You are on page 1of 180

Cover JUNE 2016.

qxp_4/06 Cover 5/12/16 4:30 PM Page C1

JUNE 2016



select arc.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:14 AM Page C2




Select-Arc, Inc. offers

ff over
50 premium ux cored and
metal cored low alloy welding
electrode products. From bridge
construction to oil exploration
equipment, pressure vessels
to chemical plants, mining
equipment to submarines (and
so many others), Select-Arc low
alloy electrodes are designed to
meet your designated welding
These outstanding wires
deliver exceptional welding
characteristics such as:

U Superb bead prole

U Smooth, stable arc transfer
with minimal spatter
U High
h deposition
U Slag that removes easily
And, of course, all Select-Arc low
alloy electrodes are backed by the
nest in value-added support and
our renowned customer servicce.
For more information on
Select-Arc low alloy electrodes,,
call us at 1-800-341-5215
or visit our website at




U Excellent CVN toughness

For Info, go to

w Allo
lar Ele

fronius.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:09 AM Page 1

For Info, go to

camfil.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:08 AM Page 2

For Info, go to

JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 8:14 AM Page 3

June 2016 Volume 95 Number 6


Welding Austenitic SMO 254 Stainless Steel for the

Desalination Industry
More is being learned about welding corrosionresistant alloys as the push for desalination plants
increases M. Sternisha


Sip on This: Welded Tanks Support Beer Production

A small shop finds its niche in fabricating stainless
steel brewing systems K. Campbell


Welding Pipe in Extreme Weather Conditions

Weather conditions are a factor when welding on
energy projects in Alaska W. C. LAPlante


Fixtures for Tube Welding

Tight fitup and repeatability are achievable with
modern modular fixturing tables P. Farley


FABTECH Canada Continues to Grow

A review of happenings at FABTECH Canada
M. R. Johnsen







185s Effects of Ultrasonic Power on the Hardness
of Aluminum 3003H18 Alloy
The relationship between power and hardness is
studied in ultrasonic additive manufacturing
K. Sojiphan et al.

194s CurrentIndependent Metal Transfer by Using

Pulsed Laser Irradiation Part 2: Affecting Factors
One droplet per laser pulse is achievable with the
application of high power to irradiate the droplet neck
J. Xiao et al.

210s Investigating Friction Stir Welding on Thick

Nylon 6 Plates
Controlling rotational speed proved an important
factor in friction stir welding of polymeric
materials A. Zafar et al.

219s Measurement and Application of Arc Separability

in Plasma Arc
A novel system based on a split anode was
developed to better understand the ability to
adjust heat and arc pressure distribution without
a change in current S. J. Chen et al.

202s Visual Sensing of the Physical Process during

Underwater Wet FCAW
An image capture system was developed to
monitor bubble, droplet, and arc behavior activity
C. B. Jia et al.

JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 8:15 AM Page 4


Press Time News
Washington Watchword
International Update
News of the Industry
Business Briefs
Aluminum Q&A
Brazing Q&A
Product & Print Spotlight
AWS Financial Report

President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Vice President John R. Bray
Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
Vice President Dale Flood
Tri Tool, Inc.
Vice President Thomas J. Lienert
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Treasurer Carey Chen
Cincinnati, Inc.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society

T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Welding North America
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Subsea Global Solutions
D. J. Burgess (Dist. 8), Alstom Power
D. A. Desrochers (Dist. 1), Old Colony RVTHS
D. L. Doench (At Large), Hobart Bros. Co.
D. K. Eck (At Large), Praxair Distribution, Inc.
K. Fogleman (Dist. 16), Consultant
P. H. Gorman (Dist. 20), Sandia National Laboratories
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries
J. Knapp (Dist. 17), Consultant
M. Krupnicki (Dist. 6), Mahany Welding Supply
D. J. Landon (Past President), Vermeer Mfg. Co.
S. Lindsey (Dist. 21), City of San Diego
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
S. M. McDaniel (Dist. 19), Big Bend Community College
W. R. Polanin (At Large), Illinois Central College
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Airgas USA, LLC,
NorthCentral Region
R. W. Roth (At Large), RoMan Manufacturing
M. Sebergandio (Dist. 3), CNH America
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
M. Sherman (Dist. 10), SW&E, LLC


Coming Events
Certification Schedule
Welding Workbook
Society News
Tech Topics
Section News
Guide to AWS Services
Advertiser Index

M. Skiles (Dist. 9), Consultant

W. J. Sperko (At Large), Sperko Engineering Services
J. Stoll (Dist. 18), The Bohler Welding Group U.S.
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), UL, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), Consultant
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
D. R. Wilson (Past President), Wilson and Associates

Publisher Andrew Cullison
Editorial Director Andrew Cullison
Editor Mary Ruth Johnsen
Features Editor Kristin Campbell
Assistant Editor Melissa Gomez
Assistant Editor Annik Babinski
Peer Review Coord. Sonia Aleman
Publisher Emeritus Jeff Weber

On the cover: A welder performs a

GTAW root pass on 36in.diameter
pipe at the Carlsbad desalination plant.
(Photo by Logan Kucerak, Kiewit Shea

D. Marquard, IBEDA Superflash

J. F. Saenger Jr., Consultant
S. Smith, WeldAid Products
D. Wilson, Wilson and Associates
J. N. DuPont, Ex Off., Lehigh University
L. G. Kvidahl, Ex Off., Northrop Grumman
Ship Systems
D. J. Landon, Ex Off., Vermeer Mfg.
S. P. Moran, Ex Off., Weir American Hydro
E. Norman, Ex Off., Southwest Area Career Center
R. G. Pali, Ex Off., J. P. Nissen Co.
N. Scotchmer, Ex Off., Huys Industries
R. W. Shook, Ex Off., American Welding Society
American Welding Society
8669 NW 36 St., # 130, Miami, FL 331666672
(305) 4439353 or (800) 4439353

Design and Production

Production Manager Zaida Chavez
Sr. Production Coordinator Brenda Flores
Manager of International Periodicals and
Electronic Media Carlos Guzman

Sr. Advertising Sales Exec. Sandra Jorgensen
Sr. Advertising Sales Exec. Annette Delagrange
Manager of Sales Operations Lea Paneca
Sr. Advertising Production Manager Frank Wilson

Subscriptions Representative Evelyn Andino


D. L. Doench, Chair, Hobart Brothers Co.
S. Bartholomew, Vice Chair, ESAB Welding
& Cutting Prod.
Lorena Cora, Secretary, American Welding Society
D. Brown, Weiler Brush
C. Coffey, Lincoln Electric
D. DeCorte, RoMan Manufacturing
S. Fyffe, Astaras, Inc.
D. Levin, Airgas
R. Madden, Hypertherm

Welding Journal (ISSN 00432296) is published monthly by

the American Welding Society for $120.00 per year in the United
States and possessions, $160 per year in foreign countries: $7.50
per single issue for domestic AWS members and $10.00 per single
issue for nonmembers and $14.00 single issue for international.
American Welding Society is located at 8669 NW 36th St., # 130,
Miami, FL 331666672; telephone (305) 4439353. Periodicals
postage paid in Miami, Fla., and additional mailing offices. POST
MASTER: Send address changes to Welding Journal, 8669 NW
36th St., # 130, Miami, FL 331666672. Canada Post: Publications
Mail Agreement #40612608 Canada Returns to be sent to
Bleuchip International, P.O. Box 25542, London, ON N6C 6B2,
Readers of Welding Journal may make copies of articles for
personal, archival, educational or research purposes, and which
are not for sale or resale. Permission is granted to quote from arti
cles, provided customary acknowledgment of authors and sources
is made. Starred (*) items excluded from copyright.
Copyright 2016 by American Welding Society in both
printed and electronic formats. The Society is not responsible for
any statement made or opinion expressed herein. Data and infor
mation developed by the authors of specific articles are for infor
mational purposes only and are not intended for use without inde
pendent, substantiating investigation on the part of potential users.

ridgid.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:13 AM Page 5

For Info, go to

EDITORIAL JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:11 AM Page 6


AWS Revenues, Surplus Establish

New Financial Records

Carey Chen
AWS Treasurer

As the incoming
treasurer for 2016 to
2018, the financial
condition and future
growth prospects
appear quite robust
for AWS.

One of my favorite quotes is from poet

T. S. Eliot (Four Quartets, Section V),
We shall not cease from exploration, and
the end of all our exploring will be to arrive
where we started and know the place for the
first time.
At the start of every year, all operating
and financial goals are completely reset with
new challenges and higher bars to achieve
for the new year. The American Welding Society (AWS) posted record-setting results in
2014 with even higher aspirations for 2015.
Before getting into details of the 2015 financial results, I would first like to extend
my gratitude to Robert Pali for his service as
AWS treasurer and Finance Committee
chair over two terms, from 2010 to 2015.
Without further delay, I am pleased to
announce another record-breaking year for
AWS in 2015. Financial highlights include
Revenues for 2015 were $40.7 million,
which represents an increase of 12.9% over
2014 results. The surplus for 2015 was
$11.8 million, 20% greater than 2014. Both
the revenues and surplus have established
new financial records for AWS once more.
Strong performance in the revenues
and surplus over the annual operating plan
was due in large part to the acquisition of
World Engineering Xchange (WEX) in 2015.
WEX added $1.7 million in additional royalties and contributed $1.2 million to the surplus. Considering the purchase price for
WEX of $1.9 million, we feel the acquisition
was a solid investment.
The reserve fund on December 31,
2015, was $29 million, representing an increase of $4.9 million or 20.3% greater than
the December 31, 2014, balance. The two
largest drivers in this increase were a transfer from operations of $9 million and an
outgoing transfer to the AWS Foundation of
$4 million.
The aforementioned results were realized
through the steadfast efforts of all of the
AWS operating teams and the amazing work
of all of the volunteer committees. Several
specific arenas of strategic activity drove
growth and surplus in 2015, including
AWS Foundation. The AWS Foundations assets on December 31, 2015, grew to
$49.3 million, up 6.6% over the December
31, 2014, balance. The major factor in the
increase was the aforementioned transfer of
$4 million from AWS Operations. As a new
milestone, 2015 was the first year that the


AWS Foundation independently funded its

own operating expenses.
Certification. The Certification team
signed a contract with Prometric, which will
facilitate computer-based exams. In addition, capabilities and personnel in Asia
(specifically China) were enhanced. Finally,
questions for the Certified Welding Inspector exam have been greatly expanded and
Information Technology. This team led
several efforts to modernize AWSs platforms, which involved implementing new
software and collaborating effectively with
other AWS teams. Examples of successful
implementations include the following:
Moodle (learning management system),
Customer Relationship Management, SharePoint (collaboration tool), and Great Plains
(accounting system).
Learning/Education. In April 2015, the
learning/education team launched the first
phase of WeldLink, an online career planning and management system specifically
designed to bring together individuals, businesses, and schools in the welding industry.
Membership/Publications. New membership increased by 9.7% in 2015, with
nondues revenue increasing by 6.6%. The
team also signed an agreement with Higher
Logic to provide a cloud-based platform for
sharing digital content with members and
Sections. Also, the Welding Journal en Espaol became the first publication in Latin
America to publish peer-reviewed welding
research. Last, professional customer service training was provided for all AWS staff
Sales/Marketing. Above-budget revenue
growth was achieved both on a domestic
and international basis. The team grew its
internal resources through well-earned
promotions and key strategic hires. An exclusive global sponsorship agreement was
signed with WorldSkills International, and
the 43rd WorldSkills Competition took
place in So Paulo, Brazil.
As the incoming treasurer for 2016 to
2018, the financial condition and future
growth prospects appear quite robust for
AWS. Congratulations to everyone in our industry for their part in making 2015 an outstanding year. Also, thanks in advance for
your continued support for AWS in 2016
(where we reset the bars once again) and
strive for even better results. WJ

weld engineering.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:17 AM Page 7

For Info, go to

PTN JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:12 AM Page 8


Koike Aronson Names New President,
Reveals Succession Plan

Jerry Leary

James McAuliffe Jr.

Koike Aronson, Arcade, N.Y., a manufacturer of metal

cutting and positioning equipment, has appointed James
McAuliffe Jr. to the positions of president and chief operations officer. Most recently, McAuliffe was chief financial officer at Rigidized Metals Corp., Buffalo, N.Y. He has extensive experience in finance, distribution, acquisitions, manufacturing, and international operations.
Jerry Leary, formerly the companys president and chief
executive officer (CEO), will remain CEO until March 2017,
at which time he will retire. Leary became head of Koike in
2002 when the company was near bankruptcy. Since then, it
has doubled in size, expanded three times, and invested
more than $25 million in new facilities and equipment without borrowing.

EWI Opening Applied Research Center

in Colorado
EWI is opening a new center dedicated to establishing
best-in-class technical capabilities in advanced quality measurement technologies. Located at the Rocky Mountain Center for Innovation & Technology in Loveland, Colo., its expected to open in late summer.
With a focus on advanced quality measurement, the center will concentrate on technologies to improve first-time
quality. Focus areas for applied R&D will include real-time
manufacturing process monitoring and analysis, advanced
nondestructive evaluation, computer vision inspection, and
noncontact metrology. In addition, the center will work to
enable manufacturers to transition proven, high-value, technologies to the factory floor.

AWS Partners with Prometric to Offer

Certification Exams Nationwide
The American Welding Society (AWS), Miami, Fla., has
partnered with Prometric, a wholly owned subsidiary of Education Testing Service, to begin offering Certified Welding
Supervisor (CWS) and Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR) exams at all U.S. and international Prometric
locations beginning June 1.

AWS had been looking at ways to make certification exams more accessible to the industry. Until recently, CWS and
CWSR test takers took a paper-based test at limited AWS
testing sites across the country, said Vanessa Gonzalez Hernandez, manager of certification programs, AWS. By partnering with Prometric, qualified applicants trying to achieve
CWS or CWSR certifications can save time and money by
avoiding long distance travel to exam sites. They can now
take computer-based exams at one of the many conveniently
located Prometric test sites, on a day and time that is most
suitable to the candidate.
To learn more about how to prepare for computer-based
testing and what to expect on the test day, visit

Southern Arkansas University System Starts

Welding Engineering Technology Program

This new program, created to meet the need for welding supervi
sors specifically in the aerospace defense and oil/gas manufac
turing industries of southern Arkansas, will provide handson
instruction (as displayed in the above photo).

The Southern Arkansas University (SAU) System has developed a welding engineering technology program.
Recently, the Arkansas Higher Education Coordinating
Board approved for the university to add a bachelor of science in engineering physics with an option in welding engineering technology.
Theres a need for welding supervisors to lead the welding and fabricating operations in advanced manufacturing
industries, specifically in the aerospace defense and oil/gas
manufacturing industries of southern Arkansas.
We hire locally as much as possible, and look forward to
recruiting at SAU to fill positions as they become available,
said Colin Sterling, director of Lockheed Martin Camden
This four-year program will provide hands-on instruction
in various welding processes, welding metallurgy, material
selections for welding, maintenance of welding products,
and welding automation.
Students will take the first two years of coursework at
Southern Arkansas University Tech, including a year of general education courses and nine months of training at its
welding academy. They will finish their bachelors degree
through the SAU engineering program. WJ

astaras.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:07 AM Page 9

Tungsten Ele
Your Best Choice To Replace 2% Thoriated
The new tungsten electrode that outperforms other electtrode types in most
applications with no radioactive doping, resulting in a safer wo
orkplace environment.

Thoriated Tungsten
should be avoided!
Global Industry newss from iiW - International Institute of Welding
( Countries from 5 Continents are members of The International Institute of Welding (iiW)
a global body for science and joining technology) Doc. IIW-2509, recommended for publicatioon by
Commission VIII Health, Safety and Environment states in part: The experts recommend that use of
thoriated electrodes ceases as soon as is practicable and that, until that change is completedd, special
care is taken to inform workers of the hazards and to implement all the other protective measures
which are detailed in the report.

S - The American W
Weelding Societys
s Safety and Health FACT Sheet No. 27 states in part:
HOW TO REDUCE EXPOSURE Choose thorium-free tungsten
n electrodes such as those
containing cerium, lanthanum, yttrium, or zirconium.


Youll nd it with us.

For more info

on E3, to find
a dealer or for
free samples
scan here.
For Info, go to

WW June_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:18 AM Page 10

BiPartisan Tariff Bill Introduced to
Help Manufacturers
The American Manufacturing Competitiveness Act of
2016, which has strong bipartisan support, would create a
new process for the consideration and approval of Miscellaneous Tariff Bills (MTBs) by the federal government. Miscellaneous Tariff Bills reduce or suspend duties on imported
products. The goal of an MTB is to lower costs by reducing
the tariff obligations on products or parts that are imported.
Presently, members of Congress introduce MTBs based
on requests received from constituent companies. It is largely an ad hoc process that produces mixed results. Under the
new process, petitions first would be made exclusively
through the International Trade Commission (ITC), an independent federal agency. The ITC would solicit comments
from the public and the administration, and conduct its own
analysis. It would then issue a public report to Congress
with its analysis and recommendations regarding products
that meet the MTB standards. The next step would be an examination by the House Ways and Means Committee, which
would then draft an MTB proposal for the full Congress to

Federal Corporate Trade Secret Legislation

The Defend Trade Secrets Act has been signed into law.
This new law is designed to help reduce intellectual property
theft from U.S. companies by creating a harmonized federal
standard for protection of trade secrets and products produced using the same. In addition, the legislation would allow corporate owners of trade secrets to directly sue for
trade secret misappropriation, including against foreign
competitors, in U.S. federal court, and secure remedies such
as an injunction and damages. The law also provides for expedited relief on an ex parte basis in the form of a seizure of
property from the party accused of misappropriation, a remedy available under extraordinary circumstances where necessary to preserve evidence or prevent dissemination of a
trade secret. There is a statute of limitations of five years
from the date of discovery of the misappropriation.
Unlike other types of intellectual property, which are primarily protected under federal law, until now trade secrets
have been primarily governed by state law. This has greatly
limited the ability of U.S. companies to effectively combat
trade secret misappropriation in court, especially against
foreign competitors.

OSHA Revises Eye and Face Protection

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration
(OSHA) rule regarding eye and face protection requirements
in the general industry, shipyard employment, marine ter-


minals, longshoring, and construction standards has been

updated to incorporate by reference of the latest ANSI/ISEA
Z87.1-2010 standard, Occupational and Educational Eye and
Face Protection Devices and removal of the oldest ANSI
(Z87.1-1989) version of the same standard.
In addition, OSHA is modifying the language in its construction standard to make it more consistent with the general and maritime industry standards.
This new rule will allow employers to continue to follow
the existing ANSI standards referenced or allow employers
to follow the latest version of the same ANSI/ISEA standard.
Employers are not required to update or replace protection
devices solely as a result of this rule and may continue to follow their current and usual practices for their eye and face
protection. Therefore, this rule has no compliance or economic burdens associated with it.
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration generally requires employers to ensure their employees use eye
and face protection where necessary to protect them against
flying objects, splashes, or droplets of hazardous chemicals,
and other workplace hazards that could injure their eyes and

House Passes DOE Direct Skills Training

Legislation (H.R. 4583) has been approved in the House
that would direct the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to
prioritize education and training for energy and manufacturing-related jobs in order to increase the number of skilled
workers trained to work in those fields. Among other things,
the DOE would establish a clearinghouse to provide information and resources on training and workforce development programs for energy- and manufacturing-related jobs.

Results of New OSHA Reporting Rule

Under a requirement that took effect January 1, 2015,
employers must report to the Occupational Safety and
Health Administration (OSHA) within 24 hours any workrelated amputation, in-patient hospitalization, or loss of
eye. The requirement to report a fatality within 8 hours was
The Occupational Safety and Health Administration recently released results and analysis of the first year of reporting under this new rule. According to OSHA, employers
reported 10,388 incidents involving severe work-related injuries, including 7636 hospitalizations and 2644 amputations. The organization declared the results a success, as it
met its intended goals of helping focus resources where they
are most needed, and engaging employers in high-hazard
industries to identify and eliminate hazards. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration responded to a
third of all of the reported injuries and 58% of the amputation reports. WJ

HUGH K. WEBSTER, AWS WASHINGTON GOVERNMENT AFFAIRS OFFICE Contact the AWS Washington Government Affairs Office at 1747 Pennsylvania
Ave. NW, Washington, DC 20006; email; FAX (202) 8350243.


hodgson.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:09 AM Page 11

For Info, go to

International Update June_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:13 AM Page 12

HITRobot Group Signs Cooperation
Agreement with KUKA

HITRobot Group and KUKA Robotics held a signing ceremony to

enter a cooperation agreement on industrial robots and robotics

HIT Robot Group (HRG), a China-based robot research

company, and KUKA Robotics, Shanghai, China, a robot
manufacturer, recently signed an agreement to work on a
range of projects concerning the applications of industrial
robots in intelligent manufacturing and Industry 4.0. The
two companies will endeavor to extend the applications of
industrial robotics in different fields.
HRG will team up with KUKA to develop applications for
intelligent factories and logistics facilities. The companies
will also carry out education projects in vocational colleges
and universities, including introducing advanced teaching
modes from Germany and setting up new programs for robotics majors.
KUKA CEO Kong Bing said, We are very willing to build
robotics majors and a certification system that incorporates
German features into Chinese vocational education.
The robotics industry has been listed as one of the
emerging industries to be developed, based on national
strategies. In ten years time, the robotics industry will be a
cluster that is worth trillions of dollars. Training professionals within the industrial robotics industry will meet the
needs of further developing industry, said Wang Yang, vice
president of HRG.
HIT Robot Group also recently entered into an agreement with ABB Group, Zrich, Switzerland, to execute cooperative projects in industrial robots and robotics education.

Ontario Invests to Support Manufacturing

and Create Jobs

Ontario Premier Kathleen Wynne recently addressed the Cana

dian Manufacturers and Exporters Industrie 2030 summit to dis
cuss the provinces Business Growth Initiative.

Ontario, Canada, is making critical investments to support manufacturing, strengthen global competitiveness, and
help create high-value jobs. Kathleen Wynne, premier of On12 WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016

tario, recently addressed the Canadian Manufacturers and

Exporters (CME) Industrie 2030 summit, and discussed the
provinces $308-million Business Growth Initiative (BGI).
The BGI strategy supports Ontarios shift toward a highgrowth innovation economy with initiatives such as a fiveyear, $27-million investment in the Advanced Manufacturing
Consortium and a 10-year, $4-million investment to establish
the Trillium Network for Advanced Manufacturing. Both programs will support traditional manufacturers to help them
transform into more innovative, dynamic, and productive
The government has also created the Highly Skilled Workforce Strategy Expert Panel to assess how well the workforce is
positioned to meet the needs of Ontarios economy and recommend an integrated approach for the government to bridge
education, training, and skills development with the demands
of an evolving economic landscape.

VolgaDnepr and Chapman Freeborn

Deliver Welding System to Malaysia
A 19-ton
portable welding
system was part
of a shipment
recently delivered to Malaysia
by Volga-Dnepr
Ulyanovsk, RusVolgaDnepr and Chapman Freeborn re
cently delivered a 19ton portable welding
sia, and Chapsystem to Malaysia.
man Freeborn,
West Sussex,
United Kingdom, an aircraft charter and aviation support
company, to support restoration work at one of the countrys biggest electrical power stations.
The IL-76TD-90VD freighter flight operated to Bintulu,
Malaysia, from Jakarta, Indonesia. The welding equipment
and other cargo was required to repair a malfunction of the
main rotor at one of the energy companies power stations
that provides electricity for the Malaysian state of Sarawak.

Argosy International to Open

Manufacturing Facility in Taiwan
Argosy International, Inc., a supplier of advanced composites and related materials to the Asia Pacific aerospace industry, has started construction of its new 2300-sq-m manufacturing facility in Taichung City, Taiwan. The new facility will be
qualified to AS9100 and includes a clean room, cutting table,
and freezer to process cut-to-shape composite kits.
Argosy Taiwan Aerospace Materials builds on the success
of Argosys Vendor Managed Inventory program, which was
originally launched in 2006, said Ryan Flugel, vice president
of sales and marketing at the company. This facility is multicustomer oriented, and can be easily replicated in other locations to support customers growth and requirements. We are
excited about expanding our manufacturing capabilities with
this new, large facility. This will enable us to increase capacity
and expand our capabilities in providing innovative solutions
to our customers. WJ

trumpf.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 1:02 PM Page 13

For Info, go to

NI JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:40 PM Page 14


Power UP Educates Girls and their Mothers on
Pathways into the Construction Industry

Posing for a group shot at Power UP are TV Host Kayleen McCabe

(fourth from left), Program Founder Mittie D. Cannon (sixth from
left), and young ladies with their assembled wood frames. (Photo
courtesy of Mittie D. Cannon.)

At the first Power UP: Its a Mother Daughter Thing!,

young women and their mothers learned about career opportunities in the construction industry. This event took
place on March 22 at the AIDT/Alabama Workforce Training
Center, Birmingham, Ala.
According to Mittie D. Cannon, the programs founder,

approximately 450
people were in attendance with 164 mothers and daughters.
She serves as director
of workforce development at Robins &
Morton, Birmingham,
Ala., a construction
and engineering company, and is also an
American Welding Society member.
The ladies not only
explored the construction trades through
hands-on exhibits, including bricklaying
and assembling wood
frames, but they also
Rena M. Turner, the fabrication ad
learned first-hand
ministrator at Garrison Steel Fabrica
from successful industors, Pell City, Ala., tries her hand at
try women.
virtual reality welding. (Photo cour
The following inditesy of Garrison Steel Fabricators.)
viduals in attendance
left a positive impact
on the guests: Kayleen McCabe, host of DIY Networks Rescue Renovation; Dr. Philip Cleveland, deputy state superintendent of education; Greg Sizemore, vice president of envi-

For info, go to


NI JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:40 PM Page 15

ronment, health, safety and workforce development, Associated Builders and Contractors; and Bill Caton, COO, Associated General Contractors.
In addition, Garrison Steel Fabricators, Pell City, Ala., had
a booth at the event. The company appreciated support provided by Atlas Welding Supply, Tuscaloosa, Ala., and The
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Many young women
did well trying the VRTEX virtual reality welding machine.
The program represented a partnership with Central Six
Development Council Alabama Workforce Council Region 4,
Girls, Inc. of Central Alabama, Robins & Morton, and
AIDT/Alabama Workforce Training Center.

For info, go to

Young women use their newly acquired bricklaying skills during

the event. (Photo courtesy of Mittie D. Cannon.)

For info, go to


NI JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:41 PM Page 16

2016 Welders Without Borders and Welding

Thunder Team Fabrication Competition Set

For info, go to

At Welding Thunder in 2013, the Arizona Western College team

(comprised of AWS Student Chapter members and other stu
dents) pose with their grill. The team placed second that year.


The American Welding Societys (AWS) District 21 will be

sponsoring this years Welders Without Borders and Welding Thunder Team Fabrication Competition. Its set to be
held at FABTECH, November 1618, in Las Vegas, Nev.
Welding Thunder is a unique opportunity for teachers
and their students to showcase what they have learned in
the classroom and apply it to a real world fabrication, thus
forming the bridge between the classroom education to realworld application, said Samuel J. Lindsey, AWS District 21

For info, go to

NI JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:41 PM Page 17

Grand Opening of Fourth Campus Unveils

Technologically Advanced Maritime Training
San Jacinto College has marked the grand opening of the
Maritime Technology and Training Center on the Maritime
Campus. Its located next to a turning basin along the Port
of Houston in La Porte, Tex.
This is what we have envisioned for many years, said
Dr. Brenda Hellyer, San Jacinto College chancellor, in re-

For info, go to

Welding students will complete a project designed by a

team led by Samuel Colton, the events founder and a professor of welding and manufacturing technology at Arizona
Western Colleges Ernest Lopez Welding Institute. He noted
contestants will load their materials in trucks/trailers, arrive
in another city, and set up a portable fabrication shop in a
parking lot to work from engine-driven power sources.
At the end of day one, the teams projects are inspected
by AWS Certified Welding Inspectors for quality and accuracy, Colton said. Then, on day two, the teams are allowed to
customize the projects, which are always a smoker or grill of
some type, and as part of the contest, they have to build it
and then cook lunch for the team and the judges.
He added the custom items, known as secret components, allow teams to showcase individuality. These modifications need to be documented in a second set of drawings.
Awards will be given to teams with the most accurate fabrication project, as determined by judging. There will also be
other categories. Visit

For info, go to


NI JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:41 PM Page 18

Chicago Blower Helps Local Boy Scouts

Achieve Welding Merit Badges

San Jacinto College recently held a ribbon cutting for its new
campus, along the Port of Houston, exclusively for maritime

sponse to the regions growing need for maritime workers as

well as industries impacted by its activity.
The event featured remarks from Gene Green, U.S. representative for Texas 29th Congressional District; Brian
Babin, U.S. representative for Texas 36th Congressional
District; Larry Taylor, state senator, Texas Senate District
11; and Dennis Paul, state representative, Texas House District 129. Jay Guerrero, regional director for southeast
Texas, representing John Cornyn, U.S. senator, presented a
congratulatory certificate.
Additionally, a flag raising ceremony was held with a U.S.
flag flown over the U.S. Capitol on the first day of classes
held at the center. The event culminated with a christening
ceremony, ribbon cutting, and the ringing of a bell.
Texas ranks third in the nation, with Houston ranking
second, for all domestic maritime industry jobs, according to
a PricewaterhouseCoopers Study by the American Maritime
Partnership. The college began offering its maritime training in 2010, which led to this centers creation.

Ten Boy Scouts recently gathered at Chicago Blower to complete

their Welding Merit Badges. Also shown (far right) is Shop Fore
man Art St. Amand.

On April 9, Chicago Blower Corp. welcomed 10 Boy

Scouts from Troop 2 of St. Johns Lutheran in Elgin, Ill., to
its Glendale Heights, Ill., facilities. In earning their Welding
Merit Badges, they not only listened to a safety discussion,
but were also guided by the instruction of Shop Foreman Art
St. Amand. He provided equipment and a demonstration on
properly performing four types of welds. The scouts enjoyed
learning lap, stringer, butt joint, and fillet welding skills.

For info, go to


NI JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:42 PM Page 19

Industry Notes
In the 2015 Top 250 U.S. Trade Shows list, compiled
by Trade Show News Network and ranked according to
net square footage, FABTECH placed 19th. North Americas
largest metal forming, fabricating, welding, and finishing
event, cosponsored by the American Welding Society
along with many other organizations, was held last year at
McCormick Place in Chicago, Ill. It drew 1706 exhibitors
and 43,820 attendees, plus filled 732,400 net square feet.

Hypertherm, Hanover, N.H., has produced its 100,000th

Powermax45 plasma cutting and gouging system. This
makes the product the companys best selling plasma system of all time. The edition recently came off an assembly
line in New Hampshire; it was outfitted with a commemorative cover signed by Hypertherm associate-owners, including Founder Dick Couch, and shipped to the Gases and
Welding Distributors Association (GAWDA) Spring Management Conference. WJ

For info, go to

The Fabricators & Manufacturers Association, International and CNA recently announced Plymouth Tube
of Streator, Ill., as the 2016 Rusty Demeules Award for
Safety Excellence winner. The Streator location manufactures cold drawing seamless alloy and carbon tubing from
steel hollows. It also follows a Safety Engagement Program.

For info, go to


BB June 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:19 AM Page 20

TransCanada Awarded Contract to Build
$550 Million Natural Gas Pipeline in Mexico
TransCanada Corp., Calgary, Alberta, has been selected to
build, own, and operate the Tula Villa de Reyes pipeline in
Mexico. The construction is supported by a 25-year natural
gas transportation service contract for 886 million ft3/day
with the Comisin Federal de Electricidad, Mexicos stateowned power company.
The company expects to invest approximately $550 million in the 36-in.-diameter, 261-mile pipeline and anticipates an in-service date of early 2018. It will begin in Tula in
the state of Hidalgo, and end in Villa de Reyes, in the state
of San Luis Potos, transporting natural gas to power generation facilities in the countrys central region.
In addition, the project will interconnect with TransCanadas Tamazunchale and Tuxpan Tula pipelines, as well as
other transporters in the region.

Comau Robotics Achieves Continued

DoubleDigit Growth

For the third consecutive year, a positive growth trend continues

for Comau, an Italian manufacturer. Pictured is a group shot of
the companys robots on display.

Comau, Turin, Italy, is continuing its growth in the robotics sector. For the third consecutive year, the manufacturer
of flexible, automatic systems has recorded a double-digit
increase in articulated robot sales. This increase in 2015 was
equally distributed within the automotive and general industry. The growth, in addition to China, was concentrated
in eastern Europe and the NAFTA region. In the APAC region, the company recorded an increase in sales as well,
partly due to the establishment of production facilities and
an innovation center in China.

Manufacturing Technology Orders Revealed

The U.S. Manufacturing Technology Orders report for
February 2016, generated from data compiled by The Association For Manufacturing Technology, McLean, Va., showed
orders were down 5.1% vs. the previous month, and also
down 12.8% vs. the same month last year.
Orders for capital equipment continue to fall as the overall
U.S. manufacturing industry undergoes the effects of a strong

dollar and weak demand from international markets. While

Europe, Japan, and the United States are seeing economic expansion, China continues to struggle with emerging global
economies. However, increasing commodity prices and other
positive economic indicators could point to a more favorable
climate for some U.S. manufacturing sectors.

Lincoln Electric, GM, and Alcoa Release

First Quarter 2016 Results
Lincoln Electric Holdings, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, has reported a first quarter 2016 net income of $53.6 million.
This compares with a net income of $68.4 million in the
comparable 2015 period. In addition, first quarter 2016
sales decreased 16.3% to $550.7 million. An 11.4% benefit
from price and a 1.6% increase from acquisitions was offset
by a 15% decline from unfavorable foreign exchange translation and 14.2% lower volumes. Excluding Venezuela, pricing
and foreign exchange had 1 and 2.2% unfavorable impacts,
respectively, on sales in the quarter.
General Motors Co., Detroit, Mich., recently announced
its first-quarter net income to common stockholders of $2
billion compared to $0.9 billion a year ago. Earnings per
share diluted-adjusted for special items was a first-quarter
record at $1.26, up 47% vs. the first quarter of 2015. The
company set first-quarter records for earnings and margin,
with earnings before interest/tax adjusted to $2.7 billion.
Alcoa, New York, N.Y., reported solid first quarter 2016
performance. Arconic segments reported year-over-year profit
growth, and the Upstream segments, Alumina and Primary
Metals, remained profitable despite low pricing. The lightweight metals company achieved a first quarter 2016 net income of $16 million. Excluding the impact of special items,
first quarter 2016 net income was $108 million.

Mercer Abrasives Evolves Into Mercer

In response to a shift in corporate strategy and product
expansion over the last years, Mercer Abrasives, Ronkonkoma, N.Y., a product provider for industry professionals that
has been in existence for more than 50 years, has been renamed Mercer Industries. A new website has also been
launched at
While the name has changed, our purpose and commitment remain the same, added Jim Wallick, president.

Solar Atmospheres of California Expands

Solar Atmospheres of California, Inc., is expanding the
companys Fontana facility, located 40 miles east of Los Angeles. The $5-million investment is part of a long-term corporate
strategy to increase its west coast development and commercial capacity to meet customer demands. This expansion will
add an additional 25,000 sq ft to the current 25,000-sq-ft facility. Multiple vacuum furnaces manufactured by its sister
company, Solar Manufacturing, Inc., Souderton, Pa., will also
be introduced. Construction is expected to be fully operational
by the end of the year. WJ

otc daihen.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:13 AM Page 21

Yo want his
s best work.
OTC Daihen delivers end-to-e
end solutions that save time, redu
uce costs, and improve quality. We
e make welding automation
truly easy and effective, with turnkey systems that integrate se
eamlessly with your operations to deliver
outstanding results.

1400 Blauser Dr. Tipp City, OH 45371

For Info, go to

ALUMINUM JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:18 AM Page 22



Q: I have a small welding fabrication shop that is expanding. I have been

using gas metal arc welding (GMAW) for many years to weld steel. Recently, I
have seen more aluminum projects becoming available. For my first smaller
project on aluminum, I used gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and had very
good success. Unfortunately, even though GTAW produces really good quality
welds in aluminum, the process tends to be very slow compared to GMAW. To
improve productivity, I decided to use GMAW for the majority of my future
aluminum projects. My dilemma: I am finding it very difficult to feed the alu
minum wire through my GMAW feeding system. I am often experiencing
equipment problems such as fusion of the aluminum welding wire to my con
tact tip, which requires the breakdown of the feeding system and replace
ment of the contact tip. These problems are time consuming and costly. Is
there any way I can improve this situation?

Feedability of Aluminum
Filler Metal
A: First, I would like to say that you
are absolutely correct with your comparison between gas tungsten arc
welding (GTAW) and gas metal arc
welding (GMAW) for aluminum. On
some thinner material applications,
like groove joints that require complete joint penetration from one side
and more intricate work that requires
precise control over penetration and

weld profile characteristics, the GTAW

process can prove to be exceptional.
However, for general structural fabrication, where the large majority of
welds are fillet welds, GMAW has been
proven to provide both exceptional
quality and high-productivity welding
on aluminum structures.
That said, the feedability of aluminum weld wire when using GMAW
is probably the most common problem
experienced when moving from
GMAW of steel to aluminum. Feedability is best described as the ability

to consistently feed the spooled welding wire when using GMAW without
interruption. Feedability is a far more
significant issue with aluminum than
steel (see Fig. 1 for some considerations for improved feedability).
The differences between feeding
steel and aluminum are primarily due
to the difference between the two materials mechanical properties. Steel
welding wires are more rigid, can be
fed more easily over a greater distance,
and withstand far more mechanical
mistreatment when compared to aluminum welding wires. Aluminum is
softer, more susceptible to being deformed or shaved during the feeding
operation, and, consequently, requires
far more attention when selecting
and setting up a feeding system for
Feedability is a major consideration
for all aluminum GMAW applications,
but can become even more problematic when using the smaller-diameter
wires, and the softer aluminum alloys
such as the 1100 and 4043, when compared to the harder alloys such as
5356 and 5183. Feedability problems
often express themselves in the forms
of irregular wire feed or burnbacks
(the fusion of the welding wire to the
inside of the contact tip as described
in the question).

How Can We Prevent

Feedability Problems?

For info, go to


To prevent excessive problems with

feedability of this nature, it is important to understand the entire feeding
system and its effect on aluminum
welding wire. We shall look at each
area of the feeding system to determine the important differences between a feeding system designed for
steel and one designed for aluminum
Spool Brake Settings. If we start
with the spool end of the feeding
system, we must first consider the
brake settings. Brake setting tension
must be backed off to an absolute
minimum. Only sufficient brake pressure to prevent the spool from freewheeling when stopping welding is required. Any pressure over and above
this will increase the potential for
feeding problems and burnbacks. Electronic braking systems and electronic
and mechanical combinations have

ALUMINUM JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:16 PM Page 23

Fig. 1 Considerations for improved aluminum feedability.

been developed to provide more sensitivity within the braking system and
are particularly useful for improved
feeding of aluminum wire.
Liners and Wire Guides. It is very
important that liners, as well as inlet
and outlet guides (which are typically
made from metallic material when
used for a steel welding system), be
made from a nonmetallic material
such as TeflonTM or nylon to prevent
abrasion and shaving of the aluminum
wire during the feeding operation.
Drive Rolls. Only drive rolls that
have been specifically designed for
feeding aluminum should be used.
These will have U-type contours with
edges that are chamfered and not
sharp. Do not use V-shaped groove or
knurled drive rolls, which are sometimes used for steel, for feeding aluminum. Drive rolls for feeding aluminum should be smooth, aligned,
and provide the correct drive roll pressure. Drive rolls that have sharp edges
can shave the soft aluminum wire.
These shavings can collect within the
feeding system and cause burnbacks
from blockages within the liner. Excessive drive roll pressure and/or drive
roll misalignment can deform the aluminum wire and increase friction drag
through the liner and contact tip,
which can also cause burnbacks.
Contact Tips. The contact tip inner diameter and quality are of great
importance. You should only use contact tips that are made specifically for
aluminum wire welding, with smooth

internal bores and no sharp burrs on

the inlet and outlet ends of the tips,
which can easily shave the softer aluminum alloys. Contact tip bore diameter should be approximately 10 to 15%
larger than the electrode diameter.

Quality of Aluminum Filler

Metal. The quality of the aluminum
filler metal that is used for GMAW can
influence the feedability characteristics. Surface smoothness, wire diameter control, and final treatment of the
wire during the spooling operation can
assist or detract from the ability to
easily deliver the wire through the
feeding system. The consistent quality
characteristics of the aluminum welding wire should be considered to minimize feedability problems.
Selecting the Type of Feeding
System. In aluminum wire feeding,
there are four recognized feeding systems: push feeders, pull feeders, pushpull feeders, and spool-on-gun feeding
systems. The choice of the most suitable feeding system for each application is based on the type of welding
(light or heavy duty), electrode size
and alloy (large or small diameter/
hard or soft filler metal), the need for
a long, flexible conduit, and the importance of minimizing electrode cost
(larger diameter wire is generally lower
priced than smaller diameter). The demands of welding applications vary extensively, and the cost of each feeding

For info, go to


ALUMINUM JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 4:19 PM Page 24

system also varies. The cost of downtime from feeding problems and replacement parts can be significant as
well. For these reasons, you should
choose the feeding system that is best
suited to your application and set it up
to optimize its feeding capability.
Push and Pull Only Feeders.
These systems are generally limited to
a practical length of about 12 ft. With
the push feeders, the feeding distance
limit is a result of the flexibility of the
aluminum wire and its tendency to
buckle and bend in the liner. With the
pull feeders, it is a result of a rapid increase in friction drag in the liner, particularly if there are bends in the conduit.
Push-Pull Feeders. This feeding
system was developed to overcome the
wire feeding problems experienced by
the other systems, and these systems
are the most positive method of feeding aluminum welding wire. The pushpull systems can improve feedability in
many applications and are often essential for more critical/specialized operations such as robotic and automated
applications to ensure consistent feedability. While typically more expensive
than other feeding systems, the push-

pull system is a definite asset in assisting with the feedability of aluminum

weld wire.
Spool-on-Gun Feeding System.
This system is usually designed to use
1-lb spools of wire that are mounted in
the gun. These guns are usually air
cooled and generally limited to smaller
wire sizes and light-duty service. Because of their relatively low current
rating, they are not perfectly suited to
heavy-duty continuous production
welding, but are often quite effective
for tack welding and other light-duty
Welding Equipment. Taking a
GMAW system designed and used for
steel and attempting to convert it for
use with aluminum may not always be
the simplest or most effective method
of creating a reliable aluminum
GMAW system. Most welding equipment manufacturers today make
GMAW systems dedicated to welding
aluminum. These systems have feeding equipment specifically designed
and configured for aluminum weld
wire, and they also have power supplies that are preprogrammed for the
various types of aluminum weld wire.

