitly assigned before access is granted

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Relational Data Bases
A relational database stores data in relations that are expected to satisfy some simple mathematical properties. Roughly speaking, a relation can be thought of as a table. The columns of the table are called attributes, and the rows are called tuples. There is no significance to the order of the columns or rows; however, duplicate rows with identical values for all columns are not allowed. Relation schemes must be distinguished from relation instances. The relation scheme gives the names of attributes as well as their permissible values. The set of permissible values for an attribute is said to be the attribute’s domain. The relation instance gives the tuples of the relation at a given instant.

Authentication, Authorization, and Access Control
Authentication is any process by which you verify that someone is who they claim they are. This usually involves a username and a password, but can include any other method of demonstrating identity, such as a smart card, retina scan, voice recognition, or fingerprints. Authentication is equivalent to showing your drivers license at the ticket counter at the airport. Authorization is finding out if the person, once identified, is permitted to have the resource. This is usually determined by finding out if that person is a part of a particular Group-10 Sec - B ICFAI Business School

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group, if that person has paid admission, or has a particular level of security clearance. Authorization is equivalent to checking the guest list at an exclusive party, or checking for your ticket when you go to the opera. Finally, access control is a much more general way of talking about controlling access to a web resource. Access can be granted or denied based on a wide variety of criteria, such as the network address of the client, the time of day, the phase of the moon, or the browser which the visitor is using.

Access Control for Real Estate MIS
In the hotel management project we have divided the access control into different levels They are as follows:-

Data administrator:He will be having the privileges of data delete, data insertion update data but he cannot drop any table etc.

Project Managers/Coordinators:The user would be the Project Managers/Coordinators who would be having access to view all the project status and other information. They can add new records, delete and update records and form reports as and when required.

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CONCLUSION
The design has been performed thoroughly enough to guide the development process. The most important element of this chapter is the program design. As shown as the above section, it covers the use-case diagrams, the database tables and their respective data dictionary. The whole idea on how each module works is determined. The database design and the screen design provide additional guidelines to aid the development process. As everything is ready, the development process is just converting this design specification into the whole workable system.

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