When changing from welding steel
to welding aluminum with GMAW, for
optimum aluminum weld wire feedability, consideration must be given to
the following items:
Steel Wires rigid, feed more easily over a greater distance, and withstand far more mechanical abuse.
Aluminum Wire softer, more
susceptible to abrasion, requires more
attention when purchasing and setting
up the feeding system.
Spool Brake Setting tension set
at a minimum, only sufficient brake
pressure to prevent spool from freewheeling when stopping.
Liners, Inlet and Outlet Guides
made from nonmetallic material such
as TeflonTM, nylon, or plastic to prevent abrasion or shaving.
Drive Rolls designed specifically
for aluminum, U-type contours with
chamfered edges, rolls aligned and adjusted to provide correct drive roll
Contact Tips need to be made
specifically for aluminum, smooth internal bores, polished, absent of sharp
burrs, and bore diameter 10 to 15%
larger than wire.
Weld Wire Quality cleanliness,
wire surface smoothness, and wire diameter control.
Type of Feeding System most
appropriate for application, push, pull,
push-pull, or spool-on-gun feeding
systems. WJ
TONY ANDERSON is director of aluminum
technology, ITW Welding North America. He
is a Fellow of the British Welding Institute
(TWI), a Registered Chartered Engineer with
the British Engineering Council, and holds
numerous positions on AWS technical com
mittees. He is chairman of the Aluminum As
sociation Technical Advisory Committee for
Welding and author of the book Welding
Aluminum Questions and Answers currently
available from the AWS. Questions may be
sent to Mr. Anderson c/o Welding Journal,
8669 NW 36th St., #130, Miami, FL 33166

Change of Address?
Make sure delivery of your Welding
Journal is not interrupted. Contact
Maria Trujillo in the Membership
Department with your new address
information (800) 443-9353,
ext. 204;
For info, go to


donaldson torit.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:08 AM Page 25

For Info, go to

Brazing Q&A June 16.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:24 AM Page 26



Q: We are a manufacturer of airconditioning and heating products. We have

several issues with our brazing. The biggest and most obvious problem we
seem to have is using too much braze alloy. You can see this in the enclosed
photos of some of our joints.
At this time, we're not sure if it is due to the design of our joints, the skill of
our brazers, or both. Perhaps it is something else we are not considering.
Using the wrong braze alloy, perhaps? In our internal discussions we have a lot
of opinions, and the consensus is that it is several things. Most of our joints
are coppertocopper tube assemblies, but there are some where we join cop
per to steel. We don't have an outofcontrol leak problem in the field, but we
feel that achieving a sealed system comes at the cost of using far too much
braze material and rework. Hand in hand with using too much alloy is the fact
the joint aesthetics are poor. Our customers are not thrilled with the appear
ance of our joints. While the product doesn't leak, a lot of times it sure looks
like it will.
We use a 2% silver braze rod. The heating is manual torch brazing using oxy
acetylene. On some joints, we use single tip torches, and on others, we use
double tip. It depends on the size and accessibility of the joint. Operator pref
erence is also a factor. We have an internal training program that is hard to im
plement because we have a lot of turnover in our operators. We're constantly
faced with the issue of bringing new people up to speed. An additional chal
lenge is out on the shop floor. After our operators have been trained, they de
velop bad habits and we don't have a lot of resources to give them oversight
and remedial training.
What steps can we take to reduce the excessive use of braze alloy and
improve the appearance of our joints? I need a place to start.

A: Review the fundamentals when

looking at your designs. You need good
fit and proper clearance. What does
this mean? Most braze joints can be
made with a depth of 5 mm (0.200
in.). One habit designers tend to have
is to make the joints too deep, and
then management says you must fill
up the entire joint volume. Figure 1 is
a good example of a joint that is too
deep. In looking at this joint, a couple
of things come to mind. Being so deep,
it is more difficult to heat. You must
bring the entire joint up to braze temperature and then focus the heat such
that the alloy is drawn into the joint.
Being copper, the heat wants to be
drawn away from the joint. Heating it
so the alloy is drawn into the joint may
make it colder at the point you add the
alloy. The way to overcome this is to
keep adding braze filler metal.

Proper Joint Sizing

This joint also appears to be quite a
tight fit, further adding to the difficulty of getting braze filler metal to flow
into the joint.
The alignment seems to be poor
also. It makes one side of the joint
wider than the other. Braze filler metal
has trouble penetrating and the opera26 WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016

flow. Again, most operators try to

overcome this with adding more rod
Fig. 2.
The problem changes when you
have dissimilar metals. In Figure 2, the
joint was not brought up to proper
brazing temperature. It is referred to
as a cold joint. The steel wants to retain heat and the copper wants to
draw it away from the joint. In this
case, when the braze filler metal was
added, the point where the rod was
touched was underheated. Touching it
with the braze rod cools it further, as
the heat in the base metals is used to
melt the rod. Adding more filler metal
makes matters worse.
Figure 3 shows what can happen
when joint accessibility is an issue.
The close proximity of the tubes to
each other makes them difficult to
heat. It also makes it hard to add the
filler metal. If not heated properly and

tor keeps adding alloy. We recommend

a fit no greater than 0.10 mm (0.004
in.), so even in a well-designed joint,
there will be limited room in the joint
to fill. Adding a bit of a flare cupping
to the end of the female tube will help
direct braze filler metal into the joint.
A benefit to making the joint easier
to heat, i.e., tighter fit with smaller
overlap, is the heating time will decrease. An associated plus is there will
be fuel gas and oxygen savings.

Temperature and Torch Tip

There are a few things to keep in
mind, however, when the subject is
proper heating. Torch tip selection is
important. Some joints need a broad
flame and some are more targeted.
Also, using a double tip may make the
heating more uniform and faster.
There are a wide variety of tips on the
market to select from.
Additionally, you want to make sure
your operators are using a reducing
flame. The tendency of most operators, especially new ones, is to crank
up the oxygen. The thinking is the hotter the better so they can get the joint
done faster. This increases the oxidation on the assembly, so when you add
the braze filler metal, it acts to inhibit

Fig. 1 Sectioned coppertocopper

tube joint.

Fig. 2 Coppertosteel connection.

Brazing Q&A June 16.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:25 AM Page 27

ten results in what you observe in the

Training and brazer oversight are
important things to implement and
emphasize. There are excellent options
available in industry to help you design and implement a training program. This is a must-do under any condition. You mentioned that you are using a 2% silver braze filler metal. This
is for the copper-to-copper joints. You
do not mention what you use for the

dissimilar metal joints. The 2% is one

of the most common choices for these
types of joints, so I would not think a
change in filler metal would help. I
have a few ideas, though, that may.

Filler Metal Considerations

There are wire feeders on the market
that allow you to control the amount of
filler metal dispensed into a joint. Most
are automated, but there are manual

Fig. 3 Braze joints in close proximity

showing braze overflow.

designed such that the alloy can easily

penetrate the joint, operators end up
adding additional filler metal, just to
be sure it does not leak.

Part Size and Mass

Brazing parts of dissimilar size and
mass can cause issues as well Fig. 4.
Although the fittings being brazed are
not large in Fig. 4, they do represent a
different mass to heat than the thinwalled tube. If heat is not properly applied to the fitting, it will be difficult
to get braze filler metal to seal the
joint. Adding more filler metal to try
to achieve good joint integrity too of-

Fig. 4 Parts with dissimilar mass

showing excessive braze alloy.
For info, go to


Brazing Q&A June 16.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:25 AM Page 28

ones. They dispense a fixed amount of

filler metal to each joint. It takes the
decision-making on the amount of filler
metal to use out of the brazers control.
They use wire rather than rod, which
gives a slight cost savings.
You do not mention the diameter of
the braze rod you are using. The larger
the diameter of braze rod, the more
heat it takes to melt it and therefore
get it into the joint. The extra amount
of braze filler metal also sets you up to
use too much as it is difficult to control a large amount of molten metal
when you are trying to get it into a
tight joint. We worked with a manufacturer to convert from a 2.4-mm(0.093-in.-) diameter rod to a 1.6-mm(0.062-in.-) diameter rod. It experienced a 30% drop in braze filler
metal usage. Heating times were also
An additional thing to try is using
flat cross-section braze rods rather
than round rods. Some operators find
it is easier to hit a spot on a tubular
braze joint with a flat rod rather than
with a round rod. This is particularly

For info, go to


true on smaller joints. These flat rods

are readily available.
In almost every case, by taking
steps to reduce filler metal usage, you
should enjoy additional benefits like
reductions in energy costs, less rework, increased productivity, and better aesthetics. It is a good place to focus improvement efforts. WJ
This column is written sequentially by
and DAN KAY. Hirthe and Shapiro are
members of and Kay is an advisor to the C3
Committee on Brazing and Soldering. All
three have contributed to the 5th edition of
AWS Brazing Handbook.
Hirthe ( currently
serves as a BSMC vice chair and owns his
own consulting business.
Shapiro (ashapiro@titanium is brazing products manager at
Titanium Brazing, Inc., Columbus, Ohio.
Kay (, with 40
years of experience in the industry, operates
his own brazing training and consulting
Readers are requested to post their
questions for use in this column on the
Brazing Forum section of the BSMC

For info, go to

interactive safety.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:10 AM Page 29

For Info, go to

June P&P.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 1:10 PM Page 30


Inspection System
Useful for Large Tubes
and Pipes
The WI-3000 laser-based weld inspection system is useful for larger
and heavier wall pipes. Employing a
redesigned sensor head with highresolution and high-quality optics,
the system is the larger version of the

Special Pipe and Tube Focus

WI-2000. The new system has a field

of view that ranges from 35100 mm
across, depending on the model type,
allowing for detection of a variety of
defect types. Typically installed right
after the weld head on pipe mills, it
can provide an early warning system
to detect defects in the weld area and
the forming of the pipe. With a measurement resolution down to 30 m in
size, the system is able to detect critical defects that are difficult to find
using other forms of testing equipment. It includes a complete data collection and data management system
that provides fault and trend reporting
for historical auditing purposes, as
well as offline data review capability
for complete batch production of large
Xiris Automation, Inc.
(905) 3316660

Crane Scale Features

Wireless Versatility

The companys IE Series crane

scale, a fully portable scale that performs a variety of weighing jobs
around metal fabrication shops, is selfcontained and has an aluminum diecast case, rugged hooks and shackles,
and operates up to 50 h on a 9-V battery. Useful for shipping and receiving,
plus other material-handling jobs, this
crane scale features a wireless remote
control and easy-to-read 1.1-in., 5digit LCD or LED displays. Providing a
For info, go to


June P&P.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 1:11 PM Page 31

32-ft operating range, the scale has

function keys for power, zero, tare,
and hold. Offered in five models with
100 0.05-, 200 0.1-, 500 0.2-,
1000 0.5-, and 2000 1-lb capacities, these wireless remote scales have
low-battery and overload indicators.
An AC adapter is also included.
Alliance Scale, Inc.
(800) 3436802

Valves Ensure Tube and

Pipe Systems Dont Burst
The PurgeGate valve system prevents any over-pressurizing of inflatable tube and pipe weld purging systems. The devices are fitted as standard on the companys HotPurge and
QuickPurge systems, and are offered
as accessories for the PurgElite,
PurgExtra, and any other manufacturers versions of inflatable tube and

pipe purging systems. The valves have

an easy push-fit connection and are
simply plug and play. They fit all sys-

Holster Fits Welding

Guns from Several

The MiG Buddy welding gun holster can easily be mounted on carts,
tables/benches, and C-clamps. Inventor George Bertolotti recalled testing
the product for six years, through
many evolutions, and valuing input
before launching the unit at FABTECH
2015. Theres nothing like it out
there, he said. Useful for schools and
shops, the holster fits welding guns
from Miller Electric Mfg. Co., The
Lincoln Electric Co., Masterweld Products USA, Eastwood, Tweco, and
Hobart Welding Products; visit the
following site for a list of models,
which is expected to grow. Made of
highly engineered plastic, the product
also helps prevent false triggering
with keeping guns up vs. lying down.
It includes a two-piece plastic holster,
universal mounting kit, and assembly
GeorgeB Design, LLC
(888) 2536703
For info, go to


June P&P.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 1:11 PM Page 32

tem sizes, from 1 to 96 in., and can be

moved from system to system.
Huntingdon Fusion Techniques
(800) 4311311

Wire Useful for Pipe Seam

The Lincolnweld Emergence is a
noncopper-coated submerged arc wire

for pipe seam applications with a proprietary surface treatment to protect

material and perform the same as
copper-coated wires in the same alloy
class. It can help welders avoid common processing flaws that can lead to
costly repairs and excess scrap. The
elimination of surface copper in the
wire decreases the risk of weld contamination. The wire may double the
life of contact tips, which means consistent arc starts, wire placement, and
weld deposit, and less downtime and

American Welding Society


lost production due to frequent

change outs.
Lincoln Electric
(888) 9353876


Video Illustrates Pipe

Fitting Prototype Tools

With manufacturingg sskills gap

tions beco
coming m
more and more
e, it
i s hard too ignore the
need forr ccre
credentialed skills.
AWS Certificatio
tions are thhe most
recognized credential
tials in the welding
industry; created and baccked by a
collective of experience aandd ddistinction.
So, by earning an AWS Certification
ca on,
youre positioning yoursellf fo
for success.
Why wait? Secure yourr fuuture now.

Start your
ur path to
t ward
AWS Certification at

The Navy Metalworking Center has

produced a brief video highlighting the
results of a recent project that developed manufacturing methods to reduce the cost of producing pipe welds
on Navy ships. The video illustrates a
number of prototype tools that improve pipe fitting, welding, and installation on several naval platforms. The
developed pipe-production tools and
technologies are expected to reduce
the cost of manufacturing thin-wall
piping system components at Ingalls
Navy Metalworking Center
(800) 2824392


June P&P.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 1:12 PM Page 33

rent regulations governing gas detection. Features include the ability to

take notes, send notes via e-mail, add
bookmarks to view at a later time, and
perform keyword searches. The app is
free to download from the Google Play
Store, Apple App Store, and can be accessed from the website below.

Tube Beveler Upgraded to

Fitup Panels Anywhere

Industrial Scientific
(800) 3383287

Plasma, Power, Air Unit

Cuts Pipe in Remote Areas

The Mongoose MILLHOG beveling tool, a self-centering inner diameter clamping, right-angle drive tool
that can bevel, face, and bore simultaneously and also be supplied with a
cutter head for membrane and overlay
removal, has been upgraded with a
new battery that allows operators to
fitup boiler tube panels virtually anywhere. It is now offered with a 6.2 Ah-,
18-V rechargeable battery. Allowing up
to 1-h operation, depending on the application, the beveling tool is useful
for 58-in. I.D. to 3-in. O.D. tubes and
needs 2.25-in. minimum clearance.
Providing chatter-free operation without cutting oils, this portable tool uses
TiN-coated cutter blades with a radical
chip breaker to direct heat away from
the tube surface.

reference for those wanting to refresh

their gas detection knowledge. It covers sensor technologies, gas hazards,
gas monitoring applications, and cur-

The Freedom 38 PPA, an all-inone unit combining plasma, power,

and air for cutting in areas without access to electricity, combines a Powermax125 plasma system with a 38-kW
generator and air compressor. Advantages to companies needing to cut
metal in remote areas include the simplicity of operating one unit instead
of three separate systems, the ability
to replace current methods (oxyfuel
cutting, grinding, and carbon arc

Esco Tool
(800) 3436926

Mobile App Teaches Gas

Detection Techniques
The Gas Detection Made Easy mobile
application, designed by the companys training team based on the curriculum taught during basic and advanced courses, is useful for anyone
who wants to learn about gas detection techniques and technologies. The
app can be used as a study tool to reinforce in-person training or as a quick

For info, go to


June P&P.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 12:59 PM Page 34

the included plasma system is 112 in. at

a speed of 18 in./min and 134 in. when
cutting at a speed of 10 in./min. In addition, the system is capable of severing 214-in.-thick material if needed.
The plasma system is very capable at
gouging, and can be used with a number of different torch and consumable
options to suit a variety of handheld
and automated applications.
gouging), and the elimination of costs
from renting and transporting flammable gas cylinders. Cut capacity for

(800) 7372978

American Welding Society



and Yooull Get

American Welding Society


Yoour research sent to moree than

71,000 American Welding
Society members

Yoour published
p pper pposteed on
the AWS
W website for FREE
access worldwide at

The most recent Impact Factor

o 1.378
3 8

No page charges

Yoour paper printed in full coolor

Electronic submission and

tracking through Editorial
Manager att

Every research paper publiished

in the Weelding Journal sincce
1970 avvailable FREE on thee
WS website att

Buyy your copy of

Structural Welding Code - Steel
now at htt
ws org/buyyd1

By farr, the most people, att the

least cost, will be exposedd to
your research when you
publish in the world-respeected
n .


mercer.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:12 AM Page 35

For Info, go to

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:47 PM Page 36


Fiscal 2015 year in review

Gesana Villegas, Chief Financial Officer
Fiscal Year 2015 was an extraordinary year for the Society.
Not only were we able to achieve remarkable financial
results, but we were also able to move the needle forward by
accomplishing many goals in our global strategy plan. Our
focal point has always been to distinguish ourselves as the
world leader in welding knowledge while, of course, remaining true to our mission. We proudly offer ongoing support to
our charity arm, the AWS Foundation, whose mission is to
fund programs that ensure the growth and development of
the welding industry through research and educational
opportunities. Over the past five years, we have transferred
more than $30 million to support its undertakings.
We are visionaries innovation and continuous improvement is the engine that currently drives us. We see a market
of untapped opportunities, but we are cognizant of the challenges. We are in a great position: Coming from financial
strength gives us the ability to invest in initiatives to propel
growth and make an impact in the industry. We operate on
the philosophy of being fiscally responsible that is, for
every dollar we spend, we make sure there is value. Our
Reserves, which are 100% invested in the marketplace in
fixed income and equity funds, totaled $29 million at December 31, 2015, and are equivalent to one year of operating expenses. All excess cash from our operations are transferred
into our Reserves. Although Reserves can be viewed as our
rainy day pot, we have also used our Reserves over the
years to invest back. We purchased our headquarters facility,
and we funded our Foundation to make it self-supporting,
a combined impact of $38.1 million over the last 6 years.
Year after year, we have been able to report outstanding
results. It goes without saying that it takes great efforts to
achieve such results. The bar does get set higher every year
as our Treasurer mentioned in his editorial on page 6. When
the calendar year flips, we all take a deep breath and we tell
ourselves it is time to do it again, and the pursuit begins. Our
success each year is made possible only because of our dedicated staff and thousands of volunteers, whom we are very
grateful to for their time and passion.
All of our business units exhibited an increase in revenues
in 2015. Our operating revenues reached a record high of
$40.7 million, growing by 12.9% over 2014 results. The
acquisition of our order fulfillment partner, World Engineering Exchange or WEX, allowed us to enjoy additional royalties from book sales, which added to our revenues and
surplus. Since the Foundation is now self-supporting, when
comparing our operating surplus to the prior year, it should
be noted that our surplus excludes approximately $1.27 million in Foundation expenses now paid for by the Foundation,

President David L. McQuaid
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
Vice President John R. Bray
Affiliated Machinery, Inc.
Vice President Dale Flood
Tri Tool, Inc.
Vice President Thomas J. Lienert
Los Alamos National Laboratory
Treasurer Carey Chen
Cincinnati, Inc.
Executive Director Ray W. Shook
American Welding Society

T. Anderson (At Large), ITW Welding North America
U. Aschemeier (Dist. 7), Subsea Global Solutions
D. J. Burgess (Dist. 8), Alstom Power
D. A. Desrochers (Dist. 1), Old Colony RVTHS
D. L. Doench (At Large), Hobart Bros. Co.
D. K. Eck (At Large), Praxair Distribution, Inc.
K. Fogleman (Dist. 16), Consultant
P. H. Gorman (Dist. 20), Sandia National Laboratories
S. A. Harris (Dist. 4), Altec Industries
J. Knapp (Dist. 17), Consultant
M. Krupnicki (Dist. 6), Mahany Welding Supply
D. J. Landon (Past President), Vermeer Mfg. Co.
S. Lindsey (Dist. 21), City of San Diego
D. E. Lynnes (Dist. 15), Lynnes Welding Training
C. Matricardi (Dist. 5), Welding Solutions, Inc.
S. M. McDaniel (Dist. 19), Big Bend Community College
W. R. Polanin (At Large), Illinois Central College
R. L. Richwine (Dist. 14), Ivy Tech State College
D. J. Roland (Dist. 12), Airgas USA, LLC,
NorthCentral Region
R. W. Roth (At Large), RoMan Manufacturing
M. Sebergandio (Dist. 3), CNH America
K. E. Shatell (Dist. 22), Pacific Gas & Electric Co.
M. Sherman (Dist. 10), SW&E, LLC
M. Skiles (Dist. 9), Consultant
W. J. Sperko (At Large), Sperko Engineering Services
J. Stoll (Dist. 18), The Bohler Welding Group U.S.
H. W. Thompson (Dist. 2), UL, Inc.
R. P. Wilcox (Dist. 11), Consultant
J. A. Willard (Dist. 13), Kankakee Community College
D. R. Wilson (Past President), Welldean Enterprises

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:47 PM Page 37


Our operating surplus came in at $11.8 million, increasing by 20% over the prior year, a new historical high for the
Society. We have managed to keep, on average, 28 cents out of every dollar received.
Our total assets were $122.1 million, increasing by $12.1 million or 10.9%. Total net assets (net worth) were at an
all-time high of $115.8 million, an increase of $10.9 million or 10.4%. The main contributing factor to our increase in
net assets this year is our operating surplus. Market gains usually add to our net assets but our investment portfolio did
not yield favorable returns in 2015; however, we did weather the volatility in the marketplace quite well, ending with
just a slight loss in our investments.
With innovation powering what we do, Fiscal Year 2015 was a year of digital initiatives. We completed our data
migration from D3 to a Sequel environment. The new database is fueling our website and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) tool. The first phase of our CRM has been implemented. It will allow access of data to better manage
our business. We also transitioned into Great Plains, our new accounting system. New functionalities will allow for efficiency and better reporting. Our e-mail system was changed to an industry-standard system. We also launched
SharePoint, a collaboration tool that facilitates the sharing, managing and accessing of files. All of these IT
enhancements will provide us with the technology needed to support our growth. AWS Learning (AWSL), our online educational platform, is another key digital initiative of great focus, not only from a content perspective that includes
quality and relevance, but from a delivery standpoint we launched a new learning management tool, Moodle, to
improve the experience. WeldLink is another endeavor we took on to enhance membership value for all industry stakeholders. WeldLink is an online welding community tool capable of storing credentials digitally, managing rsums,
assessing readiness, mapping career paths, and connecting job seekers to employers and vice-versa, among other
Under continuous improvement, customer service is an area of focus we have taken on, since our constituents are of
utmost importance to us. We spend great efforts monitoring customer service performance metrics, which now include
survey-based satisfaction metrics. A new service group was launched in 2015, our Customer Operations Department
(COD). COD will allow for a better customer experience. We have started to identify technological tools that can help
the COD accomplish this goal. These initiatives are slated for 2016.
Also within continuous improvement are our efforts to refresh our CWI exam questions hence, the new
redesigned Part B. In 2015, we spent time orchestrating the release of the new Part B, which included beta testing and
collection of data in an effort to get ready for the launch in January 2016. The new part B contains a new pipe specimen
as well as larger pieces to expand the ability to test knowledge. Digitally, we are moving toward computer-based exams
via Prometrics; more on this later in the year.
In the area of international activities, we now have consultants we consider an important physical presence covering
India and the Arabian Gulf countries. We also added a consultant in China to complement our Asia Team. We continue
to explore potential new Agents abroad, and we continue to strengthen our relationship with our existing Agents.
Efforts abroad include emphasizing and communicating AWS advantages over other global/regional welding
organizations. We also have signed an exclusive global sponsorship with World Skills. World Skills is an avenue for AWS
to gain exposure abroad.
Our sales force team has grown to include a dedicated AWSL salesperson and a dedicated Latin American sales representative. The message resonating within our sales team is We have the product, go sell it.
Our financial position is the healthiest in the 96-year history of AWS. We are very proud of our achievements. Our
sincere gratitude once again goes to our entire staff and to all of our volunteers everyone played a role in our success.
We are certain you can benefit from one of the many programs and services we offer. Please visit our website at or call us at 1-800-443-9353.

AWS Foundation Highlights for 2015

The AWS Foundation is 100% focused on strengthening industry research, progress and advancement. Large efforts
are spent on recruitment in the welding workforce and enhancing the image of welding as a career. The Foundation total
net assets were $49.4 million at December 31, 2015, increasing by $4.2 million or 9.3%. The Foundation has added numerous scholarships over the past couple of years via transfers from the Society and its reserves.
In 2015, a $4 million transfer was made to allow for a 50% match for existing Section and District Scholarships and a
150% match for new dollars coming in for the same. In addition, at the November 2015 Board of Directors meeting, the


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 3:58 PM Page 38


BOD approved an additional $4 million geared toward welder training, a key focus taken on by the Foundation. We
received survey data results indicating AWS is making an impact in alleviating the shortage of welders. However, there is
still a lot of work to be done.
Our 53-foot Careers-in-Welding trailer containing virtual welding machines, sponsored by one of our partners, continues to give us visibility. This mobile exhibit will continue through 2017.
In 2015, the Foundation paid for its own operating expenses for the first time using the earnings from the $20
million transfer made in 2013 by the Society to make the Foundation self-supporting. Total operating expenses were
$1.27 million for 2015.
Contributions received in 2015 and matched under the current 100% matching program amounted to $709,000. A
total of $2,735,100 was utilized from the $4 million transfer mentioned above to match existing and new Section and
District Scholarships.
Since 1991, when the AWS Foundation began offering scholarships, more than $7 million has been awarded. In 2015,
the AWS Foundation awarded $645,000 in scholarships to more than 500 recipients. Our Scholarship Wall with named
bricks continues to fill up. You can get your individualized brick, and the proceeds from the sale will go toward scholarships for future welding students. Your name can be added to this monumental wall.
To find out how you can help in the mission of alleviating the welder workforce shortage, please contact Sam Gentry

AWS Highlights for 2015

The FABTECH Show had a greater turnout than anticipated. It was another successful year in Chicago with record
high attendees, exhibitors, and square footage. The welding portion of the show had 614 welding exhibitors. Exhibit
space for the entire show (all technologies) was 732,345 NSF with 43,836 attendees and 1641 exhibitors, including
welding, forming/fabrication, tube and pipe, finishing and stamping. Our show in Mexico (WELDMEX) has shown
steady growth, and attendance was close to 11,100. Total overall square footage in Mexico was 109,900 NSF in comparison to 92,400 NSF in 2014.

Educational Services
Revenues were $6.8 million including $1.3 million in online courses. Online product sales increased by 68.5% over
the prior year. Innovation plays a key role in our educational products. We are committed to investing in bringing higher
standards and enhanced learning. Great efforts continue to be devoted to online development, as well as revisions and
updates to our existing educational materials. Our task at hand is to teach and provide the body of knowledge while delivering the experience. We launched our Learning Library. It contains 126 modules of digital content for use by companies and educational organizations wishing to augment their welder training curricula. WeldLink our career planning
and management system specifically designed to bring together individuals, businesses, and schools in the welding
industry is now available, so please make sure you tap into this resource. Weldink mobile capabilities will be coming

Member dues revenues increased by 8.8% over the prior year. We continue to work on recruiting individual members
worldwide. Our core emphasis is to add value to our membership. Our overall membership count was 72,516.
International and student membership represents 15.4% and 16.7% of the Societys member base, respectively. We are
working on a membership community platform; stay tuned for more information.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:48 PM Page 39


This operating unit once again is our top revenue-producing business unit, generating $13.5 million, an increase of
10.4% when compared to 2014. CWI renewal revenues is the main driver of the increase in total revenues, followed by
Welder certification revenues ahead by 13.7%. Exam and renewal revenues generated by our international Agents
approximated $3.6 million. We have 48 international Agents. We continue to expand our global presence through new
Agents. In 2015, we extended new contracts in India, Germany, Vietnam and Australia. We have an in-country person in
India and now Saudi Arabia. International growth remains a key focus, particularly in Asia.

The 2015 D1.1 Structural Welding Code Steel edition, our flagship code, was released in summer of 2015. Revenues
from this edition as well as two other new releases helped generate $7.6 million in total book sales revenues. Technical
marked the second highest revenue generator in 2015. The acquisition of our order fulfillment partner, WEX, helped
us achieve such revenues, as we no longer had to split royalties from book sales. The ROI for this acquisition is 1.5 years,
a solid investment.

Total departmental revenues were $4 million, an increase of 3.8% when compared to 2014. We experienced an
increase in Welding Journal advertising, up 5.6% when compared to 2014. The increase in Spanish edition ad sales was
9% over 2014.

In Summary
Despite the market negative investment returns, fiscal year 2015 was another remarkable and memorable year for
the Society from a business and operational standpoint. There are, indeed, many exciting opportunities for us as we
continue our quest to innovate and improve. We are very fortunate to be in a financial position where we can readily invest. Positive financial results allow us to be productive and focus-driven without the distraction caused when an organization is experiencing a shortage of funds. We are grateful to be able to add to our financial strength, which allows us to
fully devote our focus to our mission and deliver the best value to our constituents.
Over the past years, we have been able to build a healthy reserve and at the same time we have been able to provide,
invest, and participate in initiatives that have helped us advance our position in the marketplace. It also allows us to
give back to the industry in the form of scholarships, programs and partnerships via our AWS Foundation. We continue
to focus on global expansion to satisfy our mission and grow world presence.
We are cautiously optimistic that fiscal year 2016 will achieve positive financial results. With our prudent practices,
we will ensure that we are fiscally responsible and that we continue to make sound financial decisions.
The AWS Board of Directors and AWS Foundation Trustees would like to express their appreciation to all of our
members, volunteers, industry leaders, and cooperating organizations that share our goals in helping us make this
another successful year. Appreciation is also extended to our capable staff, who helped make 2016 a success.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:49 PM Page 40


Fiveyear comparisons
Fiveyear comparisons

Operating Revenue
Total Assets
Net Assets
Convention (sq. ft.)










Las Vegas Chicago




2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:49 PM Page 41


To the Board of Directors

American Welding Society, Inc. and AWS Foundation
Report on the Combined Financial Statements
We have audited the accompanying combined financial statements of American Welding Society, Inc. and AWS Foundation,
which comprise the combined statement of financial position as of December 31, 2015, and the related combined statements
of activities and cash flows for the year then ended and the related notes to the combined financial statements.
Managements Responsibility for the Combined Financial Statements
Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of these combined financial statements in accordance
with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America; this includes the design, implementation, and
maintenance of internal control relevant to the preparation and fair presentation of combined financial statements that are
free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error.
Auditors Responsibility
Our responsibility is to express an opinion on these combined financial statements based on our audit. We conducted our
audit in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted in the United States of America. Those standards require that
we plan and perform the audit to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the combined financial statements are free
from material misstatement.
An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the combined
financial statements. The procedures selected depend on the auditors judgment, including the assessment of the risks of
material misstatement of the combined financial statements, whether due to fraud or error. In making those risk
assessments, the auditor considers internal control relevant to the entitys preparation and fair presentation of the combined
financial statements in order to design audit procedures that are appropriate in the circumstances, but not for the purpose of
expressing an opinion on the effectiveness of the entitys internal control. Accordingly, we express no such opinion. An audit
also includes evaluating the appropriateness of accounting policies used and the reasonableness of significant accounting
estimates made by management, as well as evaluating the overall presentation of the combined financial statements.
We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our audit opinion.
In our opinion, the combined financial statements referred to above present fairly, in all material respects, the combined
financial position of American Welding Society, Inc. and AWS Foundation as of December 31, 2015, and the changes in their
net assets and their cash flows for the year then ended in accordance with accounting principles generally accepted in the
United States of America.

Morrison, Brown, Argiz & Farra, LLC

Certified Public Accountants
Miami, Florida

8669 NW 36 th St., # 130

Miami, Florida 33166

8669 NW 36 th St., # 130

Miami, Florida 33166

305-443-7559 FAX

800-443-9353, ext. 293

305-443-7559 FAX

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 3:59 PM Page 42




Cash and cash equivalents

Accounts and other receivables, net of allowance for doubtful
accounts of approximately $244,000 for 2015 and 2014
Prepaid expenses
Note receivable
Other assets
Property and equipment, net







Accounts payable, accrued expenses and other liabilities
Deferred membership, subscription and seminar income




Temporarily restricted
Permanently restricted


The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:50 PM Page 43



Educational services
Marketing and corporate
International activities
AWS Foundation
Building operations
Board approved programs





Net Change in
Net Assets

Net Assets

Net Assets

$ 4,218,464




$ 3,330,365






















Interest and dividends
Loss on investments, net












$ 5,104,350

$ 8,128,482



$ 5,104,350



The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 3:59 PM Page 44



Interest and dividends
(Loss) gain on investments, net
Net assets released from
restrictions by satisfaction
of purpose restrictions
Operating expenses
Fundraising and other



Net Change in
Net Assets

Net Assets

Net Assets


$ 1,234,300











$ 1,491,960














































$ 92,898,265

$ 16,085,377


Building operations



$ 6,836,153

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.



2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 4:00 PM Page 45





Change in net assets

Adjustments to reconcile change in net assets to

net cash provided by operating activities:
Depreciation and amortization
Loss (income) on investments, net
Changes in assets and liabilities:
(Increase) decrease in accounts and other receivables
(Increase) decrease in inventory
Decrease (increase) in prepaid expenses
Increase in deposits
Increase in accounts payable,
accrued expenses and other liabilities
Increase in deferred membership, subscription
and seminar income
























Proceeds from note receivable
Business acquisition
Purchases of property and equipment
Purchase of investments, net of sales








Assets acquired through business acquisition (NOTE 6)
Accounts receivable settled through business acquisition
Business acquisition cost allocated to goodwill

The accompanying notes are an integral part of these combined financial statements.

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:51 PM Page 46


Organizations and Purpose
American Welding Society, Inc. (AWS) and AWS Foundation (Foundation) (collectively, the Organizations) are not-forprofit entities, exempt from income tax under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code and are primarily engaged in
welding technology, education and research activities.
The financial statements of AWS include the accounts of Weldmex, LLC, 8669 Doral, LLC and International Excellence, LLC.
On October 16, 2012, AWS acquired a 100% interest in Weldmex, LLC (NOTE 3). In connection with the purchase of the
Organizations new headquarters, AWS created 8669 Doral, LLC. In 2014, AWS created International Excellence, LLC to
establish its Asia operations (NOTE 6). On April 7, 2014, AWS established Weldmex AWS, S. De R.L. De C.V. (Weldmex
Mexico), a limited liability company in Mexico for bank purposes. Weldmex Mexico was established through Weldmex,
LLC and 8669 Doral, LLC, both disregarded entities of AWS and formed in the United States.
In December 2013, the Foundation received a transfer from AWS to become self-supporting. Earnings from the transfer are
to provide for the Foundation operating expenses going forward. Since the Foundations inception, AWS covered for the
Foundations operating expenses until December 31, 2014. In 2015, the Foundation was entirely self-supported therefore
AWS did not incur any expenses on behalf of the Foundation.

Basis of Accounting
The combined financial statements have been prepared on the accrual basis of accounting in conformity with accounting
principles generally accepted in the United States of America (U.S. GAAP). The accounts of the Organizations are
maintained for internal reporting purposes in accordance with the principles of fund accounting.

Principles of Combination
The accompanying combined financial statements include the accounts of American Welding Society, Inc. and its affiliate,
AWS Foundation. All material inter-organization accounts and transactions have been eliminated in the combination.
Basis of Presentation
Net assets and revenues, gains and losses are classified into three classes of net assets based on the existence or
absence of donor-imposed restrictions. The three classes of net asset categories are as follows:
Unrestricted Net assets which are free of donor-imposed restrictions; all revenues, gains, and losses that are
not changes in permanently or temporarily restricted net assets.
Temporarily Restricted Net assets where the use by the Organizations is limited by donor-imposed stipulations
that either expire by the passage of time or that can be fulfilled or removed by actions of the Organizations pursuant
to those stipulations.
Permanently Restricted Net assets where the use by the Organizations is limited by donor-imposed stipulations
that neither expire with the passage of time nor can be fulfilled or otherwise removed by actions of the Organizations.

The transactions of the Organizations are categorized into separate funds. The purpose and net asset classification are as
Operating This fund is used to account for all unrestricted net assets of AWS, except for those accounted for
in the reserve and property funds. The operating fund also provides administrative support to the Foundation.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:51 PM Page 47


Basis of Presentation (Continued)
Reserve This fund is used to account for Board designated reserve funds which are to be used to supplement
the cash needs of AWS.
AWS Foundation The Foundations temporarily restricted net assets consists of donor-restricted contributions
to be used for awards and scholarships. Permanently restricted net assets consist solely of an endowment fund.
Property Fund This fund is used to account for the net assets of AWS associated with its new headquarter
facility located in Doral, Florida.
Management Estimates
The preparation of combined financial statements in conformity with U.S. GAAP requires management to make estimates
and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities
at the date of the combined financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting
period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Risks and Uncertainties
Financial instruments that potentially subject the Organizations to a concentration of credit risk are cash, investments and
accounts receivable. The Organizations place their temporary cash and cash equivalents with high quality financial
institutions. At times, cash deposits may be in excess of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporations insured limits. The
Organizations customer base is relatively stable; management closely monitors outstanding balances and relationships with
customers; collection losses have historically been immaterial.
The Organizations have investments in mutual funds that are exposed to various risks, such as interest rate, market and
credit risk. Due to the level of risk associated with certain investment securities and the level of uncertainty related to
changes in the value of investment securities, it is at least reasonably possible that changes in risks in the near term could
materially affect the Combined Statement of Activities. To minimize risks, the Organizations, through their investment
advisor and investment committee, monitor these investments and the associated risks on a regular basis.
Cash Equivalents
The Organizations consider all highly liquid investments with a purchase date maturity of three months or less to be cash
Accounts and Other Receivables, Net
Accounts and other receivables consist of balances related to convention, certification exams, royalties and other
miscellaneous programs and are stated at the amount management expects to collect from outstanding balances at yearend. Management provides for probable uncollectible amounts through a provision for bad debt expense based upon a review
of outstanding balances, historical collection information and current economic conditions. Balances that are still
outstanding after management has used reasonable collection efforts and the potential for recovery are considered remote
are written off through a charge to the allowance. Management believes the allowance for doubtful accounts is adequate to
absorb reasonably foreseeable losses.
Inventory consists primarily of publications including standards, handbooks, education and training materials, procedure
manuals and other and is valued at lower of cost or market determined by the weighted average method. Cost is determined
by the actual expenditures incurred in the production process.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:52 PM Page 48


Prepaid Expenses
Prepaid expenses consists of work-in-process costs relating to various publications that have not yet been released for
distribution. Once publications are complete and ready for their intended use, the costs are amortized over the life of the
publications, usually between two to three years. Additionally, expenditures which relate to programs for the next fiscal year
are reported as a prepaid asset and are expensed during the next year as the related program function takes place.
The Organizations reports investments in marketable securities with readily determinable fair values and all investments
in debt securities at fair value. Purchased securities are stated at fair market value based on the most recently traded price
of the security at the financial statement date. Donated securities are recorded at fair value and sold immediately.
Investment gains and losses, including realized and unrealized gains and losses on investments, interest and dividends, are
included in the accompanying Combined Statement of Activities.
Other Asset
In connection with the purchase of Weldmex, LLC in 2012, AWS fully allocated the purchase price to an indefinite-lived
intangible asset identified as the rights to the Weldmex show (NOTE 3).
Indefinite-lived intangible assets are evaluated for impairment at least annually and more often when events indicate that
impairment exists. AWS follows an accounting standard which permits an entity to make a qualitative assessment of whether
it is more likely than not that an assets fair value is less than its carrying value before applying the two-step impairment
model. If it is determined through the qualitative assessment that the assets fair value is more likely than not greater than
its carrying value, the two-step impairment test would be unnecessary. The qualitative assessment is optional, allowing
entities to proceed directly to the quantitative assessment using the two-step approach. In the two-step approach, the first
step identifies potential impairments by comparing the fair value of an asset with its book value. If the fair value of the
asset exceeds the carrying amount, the asset is not impaired and the second step is not necessary. If the carrying value
exceeds the fair value, the second step calculates the possible impairment loss by comparing the implied fair value of the
asset with the carrying amount. If the implied fair value is less than the carrying amount, an impairment is recorded. No
impairment was recorded for the year ended December 31, 2015.
Goodwill, which is an indefinite-lived intangible asset, represents the excess of costs over fair value of assets of businesses
acquired. Goodwill is evaluated at least annually, and more often when events indicate that an impairment exists. In
connection with the purchase of World Engineering Xchange Asia (WEX Asia) in 2014 (NOTE 6), AWS fully allocated the
purchase price to goodwill. There were no assets or liabilities acquired. In 2015, AWS acquired World Engineering Xchange,
LLC (WEX LLC) (NOTE 6) and allocated the purchase price primarily to goodwill. AWS does not amortize goodwill but
opts to test for impairment annually based on the accounting standard described above.
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment, net, are defined by the Organizations as assets with an initial, individual cost of more than $1,000
and an estimated useful life in excess of one year. Property and equipment including building improvements are stated at
cost and depreciated using the straight-line method over the following estimated useful lives of the respective assets:

Building and improvements

Furniture and equipment


Estimated Useful Lives (Years)

14 39

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:52 PM Page 49


Impairment of LongLived Assets
The carrying value of long-lived assets are reviewed if the facts and circumstances, such as significant declines in revenues,
earnings or cash flows, or material adverse changes in the business climate indicate that they may be impaired. The
Organizations perform their review by comparing the carrying amounts of long-lived assets to the estimated undiscounted
cash flows relating to such assets. If any impairment in the value of the long-lived assets is indicated, the carrying value of
the long-lived assets is adjusted to reflect such impairment.
Deferred Membership Fees and Services
Membership, subscription and seminar revenues are deferred when received and recognized as revenue over the life of the
membership and subscription or when the seminar occurs.
Interfund Payable/Receivable
Amounts represent advances received by the Property Fund and the Foundation from the Operating Fund for operating
expenses. Such funds totaled $2,749,912 at December 31, 2015 and is reflected in the combining statement of financial
position included as part of the supplementary information accompanying the combined financial statements.
Contributions and Promises to Give
Contributions received or made, including promises to give or pledges receivable, are recognized at fair value in the period
in which they are received or made.
Support that is restricted by the donor is reported as an increase in unrestricted net assets if the restriction expires in the
reporting period in which the support is recognized. All other donor-restricted support is reported as an increase in
temporarily or permanently restricted net assets, depending on the nature of the restriction. When a donor restriction
expires (that is, when a stipulated time restriction ends or purpose restriction is accomplished), temporarily restricted net
assets are reclassified to unrestricted net assets and reported in the Combined Statement of Activities as Net assets released
from restrictions.
Contributions are recognized when the donor makes a promise to give to the Organizations, that is, in substance,
unconditional. All other donor-restricted contributions are reported as increases in temporarily or permanently restricted
net assets depending on the nature of the restrictions.
The Organizations use the allowance method to determine the estimated unconditional promises to give that are doubtful
of collection. Management reviews outstanding promises to give on an ongoing basis. The allowance is based on prior years
experience and managements analysis of specific promises made. Account balances are charged off against the allowance
after all means of collection have been exhausted and the potential for recovery is considered remote. An allowance was not
deemed necessary as of December 31, 2015.
Revenues from Operating Activities
AWS generates revenues from operating activities including holding conventions, providing educational services, selling
memberships and issuing certifications. Revenues are recorded as related expenditures are incurred, services are performed,
products are delivered or once an event takes place.
Volunteer Services
A large number of people have contributed significant amounts of time to the activities of the Organizations. Since these
contributions do not meet the criteria for revenue recognition, they are not reflected in the Combined Statement of


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:52 PM Page 50


Allocation of Expenses
The cost of performing the Organizations various activities have been summarized on a functional basis in the accompanying
Combined Statement of Activities. Accordingly, certain costs have been allocated among the activities benefited.
Income Taxes
American Welding Society, Inc. and AWS Foundation are not-for-profit corporations and are exempt from federal income
taxes under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. Accordingly, no provision for federal or state income tax is
required for revenues derived from its tax-exempt function.
For income tax purposes, publication advertising revenue and rental income are considered "unrelated business income
and are subject to income tax. The Organizations are taxed on unrelated business income less the related expenses.
International Excellence, LLC and Weldmex, LLC are disregarded entities for tax purposes.
The Organizations recognize and measure tax positions based on their technical merit and assess the likelihood that the
positions will be sustained upon examination based on the facts, circumstances and information available at the end of each
period. Interest and penalties on tax liabilities, if any, would be recorded in interest expense and other non-interest expense,
The U.S. Federal and State of Florida jurisdictions are the major tax jurisdictions where the Organizations file informational
tax returns. The Organizations are generally no longer subject to U.S. Federal or State examinations by tax authorities for
years before 2012.
Recent Accounting Pronouncement
Lease Accounting
In February 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued an accounting standard update which amends
existing lease guidance. The update requires lessees to recognize a right-of-use asset and related lease liability for many
operating leases now currently off-balance sheet under current U.S. GAAP. The Organizations are currently evaluating the
effect the update will have on their financial statements but expect upon adoption that the update will have a material effect
on the Organizations financial condition due to the recognition of a right-of-use asset and related lease liability. The
Organizations do not anticipate the update having a material effect on the Organizations results of operations or cash
flows, though such an effect is possible. The update is effective using a modified retrospective approach for fiscal years
beginning after December 15, 2019, and for interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, with
early application permitted.
Certain amounts in the 2014 combined financial statements have been reclassified to conform to the 2015 presentation.
Subsequent Events
The Organizations have evaluated subsequent events through April 1, 2016, which is the date the combined financial
statements were available to be issued.
During the year ended December 31, 2012, AWS entered into a secured first mortgage note receivable with 550 Lejeune,
LLC, the buyer of AWSs former headquarters. In January 2015, the outstanding note receivable balance of $3,680,000 was
fully collected.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:53 PM Page 51


On October 16, 2012, AWS completed the purchase of Weldmex, LLC (Weldmex), a limited liability company, from Trade
Show Consulting, LLC (TSC). Weldmex owns and operates the Weldmex Trade Show. In consideration for the sale, transfer
and assignment of TSCs ownership in the Weldmex Trade Show, between 2008 and 2009, TSC was paid a total of $644,000.
As a result, AWS acquired 55% ownership in Weldmex. The existence of Weldmex continued through October 16, 2012
when Weldmex purchased the remaining percentage interest of TSC for $1,750,000.
Total payments made to TSC to purchase the Weldmex Trade Show amounted to $2,394,000 and is included under the
caption "Other asset" in the Combined Statement of Financial Position. The acquisition of Weldmex was recorded as a
business combination. The purchase price has been fully allocated to one asset, identified as the rights to the Weldmex show
Since there is not an active market for this purchase, the cost of the purchase was determined to approximate the fair value
of the asset acquired. There were no other assets or liabilities in Weldmex at the time of acquisition. This intangible assets
useful life is not limited to legal, regulatory, contractual, competitive, economic or other factors. Therefore, management
has determined the Rights to have an indefinite life as the use of the asset extends beyond a foreseeable horizon and there
is no time limit on the period of time over which it is expected to contribute to the cash flows of AWS. AWS reviews the
Rights annually for impairment and will evaluate the remaining useful life if the Rights are determined to be no longer
indefinite. Management has determined that an impairment of the intangible asset does not exist as of December 31, 2015.
Investments, which are comprised entirely of mutual funds, are presented in the combined financial statements at their fair
market values and consist of the following at December 31, 2015:
Reserve Fund

AWS Foundation


Vanguard Investments
Stock Market Index Fund
Bond Market Index Fund
Intermediate-Term Investment Grade Bond
International Bond Index
International Stock Index Fund
Windsor II Fund
Short-Term Investment Grade Fund
U.S. Growth Fund
Morgan Growth Fund
Explorer Fund
Strategic Equity Fund
Prime Money Market Fund
AWS Section Investments
Total investments

$ 29,389,958

$ 48,559,326

$ 17,811,561
$ 77,949,284

AWS Foundation administers investments on behalf of certain affiliated sections. The investments aggregated to
approximately $1,118,000 at December 31, 2015 and are not included in the combined financial statements.
Investment loss consisted of the following for the year ended December 31, 2015:

Interest and dividends

Net realized and unrealized loss on
investments, net of fees of approximately
$25,000 and $45,000 respectively
Total investments loss

Reserve Fund

AWS Foundation









2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:54 PM Page 52


The FASB established a framework for measuring fair value. That framework provides a fair value hierarchy that prioritizes
the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to unadjusted quoted
prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to unobservable
inputs (Level 3 measurements).
The three levels of the fair value hierarchy are described as follows:
Level 1
Level 2

Level 3

Inputs to the valuation methodology are unadjusted quoted prices for identical assets or liabilities in active
markets that the Organizations have the ability to access.
Inputs to the valuation methodology include:

quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets;

quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in inactive markets;

inputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability;

inputs that are derived principally from or corroborated by observable market data by correlation or
other means.
If the asset or liability has a specified (contractual) term, the Level 2 input must be observable for substantially
the full term of the asset or liability.
Inputs to the valuation methodology are unobservable and significant to the fair value measurement.

The assets or liabilitys fair value measurement level within the fair value hierarchy is based on the lowest level of any input
that is significant to the fair value measurement. Valuation techniques used need to maximize the use of observable inputs
and minimize the use of unobservable inputs.
Following is a description of the valuation methodologies used for assets measured at fair value. There have been no changes
in the methodologies used at December 31, 2015.
Mutual funds: Valued at the net asset value (NAV) of shares held by the Organizations at year end.
The preceding methods described may produce a fair value calculation that may not be indicative of net realizable value or
reflective of future fair values. Furthermore, although the Organizations believe the valuation methods are appropriate and
consistent with other market participants, the use of different methodologies or assumptions to determine the fair value of
certain financial instruments could result in a different fair value measurement at the reporting date. The values assigned to
certain investments are based upon currently available information and do not necessarily represent amounts that may
ultimately be realized. Because of the inherent uncertainty of valuation, those estimated fair values may differ significantly
from the values that would have been used had a ready market for the investments existed and the differences could be material.
The following table represents the Organizations' financial instruments measured at fair value on a recurring basis at December
31, 2015 for each of the fair value hierarchy levels:
Fair Value Measurement at Reporting Date Using:


Money Market
Mutual Funds:
Equity U.S. Large
Equity U.S. Mid/Small
Equity - International
Short-Term Bonds
Intermediate Bonds
Bonds - International



Quoted Prices in Active

Markets for Identical Assets
(Level 1)



Significant Other
Observable Inputs
(Level 2)

Significant Other
Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)

The carrying amounts for cash, cash equivalents, receivables, accounts payable and certain other assets and liabilities
approximate fair value due to the short-term maturity of these financial instruments.

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 4:00 PM Page 53


WEX Asia
On May 1, 2014, AWS purchased WEXs Asia Division for $250,000. The entity had three employees and locations in Hong
Kong and Beijing. There were no significant tangible assets being acquired, as such, AWS fully allocated the purchase price
to goodwill. Management has determined that an impairment of this goodwill does not exist as of December 31, 2015.
Management believes this opportunity gives AWS ground access in China allowing AWS to work closer with existing
international agents as well as adding new agents for wider regions coverage. AWS is currently collaborating with
governmental agencies interested in certifying welders and providing other programs. The financial statements of AWS
include the activities of AWS Asia Ltd. In order to purchase WEX Asia, AWS created a separate legal entity called International
Excellence, LLC. International Excellence, LLC is owned by two individuals designated with the responsibility for Asia
operations. AWS gave the two individuals complete indemnification as the legal structure of the entity was only created as
a result of the legal requirements in Asia. Subsequent to 2015, in an effort to boost performance, activate the Asia target
audience and strengthen the AWS brand, AWS engaged a third party to assist with customer and partner channel outreach,
marketing initiatives and business development.
Effective July 16, 2015, AWS acquired the business assets and operation of WEX LLC for approximately $1,900,000.
Previously, AWS held a royalty agreement with WEX LLC to promote, distribute, sell and/or lease AWSs documents and
technical publications (NOTE 16). Prior to the business acquisition, WEX LLC paid royalties to AWS on a quarterly basis
and as of the date of the acquisition, the royalty agreement was terminated. Accordingly, the results of the business
operations have been included in AWSs financial statements from the date of acquisition. The following table summarizes
the estimated aggregate fair values of the assets acquired and liabilities assumed on the date of acquisition:
Tangible and identifiable assets acquired:
Property and equipment
Other assets
Total tangible and identifiable assets acquired
Total purchase price
Less: amount due to AWS on acquisition date
Cash paid for business acquistion


The goodwill arising from this acquisition results from the established business operations that were acquired. Management
has determined that an impairment of this goodwill does not exist as of December 31, 2015.
Property and equipment, net consist of the following as of December 31, 2015:

Building and improvements
Furniture, software and equipment

Property Fund

Foundation and
Operating Fund

Less: accumulated depreciation and amortization






$ 27,406,452

Depreciation expense was approximately $1,922,000 for the year ended December 31, 2015.

2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/23/16 11:22 AM Page 54


During 2010, AWS purchased a five story 120,000 square foot office building in the City of Doral, Florida for $19,000,000.
The purchase was made with operating cash as well as AWS reserves, hence no financing was involved. AWS completed its
move to the new headquarters office in September 2012. As of December 31, 2015, AWS occupied 72.8% of the office building
and 27.2% was leased out to tenants. Depreciation expense relating to AWS operations amounted to approximately
$1,657,000 for the year ended December 31, 2015 and is reflected under the Operating Fund. Depreciation expense relating
to the tenant portion at the new facility amounted to approximately $151,000 for the year ended December 31, 2015 and
is reflected under the Property Fund. Other depreciation of approximately $114,000 is reflected under the Foundation.
AWS utilizes the services of a property management and leasing company for the Doral facility. The term of the contract
was initially for six months and renewable for like periods of time unless terminated in writing by either party by providing
written notice 30 days prior to the date for such renewal. Under the terms of the agreement, AWS is to pay the management
company an amount equal to 4% of the gross income of the building, but in no event less than $2,500 per month. AWS is
to also pay commissions for all units leased by the manager in an amount equal to 2% of the total lease term. Outside brokers
also involved in selling leasing space are paid commissions up to 4% of the total lease term. AWS pays supervisory fees for
tenant improvements at 3.5% of the contractors price to build out. Effective January 1, 2015, supervisory fees have been
increased to 6% and the minimum property management fee is $3,500.
At December 31, 2015, net assets of the Foundation in the amount of $16,085,377 are restricted for awards, scholarships
and specific programs. Net assets of $470,603 were released from donor restrictions by granting awards, scholarships and
funding specific programs for the year ended December 31, 2015.
At December 31, 2015, net assets in the amount of $6,836,153 are permanently restricted endowments to provide a source
of funds predominantly for educational, research and other charitable purposes.
Funds are periodically transferred from the Operating Fund to the Reserve Fund and AWS Foundation. For the year ended
December 31, 2015, the Operating Fund transferred $9,000,000 to the Reserve Fund, due to positive financial results and
cash flows. The Reserve Fund transferred approximately $4,000,000 to AWS Foundation for scholarship matching.
For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Operating Fund transferred $166,721 to the Property Fund for capital
improvements and other related items and approximately $43,000 to AWS Foundation for other special programs.
During the year ended December 31, 2015, AWS transferred $200,000 from the Operating Fund to the Reserve Fund in
order to fund an approved supplemental executive retirement plan for AWSs Executive Director.
As of December 31, 2015, AWS, as lessor, has entered into various operating leases with third parties. The operating leases
have various terms expiring through 2021. Rental income from leasing activities is recorded as earned over the terms of the
leases. Rental income of approximately $755,000 was earned for the year ended December 31, 2015, and is within the
Combined Statement of Activities Property Fund.
Minimum future rentals to be received on leases subsequent to the year ending December 31, 2015 are approximately as
For the years ending December 31,


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 4:01 PM Page 55


The Foundations endowment consists of two separate investment funds established for welding education, research and
other charitable purposes. Its endowment includes donor restricted and board designated endowment funds. As required
by U.S. GAAP, net assets associated with endowment funds are classified and reported based on the existence or absence of
donor-imposed restrictions.
The State of Florida adopted the Florida Uniform Prudent Management of Institutional Funds Act (FUPMIFA). The
Foundation has interpreted the FUPMIFA as requiring the preservation of the fair value of the original gift as of the gift
date of the donor-restricted endowment funds, absent explicit donor stipulations to the contrary. As a result of this
interpretation, the Foundation classifies as permanently restricted net assets (a) the original value of gifts donated to the
permanent endowment, (b) the original value of subsequent gifts to the permanent endowment and (c) accumulations to
the permanent endowment made in accordance with the direction of the applicable donor gift instrument at the time the
accumulation is added to the fund. The remaining portion of the donor-restricted endowment fund that is not classified in
permanently restricted net assets is classified as temporarily restricted net assets until those amounts are appropriated for
expenditure by the Foundation in a manner consistent with the standard of prudence prescribed by FUPMIFA.
In accordance with the FUPMIFA, the Foundation considers the following factors in making a determination to appropriate
or accumulate donor-restricted endowment funds:
(1) The duration and preservation of the fund
(2) The purposes of the Foundation and the donor-restricted endowment fund
(3) General economic conditions
(4) The possible effect of inflation and deflation
(5) The expected total return from income and the appreciation of investments
(6) Other resources of the Foundation
(7) The investment policies of the Foundation.
For the year ended December 31, 2015, the Foundation has elected not to add appreciation for cost of living or other spending
policies to its permanently restricted endowment for inflation and other economic conditions.
Summary of endowment net assets at December 31, 2015:

Donor restricted
endowment funds
Board restricted
endowment funds
Total endowment net assets





$ 10,743,130






$ 25,247,893

$ 16,085,377

$ 6,836,153

$ 48,169,423

Change in endowment net assets at December 31, 2015:

Endowment net assets,
Contributions and transfers
Interest and dividends
Net investment income
Released from restriction and
appropriated for expenditure
Endowment net assets,


$ 10,299,591








$ 25,247,893

$ 16,085,377

$ 6,836,153

$ 48,169,423


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 4:02 PM Page 56


Summary of endowment assets at December 31, 2015:

Accounts receivable
Property and equipment, net
Prepaid expenses
Total endowment assets

$ 25,247,893




$ 16,085,377

$ 6,836,153


$ 48,169,423

Funds with Deficiencies

From time to time, the fair value of assets associated with individual donor restricted endowment funds may fall below the
level that the donor requires the Foundation to retain as a fund of perpetual duration. There were no such deficiencies in
the endowment funds as of December 31, 2015.
Return Objectives and Risk Parameters
The Foundation has adopted investment and spending policies for endowment assets that attempt to provide a predictable
stream of funding to programs supported by its endowment while seeking to maintain the purchasing power of the
endowment assets. The Foundation expects its endowment funds, over time, to provide a rate of return in excess of the
principal. Actual returns in any given year may vary.
Strategies Employed for Achieving Objectives
To satisfy its long-term rate-of-return objectives, the Foundation relies on a total return strategy in which investment returns
are achieved through both capital appreciation (realized and unrealized) and current yield (interest and dividends).
Spending Policy and How the Investment Objectives Relate to Spending Policy
The Foundation has a policy of appropriating for distribution each year 5 percent of its endowment fund's value over the
prior 12 months through the calendar year-end preceding the fiscal year in which the distribution is planned. In establishing
this policy, the Foundation considered the long-term expected return on its endowment. Accordingly, over the long term,
the Foundation expects to maintain the purchasing power of the endowment assets held in perpetuity or for a specified
term as well as to provide additional real growth through new gifts and investment return.
The Organizations have a simplified employee pension plan for all full-time employees. Full-time employees are eligible for
participation in the plan the first day of the month after they are employed. Effective June 1, 2008, the Organizations will
contribute a maximum of 8% of the employees base salary, composed of a 4% initial contribution and a match up to 4% of
an employees voluntary contribution. The Organizations made contributions totaling approximately $693,000 during the
year ended December 31, 2015.
AWS entered into an employment agreement with its Executive Director on November 13, 2012 for a term of three years.
The first year commencing January 1, 2013. The Organizations will provide certain benefits for the period set forth in the
agreement. An amendment to the employment agreement was signed in 2014 to include a retirement plan and extend the
term until 2017.


2015 Financial Layout.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:56 PM Page 57


On May 17, 2010, AWS signed an association management agreement to provide administrative services, office space,
facilities and equipment to the Gases and Welding Distributors Association (GAWDA), a not-for-profit trade association
incorporated in Pennsylvania. Effective January 1, 2015, AWS is no longer providing management services to GAWDA as
they are independently managed and have moved into their new premises in Hollywood, Florida.
Operating Leases
The Organizations have entered into various operating lease agreements involving equipment. Rent expense for the year
ended December 31, 2015 totaled approximately $211,000. Minimum annual payments on the non-cancellable portion of
the leases are approximately as follows:
For the years ending December 31,



Royalty Agreement
On October 26, 2005, AWS entered into a Publication Sales Agreement with WEX LLC, whereby WEX LLC was given nonexclusive worldwide rights to duplicate, package, facsimile transmit, price, promote, distribute, sell and/or lease AWSs
documents and technical publications through paper and electronic media formats and compilations. There were several
subsequent amendments resulting in higher royalties for AWS. Under the terms of the agreement, AWS earned $2,773,387
during the year ended December 31, 2015. Such amount has been included in revenues in various departments in the
Combined Statement of Activities. On July 16, 2015, AWS acquired WEX LLC (NOTE 6).
Effective September 4, 2012, AWS amended an existing agreement with The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
(ASME), whereby ASME has the nonexclusive right to reproduce the 2013 and 2015 editions of the filler metal
specifications. ASME will pay AWS royalties equal to 35% of the net sales per quarter for the 2015 edition. Under the terms
of this agreement, AWS earned approximately $921,667 during the year ended December 31, 2015.

Weldmex Trade Show

On January 11, 2013, Weldmex, LLC, now solely owned by AWS, entered into an agreement with Trade Show Consultants
(TSC) for show management services. TSC services will include developing an annual budget subject to approval by AWS,
conducting contract negotiations, overseeing and managing service vendors, general show marketing and promotion, exhibit
space selling, contracting and floor layout, customer support and onsite management and logistics. TSC shall be paid a fixed
fee of $170,000 annually and incentive fees as follows: (1) 5% of exhibit space revenues and (2) 10% of Fabtech Mexico
royalties paid to Weldmex, LLC for up to 30,000 square feet and 15% of Fabtech Mexico royalties paid to Weldmex, LLC for
square footage over 30,000 square feet. The agreement is for five annual WELDMEX shows from 2013 through the end of
the 2017. Either party may terminate without cause no later than twelve months prior to the commencement of any
WELDMEX show and with cause should any party commit a material breach within thirty days of receipt of written notice
from the non-breaching party.


miller electric.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:12 AM Page 58

For Info, go to

Fellow Letter.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/12/16 2:48 PM Page 59

Sternisha Feature June.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 3:42 PM Page 60

An aerial view of the Carlsbad

Desalination Plant taken in
September 2015.

Welding Austenitic SMO 254

Stainless Steel for the
Desalination Industry


How welders at
the Carlsbad
Desalination Plant are
successfully welding


alifornia is entering its fourth year of unprecedented drought.

And with an ocean of water off its coast, finding a way to turn
a drought-proof source into a potable one is seen as the best
insurance policy for rapidly diminishing rivers and reservoirs. San
Diego County, in particular, is especially vulnerable in this drought;
the region imports over 90% of the water it uses. With sources like
the Colorado River being stretched thin, compounded by the
drought in the west and lack of snowpack, an innovative solution is
being brought to the forefront. To ease the crisis, California looks to
other countries like Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Australia, which have
embraced the technology of desalination and constructed numerous
plants over the past few decades.
The Carlsbad Desalination Plant, located about 35 miles north of
San Diego, is a reverse osmosis (RO) seawater plant that will turn
roughly 100 million gal/day of seawater into 50 million gal/day of

Sternisha Feature June.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 3:42 PM Page 61

Joints (QW-402)
Joint Design: Butt
Backing or Backing Material: See Para Gas (QW-408)
Root Spacing: See below

Fig. 1 Typical single V-groove butt joint used for SMO 254 piping at the Carlsbad
Desalination Project.

Fig. 2 Typical fitup on an 8-in.diameter, 11-mm pipe wall thickness

SMO 254 piping at the Carlsbad
Desalination Plant.

Fig. 3 Picture of a joint design and

fitup on a 24-in.-diameter, 22-mm pipe
wall thickness SMO 254 pipe at the
Carlsbad Desalination Project. Bridge
tacks were utilized to hold the root
opening and fitup.

potable water. This represents about

7% of San Diego Countys usage, and
diversifies the regions water supply to
a drought-proof and locally controlled
Reverse osmosis desalination has
been widely used in other countries to
solve water shortages. This design,
however, requires a pipe material that
can withstand the roughly 1000 lb/in.2
required to remove the salt with osmotic pressure through the semipermeable membrane but still allows water molecules to pass through. In addition, this pipe must be able to resist
the corrosive properties of seawater
and a highly concentrated brine at 7%
salinity, all while maintaining a minimum design life of 30 years. In the
past, super duplex was the piping material of choice; however, super duplex
has its drawbacks, being much more
unforgiving in weldability. It also poses a potential risk of lessening its mechanical properties, toughness, and
corrosion resistance if the balance of
austenite and ferrite in the welded
joint is not maintained.
The new choice of material is SMO
254 (UNS 31254), chosen for its ability to provide excellent resistance to
corrosion (PREN>40) and pitting, f
or its high impact toughness, resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking, and excellent workability and

Joint Design and

Welding Procedure
The process engineer dictated the
welding parameters of the SMO 254
piping, with much of the procedure incorporating past lessons learned from

years of desalination plants in operation as well as new research. The gas

tungsten arc welding (GTAW) process
was chosen for this welding. Although
this required the most skill, it also provided the most control of heat input
and of the welding variables. Typical
joint design was a single V-groove butt
joint, with parameters shown in Fig. 1.
Pipe thicknesses ranged from
Schedule 40S (0.300 in.) to 22 mm
(0.866 in.). Figures 2, 3 show a typical
fitup of the piping joint with bridge
tacks used to hold the fitup at the root
Welding of fully austenitic stainless
steels carries the potential risk of hotcracking in the weld metal, in particular if the weldment is under constraint. In addition, an SMO 254 weldment has low thermal conductivity
and high thermal expansion. Thus,
heat input into the weld and welding
sequence must mitigate potential distortion during the welding process.
The welding procedure specification
(WPS) limited the heat input to 1.5
kJ/mm at the root pass, and 0.9
kJ/mm on the cold and fill passes.
This required constant monitoring of
temperature and speed of the welder,
certainly a tedious task for a quality
control program, but necessary considering the sensitivity of the material
to heat input and the risk of weld failures. The amperage range was 80125
A on the root, with 70100 A on the
cold and fill passes.
Another element that affects heat
input is the welding technique. The
pipe manufacturer as well as the
process engineer specified the use of a
stringer bead on the welds. The
stringer bead is not common to many
pipefitter welders and required practice and training to ensure the correct
technique was being applied within
the required parameters specified by
the WPS. Figure 10 shows a completed
weld, which demonstrates the stringer
technique used.
SMO 254 does not usually require
any preheat, provided ambient temperature is above 50F. However, maximum interpass temperature was limited to 95C (203F) in the WPS, again
to address the materials sensitivity to
heat input and cracking.
Gas purging is critical when welding all types of stainless steel alloys to
facilitate good weld pool fusion characteristics and protect the weld and
heat-affected zone (HAZ) surfaces


Sternisha Feature June.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 3:43 PM Page 62

from atmospheric contamination and

oxidation. Backing gas utilized was a
98% argon/2% nitrogen blend to a purity of 0.001%. Inflatable purge gas
bladders were used in the pipes to provide purge dams for the backing gas,
to confine the pipeline inside purge
volume to a more localized and controllable level versus purging whole
pipeline sections, reducing the amount
of backing gas used on the project and
reducing overall cost. Shielding gas
was also of the same composition, and
flow rate was 2035 ft3/min
(9.3416.4 L/min). Flow rate was controlled by the welder, and a calibrated
oxygen sensor was utilized to analyze
the oxygen content (<0.05% per WPS)
within the argon purge gas environment. Backing gas flow rate was
ranged 560 ft3/min (2.328.3 L/min).
Purge gas was left in place on the weld
until a weld thickness of 8 mm was
achieved, at which time only shielding
gas was required to finish the weld.
EW-Th-2 thoriated tungsten with
DC Straight Polarity (DCSP or DCEN)
was used during the GTAW process
with Avesta P12 Polarit (1.63.2 mm
diameter) ER NiCrMo-3 as the filler
metal. Figure 4 shows a welder performing the root pass on the SMO
254 pipe.

Training and Union

Craft Support
San Diego is certainly home to
many skilled workers, on account of
the Navy shipyards, numerous power
plants, and other heavy industry. But
welding on Alloy SMO 254 was new to
the local union craft force. This presented a potential challenge to the
contractor as the welder qualification
is a key part of a successful project.
But several steps were taken to overcome this hurdle. Job managers and
supervisors met with the local union
to discuss the job requirements, with
local union agreeing to utilize their local training center for training and
testing on the SMO 254 coupons. The
contractor sent a quality control manager to the facility to assist, ensure the
highest standards were held, and provide instruction during the training
process. Testing was performed on 3in.-diameter, Schedule 160 (thickness
0.436 in. or 11 mm) SMO pipe
coupons in the 6G position to meet
the thickness requirements for the
pipe being welded at the jobsite.

Fig. 4 Welder performing a root pass on 36-in.-diameter SMO 254 pipe utilizing the
GTAW process at the Carlsbad Desalination Project.

Fig. 5 A 3-in.-diameter, Schedule 160 SMO 254 pipe coupon that was welded
as part of training at the local union training center and used for training and

Sternisha Feature June.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 3:43 PM Page 63

Fig. 6 Dye-penetrant testing of the root pass on a 12-in.-diameter weld on SMO

254 pipe. In this stage, the dye is first applied to the joint and allowed to dry prior to
applying the developer solution.

Figure 5 shows a weld coupon performed by a welder during training.

All weld coupons were radiographically inspected. In addition, the weld
coupon was sent out for ASTM G41
corrosion testing, which also was required to yield acceptable results prior
to the welder being job certified to
weld on the plants pipe. It took, on
average, two weeks for a welder to
master the skill prior to taking and
passing the welder qualification test.
What resulted, however, was a new

skillset for welders in San Diego County and a growing working relationship
between the contractor and the Local.

Verification and
The SMO 254 pipes are critical to
the process of the desalination plant.
No water can be desalted with these
pipes out of service. Therefore, these
pipes are considered process critical,

Fig. 7 Dye-penetrant testing on the

root pass of a 36-in.-diameter SMO
254 alloy pipe. In this stage, the
developer is applied and the joint
is inspected for defects.

and as such, the engineer was very

concerned about their reliability. In
addition, the roughly 1000 lb/in.2
pressure of the pipes compelled the
engineer to designate the pipes as Category M fluid service pipes per ASME
B31.3, which required 100% radiographic inspection on every field
weld. In addition, as recommended by
the process engineer, dye-penetrant
testing of the root pass was performed
prior to the cold and fill passes being
placed, and all welds were visually inspected to the applicable ASME code.
Figures 6, 7 show dye-penetrant
testing of the root pass on typical
pipes at the project. The following parameters were required to be recorded
during welding:
Voltage (V)
Amperage (A)
Welding length/travel distance (in.)
Welding time (s)
Shielding gas flow rate (ft3/min)
Backing gas flow rate (ft3/min)
Oxygen content (%)

Fig. 8 Welder performing a typical weld on SMO 254 pipe. The QC inspector is
nearby to record relevant data and ensure compliance with WPS requirements for
each weld.

Temperature (F).
The following parameters were

Sternisha Feature June.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 3:44 PM Page 64

Fig. 9 A welder makes an in-place weld on SMO 254 pipe on the

reverse osmosis train at the Carlsbad Desalination Plant. Each of
the 14 RO trains produces roughly 2000 g/min of fresh water.

then calculated using the measured

Travel speed (in./min) calculated
by welding length (in.) welding time
Heat input (KJ/in.) calculated by
V A 60 travel speed (in./min).
Values were then reviewed to ensure no welding passes were made that
violated the parameters set forth in
the WPS, particularly heat input. This
required close monitoring by a quality
control (QC) representative to collect
the data, accurately perform the calculations, review the results, and ensure
compliance. In addition, these data
were retained as a record document.
Figure 9 shows a welder performing
a weld with the QC monitor nearby
recording the required data. Data collection for the welds and welding
process on the SMO 254 alloy was an
extensive undertaking by the quality
control and quality assurance departments, but it was absolutely critical to
mitigate potential shutdowns in the
plant for repairs, as well as ensuring a
long design life.
Due to the SMO 254 alloys sensitivity to heat input, common defects
found were cracks, incomplete fusion
(particularly at the sidewall), and lack

Fig. 10 A completed weld on the SMO 254 alloy pipe at

the Carlsbad Desalination Plant. Stringer beads were used
per the pipe manufacturers recommendation and the WPS.

of penetration. Radiographic inspection lends itself well to detect these

types of defects and was the nondestructive examination of choice. All
welds on the SMO 254 piping were
100% radiographic inspected.

Desalination has the potential for
huge growth within the United States,
and the Carlsbad Desalination Plant is
at the forefront of that progression.
Understanding the weldabilty and
essential variables in Alloy SMO 254 is
critical if one hopes to withstand the
highly corrosive properties of seawater
and the osmotic pressures that must
be overcome during the RO process.
SMO 254 has the ability to resist corrosion in the seawater process, as well
as handle the high pressures. It has superior weldability characteristics compared to other alloy options, such as
duplex, but it is imperative that the
risk of heat-induced cracking is considered, and measures are taken to mitigate this risk through careful monitoring and planning of the welds and
weld sequence. In addition, providing
training and obtaining a skilled workforce is also imperative to ensure
success when working with fully
austenitic stainless steels like Alloy
SMO 254.

Last, a carefully controlled and documented QC program is crucial to producing sound welds, ensuring long
service life, and avoiding weld failures
and costly repairs in the future. Successfully welding corrosion-resistant
alloys like SMO 254, utilizing the
measures mentioned previously, leaves
desalination poised to quench the
drought and spawn a new industry
within the United States. WJ
Works Consulted
Matthew Sternisha
( is a
project manager with Kiewit Corp., Santa
Fe Springs, Calif.

weiler corp..qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:16 AM Page 65

For Info, go to

CORRECTED CAMPBELL JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 4:09 PM Page 66

Sip on This:
Welded Tanks Support
Beer Production

Fig. 1 This custom brewhouse, fabricated by MCF Craft Brewing Systems for Bale Breaker Brewing Co., Yakima, Wash., features
(from left) a 20-bbl hop back, 30-bbl whirlpool (11 ft tall), 30-bbl steam jacketed kettle, and 30-bbl mash lauter tun with an above
grist case. It also contains piping that connects the vessels and a platform with ladders, plus designed control panel systems.
(Photo courtesy of MCF.)

Follow the journey of

how these in-demand,
stainless steel vessels are
designed, constructed,
inspected, and installed


Sometimes you want to go where everybody knows your name.

And theyre always glad you came.
These classic theme song words, from the TV sitcom Cheers,
still ring true for how regular bar patrons feel about visiting their
local establishments. Only now, their horizons have expanded to
hometown breweries that offer one-of-a-kind light and dark beer
Long before that ice-cold liquid is ready for consumption, welding plays an important role in creating the place where its ingredients (primarily a mix of flavored hops, malt, yeast, and water) are
processed. Heres the tale of one fabricators techniques.

CORRECTED CAMPBELL JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 4:09 PM Page 67

The Need for Tanks

Fig. 2 Matt Cartwright is not scared of heights. In MCFs shop, with lift assistance,
he gas tungsten arc welds a 12-gauge shell at the top of a 12-ft-tall, 30-bbl

When Charlie Frye first built a

stainless steel tank for a brewery several years ago in his 125-sq-ft garage,
he never imagined making this and
specialty items, including a draft beer
tower, would turn into a full-time
business, or that it would flourish
enough to serve more than 130 breweries worldwide, including 30 states
and Norway. Thats only the stuff of
dreams, right? But this did happen, for
which the artistic son of a steel worker
is grateful every day.
Metalcraft Fabrication was formed
nearly 10 years ago after Frye recognized the demand for his tanks and
the brewing industrys popularity. He
acknowledged Cofounder Jennifer
Baque for her work during that time,
including product customization. I
dont deserve all the credit, he said.
Located in the heart of Portland,
Ore., the company is now known
as MCF Craft Brewing Systems
( Figs. 1, 2.
What started as a one-man shop
has expanded to nearly 50 employees,
20 of whom weld Fig. 3. A majority
of the talented staff members are
younger, which has led to an energetic
A big part of building the company
has been finding the best way to do
things, listening to others, a willingness to try, and treating everybody
with respect, Frye said.

Fig. 3 MCF staff members, shown here in a group shot, value teamwork. Behind the banner (first row, center) are Sales and
Marketing Director Liz Shearer and President/Founder Charlie Frye.


CORRECTED CAMPBELL JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/16/16 1:00 PM Page 68

Oftentimes, its ready to weld,

clean, and requires minimal preparation, Frye said.
Sheets and tubes come from North
American mills, when possible, and
bars and pipes are delivered. Shipments arrive several times a week.

Design Developments

Fig. 4 Jacob Duvall details the inside of a large flanged and dished head with a
90-deg pneumatic tool.

In late 2014, MCF moved to a

30,000-sq-ft facility and office space.
Focusing on customer satisfaction,
not rushing projects or overcommitting, and providing high-quality tanks
have earned the company a good
word-of-mouth reputation.
Last year, MCF made around 185
tanks and earned more than $6 million in gross revenue. This year, it expects to fabricate 210 tanks and has
more aggressive projections.
Two-thousand new breweries will
be opening in the United States in the
next three years, Frye said. The
growth is staggering, exciting, and
brings more work.

Fabrication Features
The company creates complete,
functional brewhouses from 10 to 40
barrels (bbl). These often include several tanks, over a small footprint,
serving different purposes in beer production with piping to connect them.
Adding platforms with ladders allows
owners to easily reach tank openings.
The company also designs control panel systems (see Fig. 1 for the setup at
Bale Breaker Brewing Co., Yakima,
Cellar vessels are constructed as
well. These consist of fermenters with
interior mixing apparatuses, and
bright beer tanks, from 10 to 400 bbl.
The fermenters are actually built upside down, with their legs in the air
and tank down below, so getting inside

of them to work is much easier.

Many craft breweries will occupy a
building not designed for that, so we
make custom tanks to fit in different
spaces, Frye added.
Grain-handling equipment and other products are fabricated, too.
On average, it takes 150 to 300
hours to make each tank, Frye said.
Most dont exceed 3 tons.
Every tank serves a distinct purpose. As two examples, a fermenter is
used for fermenting beer while a
bright beer vessel is used for storage
and conditioning. Shapes are determined by function.
The height of the tanks also vary
depending on required specifications.
A shorter tank could stand 7 ft while a
taller one might be 30 ft; a large fermenters conical bottom alone could
be 9 ft.
The tanks can be made of several
parts, including inner/outer shells,
layers of insulation, large rings for
double-walled vessels to bridge openings with the shell and outer tank (acting as a structural rib), tubing, bracing, extra legs for support, and circular
doors imported from Italy.
Common tanks range from
$17,000 to $45,000 each, Frye said.

Sculpting Stainless Steel

Type 304 stainless steel is used in a
majority of the fabrication because its
known as the industry standard and
has sanitary properties.

When Frye first started constructing tanks, he wanted to develop a

striking design. Therefore, he chose to
use square legs, not to add brass or
copper to the exterior (as that metal
would require upkeep), and finished
the exterior welds so the tanks appeared seamless.
Lompoc Brewery Owner Jerry
Fechter was one of Fryes first customers. A 12-ft-tall tank Frye made is
still in use at its closeby N. Williams
Ave. location in Portland. Getting the
tall structure inside the facility required
rolling in, then tipping up the product.
Here, its almost a way of life,
Fechter said about having breweries.
As MCF grew and more complex
systems were requested, the Engineering Department led by Tom Sage took
over developing designs to support
particular beer styles, a range of brewing/fermentation techniques, and
workspace preferences.
Tank drawings are done using SolidWorks software. Individual sketches
are sent for customer approval before
construction; feedback is welcomed.

Floor Supervision
In MCFs shop, there are three connected bays offering workstations,
cranes, machines/tools, and a small
parts division.
Production Manager Jon Lien and
Operations Manager William Dall
share floor managing responsibilities.
We move 20 tons of steel per
month, Lien said. The former Coast
Guard serviceman also noted tank
building is seen as a personal project
where each craftsman is relied on to
complete the job.
The guys on the floor are why
were successful. They constantly deliver for us, Lien acknowledged.
Dall, a former general contractor,
stays calm in stressful situations.
Its metalcraft Tetris, Dall joked of
managing the workflow. Theres always something to do with getting
tanks ready to ship. I enjoy problem

CORRECTED CAMPBELL JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 4:10 PM Page 69

Cutting Capabilities, Forming

Craftsmen use plate shears, cut-off
wheels, CNC, and plasma cutting machines. Laser and waterjet services are
A majority of forming takes place
in-house thanks to plate roll and bar
forming machines.
For flanged and dished heads (basically domes), there are two steps:
stamping the overall radius and using
vendors to hydroform the heads.
Jacob Duvall, a newcomer to MCF,
has spent time detailing them Fig.
4. I really like stainless steel because
its clean and uniform, Duvall said.

Welding Work
Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW)
and gas metal arc welding (GMAW) are
performed when fabricating the tanks.
For GTAW, 116-, 18-, and 332-in. rods
are used with argon gas blends, while
for GMAW, 0.045-in. wires are used
with trimix gas blends.
A majority of material thickness is
10 or 12 gauge. Challenges working on
this include achieving a balance of
penetration without superheating the
material or causing porosity.
In addition, small tanks can be hard
to work on because of accessibility.
Large tanks can be difficult because
good fitup is required when putting
top/bottom halves together, plus
welders need lifts for welding up high.
Many welds are made to not only

provide structural strength but also

look ideal cosmetically. These consist
of butt and lap joints, fillet welding,
and sanitary tube purging.
It really is an art, Frye emphasized about welding on stainless steel,
especially to the level needed for meeting sanitary purposes.

Staying Safe, Scheduling

Beside the welders wearing personal protective equipment, these safety
measures are followed: guards on
grinding tools, forklift/fall protection,
lockout/tagout OSHA protocols, Oregon state rules, and annual hearing
Dave Sage is in charge of human resources and safety. Welders work 8-h
shifts Monday through Friday and
choose their starting times. Overtime
is as needed.
Theres a lot of flexibility with
your workweek of 40 hours, Sage said.
We have low turnover and dont have
to work hard to fill roles. People like
working here, its a livable place, and
the proof is in the retention.

Personal Perspectives
Harry Stringer hasnt been with
MCF that long but brings three years
of professional welding experience
and is getting used to its tank-building
methods as he works on his first

Theres a lot of independence. You

get set on your own project and are
trusted with your work until its done,
Stringer said.
Several welders have been working
at the company four or five years, including the gentlemen listed next.
In recently making a large manway,
for an extension piece to go on a fermenter, Trevor Keith took two pieces
of metal rolled in-house, welded them
together, and assembled that to fit
in front of the tanks skin Fig. 5.
He can quickly adapt to blueprint
Matt Voss has built stainless steel
items for 20 years and likes creatively
turning flat metal into something.
Ive got probably the most diverse
background of anyone in the shop, he
said about his metals experience.
Voss further feels everything can be
challenging, yet accepting that turns
roadblocks into milestones, you turn
adversity into a functional way of doing something. Its a matter of finding
ways you can grow from or figure a
shortcut around.
Matt Cartwright doesnt mind
welding many feet off of the ground
(see Fig. 2). He described GTAW as a
zen-like feel. He has welded more
than 20 years and enjoys this about
the job: Metal fabrication and the lots
of talented people here. Ive learned a
Jorge Gamez is comfortable welding stainless steel pieces much taller
than he, likes starting new projects
and thinking differently Fig. 6.
You have the opportunity here to
move up, Gamez added. When you
are happy and you are motivated, you
enjoy work.
Jose Reyes Ochoa handles a little of
everything, from cutting various parts
to installing insulation. He likes keeping everything in order for colleagues
to do their jobs. His son shares the
same name and is also an employee.
Its almost like a dream to work
alongside your father, Jr. said. He polishes and housekeeps, but aspires to
be a welder.

Resistance Welding Addition

Fig. 5 Trevor Keith uses GTAW on a manway more than 22 in. tall and 17 in. wide for
a fermenter that will stand 12 ft and hold 30 bbl when finished.

Recently, MCF purchased a resistance welding machine. Representing

an investment of more than $200,000,
it will soon be used to spot and lap
seam weld the cooling jackets on fermenters (the dimpled sheet layer),

CORRECTED CAMPBELL JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 4:10 PM Page 70

which is where the coolant (glycol) circulates. Previously assembled by hand

using GMAW, this automated method
will mean fewer openings to seal, enable reliable repeatability, and save

Inspection Importance
Supervisor Casey Antonick is in
charge of quality control and also
trains new welders.
Whats inside the tank represents
lots of money for customers, so contamination cant happen, Antonick
He described the in-house inspection process as vigorous. A quality control checkpoint management tool is
used to ensure whats built meets company standards. There are different
criteria on a tanks inside and outside,
for instance, that must be acceptable.
Several assessments take place during the construction process. Those
are mostly visual, Antonick added.
Currently, MCF is in the process of
achieving ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel certification.
We look for pit-free welds and
have rigorous inspections for pinholes,
pits, cracks, and inclusions, as they
lead to bacterial contamination, Frye
Procedures include penetrant and
ultraviolet porosity tests, visual inspections, and making sure edges
arent sharp. Mechanical stress and
load limit tests take place on structural parts in the weldment stage.
On cooling jackets, air and hydrostatic tests are made at different pressure capabilities for several hours. The
same goes for testing shells, where
tanks are filled with water and pressurized to ensure there are no leaks.

Finishing Front
In the beverage industry, ultrafine
finishes are of the utmost importance
on a tanks interior, because thats
where beer ingredients and liquid
are held before consumption. Ultrasmooth blending and deburring must
occur so there are no metal shavings,
which could result in bacterial
All welds need to be free of porosity to be finished to a sanitary level,
Frye added. Fitup and preparation are
critical factors in GTA welds, which get
ground to 150-grit or more.

Fig. 6 While constructing a 9-ft-tall conical bottom for a large fermenter, which is
built upside down, Jorge Gamez starts GTAW to join two formed pieces of stainless

Its also preferred for the outward

appearances to look just as good and
seamless. Extra time is taken to apply
an aesthetic finish to the outside of
tanks. The polishing is all by hand,
Frye said.

Providing Project
Management, Sales Support
Marianna Huntley is project manager. In this role, she manages all customer interactions, sets expectations,
and coordinates the tanks production
schedule, which is organized in her office on a massive board.
Projects can take three to six
months. It depends on the job size,
Huntley said. She keeps open lines of
communication in quoting lead times
and providing status updates.
Sales and Marketing Director Liz
Shearer creates proposals each week to
meet specific brewery needs, including
long-term goals, and gets in touch
with many departments for estimates.
We work with award-winning
brewers. Thats a real honor, Shearer

Installation Impact
In the United States, tanks get from
the shop to their new homes by semi
tractor-trailers. During the winter, accordion covers might be used as pro-

tection from salt on snowy roads, but

the rest of the year there are no tarps
because they can mar finishes and
have iron particles that can cause rust.
For installation, certified riggers
and equipment operators are employed. Customers architects, electricians, construction contractors, steam
fitters, and refrigeration technicians
are also part of the process.
In addition, purge GTAW is used for
on-site process piping of stainless
steel. This is most common between
brewhouse vessels, given theres a
need to transfer liquid from one tank
to another.
Brewing Process Specialist Waylon
McAllister assists customers with new
tanks and choosing the right equipment. Locally, he goes on-site to make
sure everything is set correctly and
handles inaugural brews, but for big
projects, he will travel.
He also emphasized cleanliness.
Owners need to first passivate their
tanks before any brews. This chemical
process will remove any debris gained
during transportation and help prevent corrosion. Then, after every
batch, they need to use clean-in-place
methods. He further mentioned tanks
should have fixed or spinning spray
balls, and caustic solutions (typically
sodium hydroxide) should be used to
break down organic matter and liquify
material off of the tanks.
Brewing is ninety-five percent

CORRECTED CAMPBELL JUNE 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 4:10 PM Page 71

cleaning. Very little is tasting beer and

new recipes [although that is unique].
Its a labor of love, McAllister said,
dispelling myths. One brew takes
eight hours, and three of those are
spent sanitizing and cleaning.

Cheers to the Future

Big things are in store for MCF next
year. Were working on a standard

product line with a 2017 projection,

Frye said, that will allow for more
competitive lead times.
Continuing to design efficient
tanks, build strong company foundations, implement more modern manufacturing (perhaps robots, but not to
replace staff), and achieve new goals
are also in store.
Lots of towns would like breweries. Its an exciting industry to be
in, Frye concluded.

With that notion, welded tanks will

be required for this booming industry,
leading to more knowing your name
and glad you came moments. WJ
( is features
editor of the Welding Journal.

Raise Your Glass to Breweries

All around Portland, Ore., breweries make their drinks
in stainless steel tanks constructed by MCF Craft Brewing
Systems. Gigantic Brewing Co., an independent, craft
brewery that produces seasonal beers, is in this group. At
press time, its cleverly named, flavorful mixtures included
Kiss the Goat, a black doppelbock, and Hearts & Stars, a
saison with hll melon hops.
Owners Van Havig and Ben Love felt buying locally was
important. While working with MCF President/Founder
Charlie Frye, his attention to detail and customized work
stood out.
They listen to what we as brewers want and make
tanks accordingly. Other manufacturers will try to tell you
how to do your job, even though theyve never actually
made beer. MCF takes your input and incorporates it into
their designs, making their stuff essentially designed over
time by working brewers, Havig said.
Gigantic has these tanks: six 45-bbl fermenters (14 ft
tall), one 15-bbl fermenter (10 ft tall), one 45-bbl bright

tank (8 ft tall), a 30-bbl hot liquor tank (about 12 ft), a

15-bbl mash/lauter tun with bottom mount plow, a 15-bbl
kettle (25-bbl total volume), and a hop back with a total
volume of 21 bbl.
The fermenters are all custom geometry to fit the space
and to give a close to 1:1 aspect ratio, Havig said. He continued, The bright tank is custom geometry, trying to get
the shape as close to spherical as possible, to help with settling of yeast, as well as with conservation of thermal energy. The mash tun is also custom geometry, basically designed for the kinds of beer we brew (mainly stronger).
Any small problems after installation, like a fitting ending up in the wrong place, were quickly fixed.
And while Gigantic Brewing doesnt have its tanks
showcased on display, some others do for ambiance.
Its been over 30 years since the first small breweries
were built in Portland, so theres little wow factor locally
in seeing tanks. Best just to put them in the back where
you can keep them clean and well maintained, Havig said.

Ben Love (left) and Van Havig, owners of Gigantic Brewing Co., Portland, Ore., pose by some of their MCF stainless steel tanks that
enable them to brew seasonal beers. (Photo courtesy of Gigantic Brewing Co.)


LaPlante Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 2:02 PM Page 72

Welding Pipe in Extreme

Weather Conditions
Prominent welding
to support Alaskan
oil/gas projects are

he prevailing whine of a truckmounted, engine-driven welding

machine reverberates through the
frigid Arctic air as reflective shielded
metal arc welding (SMAW) arc light
dances about on snow-laden tundra
like an aurora borealis in a cloudless
sky. The arcs and sparks of welding
represent a vital skill and science that
supports oil/gas-based engineering endeavors in Alaska Fig. 1.
The execution of oil/gas projects
drives many types of welding applications to support on- and offshore energy operations. The SMAW, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), flux cored
arc welding (FCAW), and gas metal arc
welding (GMAW) processes are heavily
utilized by contractors and regional
fabrication shops. The double joining
of 40 ft (12.2 m) pipe lengths is predominantly accomplished by submerged arc welding (SAW). However,
in remote locations such as the Cook
Inlet or the Valdez Marine Terminal
complex, SMAW is the workhorse of
welding processes Fig. 2.
Prior to project kick-off and the
striking of an arc, qualified welding
procedures are required. This article

Fig. 1 Welders applying their craft at project job sites.

LaPlante Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:36 PM Page 73

Fig. 2 Remote project work at the Kuparuk River and Prudhoe Bay oilfields utilizing SMAW.

centers on key welding engineering

considerations encountered in the
Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)
process to support oil/gas project

In Alaska, welding engineering
plays a crucial role in the fabrication,
maintenance, repair/refurbishment,
and alteration of
1) the 800-mile-long Trans-Alaskan
Pipeline System (TAPS);
2) oil/gas production facility machinery and pipework;
3) oilfield well equipment such as
casings, Bradenheads, and a countless
array of valves and fittings that require hardfacing or cladding;
4) seawater piping systems;
5) drill site and flowstation equipment and pipework;
6) waterway pipe crossings, vehicle
bridges, storage tanks, and vessels;
7) equipment platforms, building
frames, and myriad horizontal/vertical
pipe support mounts; and
8) natural gas pipeline and
pipework systems.
In addition, for each respective
welding activity, there is a corresponding need for weld inspection. Consequently, the performance of visual
weld inspection by AWS Senior Certified Welding Inspectors and Certified
Welding Inspectors, and the utilization of nondestructive examination

(NDE) technologies, including radiography, ultrasound, magnetic particle,

penetrant, and leak testing by ASNT
NDT Level II/III personnel is required.

PQR Process
Procedure qualification records
(PQRs) utilized for project structural
applications and in the construction of
pipework and pipelines must demonstrate that the welding process proposed is capable of producing a weld
joint that will meet the specified service design and performance requirements of the weldment. For Alaskan
and Arctic service applications, importance is placed on the diligence and integrity of the PQR process and in the
accuracy of the PQR document.
The criticality of developing a comprehensive PQR is to ensure
1) the reproducibility of PQR weld
variables throughout production welding; that is, based upon the recording
of actual weld variables employed during the PQR process to achieve a compliant weld joint, a detailed WPS may
be written to provide direction
throughout production welding;
2) the weld joint meets specified/
intended service design and performance requirements by conducting rigorous NDE inspection and chemical
analysis as well as mechanical, metallurgical, and environmental testing to
ASTM G48 (Ref. 1) and A262 (Ref. 2).
The following welding engineering

considerations encountered in the

PQR process are key.

Fracture Toughness Testing

Where the majority of weldment
materials are carbon and low-alloy
steels, during procedure qualification,
meeting weld/base metal fracture
toughness requirements specified by
an engineering authority is critical.
Outdoor welds/weldments are subjected to bitter Arctic cold and frigid
Alaskan winters on a prolonged basis,
as well as to potential seismic activity
Fig. 3. Therefore, depending upon
the piping or structural application,
Charpy V-Notch (CVN) fracture toughness impact testing is conducted in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section IX, API Standard 1104, or AWS Codes.
For a project, an engineering authority will outline the CVN test and
acceptance criteria such as the specimen test temperature (e.g., 50F/
46C), and the minimum impact energy in ft-lb/Joules that specimens
must endure.
In addition to CVN testing, the
crack tip opening displacement
(CTOD) test may be utilized to evaluate fracture toughness. Pipeline girth
weld CTOD testing is performed in accordance with API Standard 1104. An
engineering authority will specify minimum acceptance criteria. However,
unlike the CVN test, the CTOD test

LaPlante Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:37 PM Page 74

employs the full wall/plate thickness

of the weld joint for specimens.
Charpy V-Notch and CTOD fracture
toughness information is available by
means of weld codes/standards and
ASTM E23 (Ref. 3), ASTM A370 (Ref.
4), and ASTM E1820 (Ref. 5).

Hardness, Hardenability,
and Hydrogen-Induced
In the utilization of carbon and
low-alloy steels in cold climate regions
and/or when materials are utilized in a
H2S sour service environment, weld
deposit/heat-affected zone (HAZ)
cracking is a major concern. More
specifically, the steels are at risk of hydrogen-induced cracking (HIC), which
is also referred to as hydrogen-assist-

Project Materials
Pipeline and pipework
fabrication involves utilizing a range of pipe sizes
from 1 to 60 in. of various
wall thicknesses, ranging
from Schedule 10 to 160,
including API 5L (Ref. A)
Grades X52, X60, and X65;
ASTM A333 Grade 6; and
ASTM A335 chromiummolybdenum alloys: Grades
P5, P9, P11, P22, and P91.
In addition, pipe alloys consisting of duplex stainless
steels (i.e., 2205, 2507),
austenitic stainless steels
(e.g., TP 304L, TP 316L,
and copper-nickel (i.e.,
90/10) are employed. Materials for oilfield well construction comprise: API
5CT (Ref. B) Grades L80,
N80, J55, K55, and P110.
Structural frames, pipe supports, and oil storage tanks
encompass carbon and lowalloy steel structural shapes
and plate: ASTM A1011,
A516, A633, A36, and

Fig. 3 A 48-in.-diameter flange spool tie-in weld; B pipe welding in a snow


ed cracking (HAC) or cold cracking.

For HIC to occur, three conditions
must be satisfied simultaneously, the
availability of
1) a susceptible microstructure;
2) tensile stress acting upon the
weld; and
3) hydrogen in the weld.
A susceptible microstructure exhibits hardness and hardenability

traits. That is, as the alloying content

increases and/or as the carbon content
increases, the hardenability of the
weld deposit/HAZ increases. Material
hardness and hardenability both increase as the carbon content increases.
Hardness is inversely proportional to
weldability, whereby, the potential for
HIC increases as the weld deposit/
HAZ hardness and hardenability in-

LaPlante Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:37 PM Page 75

Project Weld
Standards, and

Fig. 4 Oilfield welding of API 5L X65 pipe of different diameters and wall thicknesses.

creases. Alleviating HIC conditions in

a cold climate and/or in a sour service
environment is decisive. For example,
relative to PQRs, NACE MR0175/ISO
15156-1 restricts the maximum acceptable weld deposit/HAZ hardness
limits for carbon and low-alloy steels
to 22 Rockwell C hardness/250 Vickers
hardness (Ref. 10).

Evaluating Weldability
The composition of carbon and a
low-alloy steel drives hardness and
hardenability. Thereupon, to evaluate
a base metals weldability and susceptibility to HIC, this author recommends that depending upon the base
metals carbon content, the carbon

For pipeline, pipework,

structural, and vessel applications, various codes,
standards, and relevant regulations are employed, including the following
API Standards 1104
(Ref. C), 650 (Ref. D), and
653 (Ref. E)
AWS Codes D1.1 (Ref.
F), D1.5 (Ref. G), D1.6 (Ref.
H), and D1.8 (Ref. I)
NACE Codes such as
MR0175/ISO 15156-1 (Ref.
J), MR0103 (Ref. K), and
SP047215 (Ref. L)
ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Sections
VIII (Ref. M), IX (Ref. N),
and construction-codes
B31.3 (Ref. O), B31.4 (Ref.
P), and B31.8 (Ref. Q)
Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations (e.g., CFR-49-195
(Ref. R)) for pertinent
A PQR and a welding
procedure specification
(WPS) are based on meeting respective code/standard requirements. Additionally, PQRs/WPSs must
be in accordance with the
engineering authority and
any applicable DOT regulatory requirements. NACE
Codes apply to corrosion
prevention and control, including when materials are
subjected to a hydrogen
sulfide (H2S) sour service


LaPlante Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:39 PM Page 76

Project Pivotal
Points: Welding
meet performance qualification requirements
Conducting weld safety,
workmanship quality, materials, and technique training
Protecting personnel
and the welding work area
during construction activities (see figure below)
Specifying/planning of
process for equipment, consumables, and tooling for
the application (see figure
Qualifying PQRs/WPSs
that meet code/standard,
engineering authority, and
DOT stipulations

equivalent CEIIW or CEPCM value be calculated and included in the PQR. The
CEIIW or CEPCM value provides an indication of the base metals weldability
based on hardness and hardenability.
As defined within API 5L (Ref. 2), the
CEIIW value is calculated (Equation 1)
when the base metals carbon content
is >0.12%. Also, as denoted within API
5L, the CEPCM value is calculated
(Equation 2) when the base metals
carbon content is 0.12%. For each
equation, the respective carbon equivalent value is calculated to
1) evaluate a base metals weldability;
2) estimate the minimum preheat
and interpass temperatures; and
3) approximate the minimum critical cooling rate required to mitigate
detrimental untempered martensite
from forming.
CEIIW = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5
+ (Ni + Cu)/15
[C > 0.12%]
CEPCM = C + Si/30 + (Mn + Cu + Cr)/20
+ Ni/60 + Mo/15 \ + V/10 + 5B
[C 0.12%]
Due to the significance of hardness

and hardenability, the carbon equivalent equations are cited in weld

codes/standards (Ref. 6). When utilizing the equations, it is prudent to remain vigilant of
1) the actual carbon (C) content of
the base metal and the hardness value;
2) the level of weld joint restraint;
3) the hydrogen control method.
Figure 4 shows pipe welding where
the CEIIW value for API 5L X65 pipe is
0.43 (Ref. 6).

Alleviating HIC
A great deal of hydrogen control and
HIC information is available in code
books, articles, and handbooks. The
methods noted as follows are based
upon the literature and weld failure
lessons learned. To alleviate conditions
for weld deposit/HAZ microstructure
HIC, it must be realized there are synergic relationships that exist between
weld variables Fig. 5. In qualifying a
PQR, particularly for a cold climate region and/or a sour service environment, it is important that welding engineers be careful to
Reduce weld joint stress by mini-

(Top) For pipeline construction,

weld shelters are carried by sidebooms from weld joint to weld
joint to provide weld crew protection from Arctic weather. (Bottom)
A pipeliners welding rig.
Fig. 5 Full encirclement reinforcement saddle weld on a 20-in.-diameter pipe.


LaPlante Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:39 PM Page 77

mizing joint restraint, the making of

oversized welds, or using improper
weld bead sequencing.
Understand the service environment of the weldment and the proposed materials to be used. Avoid a
susceptible microstructure via the
compositional control of the base
metal/weld filler metal scrutinize
hardness values.
Calculate the CEIIW or CEPCM value
to offer an indication of the base metals weldability based upon the hardness and hardenability.
Utilize low-hydrogen practices:
FCAW with a gaseous fluorideenhanced shielding gas; SMAW electrodes with an H4R designation (diffusible hydrogen content) (Ref. 25).
Prevent stress concentrations at
toe and root weld locations by using
proper welding techniques and weld
bead sequencing. Remove stress riser
sites resulting from undercut, overlap/
incomplete fusion, incomplete penetration, and excessive weld bead reinforcement. Weld contact angles are
crucial. Sharp/blunted edges must
have a gradual transition to the adjacent base metal surface by smooth
contoured blending.
Eliminate accelerated cooling rates
as the result of air drafts, insufficient
preheating, and melting snow. Control
the weld region cooling rate via proper
temperature management: heat-input,
preheat, interpass, and postweld heat
treatment. Executing an effective postweld hydrogen bakeout provides an opportunity for diffusible hydrogen to effuse out of the weld deposit/HAZ.

In the land of the midnight sun,
cold climate and/or sour service conditions magnify the criticality of the
PQR qualification process. Thoughtful
welding engineering consideration
must be given to the methods and
variables involved to achieve a compliant weld joint that will meet the specified service design and performance
requirements of oil/gas project
weldments. WJ
1. ASTM G48, Standard Test Methods for
Pitting and Crevice Corrosion Resistance of
Stainless Steels and Related Alloys by Use of
Ferric Chloride Solution, 2011.
2. ASTM A262, Standard Practices for

Detecting Susceptibility to Intergranular Attack in Austenitic Stainless Steels, 2015.

3. ASTM E23, Standard Test Methods for
Notched Bar Impact Testing of Metallic Materials, 2012.
4. ASTM A370, Standard Test Methods,
and Definitions for Mechanical Testing of
Steel Products, 2015.
5. ASTM E1820, Standard Test Method
for Measurement of Fracture Toughness,
6. API 5L, Specification for Line Pipe,
45th Edition, 2012.
7. AWS A5.5/A5.5M:2014, Specification
For Low-Alloy Steel Electrodes For Shielded
Metal Arc Welding. A. API 5L, Specification
for Line Pipe, 45th Edition, 2012.
B. API 5CT, Specification for Casing and
Tubing, 9th Edition, 2011.
C. API Standard 1104, Welding of
Pipelines and Related Facilities, 21st Edition, 2013.
D. API Standard 650, Welded Steel Tanks
for Fuel Storage, 12th Edition, 2013.
E. API Standard 653, Tank Inspection,
Repair, Alteration and Reconstruction, 5th
Edition, 2014.
F. AWS D1.1/D1.1M:2015, Structural
Welding Code Steel.
G. AWS D1.5/D1.5M:2015, Bridge
Welding Code.
H. AWS D1.6/D1.6M:2007, Structural
Welding Code Stainless Steel.
I. AWS D1.8/D1.8M:2009, Structural
Welding Code Seismic Supplement.
J. ANSI/NACE MR0175/ISO 151561:2009, Petroleum and natural gas industries
Materials for use in H2S-containing environments in oil and gas production Part 1:
General principles for selection of crackingresistant materials, 2nd Edition.
K. NACE MR0103:2012, Materials Resistant to Sulfide Stress Cracking in Corrosive
Petroleum Refining Environments.
L. NACE SP047215:2015, Methods and
Controls to Prevent In-Service Environmental
Cracking of Carbon Steel Weldments in Corrosive Petroleum Refining Environments.
M. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII: Rules for Construction
of Pressure Vessels Division 1, 2015.
N. ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code,
Section IX: Welding, Brazing, and Fusing
Qualifications, 2015.
O. ASME Construction Code, B31.3,
Process Piping, 2014.
P. ASME Construction Code, B31.4,
Pipeline Transportation Systems for Liquids
and Slurries, 2012.
Q. ASME Construction Code, B31.8,
Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping
Systems, 2014.
R. DOT CFR-49-195, Transportation of
Hazardous Liquids by Pipeline, 2015.

( is a welding
engineer, CWI, CWE, Anchorage/Prudhoe
Bay, Alaska.
For info, go to


Strong Hand Tools Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:29 PM Page 78

Fixtures for
Tube Welding
Modular fixturing tables can
increase your speed, productivity,
and storage

or most people familiar with

modular fixturing tables, the
main benefit they are aware of is
the ability to quickly place a clamp
anywhere on the table. However, the
real benefits go much deeper than
Modular fixtures reduce cost and
lead time during fixture design, create
labor savings during production, and
save storage space when not in use.
Modular fixtures can adapt to a
wide variety of jobs while also making
every result repeatable. They are an
adaptable system that solve many
work-holding problems for temporary
jobs, prototyping, one-off items, and
short production runs that are only occasionally performed. Most fabrication
shops have jobs that require temporary
clamping or fixturing every day,
whether for a complex, three-dimensional workpiece or a simple length of
material that requires grinding.

Overview of Modular
Fixturing Systems
Modular fixturing is composed of
reusable, off-the-shelf components so
that the user does not have to fabricate individual fixture elements for
every new job. A good modular system
starts with a flat steel surface onto


Fig. 1 Drawing of a quick-clamping

bolt used with modular fixtures.
(Photo by Siegmund GmbH.) All images courtesy of Strong Hand Tools.

which is machined a grid pattern of

regularly spaced system holes. System
holes have a uniform thickness and diameter, often with chamfering, to better accept specially designed bolts.
Individual modular components in
various shapes and sizes, such as bars
and right angles, are also machined
with hole patterns that match the grid
pattern of the table. The modular
components enable countless configurations through the ability to stack


and adjust. The machined faces on

modular components ensure the size
and spacing of the modular components are consistent with each other
and the parts in a CAD design have the
same critical dimensions in real life.
Most modular systems are held together using special bolts that contain
a collar on one end and ball bearings
that can expand to lock components to
the table or to each other. The bolts
are designed to be tightened by manipulating only one end of the bolt, thus
eliminating the inconvenience of
reaching under a large table to fasten
parts together with a traditional bolt
and nut fastener Fig. 1.
Lastly, there are a variety of vertical
and horizontal acting clamps that can
interface not only with the system
holes on the table for quick and versatile clamping, but can also be used with
the holes on the modular fixtures.

Advantages of Modular
Faster, More Accurate, More
Competitive Quotes
Modular fixturing makes the
quotation process for smaller operations competitive by shrinking the

Strong Hand Tools Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:30 PM Page 79

lows them to adjust and reuse parts in

situations that previously would have
required new fixtures or extra machining to adapt to changes in parts and
This means designers can design
and create custom fixtures in hours or
days rather than weeks with the traditional custom-machined fixtures.

Increased Productivity
on the Shop Floor

Fig. 2 A solar car chassis held in place by modular fixtures and custom fixture
plates. (Drawing by Tyler Smutz, Killstress Designs.)

Having good fixtures reduces operator error by ensuring parts are located correctly and clamped to prevent
distortion of critical dimensions. Most
welders know this but dont practice it
due to time constraints or shortage of
workers with the skill set to create
them. If you have an easy-to-use, modular system, you are more likely to create a fixture, and that system will pay
off through less rework and scrap.

Less Storage Space Required

Modular fixtures are designed to be
assembled and disassembled quickly.
They take up much less space when
stored than a dedicated fixture. Users
who opt to create custom fixture
plates or blocks for use with modular
fixtures will still realize drastic space
savings when compared to traditional

Real World Examples

Fig. 3 Closeup detail of a custom fixture plate showing toggle clamp mount
and holes that interface with modular fixtures. ((Drawing by Tyler Smutz, Killstress

amount of uncertainty involved with

how much time and expense it will
take to create fixtures (or complete a
project without fixtures), ultimately
making the quoted cost lower and
more competitive.
Fabricators can also download CAD

files of the modular fixtures to design

everything on a computer. This is especially useful when creating some
custom fixtures to interface with the
modular components. This hybrid
strategy gives designers a lot of flexibility when designing fixtures and al-

Strong Hand Tools donated materials to a design project that aimed to

create a fixture for a solar car chassis
to be used by a university in the American Solar Challenge. Tyler Smutz, Killstress Design, Anaheim, Calif., donated his skills to the project and designed the chassis and fixtures in CAD
using modular fixture models available
for download. The designer took advantage of the holes and right-angle
brackets as reference points to design
fixtures that mate with the system
holes Fig. 2.
An interesting feature the designer
added was to incorporate toggle clamp
mounts into the design of the fixture
plates Fig. 3. The slots and tabs are
cut by a laser and later bent and tack
welded by hand. This creates a setup
suitable for even high production
runs, although, in this case, we only
created one final part.
This type of item can also be held

Strong Hand Tools Feature.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:31 PM Page 80

Fig. 4 Custom and modular fixtures holding complicated geometry.

exclusively with modular fixtures, although space constraints would have

required it to be fit and welded in several sequences. The use of custom

plates to hold the tubing simplifies

setup and allows the entire part to be
assembled and welded at once.
In our second example, a user took

Fig. 5 A closeup view of custom fixtures and slots to provide minute lateral adjustment.

advantage of the indexing function of

the table system holes to create a variable custom fixture for orbital welding.
The fixtures drop into the system
holes of the table and fixtures. They
can be designed to have holes that
tightly register with the table system
holes or slots and provide some sideto-side adjustment Figs. 4, 5.
The fixtures themselves can have a
compact footprint with a simplified
feature set because they do not require
as many adjustment features to be
built into them. A fixture that must be
28 in. off the reference surface can be
designed to sit on top of a 24-in. modular fixture instead of having to machine and store a 28-in.-tall fixture or
split and redesign a 28-in. fixture into
two 14-in.-long components to meet
the envelope constraints of a machining center.

Modular fixturing systems play an
expanding role in modern manufacturing operations and can bring improvements to numerous aspects of the fabrication process. The benefits of modular fixturing increase as the need for
leaner, more flexible production
grows. WJ


is marketing manager, Strong Hand Tools,
Santa Fe Springs, Calif.
For info, go to


southwire.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:15 AM Page 81

For Info, go to

Johnsen Feature June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:52 PM Page 82

Continues to Grow

More than 300

showed off the
latest welding,
fabricating, and
equipment during
this years show
Registration area and entranceway for the third FABTECH Canada event.

Johnsen Feature June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:53 PM Page 83

nthusiasm for FABTECH Canada

continues to grow as evidenced
by the more than 300 exhibiting
companies that welcomed 7414 visitors to the countrys largest metalforming, fabricating, welding, and finishing event. This third successful
FABTECH Canada event, the biggest
show thus far, occupied 85,750 net
square feet of floor space at the Toronto Congress Centre March 2224.
FABTECH Canada is cosponsored
by the American Welding Society,
SME, Fabricators & Manufacturers Association International, Precision Metalforming Association, and Chemical
Coaters Association International.

Keynote Address
Fig. 2 Two INKAS armored vehicles, including this SUV based on a Mercedes-Benz
G Class, were on display at the entranceway to the show.

Fig. 1 David Fraser, COO of the INKAS

group of companies and a retired
Canadian Army major general, emphasized how both public and private enterprises need strong leadership in his
keynote address.

Retired Canadian Army Major General David Fraser (Fig. 1) kicked off the
show with a keynote address to a
standing room-only crowd. In a talk titled Leadership, Strategy, and Innovation in the Manufacturing Business, Fraser compared the commercial
business world to the military and
found the two groups have more in
common than they do differences.
Fraser is now chief operating officer of
the INKAS group of companies,
which manufactures armored cars and
bulletproof vehicles for military and
civilian use Fig. 2.
Whether for a military or business
operation, Fraser stated, Selection of
the aim is the primary objective. Other key elements to follow are maintenance of the aim, maintenance of
morale, offensive action, security, sur-

prise, concentration of force, economy

of effort, flexibility, cooperation, and
While many believe manufacturing
is not as important to Canadas economy as it once was, Fraser said, The
perception is not the reality. Manufacturing is 11% of Canadas GDP (gross
domestic product). In fact, it is the
second largest sector of the countrys
economy, following real estate selling,
management, and renting, at 12.5% of
the GDP. Seventy-eight percent of
Canadas exports are to the United
States, he said.
Of Canadas 36.5 million people,
Fraser noted, 1.7 million are directly
employed by its 1.1 million manufacturing businesses and another 3 million are employed indirectly.
INKAS recently reshored its manufacturing operations from Dubai, United Arab Emirates, back to Canada,
Fraser said, in large part because of
the quality of available workers.
There is no question about the
quality of the people in this room or
on the INKAS shop floor, he noted.
The quality of the people in Dubai
was questionable, he said, because
many came from all over the world
and had no direct ties to the country.
Your most important asset is your
people. Theyre not a resource but an
asset, he said, mentioning he does
not like the terms HR or human resources. He spoke about his military
team in Afghanistan and how they relied on each other to survive. There is

no difference at INKAS, he said. You

have to rely on your team to survive as
a business.
Both public and private enterprises
need leadership, he continued. Understanding the aim and understanding people are paramount to a companys success.
Three areas where the military and
the private sector differ are succession
planning, training, and the numbers
of people available. In the military, the
succession of leaders is very clear. That
should be very important to companies as well, but often is not, he said.
The military spends 60% of its time in
training, but in the commercial world,
its mostly on-the-job training. Training is time and money, and were always trying to make sales, he said.
And, especially in small- to mid-sized
companies such as INKAS, were one
person deep in most positions. Staffs
are much smaller in the private sector,
noting he quickly discovered he has to
do many things himself that someone
else was available for when he was in
the army.
As well attended as Frasers keynote
and the additive manufacturing/3D
printing panel discussion the next day
were, the greatest energy at the exhibition was on the show floor. Attendees
had the opportunity to see products
demonstrated and learn about costand time-saving solutions.
Following are just a few of the products that caught the eye of the Welding

Johnsen Feature June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:53 PM Page 84

Product Highlights
Colorful plastic flange and pipe end
protectors from Flange Armour of
Calgary, Canada, drew the attention of
showgoers Fig. 3. The Pipe Armour
end caps debuted at the show. Available to fit on 4- to 48-in.-diameter
pipes, the caps were designed to be
easily put on or pulled off by someone
wearing gloves. They come in boxes of
12, with 24 being the minimum order.
Standard color is black but companies
can order a specific color and/or have
their company logo placed in the center. Uses include pipe transportation,
sandblasting, coating, facility/construction projects, pipeline projects,
valve pup piece protection, and warehouse/yard protection. The Flange Armour products protect the raised
flange face from damage from fabrication through delivery. They come in
sizes from 2 to 48 in. and colors correspond to flange ratings. They eliminate the need for masking when sandblasting and painting.

ing the unit. It can be used in two orientations: tabletop (horizontal) and
user-carried (vertical). It is compatible
with guns, cables, and other accessories from the company.

Fig. 4 The Pinnacle is Nelson Stud

Weldings first machine powered
solely with a rechargeable battery.

Allegros EZ Air Deluxe supplied

air respirator system weighs 4.7 lb and
comes standard with an autodarkening welding helmet with a filter size of
4.5 5.25 in. Fig. 5. The respirator
features a lithium ion battery that offers up to 8 h of use on one charge.
The battery recharges in 5 h and can
be charged on or off the equipment. It
features an adjustable, lightweight,
and ergonomic belt; a single, replaceable NIOSH-approved HEPA filter; and
audible, visual, and vibration alarms
to alert the user if something needs
to be addressed. Allegro Industries,

Fig. 3 These colorful Pipe Armour

caps protect pipes from damage.

Nelson Stud Welding previewed

the Pinnacle, its first stud welding
machine powered exclusively by a
rechargeable battery Fig. 4. It has
the capacity to weld CD studs up to
16-in. diameter, including standard tip
studs, as well as cupped head pins for
insulation. Expected applications include shipyards, which weld thousands
of insulation pins and should find a
welding machine not restricted by the
need for power or a power cord especially useful. The battery charges fully
in 2 h and is removable for recharging,
allowing continuous welding with a
second battery. The unit weighs 16 lb
and comes with a padded shoulder
strap that allows welding while carry-


Fig. 5 The EZ Air Deluxe powered

air purifying respirator weighs less
than 5 lb.

The Spire (Fig. 6) from RoboVent

was built with a slim (36 in. 36 in.)
design to take up less floor space. Each
low-maintenance unit no tools are
required for filter changes provides
filtration for an individual robotic
welding cell, and was envisioned as

Fig. 6 The Spire fume extraction

system for robotic welding cells features a small footprint, low maintenance, and a built-in spark arrestor.

a cost-effective alternative to centralized ducted systems. It can be easily

moved whenever the shop floor needs
to be reconfigured. Features include a
built-in Delta3 spark arrestor system
for fire safety.
The CP75XX series composite angle grinders for maintenance and repair operations from Chicago Pneumatic were designed with operator
comfort in mind Fig. 7. Three models are available with 4-, 4.5-, and 5-in.
grinding wheels, cutting wheels, and
flap wheels. They each feature a 1.1-hp
governed motor that provides a high
material removal rate, thus reducing
the time it takes to complete a job. The
tools weigh 3.5 lb and measure 10.6 in.
long so are easy to maneuver. The
grinder head is made of aluminum,
while the body is made of steel and
aluminum with a composite grip that
insulates the operators hand from the
cold. Beveled gearing helps to limit vibration and the steel wheel guard can
be adjusted to protect the operator
and offer easier access to the application.

Johnsen Feature June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/11/16 4:54 PM Page 85

Fig. 7 The CP75XX angle grinders

from Chicago Pneumatic feature a
composite grip for greater comfort
and to protect the operators hand
from the cold.

See You Next Time

FABTECH Canada will return to
Toronto on March 2022, 2018. For
more information on all the FABTECH
events, visit WJ
is editor of the Welding Journal.

For info, go to

American Welding Society

Want access
ess to reliable,
accurate welding
ngg information
any timee you
y need
eed it?
The AW
W Weldin
e ing Handbookk
pu it at yourr fingertips.
For info, go to


Coming Events June.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:13 AM Page 86

10th International Conference on Trends in Welding Re
search & 9th International Welding Symposium of Japan
Welding Society. Oct. 1114. Hitotsubashi Hall, Tokyo,
Japan. The conference will cover the fundamental science of
welding and joining as well as a wide variety of applications
of welding and joining different materials in different industries. Full papers due June 30. Visit, or

For more information on AWS conferences:
(800/305) 4439353, ext. 455
3rd Welding Education, Skills & Certification Conference.
Aug. 1012. Houston, Tex. This conference aims to address
the welding industry piece of the impending skills gap

FABTECH 2016. Nov. 1618. Las Vegas Convention Center,

Las Vegas, Nev. Contact American Welding Society, (800)
443-9353, or
Surface Technologies in the Oil and Gas Industries. Feb. 8,
9, 2017. International Thermal Spray Association. Contact
Kathy Dusa at or visit

Lasers Conference. Aug. 29, 30. Crowne Plaza Hotel San

Francisco Airport, San Francisco, Calif. Lasers are forging remarkable paths, appearing in hosts of new applications such
as hybrid laser arc welding, additive manufacturing,
cladding, and heat treatment.



QNDE (Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive

Evaluation). July 1622. Georgia Tech Hotel and Conference
Center, Atlanta, Ga. Contact Iowa State University Center
for Nondestructive Evaluation, (515) 294-8152; or

For info, go to

For info, go to

19th Annual Aluminum Conference. Sept. 20, 21. American

Welding Society Headquarters, Miami, Fla. A distinguished
panel of aluminum industry experts will survey the current
landscape of aluminum welding technology and practice.
The first day will emphasize core aluminum joining technologies, and the second day will focus on new joining technologies and applications.

Coming Events June.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:13 AM Page 87

Digital Imaging 2016. July 25, 26. Foxwoods Resort,

Mashantucket, Conn. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or
Ultrasonics for NDT 2016. July 2729. Foxwoods Resort,
Mashantucket, Conn. Contact American Society for Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or
NDE/NDT for Highway and Bridges: Structural Materials
Technology 2016. Aug. 29Sept. 1. DoubleTree by Hilton
Hotel Portland, Portland, Ore. Contact American Society for
Nondestructive Testing, (800) 222-2768 or

4th Annual Assembly Show. Oct. 2527. Donald E.

Stephens Convention Center, Rosemont, Ill. A trade show
focused exclusively on assembly manufacturing processes
featuring workshops on collaborative robotics and mixed
model assembly lines. Contact (978) 4754441 or visit
Additive Manufacturing Americas 2016. Dec. 79. Pasadena
Convention Center, Pasadena, Calif. This is the business-tobusiness show for additive manufacturing/3D printing. This
years show will incorporate a 3D print show. Visit

For info, go to

ASNT Annual Conference 2016. Oct. 2427. Long Beach

Convention & Entertainment Center, Long Beach, Calif.
Contact (800) 222-2768 or visit

American Welding Society

Direct access to an enccyclopedia

of weldingg kno
kn wledge,
g writte
tten by
-matter experts, at any tim

For info, go to



Coming Events June.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:14 AM Page 88

19th World Conference on NonDestructive Testing. June
1317. International Congress Centre, Munich, Germany.
Contact German Society for Non-Destructive Testing, +49
30 67807-120;, or
Additive Manufacturing Europe 2016. June 2830. RAI,
Amsterdam. This is the business-to-business show for additive manufacturing/3D printing. This years show will incorporate a 3D print show. Visit
2016 International Conference on Material Science and Civil
Engineering. Aug. 57. Guilin, Guangxi, China. Contact +86
15919704498 or

For info, go to

21 IAS Steel Conference 2016. Sept. 1316. Rosario, Santa

Fe, Argentina. From raw materials to end products, only in
one event: ironmaking, steelmaking, rolling and processing,
products, and applications. Visit

For info, go to

For info, go to

3D Printing Asia. Sept. 2022. China Import and Export Fair

Complex, Guangzhou, China. Covering rapid prototyping,
CAD/CAM software development, 3D laser engraving,
and 3D printers, the fair will be held concurrently with
Asiamold 2016. Visit or e-mail


Coming Events June.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:14 AM Page 89

EuroBLECH 2016. Oct. 2529. Hanover Exhibition Grounds,

Hanover, Germany. The 24th International Sheet Metal
Working Technology Exhibition is an international trade exhibition for the sheet metal working industry and will serve
as a platform for interlinked sheet metal working production. Call +44 (0)1727 814400 or visit
BLECH India. April 2729, 2017. Bombay Exhibition Center,
Mumbai, India. Business platform for Indias sheet metal
working industry. Visit


AWS Certified Welding Supervisor Exam. Troy, Ohio. Class

begins Oct. 10. Exam given Oct. 14. Hobart Institute of
Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448;
Brazing Training Seminars. Oct. 1113, S.C. This three-day
intensive program covers all essentials of brazing using furnace, torch, induction, or dip brazing processes, and all brazing filler metals. Contact Dan Kay at,, or (860) 651-5595.

For info, go to

Advanced Blueprint Reading. Troy, Ohio. Learn design procedure, blueprint interpretation, shop drawings, the use of
measuring tools in layout and assembly, and more. Twoweek, 70-hour class. Classes begin June 13, July 11, Aug. 8,
Sept. 5, Oct. 3, Nov. 7, and Dec. 19. $850. Hobart Institute
of Welding Technology; (800) 332-9448;

Measure Ferrite Content with



American Welding Society

Own the
W Welding
e g Handbookk.
To purchase your copy by volume or chapter
pte , visit

For info, go to


Measurement range
g 0
1 to 80%
% Fe or 0.1
1 to 110 FN
polished surfaces
(860) 283-07


Coating Thickness

Material Analysis


Material Testing


Certification Schedule June.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:22 AM Page 90



Note: The 2016 schedule for all certifications is posted online at

Certified Welding Inspector (CWI)

Bakersfield, CA
New Orleans, LA
Duluth, MN
Pittsburgh, PA
Miami, FL
Hartford, CT
Orlando, FL
Memphis, TN
Beaumont, TX
Los Angeles, CA
Louisville, KY
Omaha, NE
Cleveland, OH
Birmingham, AL
Scottsdale, AZ
Denver, CO
Chicago, IL
Waco, TX
Sacramento, CA
Miami, FL
Helena, MT
Milwaukee, WI
Baton Rouge, LA
Las Vegas, NV
Philadelphia, PA
Seattle, WA
Miami, FL
Mobile, AL
Portland, ME
Charlotte, NC
Fargo, ND
San Diego, CA
Minneapolis, MN
Kansas City, MO
San Antonio, TX
Salt Lake City, UT
Miami, FL
Nampa, ID
St. Louis, MO
Houston, TX
Anchorage, AK
Long Beach, CA
New Orleans, LA
Pittsburgh, PA
Indianapolis, IN
Tulsa, OK
Portland, OR
Nashville, TN
El Paso, TX

Seminar Dates
June 510
June 510
June 510
June 510
Exam only
June 1217
June 1217
June 1217
June 1217
July 1015
July 1015
July 1015
July 1015
July 1722
July 1722
July 1722
July 1722
July 1722
July 2429
July 2429
July 2429
July 2429
Aug. 712
Aug. 712
Aug. 712
Aug. 712
Exam only
Aug. 1419
Aug. 1419
Aug. 1419
Aug. 1419
Aug. 2126
Aug. 2126
Aug. 2126
Aug. 2126
Aug. 2126
Sept. 11-16
Sept. 11-16
Sept. 11-16
Sept. 11-16
Sept. 18-23
Sept. 18-23
Sept. 18-23
Sept. 18-23
Sept. 25-30
Sept. 25-30
Sept. 25-30
Sept. 25-30
Sept. 25-30

Exam Date
June 11
June 11
June 11
June 11
June 16
June 18
June 18
June 18
June 18
July 16
July 16
July 16
July 16
July 23
July 23
July 23
July 23
July 23
July 30
July 30
July 30
July 30
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 13
Aug. 18
Aug. 20
Aug. 20
Aug. 20
Aug. 20
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Aug. 27
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 17
Sept. 24
Sept. 24
Sept. 24
Sept. 24
Oct. 1
Oct. 1
Oct. 1
Oct. 1
Oct. 1

9Year Recertification Seminar for CWI/SCWI

For current CWIs and SCWIs needing to meet education requirements without taking the exam. The exam can be taken at any site listed under Certified Welding Inspector.
Kansas City, MO
Miami, FL
San Diego, CA
Orlando, FL
Denver, CO
Dallas, TX

Seminar Dates
June 510
July 2429
July 31Aug. 5
Aug. 2126
Sept. 1116
Sept. 2530

Certified Welding Educator (CWE)

Seminar and exam are given at all sites listed under Certified
Welding Inspector. Seminar attendees will not attend the Code
Clinic portion of the seminar (usually the first two days).

Certified Welding Sales Representative (CWSR)

CWSR exams are given at Prometric testing centers. For
more information, visit

Certified Welding Supervisor (CWS)

CWS exams are given at Prometric testing centers. For more
information, visit

Certified Radiographic Interpreter (CRI)

The CRI certification can be a stand-alone credential or can
exempt you from your next 9-Year Recertification.
Cleveland, OH
Dallas, TX
Kansas City, MO
Chicago, IL
Pittsburgh, PA

Seminar Dates
June 610
July 1822
Aug. 2226
Sept. 1923
Oct. 1721

Exam Date
June 11
July 23
Aug. 27
Sept. 24
Oct. 22

Certified Robotic Arc Welding (CRAW)

ABB, Inc., Auburn Hills, MI; (248) 3918421
OTC Daihen, Inc., Tipp City, OH; (937) 667-0800, ext. 218
Lincoln Electric Co., Cleveland, OH; (216) 383-8542
Genesis-Systems Group, Davenport, IA; (563) 445-5688
Wolf Robotics, Fort Collins, CO; (970) 225-7736
On request at MATC, Milwaukee, WI; (414) 456-5454

IMPORTANT: This schedule is subject to change. Please verify your event dates with the Certification Dept. to confirm your course status
before making travel plans. Applications are to be received at least six weeks prior to the seminar/exam or exam. Applications received after
that time will be assessed a $350 Fast Track fee. Please verify application deadline dates by visiting our website For information on AWS seminars and certification programs, or to register online, visit or call (800/305) 4439353, ext. 273, for Certification; or ext. 455 for Seminars.

aws wemco.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/13/16 9:10 AM Page 91



(youu or other individual)


(welders who have served in thee arm

med forces)


Educational Facility
(any organization that conducts welding
education or training)

(200 or more employees)

(welding teacher at an institutionn, facility, etc.)


Small Business
(less than 200 employees)


(AWS local chapter)

(article or newscast promotingg welding)

Entry deaddline is June 30, 2016

For more inform
mation and to submit a nomination,
visit or call 800-443-9353

aws educ (classroom learning).qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 7:35 AM Page 92

American Welding Society


When it comes to investing in a welding proggram, every

dollar counts. With The AW
WS Classroom, you gain
g access
to cutting-edge welding training resources, suppported by a
wealth of industry expertise.
AWS is dedica ted to welder training. We want
invest in your future and take your welding educa tion to
the next level.

What are
the prizes??
1st Place Classroom Wins:
25 AWS Online Education Library Licenses

So were launching a contest to get the woord out.

The winning school will get this experience - The AW
Classroom experrience.

Spread thhe NEWS!

Beginning March 20016 and
nning through June 20016 you ha ve
hance to win The AW
S Classroom!
Welding Instructors and school
ministra tors can sign up
u for the
ntest through an online portal.
(Entries are limitted to one per welding class) Then,
during the AWS Instructors Institute in July, AW
A S will
host a dra wing where
the names of three winnning
schools will be selected.

1 Year AWS Academic Access

1 Year Education Institution Membership
(for the School)
25 Student Memberships
25 Samsung Galaxy Taablets

2nd Place Classroom Wins:

25 AWS Online Education Library Licenses
1 Year AWS Academic Access
25 Student Memberships

3rd Place Classroom Wins:

25 Student Memberships

Find out more and register at

esab.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/13/16 10:00 AM Page 93



For Info, go to


Welding Workbook June 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 4:25 PM Page 94



Manual Brazing of Pipe and Tube

Fig. 1 Manual brazing of pipe using oxyfuel gas and facefed

brazing filler metal.

Before any attempt is made to braze a joint in pipe or

tubing, all the preliminary steps required to prepare the
joint surfaces must be completed. Since pipe and tubing assemblies are normally brazed with oxyfuel gas torches, the
heating of joints using torches fueled with acetylene,
propane, natural gas, or other gases will be emphasized here.
Figure 1 illustrates this operation.
The amount of heat required for the size of the pipe or tubing being joined governs the size of the torch tip. To heat the
joint rapidly and evenly, the selected tip should provide a lowvelocity, bulbous flame. The flame then should be adjusted to
be neutral or slightly reducing. A neutral flame has a smooth
and even inner cone, without a feathered appearance.
To adjust an acetylene flame to its neutral state, a flame
that has an excess of acetylene is lit.
The acetylene flow is then decreased, or the oxygen flow
is increased very slowly until the feather just disappears.
The flame should be directed so that it is perpendicular
to the pipe or fittings. If the pipe is larger than 4 in. (101.6
mm), multiple tip torches or additional heating torches may
be required. The pipe or tube is usually heated before the fittings are. After a short heating period, the flame is directed
alternately from the pipe to the fitting. This procedure
should be used to heat the fittings and pipe to the same
temperature. Holding the flame too long at one location on
the fitting or pipe may result in localized overheating, excessive drying of the flux, distortion of the pipe, and possible
cracking of the fitting.
Overheating is the most common cause of poorly brazed
joints. The flames inner cone should not directly impinge
on the tube or the shoulder of the fitting or into the fitting
socket. Keep the flame in motion so the heat is distributed
evenly on the joint.
You can test whether the temperature for fabricating
brazed pipe joints is appropriate by touching the brazing
filler metal to the heated junction between the pipe and the
fitting, and then observing its flow. The flux should be very
fluid on both fitting and pipe. Fluxes usually melt into a
clear liquid at the brazing temperature.

A common mistake is to begin feeding the brazing filler

metal into the top of the joint when brazing a horizontal
joint. The appropriate procedure for both small- and
large-diameter pipes is to begin heating on the tube or
pipe to start the conduction of heat into the fitting socket.
Both the fitting and the tube are then heated as the torch
is moved slowly back and forth to keep the temperature
After the tube and fitting are uniformly heated, the torch
is moved to the lower quarter of the tube to heat the joint to
the melting temperature of the brazing filler metal. When
the filler metal begins to melt, capillarity draws it into the
joint clearance. At the same time, the torch is moved around
toward the top of the fitting with the brazing filler metal being fed to the joint just behind the flame path.
For large diameters, a second torch may be used to simultaneously braze the opposite side from the bottom to the
top of the joint. Do not directly apply the heat to the filler
metal. If the torch flames are directed to the heel or bottom
of the fitting socket, the filler metal will flow throughout
the joint.
Opinions differ as to whether or not a fillet of brazing
filler metal is necessary or desirable on pipe joints. Often, a
full annular fillet indicates good brazing filler metal flow
and distribution in the joint. However, generous fillets at
the bottom of the joint may be caused by accumulation of
brazing filler metal that has solidified after flowing over relatively cold metal. Heating from the bottom of the fitting
generally prevents this condition.

Filler Metals
The brazing filler metals used to braze pipe and tubing
must be metallurgically compatible with the base metals
they are intended to join. In addition, they must provide
adequate strength to the joints in service.
When brazing copper, the BCuP brazing filler metals are
normally good general-purpose filler metals. They should
not, however, be used on copper-nickel alloys with a nickel
content of more than 10%.
Brazing filler metals with a broad melting range should
be selected for brazing pipe joints because of the difficulty in
maintaining the assemblies in a narrow temperature range.

Postbraze Cleaning
After the brazing filler metal solidifies, the remaining
flux and residues can be removed by wiping with a wet cloth
or by wet brushing. Cast fittings should be allowed to cool
slowly to below 300F (150C) before applying swabs to the
joints. Since most brazing fluxes are hygroscopic and may
contain active corrosive agents, they should be removed. It
is essential to remove flux residues when aluminum alloys
are brazed. WJ

Excerpted from the Brazing Handbook, Fifth Edition, published by the American Welding Society, Miami, Fla.


aws educ (conf/seminar).qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 7:36 AM Page 95

American Welding Society



AWS offers worldwide conferences
and seminars featuring the most
in the welding
When it comes to your career development, w
whyy not
n put it in the most capable hands?

r AW
WS with your
you future.
Opportunities to further your educa
ed tion and care
areer are coming to you.
Sign up for an AWS educa
ed tional opportunity near
ne you today!
Houston, TX / Aug 10-12, 2016

San Francisco, CA / Aug 29-30, 2016


Miami, FL / Sep 20-21, 2016


Bakersfield, CA / June 5-11, 2016
New Orleans, LA / June 5-11, 2016
Duluth, MN / June 5-11, 2016
Pittsburgh, PA / June 5-11, 2016

Hartford, CT / June 12-18, 2016

Orlando, FL / June 12-18, 2016
Memphis, TN/ June 12-18, 2016
Beaumont, TX / June 12-18, 2016

For a complete listi

sting please visit aws.orrg/events

aws publ (andy's trends circular ad).qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 7:39 AM Page 96

NDED TO APRIL 30, 2016

 American Welding So
ociety (AW

 Japan We
elding Societty (JWS)
Tooshihiko Koseki, Th
he University of Tookyo, Japan
 Stan David, Oak Rid
dge National Laboratory, USA

 Tarasankar DebRoy, Penn State University, USA

 Thomas J. Lienert, Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA

 Akio Hirose, Osaka University, Japan


The 10th International Conference on Trends in Welding Research
will be held from October 11 to 14, 2016, in Tookyo, Japann, for the
first time outside of USA. The conference covers not onlyy the
fundamental science of welding and joining but a wide vaariety of
applications of welding and joining diffferent materials in diffferent
industries, which include various approaches of theoreticaal analysis,
experiments and numerical simulations. Also, the conferen
nce aims to
provide a wonderful opportunity of technical discussions, having
leading welding and joining scientists and engineers from
m all over the
world. The 9th International Welding Symposium of Japann Weelding
Society will be jointly held during the conference. So, we cordially
invite you to the conference and hope that you will enjoy the technical
discussions at the conference and also the best season of JJapan.
Fundamentals and applications of welding and joining pprocesses
 Microstructure and metallurgical behaviors in welds

eldability of diffferent materials

ld properties
ti and
d performances

 Residual stress and distortion in weldments

 Monitoring, sensing and controls of welding

esting and inspections for weld integrity

elding practices in industries

 Modeling and simulation of weld behaviors

Prof. Sudarsanam Suresh Babu, The University of Teen
nnessee, USA
 Prof. Amitava De, Indian Institute of technology, India

 Prof. Yo
oshinori Hirata, Osaka University, Japan

 Prof. Hiroyuki Kokawa, To
ohoku University, Japan

 Prof. Yu
u-Ming Zhang, University of Kentucky, USA

 Prof. Norman Zhou, University of Waterloo, Canada

Those who plann to give a presentation(s) at the connference are
requested to kinndly provide information in the absttract submission
form, including the title of presentation, names of ccorresponding
person and authoor(s), and an abstract of the presentatiion by April 30, 2016.
Please note thatt the title should be within 30 wordds and that the
abstract within 300
3 words.
Visit the followiing website:
Online registration is now open at the following website.
Early Registratiion deadline is May 31, 2016.
Early Registratiion fees

 Regular Partic
cipant: 80,000 JPY
 Student: 40,00
00 JPY

Regular Registration fees
Regular Participant: 90,000 JPY
 Student: 50,000 JPY

 Accompanying Person: 15,000 JPY

 Invitation Letter for Visa Application: 10,000 JP

The registration fee for Regular Participants and Student

Session Participation, Conference Kit, Reception Party
P , Cofffee Break,
and Banquet.
The registration fee for Accompanying Persons in
ncludes: Reception
Party, Cofffee Break, and Banquet.
March 31, 2016 Abstract Submission Extended tto April 30, 2016
June 30, 2016 Full Paper Submission
May 31, 2016 Pre-registration (Early)
September 2, 2016 Pre-registration (Regular)
Visit the following website: http://trends2016.orgg
Trends2016 Secretariat
Mit MT Bldg.
Bld 8F, 3-13-12
3 13 12 Mita,
Mit Minato-ku,
Mi t k Toky
kyo 108-0073, Japan

June Society News.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 11:01 AM Page 97



AWS and WEMCO Seek Nominations for

2016 Excellence in Welding Awards
The American Welding Society
(AWS), Miami, Fla., and WEMCO, an
association of welding manufacturers,
and a standing committee of AWS, have
issued a call for nominations for the
2016 Excellence in Welding Awards.
The awards recognize outstanding
contributions to the welding industry
in the following categories:

(you or other individual)

(welding instructor at an
institution, training facility, etc.)
Educational Facility (organization
that conducts welding education or
Small Business (less than 200
Large Business (200 or more

Winners of the Excellence in Welding

Awards receive this trophy and a trip to
the FABTECHShow.


(welding products)
Section (AWS local chapter)
Media (industry and business
Veterans (all branches of the U.S.

All individuals, organizations, and

groups may be nominated for multiple
categories. Self-nominations are also
acceptable. The deadline for submissions is June 30.
Winners of the 2016 awards will receive a WEMCO-sponsored trip to the
2016 FABTECH Show in Las Vegas to
receive their award.
To learn more about the awards and
submit a nomination, visit

AWS Participates in 2016 Japan International Welding Show

The 24th Japan International Welding Show was recently held in Osaka, Japan. The event, which is held biannually, was hosted by Sanpo
Publications, Tokyo, Japan, under its new president, Yutaka Kukital. The theme this year was Think Future, Act Now! Gateway to Great
Success in Asia. Ray Shook, AWSexecutive director, was among those in attendance. He participated in the ribbon cutting ceremony and
gave a short speech at an international reception.

June Society News.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 11:02 AM Page 98

Technical Committee Meetings
All AWS technical committee meetings are open to the public. Contact
staff members listed below or call
(800/305) 443-9353 for information.
June 15. Safety and Health Committee. Aberdeen, Md. Contact: S. P.
Hedrick, ext. 305,
June 22. B2F Subcommittee on
Plastic Welding Qualification. Burr
Ridge, Ill. Contact: S. P. Hedrick, ext.
June 22. G1A Subcommittee on
Hot Gas Welding and Extrusion Welding. Burr Ridge, Ill. Contact: S. P.
Hedrick, ext. 305,
New Standards Projects
Development work has begun on
the following new or revised standards. Affected individuals are invited
to contribute to their development.
Participation on AWS Technical committees is open to all persons.
C3.2M/C3.2:20XX, Standard
Method for Evaluating the Strength of
Brazed Joints. This standard describes
the test methods used to obtain
brazed strength data of the short-time
testing of single-lap joints in shear,
butt-tension, stress-rupture, creepstrength, four-point-bending, and
ceramic-tensile-button specimens.
Specimen preparation methods, brazing procedures, testing techniques,
and methods for data analysis are detailed. Sample forms for recording
data are presented. A graphical
method of data presentation relates
shear stress to overlap distance. Stakeholders: Brazing Engineers, educators,
general interest groups, and so on. Revised Standard. Contact: J. Douglass,
ext. 306,
D16.1M/D16.1:20XX, Specification
for Robotic Arc Welding Safety. This
standard establishes safety requirements with respect to the design,
manufacture, and operation of arc
welding robot systems and ancillary
equipment. It also helps to identify
and minimize hazards involved in
maintaining, operating, and setting up
arc welding robot systems. Stakeholders: Organizations within the robotic

welding community. Reaffirmed Standard. Contact: P. Portela, ext. 311,

Opportunities to
Contribute to AWS
Technical Committees

Standards for Public Review

The following committees welcome

new members. Some committees are
recruiting members with specific interests in regard to the committees
scope, as marked below: Producers (P),
General Interest (G), Educators (E),
Consultants (C), and Users (U). For
more information, contact the staff
member listed or visit
M. E. Rodriguez, ext. 310, Automotive, D8
Committee (C, E, G, U). Resistance
welding, C1 Committee (C, E, G, U).
Resistance welding equipment, J1
Committee (E, G, U).
J. Douglass, ext. 306, Methods of weld
inspection, B1 Committee (E, C, U).
Brazing and soldering, C3 Committee
(G, E, C, U). Welding in marine construction, D3 Committee (G, E, C, U).
Welding of machinery and equipment, D14 Committee (G, E, C, U).
A. Naumann, ext. 313, Oxyfuel gas welding
and cutting, C4 Committee (C, E, G,
U). Friction welding, C6 Committee.
Welding practices and procedures for
austenitic steels, D10C Subcommittee.
Aluminum piping, D10H Subcommittee. Chromium molybdenum steel pip
ing, D10I Subcommittee. Welding of ti
tanium piping, D10K Subcommittee.
Purging and root pass welding, D10S
Subcommittee. Lowcarbon steel pipe,
D10T Subcommittee. Orbital pipe
welding, D10U Subcommittee. Duplex
pipe welding, D10Y Subcommittee. Re
active alloys, G2D Subcommittee (G).
Titanium and zirconium filler metals,
A5K Subcommittee.
P. Portela, ext. 311, Highenergy beam
welding and cutting, C7 Committee.
Robotic and automatic welding, D16
Committee (C, E, G). Hybrid welding,
C7D Subcommittee (G).
J. Rosario, ext. 308, Procedure and per
formance qualification, B2 Committee
(E). Thermal spraying, C2 Committee
(C, E, G, U). Welding iron castings, D11

AWS was approved as an accredited

standards-preparing organization by
the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) in 1979. AWS rules, as
approved by ANSI, require that all
standards be open to public review for
comment during the approval process.
This column also advises of ANSI approval of documents.
The following standards are submitted for public review. A draft copy
may be obtained by contacting the
staff secretary of the committee as
listed below at AWS, Technical Services, 8669 NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL
33166-6672; (800/305) 443-9353.
A5.36/A5.36M:20XX, Specification
for Carbon and Low-Alloy Steel Flux
Cored Electrodes for Flux Cored Arc
Welding and Metal Cored Electrodes for
Gas Metal Arc Welding. Revised Standard. $36.50. ANSI public review expired 5/16/16. Contact: R. Gupta, ext.
ISO Draft Standards for Public Review
Copies of the following Draft International Standards are available for review and comment through your national standards body, which in the
United States is ANSI, 25 West 43rd
Street, Fourth Floor, New York, NY
10036; telephone (212) 642-4900. Any
comments regarding ISO documents
should be sent to your national standards body.
In the United States, if you wish to
participate in the development of International Standards for welding,
contact Andrew Davis at AWS, 8669
NW 36 St., #130, Miami, FL 331666672; (305) 443-9353 ext. 466, e-mail: Otherwise, contact
your national standards body.
ISO/DIS 17279-1, Welding Micro
joining of 2nd generation high temperature superconductors Part 1: General
requirements for the procedure.

June Society News.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 11:02 AM Page 99

Committee (C, E, G, P, U). Railroad
welding, D15 Committee (E, G).
J. Molin, ext. 304,
Welding sheet metal, D9 Committee
(G, P).

S. Hedrick, ext. 305,

Joining of plastics and composites,
G1 Committee. Safety and Health
Committee (E, U, G, C). Mechanical
testing of welds, B4 Committee.

Metric practice, A1 Committee.

R. Gupta, ext. 301,
Magnesium alloy filler metals, A5L

MTR Industrial Constructors, LLC

18945 E. 420 Rd.
Jay, OK 74346

Educational Institutions

New AWS Supporters
Sustaining Members
Seaboats International
8800 Barney White Rd.
Bremerton, WA 98312
Automation and Control Services
2440 Ontario St.
Schererville, IN 46375
Hoso Metal Co., Ltd.
1/F East, Bldg. E, Beifang Yong Fa
High Tech Park, Boaan District
Shenzhen, Guang Dong, China 518104

Affiliate Companies
Alexander Welding
36-2 Grant Ave.
Burlington, MA 01803
Allied Environmental Mechanical, Inc.
530 Van Cortlandt Park Ave.
Yonkers, NY 10705
American Erection, LLC
230 Kittanning Pike
Pittsburgh, PA 15215
Calidad Y Asesoria En Soldadura
Calle 29 No. 11
Colonia Centro
Carmen Campeche, Mexico 24100
FWM Mechanical
1200 Davenport Dr.
Minden, LA 71055

Ramar Steel Sales, Inc.

432 Portland Ave.
Rochester, NY 14605
Resolve Marine Group, Inc.
1510 Southeast 17th St., Ste. 400
Fort Lauderdale, FL 33316

Supporting Company
The Sack Co.
1124 Hwy. 29 S.
East Dublin, GA 31027
CF Industries, Inc. Verdigris Plant
6600 E. 540 Rd.
Claremore, OK 74019
Freeman Seating Co., Inc.
4545 Augusta Blvd.
Chicago, IL 60651
C4 Welding, Inc.
11 Industrial Blvd.
Sauk Raids, MN 56379

Welding Distributor
Canaweld, Inc.
155 Drumlin Circle, Unit 1
Vaughan, ON L4K 3E7 Canada

Engineered Products, Inc.

200 Jones St.
Verona, PA 15147

J.J. Jimenez S.A De C.V

Gral Mariano Arista #54
Int201 Col Argentina Poniente Mexico
Ciudad de Mexico, Mexico 11230

Zacatecas 573
Saltillo Coahuila, Mexico 25280

Nealco Welding Supply

2319 W. Meighan Blvd.
Gadsden, AL 35904

Architectural Metal Training School

2523 W. Lexington
Broadview, IL 60155
Beal College
99 Farm Rd.
Bangor, ME 04401
Beloit Memorial High School
1225 4th St.
Beloit, WI 53511
Career Tech Educ. Ctr. at Belmont
5536 Country Rte. 48
Belmont, NY 14813
Carpenter and Millwright TR
10761 Virginia Plaza, Ste. 10
Papillion, NE 68128
Curlew Job Corps Center
3 Campus St.
Curlew, WA 99118
Downriver Career Tech. Consortium
22000 Gibraltar Rd.
Flat Rock, MI 48134
F E H Boces Welding Technology
23 Huskie Ln.
Malone, NY 12953
Five Keys Charter School
29310 The Old Rd.,
Morrisey Offices, Bldg. A
Castaic, CA 91384
Gulf Lloyds Industrial SE
184-A, Jayant Park Society
NR Yuganda Society, Memnager
Ahmedabad Gujarat
380052 India
LindenKildare CISD
250 Kildare Rd.
Linden, TX 75563

June Society News.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 11:09 AM Page 100

Palmetto Training, Inc.
1085 Thunderbolt Dr.
Walterboro, SC 29488
Pasco Sheriffs Office Voc. Programs
20101 Central Blvd.
Land-O-Lakes, FL 34637

Sarl 3MECS Eng. and Conslt. Srvs.

BP 5373 Mkam
Laghouat, Laghouat
03003 Algeria
Valencia College Advanced
1099 Shady Ln.
Kissimmee, FL 34744

PT Asian Welding Specialists

Harbour Bay Industrial Park Kav 3
Ji Duyung Bata Ampar
Bata Island, Indonesia

Wallace Com College Dothan

1141 Wallace Dr.
Dothan, AL 36303

Student Chapter Member

Award Presented

activities have produced outstanding

school, community, and/or industry

The AWS Whitmer Career and

Technology Center Student Chapter,
Northwest Ohio Section, Dist. 11, has
selected Larry Malone to receive the
Student Chapter Member Award.
Malone was selected for this award
by AWS Whitmer Career and Technology Center Student Chapter Advisor
Craig Donnell. Malone, who has
served as the Chapters Parliamentarian for the past two years, has maintained a 3.0 GPA throughout his welding program, and has scored 100% on
every written test taken this year. He
has participated in every Student
Chapter fundraiser, as well as every
community service project since his
sophomore year.
This award was established with
the purpose of recognizing AWS Student Members whose Student Chapter

District Director Awards

The District Director Award provides a means for District Directors to
recognize individuals and corporations
who have contributed their time and
effort to the affairs of their local Section and/or District.
District 15 Director David Lynnes
has nominated Randall Washenesky,
Michael ODonnell, Richard Mayerich,
and Tom Baldwin, Arrowhead Section;
Ralph Williams, Tim Schwanz, Joel
Ziegler, Jerod Tengesdal, and Vance
Harthun, Northern Plains Section;
Dana Sorensen, Thea Bunde, Michael
Reeser, Mace Harris, Mike Hanson,
and Jay Gerdin, Northwest Section;

I.T.S.A. Supporting
Company Members
Kermetico, Inc.
3900 Oregon St., Ste. 2
Benicia, CA 94510

and Ike Oguocha and Joseph Omale,

Saskatoon Section.
District 20 Director Pierrette Gorman has nominated Kelly Binham,
New Mexico Section, and Sean Miller,
Southern Colorado Section.
District 10 Director Mike Sherman
has nominated Jason Neff, Northwestern Pennsylvania Section.

AWS Member Counts

May 1, 2016

Supporting ...............................359
Welding Distributor ...................60
Total Corporate .......................2438
Individual ...........................61,210
Student + Transitional ...........11,966
Total Members ..................73,176

MemberGetaMember Campaign
Listed here are the members participating in the 2016 Member-Get-a-Member campaign. The campaign runs from
Jan. 1 to Dec. 31, 2016. Members receive
5 points for each Individual Member
and 1 point for every Student Member
For campaign rules and a prize list,
please see page 113 of this Welding Journal. Standings as of April 22. Call the
AWS Membership Dept. at (800) 4439353, ext. 480, for more information
G. Bieniecki, Cleveland 52

J. W. Morris, Mobile 45
M. Krupnicki, Rochester 35
D. A. Saunders, Lakeshore 26
B. M. Scherer, Cincinnati 21
G. L. Gammill, N.E. Mississippi 20
C. J. Bridwell, Ozark 15
T. A. Harris, Johnstown-Altoona 15
Y. Lopez, International 15
R. F. Purvis, Sacramento 15
C. A. Renfro, Chattanooga 15
J. D. Schlarb, Portland 15
M. D. Stein, Detroit 15
J. Upton, Houston 15
T. E. Buckler Sr., Columbus 13

T. Geisler, Pittsburgh 12
A. I. Duron, New Orleans 12

Change of Address?
Make sure delivery of your Welding
Journal is not interrupted. Contact
Maria Trujillo in the Membership
Department with your new address
information (800) 443-9353, ext. 204;

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:57 AM Page 101



District 1

Douglas Desrochers, director

(508) 763-8011


tion Chairman Ray Henderson (left) pre
sented a plaque to John Steel.


tion Chairman Ray Henderson (right)
presented a maple syrup speaker gift to


tion Chairman Ray Henderson (left) pre
sented a 25year membership award to
Marc Shattuck.


March 12
Location: Embassy Suites Boston Logan Airport, Boston, Mass.
Presenter: Jim Shore, exam supervisor
and Section certication chairman
Topics: CWI Exam
Summary: The Section held its CWI
exam after a week-long seminar. Connecticut Section member Albert J.
Moore, Jr., taught the seminar during
the week, and Boston Certication
Chairman Jim Shore supervised the
test. Exam proctors were Boston Section Chairman Tom Ferri, Central
Massachusetts/Rhode Island Section
Chairman Tim Kinnaman, and District
1 Director Douglas A. Desrochers.


February 25
Location: Northland Job Corps
Speaker: Paul Mespelli, technical sales

representative, Olympus NDT, Inc.

Summary: Jim Blanchard, Northland
Job Corps welding instructor,
CWI/CWE, presented about magnetic
particle testing. Mespelli demonstrated ultrasonic testing and Geoff Putman, CWI, demonstrated the dye penetrant method.
March 17
Location: River Valley Career & Technical Center, Springeld, Vt.
Speaker: Paul Lombardo, Technical
sales representative, Weiler Corp.
Topic: Safety and proper use of abrasives and brushes
Summary: Lombardo gave an overview
of the best use of surface preparation
and nishing products for weldingrelated industries. He showed a video,
distributed samples, and discussed
correct application and safety.

BOSTON Central Massachusetts/Rhode Island Chairman Tim Kinnaman (from left),

District 1 Director Douglas A. Desrochers, Boston CertificationChairman Jim Shore, and
Boston Chairman Tom Ferri helped administer the Sections CWI exam on March 12.

GREEN & WHITE MOUNTAINS Geoff Putnam demonstrated dye penetrant testing for


June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:58 AM Page 102


March 30
Location: New England Institute of
Technology, Rhode Island
Presenter: Tony Anderson, director of
aluminum technology for ITW North
Summary: Anderson gave an aluminum
welding technology seminar to 131

March 5
Location: Holiday Inn by the Bay, Portland, Maine
Topic: Preparation visit for District 1
Conference on May 14
Summary: Section Chairman Russ Norris and District 1 Director Douglas A.
Desrochers met to discuss the preparations and arrangements for the District
1 Conference.


March 4
Location: Bangor, Maine
Summary: Ariel Pelton was the 2016
Maine SkillsUSA silver medalist for
welding. According to available records
and memory, she is the rst female to
medal in the Maine state competition.
Beside being a competitive welder, she
is also a competitive cheerleader. Ariel
attends the St. Croix Regional Technical
Center in Calais, Maine, and she is enrolled in the welding program at Washington County Community College for

MAINE Ariel Pelton was the first fe

male to place in the Maine SkillsUSA

MAINE Section Chairman Russ Norris

(left) and District 1 Director Douglas A.
Desrochers at the Holiday Inn by the
Bay, where the District 1 Conference was

ISLAND/BOSTON Aluminum seminar
presenter Tony Anderson (from left)
poses with Bristol Plymouth RVTHS Sen
ior Edward Pizarro, Old Colony RVTHS
Junior Justin Porrello (both employees of
GTR Manufacturing), Brockton, Mass.,
and District 1 Director Douglas A.


Island Chairman Tim Kinnaman (from left), District 1 Director Douglas A. Desrochers, Vice
President of the New England Institute of Technology Steven Kitchen, Boston Chairman
Tom Ferri, and the aluminum welding technology seminar presenter Tony Anderson.

CENTRAL MASSACHUSETTS/RHODE ISLAND/BOSTON Attendees listened attentively during Tony Andersons aluminum welding
technology seminar.


June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:58 AM Page 103

District 2
Harland W. Thompson, director
(631) 546-2903

April 8
Location: Dorchester Career and Technical Center, Cambridge, Md.
Summary: The Section visited the career and technical center.

McQuaid, president, DL McQuaid &

Summary: President McQuaid presented to Section members from both the
Lancaster and York Sections. He shared
his theory for as well as real world applications of heat straightening damaged
steel components. He shared his experiences on several projects that required
heat straightening in order to save the
structure or reduce the amount of required rework.

April 2
Location: Reading-Muhlenberg Career
& Technology Center
Summary: The Section held its student welding contest for students at
three different levels: 500, 1000, and
1500+ hours of instruction. Each level
was represented by a student from one
of the ve career and technology
schools in the area: Berks West,
Lebanon, Lancaster, Reading-Muhlen-

District 3
Michael Sebergandio, director
(717) 471-2065

March 31
Location: Lancaster, Pa.
Presenter: AWS President David L.

Quaid (left) was presented with a paint
ing of the Lancaster countryside by
Justin Heistand, Lancaster Section

READING The Sections student welding competition participants stood for a photo.

READING Volunteers for the Sections student welding contest were (from left) Judges
Francis Butkuz, Jim Myers, Richard Heisey, Rich Heisy, and Chevelle Houser, and Instruc
tors Hugo Garcia, Dan Millan, John Boyer, and Judge Mike Brickel.

PHILADELPHIA Section members toured the Dorchester Career and Technical Center, Cambridge, Md.: (from left, front row) Instructor
Chris Baker, District 2 Director Harland Thompson, Will Watkins, Kobi Ruark, Jody Jackson, A.J. Wiley, and Bill Giordano; (from left, back
row) Jacob Morris, Christian Jackson, Cole Willey, Micah Brooks, Tyler Pinder, and James Dixon.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:59 AM Page 104

berg, and York Counties. Participants
in Level One included Victor Mora,
Connor Waite, Katelyn Hasson, and
Philip Matous. Participants in Level
Two included Blaine Ham, Elijah Appel, Seth Ober, William Sheetz, and
Jacob Kremser. Participants in Level
Three included Daniel Garcia, Gabriel
Rose, Dalton Gromlich, Damion Oberholtzer, and Brady Anderson.

District 4

Stewart A. Harris, director

(919) 824-0520

March 12
Location: Charlotte, N.C.
Presenter: Ray Sosko, welding instructor and faculty advisor to the Central
Piedmont Community College Student

CHARLOTTE Joe Liefer taught at the

Sections Boy Scouts of America Welding
Merit Badge event.

Summary: The Student Chapter and

welding department at Central Piedmont C.C. participated in its third annual welding merit badge event for the
Boy Scouts of America.

District 5

Carl Matricardi, director

(770) 356-2107

April 13
Location: Golden Corral, Brandon, Fla.
Speaker: Greg Early, district manager,
Miller Electric Mfg. Co.
Summary: Eighteen members and
guests enjoyed dinner along with Earlys
presentation on new welding products
and machines offered by the company.

CHARLOTTE Teachers Ray Sosko (from

left), Rich Davis, and John McPherson at
the Sections Boy Scouts event.


Crumpton III (left), Section chairman,
thanked Miller Electric District Manager
Greg Early for his presentation on new
welding products and machines.

CHARLOTTE Jason Blanchett in

structed at the Sections annual Welding
Merit Badge Boy Scouts event.

CHARLOTTE Boy Scouts posed with their welded objects and volunteers (from left) Jason Blanchett, Joe Liefer, Andrew Garvin, Ray
Sosko, Paige Hoose, John McPherson, Max Miller, Mark Swett, Mike Ketner, and Zac Boze at the Sections Welding Merit Badge event.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 9:59 AM Page 105

District 6
Michael Krupnicki, director
(585) 705-1764

April 5
Location: The Edison Club, Rexford,
Speaker: Lou Okonski, president, Troy
Boiler, and Chris Whalen, public utilities manager, Troy, N.Y.
Topic: The speedy repair of the burst
110-year old, 33-in.-diameter riveted
steel water main in Troy, N.Y.
Summary: Twenty-one people attended the event.

District 7
Uwe Aschemeier, director
(786) 473-9540

brewing 20 years ago and started Four

String Brewing with repurposed dairy
equipment. The company recently
completed construction of a new
brewing plant and production facility.
Section members toured the facility,
which contains a 30-barrel, threevessel brewhouse, a 120-barrel fermenter, a modern keg cleaner/ller,
Wild Goose packaging line, and a quality control laboratory. The facility is
capable of producing more than
12,000 barrels of beer a year and is expandable to as much as 50,000 barrels.

District 8
D. Joshua Burgess, director
(931) 260-7039

Beaver Valley Student Chapter (From

left) Tom Geisler, instructor at BCCTC,
Mike Hornstein, graduate of BCCTC, and
Owner of Moody Corp. Mark Calhoun
after Calhouns tour for the student

Beaver Valley Student Chapter

April 13
Location: Moody Corp., Zelienople, Pa.
Presenter: Tom Geisler, welding instructor, Beaver County Career and
Technology Center (BCCTC)
Summary: Mark Calhoun, engineer,
gave Student Chapter members a tour
of the company. Members learned how
the company can apply exotic hardfacing weld metal depositions like Stellite and Inconel, and how they fabricate using the CNC machine for close
tolerance applications.

March 22
Location: Four String Brewing Co.,
Columbus, Ohio
Presenter: Jim Ellison, tour guide
Summary: Dan Cochran began home

NORTHERN NEWYORK Dave Parker, Section secretary/treasurer (left), and Lou Okon
ski, president, Troy Boiler Works, held a failed section of the citys 110yearold, 33in.
diameter water main.

Beaver Valley Student Chapter Student members enjoyed a tour of Moody Corp.: (front row from left) Dalton Bradford, Anthony Miller,
Scott Chaffee, Morgan McCrea, and Ron Campbell; (second row from left) Preston Vigna, Isaiah Hunter, Tom Geisler, and Jay Steinbach;
(third row from left) Justin Sorrell, Michael Hornstein, Brandon Leport, and Mark Kiss.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:00 AM Page 106

District 9

Michael Skiles, director

(337) 501-0304


March 7
Location: Jim and Nicks Barbeque,
Homewood, Ala.
Presenter: Bruno Stuck, global manager for transformer assessment,
Siemens AG
Summary: The meeting was shared
with the IEEEs Alabama Section.
Stuck gave a presentation on transformers, testing, process, and services
from Siemens.


NEW ORLEANS Section Vice

Chairman DJ Berger (left) recognized
Tony DeMarco, Section member, as the
50/50 raffle winner.

NEW ORLEANS Section Vice

Chairman DJ Berger (left) presented Guy
Rogers, Honeywell Industrial Safety,
regional sales manager, fall protection,
Louisiana/MIssissippi, with a speaker
recognition award.

April 19
Location: Best Western Landmark Hotel, Metairie, La.
Presenter: Guy Rogers, regional sales
manager, fall protection, Louisiana/
Missippi, Honeywell Industrial Safety
Topic: Proper tting of fall protection
Summary: The Sections April meeting
was sponsored by Airgas USAs CherylLynn Malloy, district manager, Gulf

District 10

Mike Sherman, director

(216) 570-9348


April 12
Location: Colony Pub and Grille, Erie,
Presenter: Matt Albright, Lincoln
Electric Co.
Topic: Advanced welding equipment

District 11

Robert P. Wilcox, director

(734) 721-8272


Siddall (left) gave Matt Albright a
speaker gift.

NEW ORLEANS Section ViceChairman DJ Berger (far right) presented CherylLynn Mal
loy, district manager, gulf coast region, Airgas USA, with a sponsor recognition award.

States region. Rogers delivered a presentation on the importance of properly tted and applied fall protection. A
50/50 raffle was held, and proceeds
were dedicated to Section student

Ferris State University Student Chapter

Student members spent their spring
break in Louisiana rebuilding a house
that was wrecked by Hurricane Katrina.
(From left, top) Nick Sarrault, Matt
Clark, Austin Fesler, Brett Parks, Jesse
Pagtalunan, Robert Watson, Cassie
Machen, Erin Lalinsky, Cody Tohm,
Homeowner Gary Molinaire, Cheyenne
Kelly, and Rich Little.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:00 AM Page 107

Ferris State University Student
March 511
Location: Chauvin, La.
Topic: FSU AWS Student Chapters
New Orleans spring break service trip
Summary: Eleven members of the FSU
Student Chapter worked to help nish
the rebuild of a house that was destroyed by Hurricane Katrina. The
work included laying ooring, plumbing, painting, siding, and putting on
trim. Associate Professor Jeffrey Carney is the chapter academic advisor.

Whitmer Career & Tech Center

Student Chapter
April 14
Location: Whitmer CTC, Toledo, Ohio
Presenter: Craig A. Donnell, welding
instructor WCTC/Washington Local
Schools, CWI/CWE
Summary: Larry Malone received his
AWS Student Chapter award at the
student chapters award ceremony.

March 16
Location: Fox Valley Career Center,
Maple Park, Ill.
Summary: The Section supported the
schools Welding Student of the Year
welding competition by providing volunteers and a judge on behalf of the
Section. Craig Tichelar helped choose
the ve student winners, including T.J.
Ostreko, who won Student of the Year.
March 24
Location: Cooper Hauk Restaurant,
Burr Ridge, Ill.
Summary: The Sections board appointed a chairman for its April meeting, discussed old and new business, and supported the next appointed chairman at
its board meeting.

Whitmer Career & Tech Center Student

Chapter Craig A. Donnell (left) pre
sented Larry Malone with his AWS Stu
dent Chapter Award.

District 12

Daniel J. Roland, director

(920) 241-1542

District 13

John Willard, director

(815) 954-4838

CHICAGO John Heseltine (from left), Cliff Iftimie, MartyVondra, Craig Tichelar, and Bob
Zimny met at the Cooper Hauk Restaurant for the Section board meeting.

CHICAGO The Fox Valley Career Center hosted a Welding Student of the Year welding competition, and the Section volunteered and
helped judge. (Front row, from left) Chad Wehrli, Josh Shank, Joseph Gagnon, Mike Romano, and T. J. Ostreko, Student of the Year winner;
(back row from left) Gene Heinsohn, David Beer, Mike Coope, Craig Tichelar, Laura Swartz, Adam Hipple, and Ryan Lohrey.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:01 AM Page 108

District 14
Robert L. Richwine, director
(765) 606-7970

April 7
Location: Shipiros Deli, Indianapolis,
Speaker: Dave Jackson, Section chair
Summary: The Section met to nalize
plans for the upcoming Mid-West Team
Welding Tournament and to elect officers for the 201617 year. J. Everett

Light Career Center Welding Instructor

Eric Cooper was elected chairman.
April 16
Location: J. Everett Light C.C., Indianopolis, Ind.
Presenters: Richard Alley and Bob
Summary: The Section conducted the
local SkillsUSA welding contest and
judged the event. Judging the event
were Charles Cessna, Bob Richwine,
Bennie Flynn, Dave Jackson, Gary Dugger, Gary Tucker, Mac Banks, and Past
AWS President Richard Alley
(19891990). Alley and District 14 Director Richwine also presented David
Jackson with the Section Chairman Appreciation Award for his leadership over
the past year.


INDIANA District 14 Director Bob

Richwine (left) and Past AWS President
Richard Alley (right) presented David
Jackson with the Section Chairman Ap
preciation Award for his leadership last

April 7
Location: Hil Bax Technical Center, St.
Louis, Mo.
Presenters: Cee Kay Supply, Inc., and
Section Executive Committee
Summary: The Section attended the
14th annual Mini-Weld Show, where
factory representatives came out to
demonstrate and display their equipment for guests. Door prizes, ranging

INDIANA The Section conducted and judged the local SkillsUSA competition. Shown
(from left) are Charles Cessna, Bennie Flynn, Mac Banks, David Jackson, Gary Dugger,
Gary Tucker, and Past AWS President Richard Alley.

ST. LOUIS Vendor representatives at the Sections 14th annual MiniWeld Show.

from pocket knives to autodarkening

hoods, were raffled off. Guests enjoyed
free food and beverages, as well as a welcome bag.

District 15
David Lynnes, director
(701) 893-2295

District 16
Karl Fogleman, director
(402) 677-2490

March 21
Location: Van Gorp Corp., Pella, Iowa
Presenter: Brian Griffith, Van Gorp
Topic: W.I.N.E. of welding and weld
Summary: Section members had dinner
and enjoyed a presentation by Griffith,
who spoke about welding, inspection,
and processes at the company. Attendees toured the facility after his

ST. LOUIS Vic Shorkey (front left), Sec

tion treasurer, and Cee Kay President
Ned Lane celebrate the MiniWeld Show.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:01 AM Page 109


KANSAS The Section met at Criders Institute of Welding Technology and toured the facility.


KANSAS Section Chairman Jimmy

Adams (left) thanked Robert Worthing

KANSAS Stan Crider (left) presented a

certificate of appreciation to Section
Chairman Jimmy Adams.

If you would like to submit a calendar listing, send along the following
information: Section name; activity
name, date, time, and location; and
speaker name, title, affiliation, and
subject. If some of your meeting
plans are pending, include the name
and e-mail or phone number of a
contact person for the event.
Please keep in mind the Journal
publication cut-off is usually the
20th of the month, for 2 months
ahead. For example, if you want to
have your September meeting in the
August Journal calendar, the deadline is June 20.

IOWA Section members visited Van Gorp Corp., Pella, Iowa, and toured the facility.

Please note events are subject to change.
Reach out to the listed contact to conrm.

Contact Bob Teuscher for more information about Colorado events at (303)
893-3602 or by e-mail at

New Orleans
Meetings are usually the third Tuesday

of each of the following months. Sept.,

Oct., Nov., Jan., Feb., March, April, and
Annual Fishing Rodeo, June 18.
Student Welder Competition, Nov. 12.
Contact D. J. Berger for more information
about New Orleans events at (504) 4159165, or by e-mail at

North Texas
Meetings are the third Tuesday of each
month: dinner at 6:30 pm, program at
7 pm
Humperdinks, 700 Six Flags, Arlington,
Tex. Bring three canned goods for the

Send your calendar event listing to

Annik Babinski, assistant editor, by
e-mail,, or fax,
(305) 443-7404.

North Texas Food Bank and receive a

door prize ticket.
Contact Paul Stanglin for more information about North Texas events by e-mail

Holston Valley
Contact Jon J. Cookson for more information about Holston Valley events at (757)
897-3748, or by e-mail at


June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:02 AM Page 110


April 14
Location: Criders Institute of Welding
Technology, (CIWT) Grain Valley, Mo.
Presenters: Stan Crider, CIWT, and Tim
Cronin, national sales manager, Ace Industrial Products
Summary: The Section met at CIWT for
a tour of the facility and a presentation
about air ltration systems from

EAST TEXAS Treasurer J. Jones (left),

District 17 Director Jerry Knapp (second
from right), and Chairman Bryan Baker
(right) presented Cody Edwards with the
Section Howard Adkins Memorial In
structor Award.

District 17

Jerry Knapp, director

(918) 813-0541


March 16
Location: Papacitas Restaurant,
Longview, Tex.
Presenter: John Laurence Busch, historian and author
Topic: Steam Coffin Captain Moses
Rogers and the Steamship Savannah
break the barrier
Summary: Busch described why the
Savannah is the rst example of globalized high technology in history.
April 14
Location: Papacitas Restaurant,
Longview, Tex.
Speakers: Jerry Knapp, District 17 director, and J. Jones, Section treasurer
Summary: Jones shared that April was
Welding Month, and reviewed the Image of Welding awards and scholarship
opportunities for members. Knapp
presented President McQuaids message to members, and told of his jour-

ney with welding over the last 50

years. Cody Edwards was awarded the
Section Howard Adkins Memorial Instructor Award.


March 4
Location: Tulsa Technology Center
(TTC), Riverside Campus, Tulsa, Okla.
Topic: Tulsa Engineering Foundations
Science, Technology, Engineering, and
Mathematics (STEM) competition
Summary: The Tulsa Engineering
Challenge is an event for students
grades four through twelve who are interested in STEM. More than 1100
students from schools across the Tulsa
region attended. More than 80 volunteers helped with judging the 14
March 22
Location: Oklahoma Technical College
(OTC), Tulsa, Okla.
Presenter: Rodney Riggs, Section secretary and OTC instructor
Topic: Fundamentals of GTAW
Summary: Section board members and
OTC instructors put on a technical
presentation and assisted with hands-

EAST TEXAS Historian and author

John Laurence Busch described why the
steamship Savannah is the first example
of globalized high technology in history.

TULSA The group gathers after TIG Night at Oklahoma Technical College.

EAST TEXAS Treasurer J. Jones (left)

and Chairman Bryan Baker (right) thank
historian John Laurence Busch for his
talk about steamship Savannah.

TULSA District 17 Director Jerry Knapp (from left) and AWS Board Advisors Jay
Rufner, Barry Lawrence, and Ray Wilsdorf stand with three students from local schools
at the Tulsa Engineering Challenge.


June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:02 AM Page 111

on training for those interested in
learning the basics of GTAW. More
than 50 people attended.
March 29
Location: Tulsa Technology Center
(TTC), Tulsa, Okla.
Presenter: Ray Wilsdorf, instructor at
TTC, Wilsdorf Mfg., LLC
Summary: Eight students received
their certicates of completion for the
ve-week CWI preparation course held
at TTC.

District 18

John Stoll, director

(713) 724-2350

District 19

the students needs very well. He was

well received by the 22 members and
students in attendance.

District 20

um, and postheat treatment for decorative and architectural blown glass). Several attendees were then invited to learn
glassblowing hands-on after the

Pierrette H. Gorman, director

(505) 284-9644


February 12
Location: Lakewood, Colo.
Presenters: Corey Silverman and Horace
Marlowe, C&H Glassworks
Summary: For the Sections annual
Ladies Night meeting in February, Silverman and Marlowe presentated various glassblowing techniques and discussed its similarities to welding (material preparation, working of the medi-

SPOKANE Jared Satterlund (left), sec

ond vice chair, thanked Efram Abrams,
AWS representative, for speaking about
AWS educational resources.

Shawn McDaniel, director

(509) 793-5182


April 6
Location: Spokane Community College,
Spokane, Wash.
Presenter: Efram Abrams, AWS
Topic: AWS publications and online
Summary: Abrams covered AWS publications and supplied several handouts.
His main focus was on new AWS online educational opportunities that t

TULSA Instructors Ray Wilsdorf (far left) and Ralph Johnson (far right) stand with the
eight students who completed their CWI preparation course.

COLORADO Demonstration of the initial shaping technique of heated glass for the Sections annual Ladies Night at C&H Glassworks.

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:03 AM Page 112

February 17
Location: Pueblo, Colo.
Presenters: Chris Rizzi, ASNT Level III
and Vestas NDT program coordinator,
and Brian Wood ASNT Level II and consultant for Vestas Towers America.
Summary: The Colorado Sections of
ASNT and AWS held a joint meeting.
Presentations were made on the inspection of DSA welds on critical components of wind towers using manual
phased array ultrasonic testing. Members also toured the Vestas Towers
America facility.

March 11
Location: Ramada Plaza Denver Central,
Denver, Colo.
Event: 7th Annual Welding the Rockies
Symposium New Technology in
Summary: The Section organized and
hosted its 7th annual Welding the Rockies Symposium, an all-day conference
that focused on new technologiy in
welding. Eight topics were covered over
the day, ranging from developments in
additive manufacturing to 3D weld
viewing, from virtual-reality-controlled
mobile welding to robotic control in

COLORADO Welding Symposium attendees listened to keynote speaker Dr. Jerry Jones.

Colorado School of Mines

Student Chapter
April 7
Location: Colorado School of Mines,
Golden, Colo.
Speaker: Dr. Stan David, Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Topic: Science base for the joining technologies of the future
Summary: Major progress has been
made in understanding physical
processes, microstructural evolution,
and the correlation between microstructure, properties, intelligent control, and
automation of welding processes. As a
result, welding is an interdisciplinary ac-

COLORADO Section Chairman Steve

Unrein (left) presented High Plains Gas
& Welding Supply welding helmets to
winning attendees at the symposium.

COLORADO Members of ASNT and AWS Colorado Sections enjoyed a joint meeting at Vestas Towers America.

Colorado School of Mines Student Chapter Student Chapter members stand with Dr. Stan David from the Oak Ridge National Labora
tory after his talk about a science base for the joining technologies of the future. (From left are) Prof. Michael Andreassen (Denmark),
Zhifen Wang, Nathan Switzner, Rashed Alhajri, Juan Wei, Minrui Gao, Dr. Stan David, Stephen Liu, Zhenzhen Yu, Drew White, Prof. Ruidong
Fu (China), Jon Watson, and Prof. Namhyun Kang (Korea).


Join or Renew:

Mail: Form with your payment, to AWS Call: Membership Department at (800) 443-9353, ext. 480
Fax: Completed form to (305) 443-5647 Online:

q New Member q Renewal
q Mr. q Ms. q Mrs. q Dr.

Please print Duplicate this page as needed

Last Name:_______________________________________________________________________________
First Name:___________________________________________________________________ M.I:_______
Birthdate: _____________________________ E-Mail:____________________________________________
Cell Phone (

)__________________________ Secondary Phone (


Were you ever an AWS Member? q YES q NO If YES, give year________ and Member #:____________________
Company (if applicable):___________________________________________________________________
Who pays your dues?: q Company q Self-paid Sex: q Male q Female
Education level: q High school diploma q Associates q Bachelors q Masters q Doctoral
q Check here if you learned of the Society through an AWS Member? Members name:_______________________Members # (if known):________
q Check here if you would prefer not to receive email updates on AWS programs, new Member benefits, savings opportunities and events.

Please check each box that applies to the Membership or service youd like, and then add the cost together to get your Total Payment.
q AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (One Year)......................................................................................................$87

AWS INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP (Two Years) SAVE $25 New Members Only....................................$149

q New Member Initiation Fee ...........................................................................................................................................$12


A.) OPTIONAL Book Selection (Choose from 25 titles; up to a $192 value; includes shipping & handling)
q Individual Members in the U.S..................................................................................................................................$35
q Individual Members outside the U.S (includes International shipping)...........................................................................$85
ONLY ONESELECTION PLEASE. For more book choices visit
q Jeffersons Welding Encyc.(CD-ROM only) q Design & Planning Manual for Cost-Effective Welding q Welding Metallurgy q Welding Inspection Handbook
Welding Handbook Selections: q WHB (9th Ed., Vol. 5) q WHB (9th Ed., Vol. 4) q WHB (9th Ed., Vol. 3) q WHB (9th Ed., Vol. 2) q WH (9th Ed., Vol. 1)
Pocket Handbook Selections: q PHB-1 (Arc Welding Steel) q PHB-2 (Visual Inspection) q PHB-4 (GMAW / FCAW)
B.) OPTIONAL Welding Journal Hard Copy (for Members outside North America)
q Individual Members outside North America (note: digital delivery of WJ is standard)..............................................$50
INDIVIDUAL MEMBERSHIP TOTAL PAYMENT..................................................................................$_____________
NOTE: Dues include $17.30 for Welding Journal subscription and $4.00 for the AWS Foundation.

q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (with digital Welding Journal magazine)................................................$15
q AWS STUDENT MEMBERSHIP (with hard copy Welding Journal magazine)..............................................$35
Option available only to students in U.S., Canada & Mexico.

Payment can be made (in U.S. dollars) by check or money order (international or foreign), payable to the American Welding Society, or by charge card.
q Check q Money Order q AMEX

q Diners Club q MasterCard

q Visa

q Discover

q Other

CC#:____________ / ____________ / ____________ / ____________ Expiration Date (mm/yy) ________ / ________

Signature of Applicant:_________________________________________ Application Date:_______________________
OFFICE USE ONLY Check #:_______________________________ Account #____________________________________
Source Code: WJ
Date:_________________________________ Amount:_____________________________________
REV. 11/15

8669 NW 36 St, # 130

Miami, FL 33166-6672
Telephone (800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-5647
Visit our website:
Type of Business (Check ONE only)
q Contract construction
q Chemicals & allied products
q Petroleum & coal industries
q Primary metal industries
q Fabricated metal products
q Machinery except elect. (incl. gas welding)
q Electrical equip., supplies, electrodes
q Transportation equip. air, aerospace
q Transportation equip. automotive
q Transportation equip. boats, ships
q Transportation equip. railroad
q Utilities
q Welding distributors & retail trade
q Misc. repair services (incl. welding shops)
q Educational Services (univ., libraries, schools)
q Engineering & architectural services (incl. assns.)
q Misc. business services (incl. commercial labs)
q Government (federal, state, local)
q Other
Job Classification (Check ONE only)
q President, owner, partner, officer
q Manager, director, superintendent (or assistant)
q Sales
q Purchasing
q Engineer welding
q Engineer design
q Engineer manufacturing
q Engineer other
q Architect designer
q Metallurgist
q Research & development
q Quality control
q Inspector, tester
q Supervisor, foreman
q Technician
q Welder, welding or cutting operator
q Consultant
q Educator
q Librarian
q Student
q Customer Service
q Other
Technical Interests (Check all that apply)
q Ferrous metals
q Aluminum
q Nonferrous metals except aluminum
q Advanced materials/Intermetallics
q Ceramics
q High energy beam processes
q Arcwelding
q Brazing and soldering
q Resistance welding
q Thermal spray
q Cutting
q Safety and health
q Bending and shearing
q Roll forming
q Stamping and punching
q Aerospace
q Automotive
q Machinery
q Marine
q Piping and tubing
q Pressure vessels and tanks
q Sheet metal
q Structures
q Other
q Automation
q Robotics
q Computerization of Welding

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:03 AM Page 115

tivity that now requires synthesis of
many disciplines. Dr. David spoke to
Student Chapter members and took a
photo with students following his talk.

March 13
Location: BYU-Idaho, Rexburg, Ida.
Presenter: Denis Clark, PE/CWI and
Principal at DEClark Welding, PLLC
Topic: Welding fumes: What you need
to know about them
Summary: Melvin Royster Weaver received a Section Meritorious Award for
his active participation in nearly every
Section meeting over the past decade.
Royster, owner of Royster Welding,
LLC, travels, at minimum, 150 miles
round trip to attend the Sections meetings. Tevan Boersma received a belated
Student Chapter Member Award for assisting with the reactivation of the BYUIdaho student chapter. Boersma was
also awarded the Section Meritorious

EVIT Student Chapter Welding fabri

cation competition gold medal winners
(from left) Logan Gneck, Bronson Brown,
and Ryan Budgett at the Arizona Skill
sUSA contest ceremony.

District 21

Sam Lindsey, director

(858) 740-1917

EVIT Student Chapter

March 29
Location: Phoenix Convention Center,
Phoenix, Ariz.
Event: SkillsUSA State Contest, Arizona
Summary: EVIT students won gold at
the state SkillsUSA contest, and, as a
result, they will compete in the national competition in Louisville, Ky., in
June, against other state winners in
the welding fabrication category.


April 13
Location: Los Angeles Trade-Technical
College (LATTC), Los Angeles, Calif.
Presenter: Tony Gonzalez, Section program committee chairman
Topic: How to form an AWS student
Summary: Gonzalez discussed AWS

and the importance and benets of being a student member with LATTC
students. He also described the
process of how to form a student chapter and handed out membership
forms, Careers in Welding magazines,
AWS stickers, and a list of available
student scholarships.

April 4
Location: Yuma, Ariz.
Event: Arizona SkillsUSA State
Summary: Students from the Arizona
Western College Ernest Lopez Welding
Institute helped to set up the welding
fabrication competition as well as competed. Faculty and staff were proud that
the AWC SkillsUSA Student Chapter,
with its advisor James Veldhuis, won
several gold and a silver medal at this
years state championship; winning the
gold in team fabrication: Pedro Ordaz,
Diego Espinoza, and Jonathan
Ballinger; winning the gold in related
technical math: Victor Cortez, who also

IDAHO/MONTANA LEFT Royster Weaver received the Section Meritorious Award

for his active participation in Section meetings over the past decade. RIGHT Tevan
Boersma received the Student Chapter Member and Section Meritorious Awards for his
proactive efforts while he was BYUIdaho student chapter chairman.

LOS ANGELES/INLAND EMPIRE Los Angeles Trade Technical College Welding Instructor Darlene Thompson (far left) and her students
pose for a group photo with Section Program Committee Chairman Tony Gonzalez (front center).

June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:04 AM Page 116

won the silver medal in individual welding; winning the gold in customer service: Joanna Pratt; and winning the gold
in prepared speech: Braiden Campbell.
These students will represent the state
of Arizonas college programs at this
years SkillsUSA national championship
in Louisville, Ky., in June.

District 22

Kerry E. Shatell, director

(925) 866-5434

Summary: The college held its second

annual high school welding competition, which challenged the top four
welding students from ten local high
schools to compete. The students chose
between GMAW and GTAW processes,
and were required to complete the AWS
D9.1, Sheet Metal Codes welder qualication test in their chosen process. All
welding was judged by Section Chairman Randy Emery, CWI.

CENTRAL VALLEY A student in action

during the Sections high school welding


April 8
Location: College of the Sequoias,
Tulare, Calif.

SAN DIEGO Professor Samuel Colton (from left), Larry Lebsock, Pedro Ordaz, Chapter
President Joanna Pratt, Jonathan Ballinger, Diego Espinoza, Victor Cortez, Braiden Camp
bell, Alonzo Lorona, and Advisor James Veldhuis at the Arizona SkillsUSA State Champi
onships in Yuma, Ariz.

CENTRAL VALLEY Section Chairman

Randy Emery judged the high school
welding competition.

CENTRAL VALLEY Winners of the Sections high school welding competition celebrate
with a photo.

CENTRAL VALLEY Participants from ten local high schools gather for a photo after the Sections high school welding competition.


June 2016 Section News.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 10:05 AM Page 117

Guide to AWS Services

American Welding Society
8669 NW 36th St., #130
Miami, FL 33166-6672
(800/305) 443-9353; Fax: (305) 443-7559
Phone extensions are in parentheses.
David McQuaid . . . . . . .
D. L. McQuaid and Associates, Inc.
519 Gala Drive, Canonsburg, PA 15317

Corporate Director, Global Sales

Jeff . . . . . . . . . . . . .(233)
Oversees international business activities; certification, publications, and membership.

Director International Activities

Andrew Davis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(466)
International Standards Activities, American
Council of the International Institute of Welding

Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)

Manager, Safety and Health

Stephen Hedrick.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(305)
Metric Practice, Safety and Health, Joining of
Plastics and Composites, Personnel and Facilities
Qualification, Mechanical Testing of Welds

Managing Director
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . . . . . . .(249)

Executive Director
Ray Shook.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(210)

Welding Journal
Andrew Cullison.. . . . . . . . . . . .(249)

Senior Associate Executive Directors

Cassie Burrell.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(253)

Mary Ruth Johnsen.. . . . . . .(238)

John Gayler.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(472)

Society News Editor

Melissa . . . . . . . . . . . .(275)

Chief Financial Officer

Gesana Villegas.. . . . . . . . . . . .(252)
Chief Information Officer
Emilio Del . . . . . . . . . .(247)
Board and Executive Director Services
Associate Director
Alex Diaz.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(294)
AWS Awards, Fellows, Counselors
Board and Executive Director Services
Program Manager
Chelsea Lewis.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(293)
Coordinates AWS awards and Fellow and
Counselor nominations.
Administrative Services
Corporate Director
Hidail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(287)
Gricelda Manalich.. . . . . . . . . .(208)
Senior Coordinator
Sissibeth Lopez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(319)
Liaison services with other national and international societies and standards organizations.
Hugh Webster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Webster, Chamberlain & Bean, Washington, D.C.
(202) 785-9500; F: (202) 835-0243.
Monitors federal issues of importance to the
Director, Convention and Meeting Services
Matthew . . . . . . . . . . .(239)
Senior Manager and Editor
Kathy . . . . .(232)
Committee Specialist
Adrian . . . .. . . .. . . .(295)
Program Manager
Keila . . . . . . . .(444)
Managing Director of North American Sales
Joe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(297)
Learning Sales Representative
Efram Abrams.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(307)

Program Managers II
Stephen Borrero... . . . . . . . . . .(334)
Definitions and Symbols, Structural Subcommittees on Reinforcing Steel, Bridge Welding, Stainless
Steel, Brazing and Soldering Manufacturers Committee

Section News Editor

Annik . . . . . . . . . . .(256)

Rakesh Gupta.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(301)

Filler Metals and Allied Materials, International
Filler Metals, UNS Numbers Assignment, Arc Welding and Cutting Processes, Computerization of Welding Information

Welding Handbook Editor

Kathy Sinnes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(255)

Jennifer Molin.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(304)

Structural Welding, Sheet Metal Welding

Lorena Cora.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(417)

Program Managers
John . . . . . . . . . . . .(306)
Brazing and Soldering, Methods of Weld Inspection, Welding in Marine Construction, Welding of
Machinery and Equipment

Public Relations Manager

Cindy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(416)
Jose . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(456)
Section Web Editor
Henry . . . . . . . . . . . . .(452)
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(480)
Senior Associate Executive Director
Cassie Burrell.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(253)
Corporate Director
Rhenda Kenny... . . . . . . . . . . . . .(260)
Serves as a liaison between members and AWS
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(273)
Managing Director
Judy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(281)
Director of Agency Representation
Terry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(470)
Corporate Director
Patrick . . . . . . . . . . . . . .( 226)
Director, Operations
Martica Ventura.. . . . . . . . . .(224)
Director, Development and Systems
David Hernandez.. . . . . . . .(219)
Managing Director
Michael . . . . . . . . . . . .(350)
AWS Bookstore, Subscription Sales, and AWS Reseller Management
Dept. information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(340)

Andre Naumann.. . . . . . . . .(313)

Welding and Brazing in Aerospace, Joining of
Metals and Alloys, Piping and Tubing, Ti and Zr Filler
Metals, Oxyfuel Gas Welding and Cutting
Peter Portela.. . . . . . . . . . . . . .(311)
High-Energy Beam Welding, Robotics Welding,
Welding in Sanitary Applications, Additive Manufacturing, Structural Welding Subcommittee on Titanium
Maria Elena . . ..(310)
Automotive, Friction Welding, Resistance Welding, Resistance Welding Equipment
Jennifer Rosario.. . . . . . . . . . . .(308)
Railroad Welding, Thermal Spraying, Welding
Iron Castings, Welding Qualification
Program Specialists
Vivian Pupo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(362)
Danielle Garcia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .(361)
Answer customer questions about AWS.
General Information
(800/305) 443-9353, ext. 212,
Chairman, Board of Trustees
William A. Rice..
Executive Director, Foundation
Sam Gentry.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (331)
Corporate Director, Workforce Development
Monica Pfarr.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . (461)
Associate Director of Scholarships
Vicki Pinsky.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . (212)
The AWS Foundation is a not-for-profit 501(c)(3)
charitable organization established to provide support for
the educational and scientific endeavors of the American
Welding Society. Promote the Foundations work with your
financial support.

Managing Director Technical Services

Annette Alonso.. . . . . . . . . . . . .(299)
Technical Committee Activities, Additive Manufacturing, Welding Qualification


Personnel June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:38 PM Page 118

NAM Creates COO Position
The National Association of Manufacturers (NAM), Washington, D.C.,
has announced Todd Boppell as its
chief operating officer (COO), a newly
created position within the association. Boppell will work directly with
NAM President and CEO Jay Timmons
to lead all aspects of NAMs internal
operations, focusing specifically on finance and administration, membership, and strategic development. For
the past four years, Boppell has been a
partner and COO at Meshfrog, Inc., a
consulting company he cofounded. He
was also president of Nexa Technologies, a software company.

New Director for IWDC

The Independent Welding Distributors Cooperative (IWDC) has announced it has hired Keith Werkley as
director, vendor management and
supply chain. In this role, Werkley will
be responsible for driving profitable
growth of these key programs: vendor

partner brands,
Weldmark, and
warehouse and
importing operations. Werkley,
based in Indianapolis, Ind.,
previously served
as district sales
manager/TIG specialist for Techniweld USA. He also
Keith Werkley
worked at ITWs
Electric line of business and Jackson

GM Executive to Retire, Board

of Directors Shuffle
Ed Welburn, vice president of General Motors Global Design, Warren,
Mich., has announced his retirement
following a 44-year career at the company. Welburn has led GM Design
since 2003, and globally since 2005.
Under Welburns leadership, the company built a network of 10 design cen-

Ed Welburn

Michael Simcoe

ters in seven countries. Michael Simcoe, a 33-year veteran of GM Design

and vice president of GM International Design, based in Australia and Korea, will succeed Welburn.
The company has also announced
Stephen Girskys retirement from the
board of directors. In addition to serving on GMs board, Girsky was GM
vice chairman from March 2010
through January 2014. Jane Mendillo,
retired president and CEO of the Har continued on page 120

Training classes and Workshops
For the past 40 years HDE has been the provider of
comprehensive technical training and support for users
of industrial lasers in manufacturing, education and
research. Regularly scheduled classes are offffered in:

Laser WELDING Technology

Laser CUTTING and DRILLING Technology


Laser Weld Monitoring (L

W Pulsed, real time
This LWM technology was invented at HDE (Patent
Pending). The total system is designed, manufactured
and sold by HDE. Installs on existing or on new laser
welding systems.

8698 Elk Grove Blvd., 1-194, Elk Grove, CA, 95624
For info, go to


For info, go to

aws educ (ibss 1).qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 7:37 AM Page 119

American Welding Society




This is the 40th Year the Amerrican Welding Sociiety (AW

WS) has presented
the International Brazing and Solde
S ering Symposium, and if youre ready to
experience tthe latest in techniquess, advvancemeents and innovationns in the
brazzing and soldering induustriees, this is the place to do it.
Each year, this Symposium gathers keyy industry leaaders togethher to foster an exchangee of ideas
and further thee advancement of the brazing and sooldering induustry as a whole. The Symposium
welcomes deleggates and speakers who are instrumeental in channging the landscape of bbrazing and
soldering and are willing to sharre their reseaarch for the betterment of the industtry.

Keeep current on changing trends and make

sure you
y remain competitive.

Experience groundbreaking insights innto techniques, applied research,

theories and simulations.

Enjoy onee-on-one connections with your peerrs in the brazing and soldering disciplines.

Just be ther
t e. Reegister Today!

Personnel June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:38 PM Page 120



Mathey Dearman Adds

to Sales Team

vard Management Co. (HMC), has

been nominated to stand for election
to fill the board seat that Girsky vacated. From 2008 to 2014, Mendillo
served as president and CEO of HMC,
which manages Harvard Universitys
endowment fund. During her tenure,
she grew HMCs investment platform
and organization. At the time of her
departure, the total endowment stood
at more than $37 billion.

Mathey Dearman, Tulsa, Okla.,

has announced
the addition of
Daniel Bartyzel to
its extended sales
team. He has
joined the Intermountain Marketing Group as an
outside sales representative and
Daniel Bartyzel
will be responsible
for accounts in
New Mexico and Colorado. Bartyzel
brings 14 years of sales experience to
his new role. Prior to this position, he
was sales engineer/accounts manager
for Daiken AC and manufacturers representative for McCoy Sales and Heiter

continued from page 118

Talan Products Hires

Engineering Manager

Model 200 Positioner

3 models av

Talan Products,
Cleveland, Ohio, a
metal stamping
and tube forming
processer, has
hired Fred Chordas as engineering
manager. Chordas
has 31 years of experience in the
metal stamping industry, with a foFred Chordas
cus on automotive
and heavy truck.
In his new role, Chordas will assist Talans customers in, among other
things, designing products for manufacturability.

AMT Votes for Board of

Directors and Officers
el 1200 Pipemate
Rottates pipe and tube
from 1 to 17 diameter,,

The Association For Manufacturing

Technology (AMT), McLean, Va., has
elected its officers and directors for
the board year, which began April 1,
2016. The AMT board of directors
named Richard L. Simons, president/
CEO, Hardinge, Inc., Elmira, N.Y., to
serve as chairman. He follows Chairman Jerry Rex, executive vice president, Concept Machine Tool, Plymouth, Minn. The board elected
Ronald S. Karaisz II, president, Novi
Precision Products, Inc., Brighton,
Mich., to serve as first vice chairman.
Steven R. Stokey, executive vice president/owner, Allied Machine & Engineering Corp., Dover, Ohio, will serve
as second vice chairman/treasurer.
Brian J. Papke, president, Mazak
Corp., Florence, Kans., was elected

Industrial Motion Technologies

Wins Sales Award
Every year, Eriez, Erie, Pa., a separation technology provider, has awarded its best sales team with the Merwin
Sales Award. The 2015 winner is Industrial Motion Technologies, Inc.,
West Des Moines, Iowa, a manufacturer representative. This is the third
time the team, led by Jeanne Anderson and Jeremy Leonard, has won the
award, also winning in 1999 and 2014.
The award is given based on superior
sales performance, providing highquality service, and striving to conduct affairs in an efficient, capable,
and friendly manner.

EWI Employee Honored with

STEP Award
EWI, Columbus, Ohio, an engineering and technology organization, has
announced that Nadine Powell, business development employee for EWIs
Buffalo Manufacturing Works, has
been honored with The Manufacturing Institutes STEP Ahead Emerging
Leader award. This national honor celebrates women in the manufacturing
industry who are making a difference
through advocacy, mentorship, engagement, promotion, and leadership.

continued on page 122

For info, go to


aws educ (ibss 2).qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 7:38 AM Page 121

American Welding Society



Presented by the Am
mericcan Welding Society (A
November 116, 20016 - Las Vegas, NV
The AW
WS C3 Committee on Brazing and Soldering invites yoou take part in this prestigious
program by submitting a research papeer for consideration. This is your opportunity to present
research to peers and leaders in the inddustry.
The program
m organizers are acceptiing 500--600-w
word abstrracts describing original, previously
unpublished woork. The work may includde current
nt res
earch, actuual or potential applications,
ons new
developments, or an outlook into actual technical areenas. Subm
missions must be receivved on or
before Septembber 3, 2016 and authors will be notifieed whetherr their papers have beenn accepted
for presentationn at the Symposium.

For more details and

a to submit abstracts electronically,
**Note: If you have
v any co-authors on your suubmitted paper,
please make sure to supply all name and affiliation details througgh the link above when submitting.

Personnel June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/12/16 1:39 PM Page 122



continued from page 120

Emily Guile Gerken

Duane Miller
Duane Miller, manager, engineering services, and welding design consultant, Lincoln Electric,
has been named recipient of the
Robert P. Stupp Award for Leadership Excellence by the American Institute of Steel Construction
(AISC). The institute presents this
award on a selective basis,
giving special
recognition to
individuals who
have provided
leadership in
the steel construction industry. Miller is
the eighth reDuane Miller
cipient of this
I am honored to be recognized
by AISC... ultimately, I see this
award as recognizing Lincoln Electrics leadership in welding and as a
partner in the steel industry, Miller
In 2005, Miller received AISCs
Lifetime Achievement Award, and
in 2013, AWSs George E. Willis
Award for his work in advancing
welding internationally. He was
named an AWS Life Member in
2010, and an AWS Fellow in 2015.
Miller is the immediate past
chair of the AWS D1 Structural
Welding Code Committee. He was
the first chair of the Seismic Welding Subcommittee and is a former
co-chair of the AASHTO-AWS D1.5
Bridge Welding Code Committee.
He currently serves on numerous
AWS technical committees and is a
professional engineer, Certified
Welding Inspector, and qualified
welder. Miller earned a bachelor of
science in welding engineering from
LeTourneau University, Longview,
Tex., a master of science in materials engineering from the University
of WisconsinMilwaukee, and was
awarded an honorary doctor of science degree from LeTourneau University in 1997.


Emily Guile
Gerken, age 88,
passed away
peacefully in hospice with her family April 11. She
was the beloved
wife for 61 years
of Past AWS President John Gerken
(19871989)(deceased); loving
Emily G. Gerken
mother of Tom
Gerken, Becky
(Phil) Sido, and Jack Gerken; grandmother of Laura (Jeff) Pond, Katie
Sido, Nicola and Will Gerken; and
great-grandmother of Teagan and Riley Pond. She was known as a great
woman and a force within AWS.

Dr. Koichi Masubuchi

Koichi Masubuchi, 92, passed
away on April 1 in
Concord, Mass.
Born in 1924 in
Otaru, Japan, Masubuchi served in
the Japanese
Navy and earned
his bachelors and
masters degrees
from the UniversiKoichi Masubuchi
ty of Tokyo, both
in naval architecture. Masubuchi received his PhD in
engineering from Tokyo University.
He worked at the Transportation
Technical Research Institute in Tokyo
and, in 1963, moved to Ohio to serve
at Battelle Memorial Institute. In
1968, he began his career at MIT as an
associate professor of naval architecture. He was promoted to professor in
the department of ocean engineering
in 1971. He retired from MIT in 2001
a Professor Emeritus of ocean engineering, having spent 50 years forwarding welding science and fabrication technology for marine and aerospace structures. During his career,
Masubuchi authored or co-authored
more than 220 papers.
Masubuchi served as president of
the Japanese Association of Greater
Boston from 1972 until 1981 and

started the Japanese Language School

in 1975. In 1995, Masubuchi was honored by the Japanese Emperor with
the Third Order of Merit with the Order of the Sacred Treasury. He was
also a member of the Society of Naval
Architects and Marine Engineers, the
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, ASM International, the Marine
Technology Society, the Society of Experimental Stress Analysis, and the
Society of Naval Architects of Japan.
Masubuchi joined AWS in 1954,
was awarded an Adams Memorial
Membership in 1974, and was named
an AWS Fellow in 1991. In recognition
of his significant contributions to advancing the science and technology of
welding, especially welding fabrication
of marine and space structures, MITs
department of mechanical engineerings Center for Ocean Engineering
sponsors an award in Masubuchis
name. The award is given to one individual per year who has made significant contributions in the advancement of the science and technology of
materials joining through research
and development.

Jason Richard Cabrol

Jason Jaysin
Richard Cabrol, of
Wilseyville, Calaveras County, Calif.
was born on Oct.
27, 1974, in San
Francisco, Calif.
He died on March
8, of a heart attack while snowboarding. The
family takes comJason R. Cabrol
fort knowing that
he was enjoying
one of his favorite activities at the
time of his passing. Cabrol graduated
from Benicia High School in 1993,
where he was the supreme president
of the Benicia High Backpacking Club.
Among other colleges, he attended
motorcycle mechanics school in Arizona, and Sierra College in Rocklin,
Calif. Cabrol was chair of the AWS student chapter at Sierra College when he
was a student there. For nine years before his passing, Cabrol taught Principles of Fabrication in the welding department at Sierra College. In addition
to teaching, he ran his own fabrication
and metal art business, Shadow Werx.

aws memb individual membership.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/10/16 2:49 PM Page 123

aws educ (conf/events).qxp_FP_TEMP 5/16/16 1:22 PM Page 124

American Welding Society


2016 AWS

 3rd Weldinng Education, Skills &

Certificatiion Conference
Aug 10 122, 2016
The impending skills gap in manufacturinng continues
to be a hot-buutton topic. In its third year,, the
t Welding
Education, Skkills & Certification Conferencce aims to
address the welding
industry piece of the puzzle.
How do we ennsure were doing our part too deliver
new, skilled professionals
into this boominng sector?
Attend this coonference to gain new insighhts, share
best practicess, exchange ideas and be paart of the

 Lasers Coonference
Aug 29 300, 2016
Lasers have taaken off and moved into hossts of new
applications. Count
them: Hybrid Laser arrc welding,
additive manuufacture, cladding, heat treatment,
more. Come to the Lasers Conference on August
29-30 in San Francisco and find out whatt s in it for
you and your company.

 19th Annual
Aluminum Co
Sep 20
2 21, 2016
Aluminnum is one of the most versaatiile and widely
used metals
in manufacturing, butt itts unique chemical
and phhysical properties can also ma
make it one of the
most challenging
to weld. During thi
t is popularr, annual
conferrence, a distinguished panel off aluminum
industry experts surveys the curreentt landscape of
aluminnum welding technology andd practice.

Please visit
for moore details and registrationn information.

Page 1.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/12/16 2:52 PM Page 125105

Page 2.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/12/16 4:31 PM Page 126

june 2016 wj classifieds.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:41 PM Page 129




The American Weelding Society is seeking a Chief Operating Officeer
(COO), with Chief Executive Officer (CEO) capabilities,who can
provide the leadership, management, and vision to ensure that the
ustr y is supported and the Society grows revenues, controls budgets
and contributes to a yearly surplus. Management functions also include
a controls (administrative and procedures) and people systems.
Promoting the Society and managing the sales, marketing, certification,
trade show, memb
bership, publishing , online program
ms, and seminars/confeerences in
9*;=7.;<129@2=1=1.A.,>=2?.2;.,=8;# D$;8?2-270-*B
-*B5.*-.;<129*76*7*0.6.7=8/9.895.*7-=.*6< D;2?270)
)&=8*,12.?.*7-<>;9*<<<*5.< <>;95><
,*<1/ 58@ *7-+><27.<<08*5<-86.<=2,*55B*7-27=.;7*=287*55B D$;8?2-270=26.5B*7-
*,,>;*=.;.98;=<8789.;*=287*5/..*<2+252=B*7-<><=*27*+252=B D?*5>*=270 ;.,;>2=270
68=2?*=270 5.*-270 *7-6.7=8;270*1201
)&058+*5<=;*=.0 B D<<2<=270272-.7=2/BB270*,:>2<2=287<*7-
collaborative opportunities to enable AW
WS to meet growth, and market share objectivess.

Business Development Manager

Southeast States
CM Industries, Lake Zurich, IL,. a
manufacturer of premium robotic MIG
torches and peripherals, is seeking a
proven and sales oriented business
development manager to expand its
automation related products in the
Southeast states with focus in Kentucky,
Tennessee and Alabama.
Must have the ability to work
independently, communicate well and
think strategically. Five years of welding
related sales or work experience is
Please send your resume to:

Managing the Society s business development operations in partnership with

the Executive Director (CEO).
D&9.*;1.*-270=1.-.?.5896.7= *7-2695.6.7=*=2878/0;8@=1<=;*=.02.< 27,5>-270
27=.;7*=287*5.A9*7<287*7-.->,*=287*59;80;*6<*7-<.; ?2,.< D)8
management team
m to develop and implement plans designed to steward and drive
0;8@=1 D>25-270;.=.7=287<=;*=.0 B/8
8;6.6+.;<129< 7=.;*,=270.///..,=2?.5B@2=1=1.
<=*// 8*;-6.6+.;< ?85>7=..;< 6.6+.;< *7-27-><=; B9*;=7.;<
Providing oversi
s ght and direction to the approxim
x ately 300
AWS Committees
e and nearly 2,000 active Comm
mittee volunteers.
D(7-.;<=*7-270=1.2698;=*7,.8/=1.8*;-8/2;.,=8;<*7-=1.?85>7=..;< *<@.55*<
=1.,;2=2,*5,86987.7=8/?85>7=..;5.*-.;<129*7-6*7*0.6.7= D8<=.;270*,87<.7<><
mindset in interacting with volunteers. Supporting continued success of AW
WS through
D$;8?.7=;*,4;.,8;-276*;4.=270 /27*7,. <=;*=.02,<*5.< *7-+><27.<<-.?.5896.7=
@2=1$ ;.<987<2+252=B8/ !95>< D!2726>68/ B.*;<C6*7*0.6.7=.A9.;2.7,.
DA9.;2.7,.27=1.@.5-27027-><=; B2<2-.*5 D$;.9*;.-7.<<=8=;*?.5>9=8 
27,5>-27027=.;7*=287*5 D*,1.58; <-.0;..;.:>2;.-!*<=.; <8;!9;./..;;.-
Submit your rssum with cover letter to:
Human Resources Department
American Weeldin
ng Society
 8;1;*@< 8;0


june 2016 wj classifieds.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:41 PM Page 130

Put Your Products and
Services to Work in July 2016

Generate new sales leads by showcasing

your full-color product photo with a
product description, website, or other
sales literature. Welding Marketplace
reaches 80,000 qualified buyers. Its
great exposure for just pennies per
Closing date is
May 16, 2016

Call the AWS sales team at

(800) 4439353
Sandra Jorgensen, ext. 254
Annette Delagrange, ext. 332
Lea Paneca, ext. 220

6 T F  S F Q S J O U T  U P

Call 866.879.9144

june 2016 wj classifieds.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:43 PM Page 131

Made in U.S.A.
Welding Positioners
1Ton thru 60Ton
Tank Turning Rolls

Rentals, Lease and Sales

Used Equipment for Sale



(800) 218-9620
(713) 943-8032

Place Your
Classified Ad Here!


We manufacture tank turning rolls
3-ton through 120-ton rolls

Call the AWS sales team at:

(800) 443-9353


Sandra Jorgensen, ext. 254


Annette Delagrange, ext. 332
Lea Paneca, ext. 220

Phone: (979) 277-8343
Fax: (281) 290-6184
Our products are made in the USA


Ellijay, GA July 415, Sep. 516

Pascagoula, MS July 1829, Sep. 1930
Marksville, LA Aug. 1526
Houston, TX June 617, Aug. 112
Houma, LA June 20July 1
+ Includes additional self study for weekend


(800) 4892890
Also offering: RT Film Interpretation,
Applications of Welding Inspection,
MT/PT/UT Thickness, CWS, SCWI,
Welding Procedure Fundamentals,
and Advanced Inspection Courses


june 2016 wj classifieds.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:43 PM Page 132

Abicor Binzel

(301) 8464196

Hobart Institute of Welding Technology

(800) 3329448

ALM Positioners

(855) 7504295

Hodgson Custom Rolling, Inc.

(905) 3566025

Arcos Industries, LLC

Inside Back Cover

(800) 2338460

Intercon Enterprises, Inc.

(800) 6656655


web contact only

K.I.W.O.T.O., Inc.

(269) 9441552

KMTSaw/Kalamazoo Machine Tool

(269) 3218860

Atlas Welding Accessories, Inc.

(800) 9629353

AWS Certification Services

(800) 4439353, ext. 273

Lincoln Electric Co.

Outside Back Cover

(216) 4818100

AWS Education Services

92, 95, 119, 121, 124

(800) 4439353, ext. 455

Mercer Industries

(714) 4414975

AWS Member Services

(800) 4439353, ext. 480


(800) 7763300

AWS Publication Services

85, 87, 89
(800) 4439353, ext. 275

Miller Electric

(920) 734=9821

AWS Technical Services

(800) 4439353, ext. 340

National University Polytechnic Institute (NUPI)

(800) 4323483

Bluco Corp.

(800) 5350135

OTC Daihen, Inc.

(888) 6827626

Bradford Derustit

(714) 6950899

Phoenix International

(414) 9733400

Camfil Air Pollution Control

(800) 4796801

Polysoude SAS/Astro Arc Polysoude

Carell Corp./Eagle Bending Machines

(251) 9370947

Postle Industries/Postalloy

(216) 2659000

CDA Technical Institute

(888) 9742232


(704) 6647377


(800) 4731976

RedDArc Weldrentals

(866) 7333272


(800) 8482719


(800) 4743443

CS Unitec

(800) 7005919

SelectArc, Inc.

Diamond Ground Products, Inc.

15, 17
(805) 4983837

Southwire Co., LLC

(800) 4441700

Divers Academy International

(800) 2383483

Sumner Mfg. Co., Inc.

(888) 9996910

Donaldson Torit

(800) 3651331

TEC Welding Products

(760) 7473700

ESAB Welding & Cutting Products

(800) 3722123

Trends in Welding Research International Conference 2016

Fischer Technology

(860) 6830781

Triangle Engineering, Inc.

Fronius USA, LLC

(877) 3766487


Genstar Technologies Co., Inc.

(909) 6062726

Weiler Corp.

(800) 8359999

Gentex Corp.

(704) 6647377

Weld Aid

15, 17, 19
(800) 9353243

Gradient Lens Corp.

(800) 5360790

Weld Engineering

(508) 8422224

Gullco International, Inc., U.S.A.

(440) 4398333

Welding Alloys

(859) 5250165

HDE Technologies, Inc.

(916) 7144944

WEMCO/An Association of Welding Manufacturers

Visit our Interactive Ad Index:


33 (0) 2 40 68 57 61

Inside Front Cover

(937) 2955215

+81 3 4212 3900
(781) 8781500
web contact only

(800) 4439353, ext. 444

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 185



Sponsored by the American Welding Society and the Welding Research Council

Effects of Ultrasonic Power on the Hardness

of Aluminum 3003H18 Alloy
A look at the correlation between ultrasonic power and hardness change during very
highpower ultrasonic additive manufacturing


Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solidstate joining process used to build
up a solid part from thin metal foils. The major process parameters are vibration ampli
tude, normal force, and weld speed. In this study, the upgraded version of UAM, called
very highpower ultrasonic additive manufacturing (VHPUAM), which has a higher
power capability to produce a larger vibration amplitude and larger normal force than
UAM, was used to fabricate samples from aluminum 3003H18 (Al3003H18) foils. A total
of six VHPUAM samples were fabricated from a TestBed machine and SonicLayer7200
commercial VHPUAM systems. The effects of increasing vibration amplitude and normal
force on the change in the bulk hardness of Al3003H18 foil were investigated. The
results revealed that vibration amplitude played a more significant role in decreasing
hardness or softening behavior in Al3003H18 foil when a larger vibration amplitude was
applied. There was also a clear correlation between the bulk hardness of Al3003H18 foil
and the average ultrasonic power used, where the hardness decreased with increasing
ultrasonic power in samples fabricated from both VHPUAM machines.

Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing Aluminum Alloy Microhardness
SolidState Joining Process Control/Monitoring

Ultrasonic additive manufacturing
(UAM) is a solid-state joining process
used for fabricating complex geometry
parts from thin metal tapes or foils
(Ref. 1). The process utilizes ultrasonic
welding of 100200-m-thick foils by
joining one layer on top of another
layer with 20 kHz ultrasonic frequency, 1428 m vibration amplitude,
8001500 N normal force, and 2550

mm/s weld speed with optional heating element (65150C) to facilitate

better metallic bonding (Ref. 2). During UAM, the first layer of metal foil is
added and bonded on top of a base
plate or substrate, where the foil is
pressed down by a roller-shaped
sonotrode in the normal direction
(ND). To form a metallic bond, the oxide layers are broken through scrubbing between sonotrode and top foil
surface as well as between foil and

substrate surface in the transverse direction (TD), resulting in the nascent

metal-to-metal surface contacts (Refs.
1, 3). The process is repeated while
bonding along the rolling direction
(RD) one layer after another until final
dimension of the part is reached.
The UAM system is operated by a
single ultrasonic transducer with a
power capacity of 1.53.0 kW, which
can produce good bonding in soft FCC
materials such as aluminum and copper (Ref. 4). However, this amount of
power is insufficient to produce a
higher vibration amplitude and normal force necessary to achieve good
metallic bonding in harder materials
and thicker foils (Refs. 5, 6). While
UAM of harder materials has been performed, no mechanical testing was reported to assess the actual strength of
the UAM joint (Refs. 3, 7, 8). In addition, unbonded regions were scattered
within the interfaces between layers in
the UAM microstructure (Ref. 3).
Therefore, the process parameters
must be improved to minimize the unbonded regions and achieve better
metallic bonding.
This leads to the development of
the new generation of UAM machine
or very high-power ultrasonic additive
manufacturing (VHP-UAM), which is
currently commercialized by Fabrisonic (Ref. 9). The ultrasonic power level

K. SOJIPHAN ( is with Department of Welding Engineering Technology, College of Industrial Technology, King
Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand. S. S. BABU is with Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Bio
medical Engineering, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tenn. A. BENATAR is with Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. A. MANONUKUL is with National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Tech
nology Development Agency, Khlong Luang, Pathum Thani, Thailand. M. NORFOLK is with Fabrisonic, LLC, Columbus, Ohio.


Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 186

is three times larger in VHP-UAM (9
kW maximum) than in UAM and is capable of producing larger normal force
(15 kN maximum) and larger vibration
amplitude (52 m maximum). Two
4.5-kW transducers instead of one
transducer in UAM are combined in a
push-pull configuration to produce
maximum power of 9 kW, as shown in
Fig. 1A.
Several researchers have been investigating the relationship between
the process parameters and the bond
quality of the UAM parts (Refs. 2,
1014). Major process parameters
studied include normal force, vibration
amplitude, and weld speed. The metallic bond quality is measured in terms
of linear weld density (the ratio of
bonded area over the entire interface)
and bond strength. It was found both
linear weld density and strength increase with higher normal force and
higher vibration amplitude, and decrease with higher weld speed (Refs.
13, 15). However, the weld speed
should not be so low as to affect the
productivity rate and cause localized
melting or sticking of the foil material
on the sonotrode surface. This leads to
equipment downtime because the
sonotrode needs to be cleaned and in
some cases resurfaced (Ref. 10).
While most researchers focus on
improving the bond quality, there are
limited works and knowledge regarding the change in bulk properties, such
as hardness of the foils after UAM and
VHP-UAM. Kong et al. (Ref. 16) was
the first to report the change in microhardness at the weld interface of aluminum 6061 UAM foils when different
levels of normal force, vibration amplitude, and weld speed were used. Their
results showed increasing hardness in
the foil processed with higher normal
force, larger vibration amplitude, and
lower weld speed (Ref. 16). It was also

Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of very high

power ultrasonic additive manufacturing
(VHPUAM). A Schematic diagram of
VHPUAM process (courtesy of Fabrisonic
LLC); B schematic diagram of VHP
UAM build construction illustrating differ
ent layers and interfaces with Vicker
hardness indent in the bulk of each layer.

found that when lower normal force

was applied, the hardness at the interfaces of UAM foils was smaller than
the hardness of the original foil, while
the interface hardness was higher
when larger normal force was used.
However, this work did not measure
the change in hardness farther away
from the interface, i.e., in the bulk region of the UAM foil.
Li and Soar (Ref. 17) performed
nanoindentation to obtain the hardness values across the foil thicknesses
of UAM samples made from aluminum
3003-O foils. It was found that plastic
deformation during UAM increased
the hardness of aluminum 3003-O
UAM foils compared to the original
hardness in the as-received condition.
Schick et al. (Ref. 2) also reported increased hardness in the bulk of

Fig. 2 Optical micrographs of as

processed Al3003H18 VHPUAM samples
along NDTD planes.

Al3003-H18 foil due to UAM processing. Interestingly, the result was opposite in VHP-UAM, where Sriraman et
al. (Ref. 4) reported decreased hardness in hard-temper copper C11000
foil after VHP-UAM. It was proposed
that dynamic recrystallization and dynamic recovery as a result of tempera-

Table 1 List of Sample ID with Number of Layers and Sets of Vibration Amplitude and Normal Force Used to Fabricate All Al3003H18
VHPUAM Samples
Sample ID

Number of Layers

Vibration Amplitude (m)

Normal Force (N)





186-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 187


Fig. 3 Plot of the average Vicker hard

ness measured at the middle of the bulk
region of each deposited layer in three
Al3003H18 VHPUAM samples fabricated
from the TestBed machine compared to
the average original Al3003H18 tape

Fig. 4 Hardness map obtained from

Vicker hardness measurements at the
middle of each layer in Al3003H18 VHP
UAM samples fabricated using the Soni
cLayer 7200 machine.

Experimental Procedures

ture rise during VHP-UAM were the

reasons why softening occurred in the
bulk region of the original foil (Ref. 4).
However, none of these works
(Refs. 2, 4, 17) looked into the effect
of UAM/VHP-UAM process parameters, i.e., vibration amplitude, normal
force, and weld speed, on the amount
of increase and decrease in the foil
hardness after UAM and VHP-UAM.
Hence, the objective of this study was
to investigate the effect of processing
parameters, namely vibration amplitude and normal force, on the bulk
hardness of aluminum 3003-H18 foil
in both the as-processed and heattreated conditions.

In this study, as-received Al3003H18 foil with 25.4 mm width and

150-m thickness was used to fabricate VHP-UAM samples on top of a
25.4-mm-thick Al3003-H18 substrate. The chemical composition in
weight percentage of the foil is Al1Mn-0.7Fe-0.12Cu. The sonotrode is
made of Ti-6Al-4V with surface
roughness RA of 7 m.
Two different machines (the TestBed machine or TB machine and the
commercial SonicLayer 7200 machine
or SL7200 machine) were used to fabricate VHP-UAM samples. Table 1 lists
the processing parameters used to fabricate Al3003-H18 VHP-UAM sam-

Table 2 Average Reduction in Thickness (in percentage) of Al3003H18 VHPUAM


Average Reduction in Thickness (%)



ples. Sample ID is designated for each

VHP-UAM sample as Name of Machine (TB = Test Bed, SL = SonicLayer7200), number of layers, vibration amplitude (in m), and normal force (in
N). It is noted that VHP-UAM samples
made from the TB machine contain 10
layers, while those made from the
SL7200 machine have up to 80 layers
(delamination occurred in sample SL66-28-5340 while attempting to bond
67th layer). The ultrasonic frequency
was kept constant at 20 kHz. The
welding speed was selected at 35.6
mm/s for all samples made from the
TB machine and the first 50 layers in
the SL7200 machine. Above the 50th
layer, welding speed was adjusted to
42.7 mm/s. The baseline parameter
was 28- m vibration amplitude and
5340 N normal force, as the combination of the two yielded good metallic
bonding strength during preliminary
peel testing (Ref. 18). It is noted that
the normal forces of 4000, 5340, and
8000 N used in this study are more
than twice the maximum capable normal force of 1500 N available in UAM
After VHP-UAM, a portion of the
samples were used to prepare heattreated or annealed samples from the
as-received foil and as-processed VHPUAM samples for comparison. These
samples were heated to 343C for 2 h
in an argon atmosphere followed by
furnace cooling to room temperature.
Samples were sectioned along the
ND-TD plane using standard metallography techniques. An Olympus GX-51
microscope with a 12MP Olympus
DP71 digital imaging system was used
to capture optical images. Vicker microhardness was performed using a
fully automated Leco AMH-43 system
with the load of 10 g. Indentations
were made 20 times along the middle
region of each deposited foil layer at
the spacing of 100150 m between
each indentation to create a hardness
map of each Al3003-H18 VHP-UAM

The optical micrographs of the selected Al3003-H18 VHP-UAM samples
are displayed in Fig. 2. These images illustrate the macro view of the deposited layers from bottom to top showing
the voids or unbonded regions distribJUNE 2016 / WELDING JOURNAL 187-s

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 188


Fig. 5 Plot of the average Vicker hardness measured

at the middle of the bulk region of each deposited layer
in three Al3003H18 VHPUAM samples fabricated from
the SonicLayer 7200 machine.

uted along the interfaces. According to

Fig. 2AD, the number of voids decrease with increasing vibration amplitude and increasing normal force and
is also lower in bottom layers compared to top layers in thicker samples
processed from the SL7200 machine.
However, it is worth mentioning that
these process parameters were not
designated as the best parameters for
Al3003-H18 and do not represent the
maximum capacity of the SL7200 machine, which can produce 100% linear
weld density or no voids in Al3003H18 builds. It was also noted as more
layers were deposited and the build
got higher (Fig. 2BD), the number of
voids increased in the upper interfaces
near the top surface as compared to
interfaces between layers below despite using the same processing parameters (samples TB-10-28-5340 and
SL-66-28-5340). This result suggested
that in order to achieve better metallic
bonding in the higher layers, larger vibration amplitude and larger normal
force was necessary, especially when
higher welding speed is used.
Table 2 lists the average reduction
in thickness of Al3003-H18 foils after
being processed by VHP-UAM compared to the original foil thickness of
150 m in the as-received condition.
The largest reduction in thickness of

Fig. 6 Plot of ultrasonic power vs. time during VHPUAM processing of

Al3003H18 samples using the TestBed machine.

10% was found in sample TB-10-388000 (where both vibration amplitude

and normal force are larger) as compared to only 2% in sample TB-10-384000 (where only vibration amplitude
was larger but normal force was lower). Also, the samples processed by the
SL7200 machine tend to undergo larger reduction in thickness compared to
samples processed by the TB machine
except for sample TB-10-38-8000. It is
also noted that increasing vibration
amplitude had a greater effect in introducing plastic deformation on the foil
layer than increasing normal force, as
the average reduction in thickness of
sample SL-80-34-5340 was higher
than sample SL-80-34-5340 and sample SL-66-28-5340, respectively.
Figure 3 displays the average bulk
Vicker hardness of Al3003-H18 foils in
VHP-UAM samples fabricated from
the TB machine. In order to determine
the change in hardness after VHPUAM and heat treatment, microhardness measurement was also performed
on the original Al3003-H18 foil with
the average hardness of 70.5 VHN.
Hardness data of the original foil and
each layer in VHP-UAM samples were
plotted before and after heat treatment at 343C for 2 h. It is noted that
the first layer or Layer Number 1 in
the figure represents the average hard-

188-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

ness from the 20 indentations measured at the central region of the first
foil layer deposited on the substrate,
while Layer Number 10 is the last layer or the top-most layer of the VHPUAM samples.
The result showed a slight decrease
in foil hardness in sample TB-10-285340, where hardness in Layer Number 1 was equivalent to the original
foil hardness and hardness decreased
gradually in the upper layers. This implies that using vibration amplitude of
28 m and normal force of 5340 N
rarely affected the hardness of the
original foil. In contrast, the bulk
hardness of the deposited foil increased from bottom layers to top layers in sample TB-10-38-8000, although the overall hardness of 55-60
VHN was 10-15 VHN lower than hardness of the original foil. Unlike samples TB-10-28-5340 and TB-10-388000, sample TB-10-38-4000 showed
neither an increasing trend nor a decreasing trend in hardness from bottom layers to top layers.
It is also worth mentioning that increasing vibration amplitude from 28
to 38 m greatly affected the bulk
hardness in the deposited foil, whereas
increasing in normal force from 4000
to 8000 N had much less effect on the
change in hardness. Increasing vibra-

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 189


Fig. 7 Average ultrasonic power used

to weld each layer during VHPUAM of

tion amplitude had a more significant

effect on decreasing the bulk hardness
of deposited Al3003-H18 foil, whereas
increasing normal force may increase
hardness in top layers, as seen in sample TB-10-38-8000. Furthermore, the
average bulk hardness values of the
foil after heat treatment at 343C for 2
h were almost the same for all samples. This implied that the difference
in bulk foil hardness in different layers
of VHP-UAM samples in as-processed
conditions was neutralized by this annealing condition.
The bulk hardness contours of
Al3003-H18 foils in the VHP-UAM
samples fabricated from the SL7200
machine are illustrated as hardness
maps in Fig. 4. Each hardness map
has a line dividing the upper layers
(above the 50th layer), in which the
weld speed was higher (42.7 mm/s)
as compared to the lower 50 layers,
where the weld speed was equal to
the former value (35.6 mm/s) in the
TB machine. It was found that at the
lower vibration amplitude (28 m) in
sample SL-66-28-5340, the hardness
was more uniform (or less change in
color contour) from top to bottom
than at the higher vibration amplitude (34 m) in samples SL-80-344000 and SL-80-34-5340, which
yielded a large drop in hardness in
the bottom layers of the foils.
This result is similar to Fig. 3,
where a large increase in vibration amplitude eventually affected the bulk
foil hardness, especially in bottom lay-

Fig. 8 Correlation between average

hardness and average ultrasonic power
used to weld Al3003H18 tape at a con
stant weld speed of 35.6 mm/s using the
TestBed and SonicLayer7200 machines.

ers. Along the horizontal position of

each layer, the bulk hardness slightly
deviated from left to right. It was speculated that this horizontal variation in
hardness is likely due to the different
localized normal force values applied
on the left and right sides of the sample. From Fig. 4A and B, the hardness
was lower in the bottom left corner
than the bottom right corner, meaning
different levels of plastic deformation
occur in these regions resulting in
some different bulk hardness values.
Figure 5 shows the trend of average
bulk hardness from the bottom to top
of VHP-UAM samples made from the
SL7200 machine. Although the average hardness values may fluctuate up
and down from one layer to the next,
it can be observed that the trends of
increasing hardness from bottom layers to top layers of VHP-UAM builds
exist, especially in samples processed
at a higher 34-m vibration amplitude.
It was speculated that the 28-m vibration amplitude was not large
enough to have an accumulative effect
on lowering the bulk hardness of the
underneath foils and almost all hardness drop took place in a single pass.
The accumulative effect of thermomechanical loading conditions during
ultrasonic additive manufacturing has
already been studied in previous works
(Refs. 19, 20), which report that this
mechanism was related to relative
shear displacement of bonded and ma-

trix regions well below the current layer that was being welded. In contrast,
the 34-m vibration amplitude from
the SL7200 machine was high enough
to cause an additional input of energy
or power into the bottom layers where
the accumulative effect occurred.
It was also worth noting that although the process parameters of samples TB-10-28-5340 and SL-66-285340 are similar, their overall bulk
hardness values were different. However, this experiment did not provide
concrete evidence of why the SL7200
machine caused a larger drop in hardness as compared to the TB machine.
In order to assess the effect of ultrasonic power on the change in the
bulk hardness of VHP-UAM samples,
Fig. 6 demonstrates the measured
electrical power drawn from the TB
machine during VHP-UAM of the
three samples. It is known that during
UAM and VHP-UAM, the measured
electrical power drawn from the UAM
and VHP-UAM machine increased
with the higher levels of normal force
and vibration amplitude (Ref. 20). It
was seen that the amount of electrical
power drawn was greatly affected by
increasing the vibration amplitude but
was less affected by increasing the normal force. When the vibration amplitude of 28 m was used in sample TB10-28-5340, the average power was
550 W as compared to as high as 1189
W in sample TB-10-38-4000 and 1234
W in sample TB-10-38-8000 when vibration amplitudes were set at 38 m.
It was also noticed that in all three
samples, the power seemed to reach
the maximum around 2.5 s. This was
possibly related to the increase in
rigidity or stiffness during vibrations
in VHP-UAM where the sonotrode had
a solid grip on the foil and the base
plate, and larger power were necessary
to maintain the same amount of vibration amplitudes.
Since the levels of power vs. time
oscillated without a unique trend in
each weld pass, the average power
used to bond each layer is plotted in
Fig. 7 against the layer number from
bottom to top of VHP-UAM samples
for better comparison. It can be seen
that the actual average power level
used gradually decreased with increasing build height or in the higher layers
bonded, i.e., it took less power to produce the same vibration amplitude

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 190


Fig. 9 Schematic of change in stored energy in Al3003 foil dur

ing the following: A Conventional thermomechanical process
ing; B UAM, VHPUAM, and postprocessing heattreatment.

when the build got higher. The result

also showed that the average required
power tended to increase with increasing vibration amplitude, i.e., from 28
to 34 m or 38 m.
Although it is difficult to distinguish whether the power increased
with normal force at constant vibration amplitude at first, the result of
samples SL-80-34-4000 and SL-80-348000 revealed that higher power was
needed when higher normal force and
vibration amplitude were used. However, at a higher weld speed of 42.7
mm/s, the trend of decreasing in average power with increasing layer number no longer existed. Thus, in order to
produce a certain combination of vibration amplitude and normal force at
a higher build height, the actual
amount of power required may increase or decrease with build height.

Effect of Process Parameters on
Hardness Variation
The average hardness of Al3003H18 foil after VHP-UAM varied with
vibration amplitude and normal force
as well as weld speed used to fabricate
the samples. The power level used during welding increased with higher vibration amplitude and normal force
during process parameter settings. It
was also learned that the power level

drawn also changed with weld speed

used. In order to correlate the average
input power to the average bulk hardness of Al3003-H18 foil after VHPUAM, Fig. 8 plots the correlation between these two of all samples made
with the TB machine and the SL7200
machine for those layers bonded at a
constant 35.6 mm/s weld speed. It can
be seen that the data from the sample
made with low amplitude (28 m) belonged to low power (below 650 W),
and those made with high amplitudes
(34 and 38 m) belonged to high power (above 650 W).
It was noted the vertical line at 650
W was drawn and delineated the two
data points and facilitated the interpretation of the data in this study. It
was found there is an obvious correlation between a decrease in hardness of
Al3003-H18 foil with increasing power
level used during VHP-UAM for both
machines. Also, the average bulk hardness values of samples made with TB
machine was above those of samples
made with the SL7200 machine, and
the hardness of samples made with
low amplitude was usually larger than
those made with high amplitude. Since
the VHP-UAM power supplies were
engineered to provide specific amplitude at the horn face under all conditions, the vibration amplitude for each
sample was considered to be constant
in each sample regardless of the actual
power level measured. As the build got
higher, the stiffness of the build was

190-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

reduced, meaning less power was required to produce the same amount of
amplitude when bonding upper layers.
In addition, the design of the fixture
was very different between the TB machine and SL7200 machine; typically,
it was relatively difficult to get as solid
a grip on the baseplate on the TB machine as compared to the SL7200 machine. Thus, the TB machine provided
less stiffness during VHP-UAM and
caused different amounts of energy
dissipation into the foil, resulting in
higher final hardness in the asprocessed condition despite using similar power. However, this subject is not
the current focus of this research and
the subtle difference of the existing ultrasonic actuators is the subject of ongoing research at Fabrisonic.
The data in Fig. 8 also shows hardness drop from the original Al3003H18 foil hardness. There is a larger
drop in hardness (i.e., more softening
behavior taking place in the bulk of
the foil during VHP-UAM processing)
when higher vibration amplitude and
power were used. Although the hardness values of samples TB-10-38-4000
were slightly lower than the hardness
of sample TB-10-38-8000, there was
hardly any difference in hardness values between samples SL-80-34-4000
and SL-80-34-5340. This implied that
there existed some ranges of vibration
amplitudes and power levels at which
increasing in normal force resulted in
higher bulk hardness of Al3003-H18

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 191

vibration amplitude.
Thus, the amount of
plastic deformation and
plastic heating at the interface was larger at a
higher vibration amplitude. This was confirmed by higher thickness reduction of
Al3003-H18 foil at a
higher normal force and
a higher vibration amplitude in samples TB10-28-8000 and SL-8034-5340.
Figure 9 displays the
schematic of the stored
energy change during
typical thermo-mechanical processing of
Al3003. It is known that
after rolling or cold
working, the material
possesses higher stored
energy in the form of a
larger volume of dislocations, grain boundaries,
and smaller grain sizes,
Fig. 10 Microstructures variations in the top three layers
while upon hot working
of Al3003H18 VHPUAM samples. A Asprocessed TB
the material achieves an
10285340; B heattreated 343C, 2 h, TB10285340.
intermediate energy
The images are obtained from an image quality map using
state (Ref. 21). During
the electron backscattered diffraction technique.
onset of dynamic recrysfoil in VHP-UAM samples. Therefore,
tallization and dynamic recovery took
with careful consideration between ulplace in the Al3003-H18 microstructrasonic power and bulk foil hardness,
ture. Depending on whether the relait may be possible to use the power
tive amount of additional stored enerlevel in addition to other process pagy through plastic deformation or the
rameters as a means to achieve the dereleased energy via dynamic recovery
sired homogeneity or range of the bulk
and dynamic recrystallization, the fihardness or bulk material properties
nal energy in the as-processed UAM or
of VHP-UAM samples.
VHP-UAM condition may be larger or
smaller than the initial energy state of
as-received Al3003-H18 foil. Since
Microstructure and Properties
UAM has less power than VHP-UAM
and thus less energy during processing, the temperature rise and plastic
deformation may not be high enough
In order to understand the hardento produce extensive volume of dying and softening behavior of Al3003namic recrystallization, the final
H18 foils in VHP-UAM samples, it
stored energy of UAM was expected to
was important to analyze the linkage
be higher than that of VHP-UAM.
between processing and material
Thus, the hardening could be reproperties by looking at the thermoferred to as the increase in stored enmechanical cycles in VHP-UAM. Durergy in lower power UAM and the
ing VHP-UAM, the level of cyclic desoftening was referred to as the deformation increased with an increased
crease in stored energy in higher
number of welding passes or number
power VHP-UAM as shown in Fig. 9B.
of layers deposited on top. The
The lower hardness results in this
amount of shear deformation felt at
work supported this phenomena that
the interface also rose with increased

when large vibration amplitude or

larger power was used, the microstructure released the additional
energy through dynamic recrystallization, dynamic recovery, and grain
growth resulting in the final microstructure, which was different
from the one processed with lower vibration amplitude or lower power.
The effect of processing parameters
on the change in microstructure is
the subject of the ongoing research of
the authors (Ref. 22).
Figure 10 illustrates the microstructure of selected TB-10-28-5340
VHP-UAM samples in as-processed
and heat-treated (343C for 2 h) conditions (Ref. 22). The onset of dynamic recrystallization can be clearly
seen in the interface regions of the
as-processed sample, especially at the
interface of layer 8, where equiaxed
grains are present and the color of the
grains are brighter (grains are clearly
defined and can be seen as white or
brighter grains in image quality map).
It was also noted that the bulk microstructure was mainly very small
and elongated grains in the asprocessed condition turned into
much larger grains after heat treatment at 343C for 2 h, which was
similar to the UAM microstructures
found by Schick (Ref. 23). This confirmed that upon heat treatment, the
microstructure in the bulk region of
Al3003-H18 VHP-UAM build
processed at 28-m vibration amplitude underwent static recrystallization and grain growth resulting in final bulk hardness of 40 VHN similar
to the hardness of heat-treated original foil.

Variation of Hardness with

Positions and Layers
The reason why each VHP-UAM
samples had different trends of decreasing, increasing, or consistent bulk
hardness values from bottom layers to
top layers was mainly due to the bulk
foil undergoing hardening behavior
and softening behavior at the same
time. In VHP-UAM samples, the heating during the thermo-mechanical
phase softened the foil via dynamic recovery, but the normal compressive
force gave additional hardening of the
bulk foil via warm or hot working.

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:06 AM Page 192

Hence, the trend of increasing or decreasing depended on which effect was
higher between hardening behavior
through additional work hardening
and softening through adiabatic heating, which induced the dynamic recovery process. Sriraman et al. reported
peaks of transient temperature exist at
the bottom interfaces, while another
layer was deposited during VHP-UAM
(Ref. 20). This means that although
the peak temperatures at the interface
may not be as high (in the order of
100150C), and the duration of
those peak temperatures may be relatively short (in the order of 50 ms),
changes in hardness was possible as a
result of changes in microstructure
and reduction in foil thickness.
When larger shear deformation occurred at the interface as a result of
higher vibration amplitude, there was
more accumulated dislocation density
and higher stored energy in the foil.
The higher stored energy together
with increasing temperature during
VHP-UAM process enhanced the driving force for dynamic recovery and/or
dynamic recrystallization to occur, and
thus resulted in decreased bulk foil
hardness. It was also noted that the increased weld speed during metallic
bonding above the 50th layer resulted
in less heat dissipation time. This can
also give rise in the degree of softening effect in the bottom layers of VHPUAM samples fabricated from the
SL7200 machine.
Sriraman et al. also reported the decrease in peak temperatures at the
bonded interfaces at taller build height
or when more layers were deposited
due to lower ultrasonic energy transmitted into the sample (Ref. 20). Their
finding agrees well with the current result, where the ultrasonic power decreases with increasing build height as
less ultrasonic power was supplied by
the VHP-UAM machine while metallic
bonding an additional layer as the
sample gets taller. This result also
agreed with the observed phenomenon of a lack of bonding with an increase in specimen height, as demonstrated by Gilbert (Ref. 24).
However, this hypothesis is yet to
be proven. It is also possible that the
vibration of the whole dynamic system during VHP-UAM, while the
sonotrode is in contact with the sample, could generate different vibration

modes that affect the actual power

drawn. For example, the vibration
modes and the stick or slip between
sonotrode and top foil surface may
play a crucial role in determining the
actual amount of ultrasonic energy
dissipated and going into the bonded
interfaces (Refs. 2527). The different vibration modes and magnitudes
in the TB machine and the SL7200
machine may yield the answer to why
the hardness and power correlations
are unique for each VHP-UAM system
and sample size.

Increases in vibration amplitude
and normal force resulted in large
deformation in the bulk of VHP-UAM
samples, as seen in a large reduction
in thickness of VHP-UAM samples
processed at larger vibration
The hardness in taller VHP-UAM
samples showed a trend of lower hardness in bottom layers and higher hardness in top layers, which was largely
due to the accumulative effects of
thermo-mechanical cycles of plastic
deformation and heating generated at
each interface.
After heat treatment at 343C for
2 h, all layers of Al3003-H18 foils in
VHP-UAM samples reached the same
final hardness (near 40 VHN) and
were the same as the heat-treated
original foil, implying the onset of recrystallization occurred.
As the build got taller, less power
was used to provide specific amplitude
and thus less change in stored energy,
microstructure, and hardness compared to the original as-received
Al3003-H18 foil.
There is a correlation between
hardness and ultrasonic power, where
hardness of Al3003-H18 foils decreased with increased ultrasonic power drawn from VHP-UAM systems.

The authors would like to thank Dr.

Sriraman Ramanujam, Fabrisonic, and
the Edison Welding Institute for their
support of equipment and materials
and assisting in preparing VHP-UAM
samples for this research.

192-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

1. White, D. R. 2003. Ultrasonic consolidation of aluminum tooling. Advanced Materials and Processes 161(1): 6465.
2. Schick, D. E., Hahnlen, R. M., Dehoff,
R., Collins, P., Babu, S. S., Dapino, M. J.,
and Lippold, J. C. 2010. Microstructural
characterization of bonding interfaces in
aluminum 3003 blocks fabricated by ultrasonic additive manufacturing. Welding
Journal 89(5): 105-s to 115-s.
3. Yang, Y., Janaki Ram, G. D., and
Stucker, B. E. 2009. Bond formation and
fiber embedment during ultrasonic consolidation. Journal of Materials Processing
Technology 209(10): 49154924.
4. Sriraman, M. R., Babu, S. S., and
Short, M. 2010. Bonding characteristics
during very high power ultrasonic additive
manufacturing of copper. Scripta Materialia
62(8): 560563.
5. Graff, K. F., Short, M., and Norfolk,
M. 2010. Very high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing (VHP UAM) for advanced materials. Proc. SFF Symposium
2010: 82.
6. Vries, E. D. 2004. Mechanics and
mechanisms of ultrasonic metal welding.
PhD dissertation, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio..
7. Adams, B. L., Nylander, C., Aydelotte,
B., Ahmadi, S., Landon, C., Stucker, B. E.,
and Janaki Ram, G. D. 2008. Accessing the
elastic-plastic properties closure by rotation and lamination. Acta Materialia 56(1):
8. Ram, G. D. J., Robinson, C., Yang, Y.,
and Stucker, B. E. 2007. Use of ultrasonic
consolidation for fabrication of multimaterial structures. Rapid Prototyping Journal 13(4): 226235.
9. Norfolk, M., and Johnson, H. 2015.
Solid-state additive manufacturing for heat
exchangers. JOM 67(3): 655659.
10. Hopkins, C. D., Wolcott, P. J.,
Dapino, M. J., Truog, A. G., Babu, S. S., and
Fernandez, S. A. 2012. Optimizing ultrasonic additive manufactured Al 3003 properties with statistical modeling. Journal of
Engineering Materials and Technology,
Transactions of the ASME 134(1).
11. Kong, C. Y., Soar, R. C., and Dickens, P. M. 2004. Ultrasonic consolidation
for embedding SMA fibres within aluminium matrices. Composite Structures 66(1-4):
12. Kong, C. Y., Soar, R. C., and Dickens, P. M. 2004. Optimum process parameters for ultrasonic consolidation of 3003
aluminium. Journal of Materials Processing
Technology 146(2): 181187.
13. Kulakov, M., and Rack, H. J. 2009.
Control of 3003-H18 aluminum ultrasonic
consolidation. Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Transactions of the

Sojiphan 6-16_Layout 1 5/16/16 2:01 PM Page 193

ASME 131(2).
14. Janaki Ram, G. D., Yang, Y., and
Stucker, B. E. 2006. Effect of process parameters on bond formation during ultrasonic consolidation of aluminum Alloy
3003. Journal of Manufacturing Systems
25(3): 221238.
15. Ji, H., Wang, J., and Li, M. 2012.
Microstructure evolution of 1100 Al alloy
multi-foils during ultrasonic additive manufacturing. Proc. 13th International Conference on Electronic Packaging Technology and
High Density Packaging., pp. 15861589.
16. Kong, C. Y., Soar, R. C., and Dickens,
P. M. 2005. A model for weld strength in ultrasonically consolidated components. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science 219(1): 8391.
17. Li, D., and Soar, R. C. 2008. Plastic
flow and work hardening of Al alloy matrices during ultrasonic consolidation fibre
embedding process. Materials Science and
Engineering A 498(1-2): 421429.
18. Fujii, H. T., Sriraman, M. R., and
Babu, S. S. 2011. Quantitative evaluation

of bulk and interface microstructures in Al3003 alloy builds made by very high power
ultrasonic additive manufacturing. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A
Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
42(13): 40454055.
19. Schick, D., Babu, S. S., Foster, D.,
Short, M., Dapino, M., and Lippold, J. C.
2011. Transient thermal response in ultrasonic additive manufacturing of aluminum
3003. Rapid Prototyping 17(5): 369379.
20. Sriraman, M. R., Gonser, M., Foster,
D., Fujii, H. T., Babu, S. S., and Bloss, M.
2012. Thermal transients during processing of 3003 Al-H18 multilayer build by
very high-power ultrasonic additive manufacturing. Metallurgical and Materials
Transactions B: Process Metallurgy and Materials Processing Science 43(1): 133144.
21. Humphreys, F. J., and Hatherly, M.
2004. Recrystallization and Related Annealing Phenomena. 2nd edition. Elsevier.
22. Sojiphan, K. 2015. Effect of very
high power ultrasonic additive manufacturing process parameters on hardness,
microstructure, and texture of aluminum

3003-H18 alloy. PhD dissertation, The

Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.
23. Schick, D. E. 2009. Characterization
of Aluminum 3003 ultrasonic additive
manufacturing. M.S. thesis, The Ohio
State University, Columbus, Ohio.
24. Gibert, J. M., McCullough, D. T.,
Fadel, G. M., and Johnson, K. E. 2012. Examination of build height in ultrasonic
consolidation for foil width specimens using supports. Proc. SFF Symposium 2012:
25. Gibert, J. M., Austin, E. M., and
Fadel, G. 2010. Effect of height to width
ratio on the dynamics of ultrasonic consolidation. Rapid Prototyping Journal 16(4):
26. Gibert, J. M., Fadel, G., and Daqaq,
M. F. 2013. On the stick-slip dynamics
in ultrasonic additive manufacturing.
Journal of Sound and Vibration 332 (19):
27. Zhang, C. S., and Li, L. 2010. Effect
of substrate dimensions on dynamics of ultrasonic consolidation. Ultrasonics 50(8):

The Welding Journal staff encourages an exchange of ideas with you, our readers. If youd like to ask a question, share an
idea, or voice an opinion, you can call, write, e-mail or fax. Staff e-mail addresses are listed below, along with a guide to help
you interact with the right person.
Andrew Cullison, Extension 249
Article Submissions
Mary Ruth Johnsen,
Extension 238
Feature Articles
Features Editor
Kristin Campbell,
Extension 257
News of the Industry
Press Time News
Assistant Editor
Annik Babinski,
Extension 256
Section News, Personnel

Assistant Editor
Melissa Gomez,
Extension 475
Society News,
International News,
and Product & Print Spotlight
Production Manager
Zaida Chavez, Extension 265
Design and Production
Senior Production Coordinator
Brenda Flores, Extension 330
Senior Advertising Executive
Annette Delagrange,
Extension 332
Advertising Sales

Senior Advertising Executive

Sandra Jorgensen,
Extension 254
Advertising Sales
Manager of Advertising Sales
Lea Paneca, Extension 220
Promotion and Adverrtising
Senior Advertising Production
Frank Wilson, Extension 465
Advertising Production
Welding Journal Dept.
8669 NW 36th St. #130
Miami, FL 33166
(800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-7404


Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 194


CurrentIndependent Metal Transfer by Using

Pulsed Laser Irradiation Part 2: Affecting Factors
Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of laser positioning, laser pulse
waveform, and arc parameters on successful pulse transfer and deflection minimization


The ideal currentindependent metal transfer characterized by ensured robust droplet
detachment at a relatively small size at any reasonable low current, which can sustain the
arc, has been successfully realized in the first part of this study by applying a highpower
density pulsed fiber laser to irradiate the droplet neck. The desired onedropletperlaser
pulse (ODPP) mode was ensured. The droplet flying trajectory deflected from the wire
axial due to the use of a single laser. This second part of the study focuses on how relevant
parameters influence the metal transfer behavior, especially the droplet deflection that af
fects the controllability of bead formation. To facilitate the study, the relevant parameters
were categorized into three major types: laser positioning, laser pulse waveform, and arc
parameters. A series of experiments was conducted to examine their effects on successful
ODPP transfer and deflection minimization. In particular, the optimal laser incident point
and angle for most submissive droplet detachment and smallest droplet deflection were
first determined. Secondly, the minimums of the laser peak power and duration for stable
ODPP were determined. Finally, the droplet deflections under different welding currents
in the desirable low range, as well as different torch orientations and arc lengths, were
measured and analyzed.

Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW) Process Control Metal Transfer
Droplet Laser Irradiation

In conventional gas metal arc welding (GMAW), the metal transfer mode
is dominantly determined by the welding current. Relatively low currents
produce short-circuiting or large drop
globular transfer, which typically generates spatter and unstable arcs. To
produce more desirable drop spray
transfers, a current higher than the
spray transition current is needed. Unfortunately, such currents cause signif-

icant increases in heat input and arc

pressure (Refs. 14). In particular, as
found by Mendez and his associates,
droplet temperature reaches a minimum at the transition from globular to
spray transfer by currents slightly lower than the transition current (Ref. 5).
As such, the properties of the resultant
process, including, but not limited to,
metal transfer, arc, and heat input,
strongly depend on the current that is
used to detach the droplet. An ideal
GMAW process calls for an ideal metal

transfer controllability (droplet detachment ability) that is current independent, i.e., can detach the droplet at any
current in the reasonable range as demanded by the application. Such ideal
current-independent metal transfer
control is especially crucial for advanced applications like welding of ultrathin sheets and additive manufacturing that demand precise process
As has been reviewed in the first
part of this study, many innovations,
such as surface tension transfer (STT),
cold metal transfer (CMT), and ultrasonic assisted GMAW, have achieved
significant improvements on metal
transfer control by electrical, magnetical, mechanical, and radiating ways
(Refs. 619). However, they all are still
far away from the ultimate/ideal goal:
current-independent metal transfer,
i.e., detaching droplets of the desired
size at any current in the reasonable
range especially at reasonably low current for free flight transfer.
A recent innovation having the potential toward this ultimate goal for
the ideal metal transfer control is laserenhanced GMAW, proposed and continuously studied at the University of
Kentucky. Huang explored the use of a
direct diode laser (862 W, 14 1-mm
focus line) to irradiate the droplet
(Refs. 2022). However, the enhancement on the metal transfer controllability is quite weak due to the very low

J. XIAO and S. J. CHEN ( are with the Engineering Research Center of Advanced Manufacturing Technology for Automo
tive Components, Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing, China. J. XIAO is also with the Institute for Sustainable Man
ufacturing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky. G. J. ZHANG is with the State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin In
stitute of Technology, China. Y. M. ZHANG ( is with the Institute for Sustainable Manufacturing and Department of
Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.

194-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 195


Fig. 2 Illustration of laser setup parameters.

Fig. 1 Sketch of experimental system.

laser power density. Shao continued

the effort in this direction, but the focus was to track the droplet in real
time in order to apply the laser pulse
at the right time to the right location
(Refs. 23, 24).
As a further significant evolution in
this direction, the first part of this
study used a pulsed fiber laser and
focused it into a 0.5-mm-diameter
spot to irradiate the droplet. Currentindependent metal transfer was successfully obtained by applying a
1200-W laser pulse for 5 ms (Ref. 25).
Although the welding current was
only 40 A, the detached droplet diameter was approximately only 1 mm.
Since the sum of the electromagnetic
force, plasma dragging force, and
droplet gravitational force was much
smaller than the retaining force, i.e.,
the surface tension, it is apparent
that the detachment was dominated
by the laser pulse rather than the
welding current. The droplet detachment was thus independent of the
current. The metal transfer frequency
was exactly the same with the laser
pulse frequency. The metal transfer
mode was exactly ODPP.
Although current-independent
metal transfer has been successfully
obtained by applying a high-powerdensity laser pulse, the parameters
were experimentally determined without systematic understanding of how
relevant parameters and resultant
transfer are related and how the parameters should be determined. As
such, this second part of the study is

Fig. 3 Illustration of laser incident point on droplet.

Fig. 4 Metal transfer with laser aimed at droplet neck, 60deg incident angle.

devoted to gaining such a systematic

understanding through experiments
and analysis. The major relevant parameters to be studied and analyzed
include the following three types:
Laser Positioning Parameters, including the laser incident point on the
droplet and laser incident angle .
They are the two most important parameters since they influence the laser
recoil force and droplet reaction.
Laser Waveform Parameters, including the laser peak power, peak duration, and pulse frequency. They directly determine if the droplet can be
detached by the laser pulse. The minimum laser peak power and duration

need to be determined to ensure the

detachment will be successful while
still minimizing the needed laser pulse
Welding Arc Parameters, including
the welding current, gun angle, and
arc length. These parameters all significantly influence the welding process
of conventional GMAW. It is thus also
crucial to understand how they affect
the laser-droplet interaction behavior.

Experimental System
Figure 1 shows the experimental
configuration the same as the one
used in the first part of this study. The

Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 196


Table 1 Laser Incident Angle in

Experiments 48

Fig. 5 Metal transfer with the laser aimed at different positions on the droplet.
A Laser aimed at droplet midtop position; B laser aimed at droplet wiretip position;
C laser aimed at droplet mid position; D laser aimed at droplet midbottom position.

fiber laser is operated at the pulsed

mode and focused into a 0.5-mm-diameter spot. The power source runs at
the constant-current (CC) mode. Other fixed experimental parameters include the arc length (6 mm), contact
tip to work-piece distance (13 mm),
wire (0.8-mm- diameter ER70S-6
wire), shield gas (pure argon, 15
L/min), and travel speed (3 mm/s).
The laser installation is shown in Fig.
2. Given the laser position, the laser
incident point on the droplet can be
open-loop controlled by matching with
the arc length. A machine-vision system was used to monitor the droplet
position and, thus, to double ensure
the laser was aimed/applied at the desired position. Unless otherwise specified, a 1200 W 5ms laser pulse was

applied to the droplet neck at 25 Hz

while the tilting angle of the gun was
zero; the welding current was constant
at 80 A; and metal transfer images are
shown with a 1-ms time interval. The
first frame of each figure corresponds
exactly to the starting moment of the
laser pulse.

Results and Discussion

Laser Positioning Parameters
Laser Incident Point. The optimal
laser incident point should be the first
to determine. The laser droplet interaction mode would be totally different
when the laser is aimed at different positions on the droplet, as shown in Fig.

196-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95


Laser Incident Angle




3. The first part of this study conducted

a preliminary comparison on the resultant metal transfer with two different
incident points: droplet neck and midtop position. Figure 4 shows the desired submissive metal transfer can be
achieved by aiming the laser at the
droplet neck. Figure 5A, already presented in Ref. 23, shows the metal
transfer becomes violent and a slight
droplet burst is induced when the laser
incident point is slightly moved downward to the droplet mid-top. The optimal laser incident point has already
been determined to be the droplet neck
in the first part of this study. Only
when the laser spot is aimed at the
droplet neck can the metal transfer be
submissive without laser-induced explosion, and the detaching ability of the
given laser pulse is maximized.
For this paper, the laser aiming
point was moved upward/downward
to further examine/analyze the effect
of the incident location. Experiments
13 were thus conducted with the
laser incident angle set at 60 deg for
three additional incident locations
wire tip, droplet mid, and mid-bottom
positions. Figure 5BD shows the typical metal transfer in Experiments 13
with the laser being aimed at these additional locations.
One can see in Frame 4 of Fig. 5B
that the laser pulse aimed at the wire
tip does dig a shallow groove on the
solid wire but cannot penetrate the
wire. It is interesting to note that the
laser impulse to the wire seems to
have been conducted to the liquid
droplet and thus excited the droplet
into oscillation. In particular, Frame 7
corresponds to the moment the
droplet reaches its maximum elongation, after which the droplet springs
back to the wire tip and the oscillation
starts. The detailed scientific mechanism on such excitation of droplet oscillation is currently not quite clear

Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 197


Fig. 7 Effect of laser incident angle on

metal transfer.

Fig. 6 Metal transfer under different laser incident angles: A = 85 deg; B = 75

deg; C = 60 deg; D = 45 deg; E = 30 deg.

and needs more study.

When the laser was aimed on the
droplet midposition, one can see from
Fig. 5C that the droplet was instantly
broken through by the laser such that
the droplet surface deformed intensively. The droplet was finally detached but with significant offset from
the wire axial direction, similar to the
repelled globular transfer in CO2 welding. In this way, the laser detaching
mechanism no longer lies in the laser
cutting effect, but the laser repelling
effect. Nonuniform bead formation is
typically expected in this case.
When the incident point moves further downward to the droplet midbottom, the droplet is violently repelled by the laser pulse. However,
since the incident point is too low, the
repelled droplet may deviate from the
laser irradiation, such that the laser

recoil force no longer exists after an

initial droplet deflection and the
droplet thus cannot be detached.
The experiment results of this subsection further prove that the droplet
neck is the optimal laser incident
point for obtaining the desired droplet
detachment. Thereby, the laser pulse
was aimed at the droplet neck as the
default in the experiments that follow.
Laser Incident Angle. Another important laser positioning parameter is
the laser incident angle that determines the laser penetration path and
direction inside the droplet. Experiments 48 were thus conducted to verify its effect on the metal transfer. The
laser incident angle changed from 30
to 85 deg, as shown in Table 1. The 90deg laser incident angle meant the
laser beam was perpendicular with the
wire. Typical metal transfer under

these different laser incident angles is

shown in Fig. 6AE.
Since the first part of this study
verified the direction of the laser recoil
force is coincident with the normal of
the irradiated local surface of the
droplet, the initial direction of the
laser recoil force at the very starting
moment of the laser pulse during Experiments 48 was believed to be the
same. However, the laser digging and
penetrating direction indeed changed
with the incident angle. Once an initial
groove formed at the droplet neck, the
laser recoil direction consequently
changed. As Fig. 6A, E shows, the
droplet surface deformations under
85- and 30-deg incident angles are apparently different. It can be seen the
laser tried to cut through the droplet
main body rather than the droplet
neck when a 30-deg incident angle was
used. The metal transfer thus looks
not sufficiently submissive, because
the intensive laser-induced vaporization inside the liquid droplet resulted
in a light explosion. In this sense, a
too-small incident angle is not recommended for use.
Figure 7 shows the measured
droplet velocity and deflection from
Experiments 48. It can be seen the
droplet deflection first decreased before the incident angle reached 45 deg,
because the radial component of the
laser recoil force increased. However,
when the laser incident angle was as

Table 2 Droplet Deection and Velocity Measured from Experiments 14 and 15


Laser Pulse Frequency

Droplet Deection (deg)

Droplet Velocity (mm/s)






Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 198


Fig. 8 Metal transfer under different laser peak powers: A 90%; B 60%.
Fig. 9 Effect of laser peak power on drop
deflection and velocity.

Fig. 10 Typical metal transfer with different laser pulse frequences: A 10 Hz; B 20 Hz.

small as 30 deg, the laser was no

longer aimed at the droplet neck but at
the droplet main body after the initial
droplet deformation/elongation occurred. The focused laser beam was
thus surrounded by the relatively thick
liquid droplet.
Due to the effect of the surface
tension and the gravitational force of
the liquid metal above the laser penetrating path, the laser could not dig
the droplet surface into a groove
shape and then cut it off. Further,
with a smaller laser incident angle,
the droplet deflection tended to make
the droplet move away from the laser
irradiation, thus further weakening
the laser digging effect in the laser incident direction. The radial component of the laser recoil force became
the primary, which consequently increased the droplet deflection. On the
other hand, the velocity of the detached droplet measured from Experiments 48 did not demonstrate sig-

nificant differences. With respect to

the smaller droplet deflection, the optimal range of laser incident angle
was determined to be 4560 deg. If
not otherwise specified, the laser incident angle was fixed at 45 deg as
the default in the experiments that

Laser Pulse Waveform

After the optimal laser positioning
parameters were determined, the next
task was to determine the minimum
laser peak power and duration that
could achieve robust ODPP metal
transfer. Given the laser spot diameter, the laser peak power determined
the laser power density, thus determining the amplitude of the laser recoil pressure that determined if the
droplet neck could be effectively dug,
while the laser peak duration determined if the laser had an adequate
time to penetrate the whole wire and

Table 3 Varying Parameters in Experiments 1719


Current (A)

Laser Pulse Frequency (Hz)




198-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

cut off the droplet neck. Therefore, the

effect of laser peak power and duration are analyzed in this subsection.
Laser Peak Power. Experiments
911 used laser peak power of 90%
(1400 W), 60% (950 W), and 45% (700
W), respectively. Other parameters
were the same as those in Experiment
7. The result of Experiment 7 thus was
used as the reference for comparison.
High-speed images show the droplet
could not be robustly detached when
only 45% of the laser peak power was
used. Approximately 25% of the
droplets could not be detached by a single laser pulse. Hence, Fig. 8 only shows
the metal transfer under 60% and 90%
of the laser peak power. Droplet deflection and velocity are measured and
shown in Fig. 9. It can be seen that
droplet deflection under 90% and 75%
of the laser peak power is quite close.
However, when the power of the laser
pulse was reduced to 60% of the peak
power, the droplet deflection significantly increased by 147% to 42 deg;
meanwhile, the droplet velocity also
significantly decreased. Overall, the
droplet velocity /deflection
increased/decreased as the laser pulse
power increased but the increase/decrease was getting slower. The preferred result is the combination of a
moderate droplet velocity ensuring the
detachment and relatively small deflections ensuring the bead formation.
From this point of view, among the
three levels of pulse power, 75% (1200
W) was considered moderate.
Laser Peak Duration. In fact, one
can see from Fig. 6 that almost all the
droplets were fully detached from the
wire tip after 5 ms of the laser pulse
application. Even using 90% of laser
peak power for ensuring definitely ad-

Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 199


Fig. 12 Droplet deflection under different
welding currents.

Fig. 11 Metal transfer under different welding currents: A Welding current I = 120 A,
laser pulse frequency 33 Hz; B welding current I = 80 A, laser pulse frequency 20 Hz;
C welding current I = 40 A, laser pulse frequency 10 Hz.

the droplet deflections look increased

when the laser pulse frequency was increasing. The droplet velocity and deflection in Experiments 14 and 15 are
measured and shown in Table 2 for
quantitative analysis. It can be seen
that the droplet deflection and velocity both increased significantly when
the laser pulse frequency was increased from 10 to 20 Hz, as can be
predicted by the theorem of momentum, given the laser pulse, the smaller
droplet mass, the larger droplet velocity, and thus the larger deflection.

Welding Arc Parameters

Fig. 13 Illustration of weld gun orientation: A Gun tilting left; B gun tilting right.

equate laser recoil force, it still took at

least 4 ms to fully detach the droplet,
as can be seen from Fig. 8A. These results imply that 5 ms should be the
minimum laser peak duration to ensure a robust droplet detachment.
However, it was still in the authors interest to know what would happen if a
shorter laser pulse was used. Experiments 12 and 13 were thus conducted
with 3- and 4-ms laser pulse duration.
The laser pulse power was set at 90%
to guarantee the laser recoil pressure
would be sufficiently high. Experimental results show almost no droplets
could be detached by a laser pulse with
3-ms duration. Instead, the droplets
could be detached by the laser pulse
with 4-ms duration with approximately
75% rate. Hence, 5-ms laser pulse duration was confirmed to be the minimum
to ensure a stable current-independent
droplet detachment for the wire used.

Laser Pulse Frequency. Since the

metal transfer mode in pulsed lasercontrolled GMAW is actually ODPP
(one drop per laser pulse) transfer, the
laser pulse frequency exactly determines the metal transfer frequency.
Given the welding current, the laser
pulse frequency actually determines
the time for the droplet to grow.
Hence, the effect of the laser frequency on the metal transfer is actually the
effect of the droplet mass at the detaching moment. Experiments 1416
used 10-, 20-, and 30-Hz laser pulse
frequency, respectively. The welding
current was fixed at 40 A.
It is found that the metal transfer
in Experiment 16, with 30-Hz laser
pulse frequency, became unstable.
Typical metal transfers in the Experiments 14 and 15 are shown in Fig.
10AC. It can be seen that the detached droplet was getting smaller and

Welding current, gun orientation,

and arc length are the three crucial parameters in conventional GMAW. It
was expected they might also influence the laser pulse-controlled metal
transfer to a certain extent. Therefore,
a series of experiments was conducted
in this subsection to explore the effect
of these parameters on the metal
transfer, step by step.
Welding Current. The welding current determines the electromagnetic
force acting on the droplet. Although
the electromagnetic force under a low
current is not sufficient to detach the
droplet by itself, it does produce certain effects on the laser-dominated
metal transfer process. Table 3 shows
the welding current used in Experiments 1719. The laser pulse frequency changed with the current in order
to control the droplet growing period
such that the initial droplet size at the
laser pulse emitting moment was approximately the same in these three
Figure 11AC shows typical metal
transfer behaviors in Experiments

Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 200


Fig. 14 Metal transfer under different gun orientations: A Gun tilting left; B gun
tilting right.
Fig. 15 Effect of gun orientation on
droplet deflection.

Fig. 16 Laser pulsecontrolled metal transfer with short arc.

1719. The presented high-speed image sequences show the droplet deflection tended to decrease with the welding current, given the laser pulse energy and droplet size.
The droplet deflections in Experiments 1419 were measured and are
shown in Fig. 12. As can be seen, the
droplet radial deflection was almost
negligible when the droplet was surrounded by the 120-A current arc.
This is explainable because the droplet
was actually surrounded and restrained by the arc-related forces,
mainly the electromagnetic force and
plasma dragging force. The electromagnetic force is proportional to the
square of the welding current. The
higher the current is, the more axially
restrained the droplet becomes; therefore, the smaller the deflection will be.
Gun Orientation. During GMAW,
the arc, reflected by the arc shape, affects the distribution of the arc forces.
In laser pulse-controlled GMAW,
droplet detachment and flying trajectory may be affected by changing the
arc deflection. In Experiments 20 and
21, the gun was tilted right and left,
respectively, for 15 deg. In particular,
the laser incident angle was changed
to 75 deg to avoid blocking of the laser
beam when tilting the gun. The results
of Experiment 5, where is zero and
the other parameters were the same,
are also referred for comparison. Figure 13 illustrates tilting of the gun and
Fig. 14 shows typical metal transfers

in Experiments 20 and 21. It can be

seen that droplet deflection was effectively reduced by intentionally tilting
the gun against the laser beam, because the arc forces in this case would
push the droplet against the laser impulse to a certain extent even though
the arc forces generated by an 80-A
welding current are relatively small.
Arc Length. In the experiments
presented previously, the arc length
was controlled to be stable at 6 mm.
Experiment 22 switched to a shorter
arc length, 4 mm, to examine the effect of the arc length on the resultant
metal transfer behavior. The welding
current was 80 A, the laser pulse was
1200 W 5 ms, and the pulse frequency was 25 Hz. The laser incident angle
was 60 deg. Figure 16 shows the typical metal transfer in Experiment 22.
No obvious droplet deflection was observed. The relatively low welding current used and slow travel speed resulted in relatively thick/high weld pool elevation behind the arc, which together
with the short arc length determined
that the arc tended to be forward deflected rather than wire-axial symmetrical, as shown in Fig. 17. The distribution of the arc plasma, as well as the
related arc forces, were consequently
changed. In this case, the arc forces
tended to push the droplet against the
laser impulse and thus contributed to
reducing the droplet deflection. On
the other hand, using short arcs could
also reduce the flying time of the

200-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Fig. 17 Illustration of arc deflection in Ex

periment 22.

droplet, resulting in a smaller radial

offset distance even if the droplet deflection angle was the same.

In the first part of this study, the ideal current-independent metal transfer
was successfully achieved by using a
high-power-density laser pulse to irradiate the droplets. The current paper further experimentally verified the effect
of key process parameters on the
droplet detachment behavior, especially
the droplet deflection after being detached. The major parameters include
the laser positioning parameters, laser
pulse waveform parameters, and arc parameters. Their effects on the resultant
metal transfer can be summarized as
1) The optimal laser incident position was determined to be the droplet

Xiao Paper 2015123 June 2016.qxp_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:39 PM Page 201

neck position. If aimed at the main
body of the droplet, the laser pulse will
penetrate the liquid droplet to induce
a partial explosion. The optimal range
of the laser incident angle was determined to be 4560 deg in order to
minimize droplet deflection.
2) Experiments indicated that, as the
laser pulse power increased, the droplet
deflection decreased while the velocity
of the detached droplet increased. The
minimum laser peak duration for a robust ODPP transfer was determined.
The laser pulse frequency exactly
equaled the metal transfer frequency.
Given the welding current, the droplet
mass/droplet deflection decreased/increased, respectively, with the laser
pulse frequency.
3) A higher welding current produced a greater axial electromagnetic
force, restraining the droplet deflection. The droplet deflection also
could be effectively reduced by tilting
the welding gun or using a relatively
short arc.

This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under grant

CMMI-0825956, the Natural Science
Foundation of China under grant
51505009 and 51575133, and the
Postdoctoral Science Foundation of
China under grant 2015M570021.

1. Kim, Y. S., and Eagar, T. W. 1993.

Analysis of metal transfer in gas metal arc
welding. Welding Journal 72(6): 269-s to
2. Iordachescu, D., and Quintinob, L.

2008. Steps toward a new classification of

metal transfer in gas metal arc welding.
Journal of Materials Processing Technology
202: 391397.
3. Jacobsen, N. 1992. Monopulse investigation of droplet detachment in pulsed
gas metal arc welding. Journal of Physics D:
Applied Physics 25: 783797.
4. Rhee, S., and Kannatey-Asibu, E.
1991. Analysis of arc pressure effect on
metal transfer in gas metal arc welding.
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 24(8): 50685075.
5. Soderstrom, E. J., Scott, K. M., and
Mendez, P. F. 2011. Calorimetric measurement of droplet temperature in GMAW.
Welding Journal 90(4): 77-s to 84-s.
6. Deruntz, B. D. 2003. Assessing the
benefits of surface tension transfer welding to industry. Journal of Industrial Technology 19(4): 28.
7. Shi, Y., Liu, X., Zhang, Y. M., and
Johnson, M. 2008. Analysis of metal transfer and correlated influences in dual-bypass GMAW of aluminum. Welding Journal
87(9): 229-s to 236-s.
8. Himmelbauer, K. 2005. The CMTprocess A revolution in welding technology. IIW Doc XII-1875-05, 2027, IIW.
9. Fan, C. L., Yang, C. L., Lin, S. B., and
Fan, Y. Y. 2013. Arc characteristics of ultrasonic wave-assisted GMAW. Welding Journal 92(12): 375-s to 380-s.
10. Fan, Y. Y., Yang, C. L., Lin, S. B., and
Fan, C. L. 2012. Ultrasonic wave-assisted
GMAW. Welding Journal 91(3): 91-s to 98-s.
11. Zhu, M., Shi, Y., and Fan, D. 2015.
Analysis and improvement of metal transfer behaviors in consumable double-electrode GMAW process. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering 137(2):
12. Wu, Y., and Kovacevic, R. 2002. Mechanically assisted droplet transfer process
in gas metal arc welding. Journal of Engineering Manufacturing 216: 555564.
13. Zheng, B., and Kovacevic, R. 2001.
A novel control approach for the droplet
detachment in rapid prototyping by 3D
welding. Journal of Manufacturing Science
and Engineering 123: 348355.
14. Li, K. H., and Zhang, Y. M. 2008.

Consumable double-electrode GMAW

Part 2: Monitoring, modeling, and control.
Welding Journal 87(2): 44-s to 50-s.
15. Chang, Y. L., Liu, X. L., et al. 2014.
Impacts of external longitudinal magnetic
field on arc plasma and droplet during
short-circuit GMAW. International Journal
of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
70(912): 15431553.
16. Zhang, Y. M., Liguo, E., and Kovacevic, R. 1998. Active metal transfer control
by monitoring excited droplet oscillation.
Welding Journal 77(9): 388-s to 395-s.
17. Xiao, J., Zhang, G. J., Chen, S. J., Wu,
L., and Zhang, Y. M. 2013. Active droplet oscillation excited by optimized waveform.
Welding Journal 92(7): 205-s to 217-s.
18. Xiao, J., Zhang, G. J., Zhang, W. J.,
and Zhang, Y. M. 2014. Active metal transfer control by using enhanced droplet oscillation Part 1: Experimental study. Welding Journal 93(8): 282-s to 291-s.
19. Xiao, J., Zhang, G. J., Zhang, W. J.,
and Zhang, Y. M. 2014. Active metal transfer control by using enhanced droplet oscillation Part 2: Modeling and analysis.
Welding Journal 93(9): 321-s to 329-s.
20. Huang, Y., and Zhang, Y. M. 2010.
Laser enhanced GMAW. Welding Journal
89(9): 181-s to 188-s.
21. Huang, Y., and Zhang, Y. M. 2011.
Laser enhanced metal transfer Part 1:
System and observations. Welding Journal
90(10): 183-s to 190-s.
22. Huang, Y., and Zhang, Y. M. 2011.
Laser enhanced metal transfer Part 2:
Analysis and influence factors. Welding
Journal 90(11): 206-s to 210-s.
23. Shao, Y., and Zhang, Y. M. 2014.
Pulsed laser enhanced GMAW. Welding
Journal 93(6): 205-s to 214-s.
24. Shao, Y., Wang, Z. Z., and Zhang, Y.
M. 2011. Monitoring of liquid droplets in
laser enhanced GMAW. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
57: 203214.
25. Xiao, J., Chen, S. J., Zhang, G. J.,
and Zhang, Y. M. 2016. Current-independent metal transfer by using pulsed laser
irradiation Part 1: System and verification. Welding Journal 95(3): 93-s to 100-s.


JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 202


Visual Sensing of the Physical Process

During Underwater Wet FCAW
The typical behaviors of bubbles, droplets, and welding arc during
underwater wet FCAW were visually sensed and analyzed


The physical process of underwater wet flux cored arc welding (FCAW) was visually
sensed and investigated. An image capture system was developed to monitor the
bubbles, droplets, and arc behaviors via avoiding the serious disturbances from the harsh
water environment. The complex dynamic behaviors of the bubbles evolution were de
scribed and explained according to their transient images. The acquired clear images of
droplets showed the typical metal transfer mode, i.e., the repelled globular transfer with
large droplet size and low transfer frequency. Subsequently, the welding arc characteris
tics were examined, revealing it was compressed by the water environment and had spe
cial intensive drifting and deviation behaviors on the cathode spot. High electric poten
tial gradient and current density of the arc were disclosed and possible reasons were
given. Finally, the uneven and asymmetric weld joint appearance was probably caused by
the special welding process under water, especially the unstable droplet transfer.

Underwater Welding Droplet Transfer Arc Behavior Visual Sensing

More and more metal structures
have been serving in the sea for exploring natural resources and conducting many other activities. Due to corrosion, storm loads, damage made by
vessels, dropped objects, and fatigue,
maintenance and repair of the metal
offshore structures have necessitated
research and development on underwater welding technologies (Ref. 1).
The arc welding methods applied under water mainly include hyperbaric
and wet welding (including local-dry
underwater welding). Generally, the
hyperbaric underwater welding methods are considered as a technology

that can obtain high-quality weld

joints via avoiding the harmful impact
from the water environment (Ref. 2).
However, according to Liu and Olson,
the cost of hyperbaric welding is much
higher than that of wet welding, and
the wet welds have already been made
on carbon steel structures at depths as
low as 200 m (Ref. 3).
In addition to underwater arc welding, it is worth mentioning that underwater friction welding and laser beam
welding have also been developed. Friction welding can be utilized to avoid
many problems associated with the arc
welding process under water (Ref. 4),
but the joint geometry is limited (Ref.
5). Also, underwater laser beam welding has a critical requirement of the

shielding condition (Ref. 6).

Consequently, wet welding methods have been more widely utilized because of two main significant advantages, i.e., low cost and convenience.
As a typical wet welding method, underwater flux cored arc welding
(FCAW) has been developed for automatic and semiautomatic processes
particularly in deep water, and it has
great potential to be applied to repair
or even construct oceanographic structures based on remote-operated vehicles or autonomous underwater vehicles (Ref. 7). The greatest challenges
are the extreme conditions around the
welding area caused by the wet water
environment. Direct contact with water of flux-cored wire makes arc maintainance, metal transfer, and solidification of the weld pool totally different from conventional FCAW in air.
The comprehensive, theoretical, and
experimental research on the complicated physic-chemical and metallurgical process has been strongly required
(Ref. 8).
For consumable arc welding methods, e.g., gas metal arc welding, metal
transfer and arc behaviors are two of
the most important factors to determine welding process stability and final
weld joint quality (Ref. 9). Similarly, the
metal transfer process (from solid wire
to liquid weld pool) during underwater
FCAW has significant influence on fluid
flow in weld pool, weld formation, and
weld joint quality. In addition, the underwater arc acts as the main heat
source to generate sufficient energy to

C. B. JIA (, Y. ZHANG, B. ZHAO, J. K. HU, and C.S. WU are with the Key Laboratory for LiquidSolid Structural Evolu
tion and Processing of Materials Ministry of Education, Shandong University, Jinan, P.R. China.



JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 203


Fig. 1 Schematic of the image capture system for underwater wet FCAW.

Fig. 2 Spectral radiation curve during underwater wet FCAW.

produce the molten droplets and weld

pool continuously. However, the metal
transfer as well as welding arc burning
process occurs in the periodically changing bubbles in water. Consequently, the
welding area becomes a very complex
system with intense interactions in the
welding arc, metal transfer, and bubbles. Understanding the system elements, behaviors, and interaction
mechanisms is fundamental for improving the process stability and weld-joint
The mechanisms of interaction between underwater arc plasma and the
water environment have been studied
based on spectroscopic analysis and
simulation. Based on the Damkohler
principle and Stark broadening, Pan et
al. demonstrated that underwater plasma flew at equal rates and had sufficient electron density; namely, it was in
local thermodynamic equilibrium under certain conditions (Ref. 10). This
certified the validity of spectroscopic
analysis on underwater plasma. For underwater manual metal arc welding,
Wang et al. found the temperature of

the underwater arc was lower than that

in air, which was thought to be caused
by the cooling effect from continuously
generated, growing, and bursting bubbles (Ref. 11).
Li et al. found that under increasing
pressures the densities of H, H+, O, C,
O+, C+ in bubbles increased as well, but
the average ionization degrees were not
influenced (Ref. 12). Furthermore, the
authors verified the existence of H in
the underwater plasma, and also deduced that in either environment of air
and water, the arc plasma was mainly
composed of self-shielding gas and
evaporated metals with only minor effects stemming from the interaction
with water (Ref. 13).
Tsai et al. investigated the rapid
cooling mechanisms in water, and the
bubbles dynamics were simulated to
determine the boundary conditions,
concluding that the rapid cooling was
mainly caused by the surface heat conduction behind the arc (Ref. 14).
Ghadimi et al. investigated the effect
of the material, surrounding fluid, and
the method of heat losses through

modeling and analyzing, showing that

the convective heat transfer is more
effective than the radiation, which
therefore can be neglected (Ref. 15).
Subsequently, the research by Liu
and Olson showed a typical wet-welding procedure reportedly had t8/5 values between 1 and 6 s (in contrast
with the air welding of 8 to 16 s), and
the greater cooling rate produced significant amounts of heat-affected zone
(HAZ) martensite in nearly all lowcarbon steels (Ref. 3). As such, additional induction heating was applied
to reduce the cooling rate of the joint
in underwater wet welding for a higher-quality weld joint (Ref. 16).
These indirect proofs are not sufficient for investigating the internal
physical mechanisms of droplets, arc,
and bubbles. Visual sensors have been
recognized as one of the most effective
methods for studying metal transfer
and arc behaviors during consumable
arc welding. Kim and Eagar (Ref. 17)
used high-speed videography to study
the metal transfer modes transition
during conventional GMAW. Furthermore, Shi et al. defined four metal
transfer modes for the dual-bypass
GMAW based on images with 0.5-ms
intervals between each frame (Ref.
18). As far as the underwater welding
was concerned, Prof. Madatov et al.
studied the wet welding method (1.2mm-diameter wire) based on an x-ray
high-speed camera in 1965, and found
that the droplet size was about 23
times that of the wire (Ref. 19).
Guo et al. also used the x-ray transmission method to monitor the metal
transfer and spatters during underwater FCAW (Ref. 20). With the same
method, Fu and Feng et al. (Ref. 21)
defined the classification of the metal
transfer modes, including globular repelled, surface tension, explosive
short-circuit, and submerged arc
transfer (from 237 to 440 A). However, the bubbles and welding arc are
generally difficult to recognize in the
research papers due to the inherent
physic principle of the x-ray transmission. Conventional CCD cameras were
employed to monitor the weld pool by
Shi (Ref. 22) and to sense the welding
arc behavior during underwater FCAW
by Liu (Ref. 23). Although the weld
pool edge and welding arc profile were
extracted with limited resolution, the
details of welding arc, droplets, and

JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 204

bubbles were difficult to observe because of the serious disturbances from
the harsh environment.
To conclude, the exact shapes and
behaviors of welding arc, droplets, and
bubbles are still not clear enough according to current research results. Research on the mechanisms of the interactions under the impact of the water
environment strongly requires the support of the visual images to further understand and improve the technology.
In this paper, a high-speed camera
was employed to construct a visual
sensing system to monitor the welding arc, droplets, and bubbles. Clear
images were acquired to provide evidence of some given inferences about
the complex physic-chemical phenomenon. The bubbles evolution,
metal transfer, arc behaviors, and
weld joint appearance were carefully
described and analyzed. Furthermore,
the relevant interaction mechanisms
were preliminarily discussed by the

Experimental Procedures
Welding System
Bead-on-plate welding experiments
were designed and conducted in shallow
water (0.4 m) in an oblong tank. It is
worth mentioning that the wet welding
process, even at very shallow water, is
already very different from the air. The
weld appearance was acquired much differently from that obtained in air, indicating the seriously compressed welding
arc (Ref. 13). Therefore, the chosen low
depth could maximize the influences of
the water environment and minimize
the influences of other variables that
could be affected by pressure (Ref. 24).
A welding power source, LET 500, was
employed to keep the arc voltage constant during the welding process. Meanwhile, an ordinary wire feeder driven by
a DC motor was controlled to feed the
wire with different speeds via adjusting

Fig. 3 Typical bubbles during underwater wet FCAW. A Bubble floatation and new
bubble generation; B bubble with maximum volume; C a growing bubble.

Fig. 4 Dynamic behaviors of the bubbles during underwater welding.

the armature voltage using an extra DC

voltage regulator. As such, the welding
current was then automatically changed
by the power source to maintain a certain preset arc voltage and melt the continuously fed fire.
According to many experiments
conducted by the authors, the current
value 205 A and the arc voltage 30 V
were typical and common for underwater FCAW to acquire the typical
physical process. One of the most
commonly utilized metals, Q235, was
chosen as the base metal in this paper.
As for the welding consumables, one
lime-titania-type flux-cored wire (PPS
series, 1.6 mm diameter) was applied,
which was developed by E. O. Paton
Electric Welding Institute especially
for underwater wet welding. Some
other parameters are listed in Table 1.
A long copper welding torch (0.7 m)
was designed and inserted in the water
tank with two glass lateral walls.
When welding, the torch was kept sta-

tionary, and the substrate was controlled to move uniformly and in a

straight line. Through the transparent
glasses, a high-speed camera and spectrometer could be used to sense the
welding process.

Image Capture System

There are very complicated reactions and interactions during underwater wet FCAW. Many factors such as
the intense variation of an arc burning
atmosphere cause complex light route
distortions and other disturbances.
The main problems in capturing clear
images are as follows:
First, the influences from the water
environments on the high-speed camera should be avoided via designing
waterproof protectors or isolating the
camera by laying it outside a water
Second, periodically changed and irregular bubbles cause optical reflec-

Table 1 Welding Technical Parameters



Material of Base



A (average)




8 300 100





204-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 205


Fig. 5 The metal transfer process during underwater wet FCAW.

Fig. 6 The underwater welding arc behaviors.

tions and refractions.

Third, the amount of weld fumes
floating in the bubbles and surrounding water result in light intensity loss
and blurred observations.
An imaging system was designed to
solve the problems. As shown in Fig. 1,
underwater welding experiments
would be conducted in the water tank
(400 700 500 mm), which was thin
in the vertical direction to reduce the
light intensity attenuation. The water
tank was placed on a platform driven
by a step motor to move linearly along
the welding direction, and meanwhile,
the torch would be kept stationary.
Subsequently, a high-speed camera
and a background light source were
placed outside the tank and kept at
constant locations with certain angles
according to the welding torch. Note
that the bubbles were assumed regular
round. And the lens diameter of the
light source was required to be bigger
than the bubbles diameters to fully
cover the welding area.
Furthermore, based on the observation by the authors, the bubbles diameters seemed generally smaller than
20 mm. Optical lenses, including a
sharp cut-off filter, a narrow bandpass
filter, and dimmer glass, were employed to reduce the light distortions
and solve the disturbances from the
strong arc radiation. Note that a big
volume of water was beneficial to the

dilution of the welding fumes in the

water. Therefore, the tank was almost
full before the experiments.
The selection of background light
source was very important to overcome
the strong arc radiation disturbance.
For this research, two background light
sources were required to monitor the
bubbles inside and outside separately;
one light source should be capable of
penetrating the bubble walls to observe
the droplet and welding arc, while the
other had to have a bigger diameter to
observe the bubbles behaviors from
the macro perspective. For the latter
one, a dysprosium lamp with a diameter of about 0.5 m was selected and
placed at the other side of the tank opposite to the camera. However, selecting the former one was a much more
challenging job.
Since the specific wavelength and
intensity needed to be determined, it
was proposed that the spectral radiation from the welding process be collected and analyzed to acquire the real
distribution curve at different wavelengths (Ref. 13). The wavelength at
which the welding arc had a relatively
lower intensity radiation could be
adopted to choose suitable background
light. In this case, the required laser
power would be lowered to surpass the
arc intensity at the specific wavelength. Based on the authors former
research results and the introduced

spectral analysis method (Ref. 13), the

collected spectrum curve is shown in
Fig. 2.
The characteristics of the distribution at different bands can be obtained
in Fig. 2. The ultraviolet band
(200370 nm) had short wavelengths,
and its relative intensity was much
lower than others. Visible light
(380760 nm) from the welding area
had the most intensive radiations, especially at the green and yellow light
bands (520610 nm). The red light intensity seemed stable within a certain
range. At the band 761840 nm, a
downward tendency of the near-infrared light intensity can be observed
with the mounting wavelength. Accordingly, the red light and nearinfrared light had lower and more stable relative intensity. In addition,
longer wavelengths could reduce the
loss when traveling either in the water
or air. Therefore, the background laser
should be elected with the wavelength
in this band to easily eliminate strong
arc disturbances.
Taking account of the light attenuation in the water and air, a laser was selected with an 808-nm wavelength, and
its rated power was 30 W. In addition,
the laser lens diameter was chosen as
approximately 20 mm. The imaging system was then developed based on a
high-speed camera (Optronis CamRecord 5000 2) with a frequency of
2000 fps and resolution 512 512.
Underwater welding experiments
were conducted to visually sense the
welding process. The dynamic behaviors of the bubbles, metal transfer, and
arc behaviors were investigated, and
general weld appearance characteristics were described.

Typical Bubble Evolution
Underwater wet FCAW is a selfshielded welding method in nature,
which is shielded by the continuously
generated slag and gases. On one hand,
the welding arc burns in the generated
bubbles, which are full of gases. On the
other hand, the slag on the bead surface
protects the weld pool from the water
environment. The two protections provide the possibility to obtain a stable
welding process and high-quality weld
joints. The mechanism of how the reacJUNE 2016 / WELDING JOURNAL 205-s

JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 206


Fig. 7 A Weld seam appearance; B cross section.

tions happen could be investigated via

visually observing the welding process.
As shown in Fig. 3, a typical bubble
evolution process was captured with
the dysprosium lamp as the background light source, and the three images reflected three different typical
moments, respectively. However, the
droplet transfer and welding arc could
not be observed through the bubble.
Furthermore, continuous video of
the bubbles was also captured, and
the images at every 3 ms are shown
in Fig. 4.

The Metal Transfer Process

Based on the image capture system
with the laser as the background light
source, the metal transfer process was
visually sensed and observed.
Figure 5 showed some typical images of the droplets during a period of
about 0.25 s. At 0.03 s, the welding arc
was short and that was the start of a
metal transfer circle. At 0.029 s, the
welding arc length had grown while
the wire could be observed beginning
to melt, and the liquid droplet had a
diameter equal to that of the wire.
When the time was 0.077 s, the
droplet grew bigger, and the welding
arc cathode spot continuously drifted
on the substrate surface. At about
0.149 s, the droplet volume was larger
and seemed to be deviating from the
axis of the wire.
It was thought that the compound
repelling forces from the welding area
were the key factor to push the droplet
to lateral directions. At 0.167 and
0.171 s, the droplet gradually swayed
back to the axis center due to gravity
and bigger volume. At 0.179 s, the
droplet grew to the peak volume, while
the welding arc was clouded by the big
droplet and nearly invisible. The oval
liquid metal had a vertical diameter of
about 6.78 mm and a horizontal diameter of 6.02 mm, which were about 4
times that of the wire.
After that moment, the droplet was

gradually transferred to the weld pool

under the gravity, surface tension, and
electromagnetic force.
At 0.184 and 0.196 s, it can be seen
the wire that had not been melted obviously extended downward, the oval
droplet merged into the weld pool, and
the arc length was shorter. At 0.228 s,
the welding arc was completely invisible and a circle of the metal transfer
had finished. At 0.223 s, the welding
arc intensity increased, which meant a
new circle had begun.

The Underwater Welding

Arc Behaviors
During the monitored welding
process, the welding arc was captured
wandering on the substrate intensively and continuously. The experiments
were conducted with direct current
electrode positive mode, i.e., the substrate was connected to the negative
electrode. That is to say the cathode
spot on the substrate was not focused
on the nearest point from the wire tip
or molten droplet.
Figure 6 shows the images of the
wandering underwater welding arc
every 0.5 ms. Even in this very short
period, the cathode spot could be observed drifting around the wire axis.
In most cases, the cathode spot was located in different places of the weld
pool, and the switch from one place to
another was very fast. It was calculated that the welding arc drifting frequency was higher than 2000 Hz, surpassing the image acquisition frequency of the high-speed camera. In addition, the linear moving speed of the
cathode spot was calculated as about
4.1 102 cm/s. It is worth mentioning
that watching the video with certain
frames per second is a better way to
observe the wandering arc behaviors.

Weld Joint Appearance

Figure 7 shows the obtained weld
joint appearance and cross section.

206-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

As shown in Fig. 7A, the welding

torch moved along a straight line, but
the weld joint seemed to have an uneven surface. To some extent, the bead
deviated from the central line and was
a little twisted.
In addition, the cross section in Fig.
7B shows the oblique bead clearly. For
the specific image, the melted metal
on the left side was apparently less
than that on the right. Subsequently,
the reinforcement was also not symmetric and the HAZ had different
widths on the left and right sides. Finally, the weld width and penetration
were measured with values at about
9.21 and 2.76 mm, respectively.

Typical Bubble Evolution
Process Analysis
The mechanism of the protections
during wet FCAW can be described
more specifically.
First, the flux-cored wire is directly
exposed in the water environment.
Once the wire contacts the substrate,
the current will produce heat and the
temperature around that area will rise
Second, the flux in the wire will
melt and the gas will be generated
from the decomposed flux. Meanwhile, the surrounding water will be
ionized into hydrogen and oxygen or
be vaporized into steam. Subsequently, bubbles around the welding area
will form to provide a protective
Third, the welding arc is then ignited in the bubbles after the breakdown
of the gas under the open circuit voltage. The arc could generate more energy and heat to produce bubbles continuously. Consequently, the droplet
transfer and molten weld pool behaviors also proceed in the bubbles. The

JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 207


Fig. 8 Droplet images. A 0.167 s; B 0.179 s.

slag in the weld pool will float up to

the surface to offer protection from
the harmful gas and water environment, and also improve the microstructures of the solidifying metal
through metallurgical reactions.
Therefore, the bubbles play a very
important role in protecting the welding area and can reflect the complex
reactions between the water environment and welding process, i.e., arc
burning, metal transfer, and weld pool
solidification. The features of the typical bubbles in Fig. 3 at the three moments could be drawn.
Figure 3A describes a new bubbles
generation and the previous floatation. Because of the increasing buoyancy caused by the continuously generated gas, the previous bubble began
to float up and was divided into two
parts. Part of the gas formed a new
bubble covering the welding area with
a diameter of about 10.95 mm (the
smaller bubble with a 5.6 mm diameter was part of the new bubble). Meanwhile, the other part that contained
most of the gas from the previous bubble floated up along with the fumes inside. After a short while, the bubble
burst due to the torch disturbance,
and the fumes were then dispersed in
the water. Consequently, the fumes
dropped slowly toward the workpiece
due to gravity, which affected the visibility of the welding area.
Figure 3B shows the bubble that
had grown to its maximum volume,
i.e., the threshold value before its
breaking. The bubble seemed to be
regular spherical with a diameter of

about 15.6 mm. However, after careful

observation, it could be seen that the
surface was irregular and lumped. At
the bottom of the bubble, a small part
seemed to be cut off by the workpiece, and the interface (the diameter
was about 10.8 mm) provided shielding atmosphere for the high-temperature zones, including the weld pool.
Figure 3C shows a growing bubble,
which appears irregular under compound forces such as buoyancy, exterior water pressure, and interior gas
pressure. The central axis of the bubble slightly deviated from the torch. Its
maximum diameter was about 14.6
mm, and the location was about 2.0
mm high from the substrate surface.
By comparison, the bottom interface
had a smaller diameter of 12.6 mm.
Therefore, there was an acute curvature change between the two locations, which was relevant to the temperature gradient inside the bubble.
It could be clearly seen that the
bubbles periodically grew, broke away,
and were generated again. A transient
phenomenon was observed that the
bubbles swelled explosively with large
amplitude and immediately shrank
with a smaller one. In other words,
the bubbles grew in a pulsed way with
varying speed rather than in a continuous smooth way. Furthermore, when
the bubbles grew larger, their outer
surface became more irregular and
lumped. The reason may be that the
gas in bubbles is mainly generated by
the decomposed flux and vaporized
and ionized water, which occurred intensively, and were also easily affect-

Fig. 9 Deviation of the underwater

welding arc.

ed by the molten droplet, the welding

arc, and the high-temperature weld
Each circle of the bubbles evolution cost about 5080 ms, and the
frequency was about 1220 Hz. It was
thought that the wide range fluctuation of the frequency and amplitude
was caused by the rapidly varied
buoyancy, plus interior and exterior
pressures of the bubbles. In addition,
the interactions between the water
environment and droplet transfer,
welding arc, and weld pool behaviors
influenced the gas generation at any
time. Compared with air FCAW, underwater wet welding had intensively
changed arc burning space, atmosphere, and pressure, which kept influencing the welding process stability.

The Repelled Globular Transfer

and Irregular Weld Joint
According to the acquired images in
Fig. 5, the droplet transfer mode during this underwater welding experiment was classified as repelled globular transfer with large droplets. The
circle and frequency were about 0.225
s and 4.44 Hz, respectively.
Meanwhile, the welding arc burning
atmosphere was seriously influenced
by the water environment. The phenomenon of the drifting cathode spots
on the substrate was captured. In addition, the welding arc was compressed
with a bell shape (images at 0.029 and
0.167 s) due to the three mechanisms,
namely mechanical compression of the
hydrostatic pressure, a thermal pinchJUNE 2016 / WELDING JOURNAL 207-s

JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 208

ing effect due to the cold water environment, and the electromagnetic
pinch force caused by the increasing
current density in the arc column (Ref.
As shown in Fig. 8, if we zoom in on
the images at 0.167 and 0.179 s, the
droplets could be observed in more detail. Figure 8A clearly shows the
droplet being pushed away from the
arc and obviously deviating from the
wire axis. The size was more than
twice that of the wire diameter. The
welding arc under the molten metal
was strong and bright. As for Fig. 8B,
the huge droplet was being lifted by
complex forces. And the surrounding
bubble was also growing larger. It can
be inferred that the larger volume
molten droplet extended the hightemperature field. Subsequently, the
shorter distance from the previous
bubble wall to the molten droplet resulted in more vaporized water.
According to the research results
of conventional GMAW, a possible
contributor causing the repelled globular transfer mode was the cathode
jet force on the droplets based on the
static force balance theory (Ref. 16).
Subsequently, it was deduced that the
drifting cathode spot might cause
varying force values and directions,
which resulted in random flying
paths of the droplets. In addition, the
gas flow drag force was also considered an important part of the complex forces during welding (Ref. 25).
Further research and analysis of the
forces will be conducted in another
As previously mentioned, the weld
appearance was uneven and the weld
bead was oblique. This phenomenon
could be explained and predicted by the
complicated droplet transfer and welding arc behaviors. The captured repelled
large droplet transfer mode especially
caused random flying paths and uncertain landing locations. Large droplets
also resulted in the intense fluctuation
of the weld pool. In this case, the uneven and asymmetric weld bead was not
an accident. Furthermore, the complex
and periodically evolving bubbles surrounding the arc area had an inevitable
impact on the arc and droplets behaviors. Some physic-chemical interactions
provided extra forces on the droplets
and finally affected their transfer paths
and dimensions.

Arc Drifting and Deviation

Behaviors Analysis
As shown in Fig. 9, the drifting arc
cathode caused the deviation of the
arc from the axis with a big angle,
which was measured at about 30 deg.
The amplitude was approximately
2.1 mm from the wire axis to the cathode spot. The value was about 1.3 times
that of the wire diameter. According to
the principle of minimum voltage, the
welding arc always consumed the minimum energy along that path. The authors deduced that the oxide distribution and the cold cathode substrate
caused this phenomenon.
First, the oxides at the center of the
weld pool were quickly consumed and
removed. By contrast, more oxides existed at the edge of the weld pool,
which were oxidized by the ionized
oxygen. As a result, the cathode spot
was attracted to the locations enriched
with oxides. Second, the substrate was
a typical cold cathode, which had high
thermal conductivity due to the surrounding water environment. This
typical arc always had a wandering arc
and drifting cathode spot (Ref. 26).
According to Fig. 6, although the
welding arc cathode spot kept drifting
with high frequency and amplitude,
the arc length varied in a small range.
As shown in Fig. 9, the arc length was
about 3.05 mm, which indicated the
wet FCAW was a typical short-arc
welding method. Since the arc voltage
was about 30 V, the average electric
potential gradient of the arc was about
98.4 V/cm. Taking account of the anode and cathode voltages, which we
assumed to be 1 and 10 V, respectively,
the average electric potential gradient
of the arc column could be calculated
at about 63 V/cm. Compared with the
values of other conventional gas metal
arc welding methods (about 10 V/cm),
the gradient was apparently much
This characteristic was in coincidence with the Gerdien arc (Refs. 26,
27), which was stabilized by a vortex
of cold water generating higher current density and higher arc voltage
First, the rapid cooling effect from
the surrounding water was similar to
the Gerdien arc. As a result, the welding arc was significantly compressed
with higher current intensity and

208-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

higher electric potential gradient. Second, with the impact of the surrounding water environment, vaporized and
ionized water produced hydrogen and
oxygen that take part in the ionization
of the arc plasma (Refs. 13, 28). Note
that a big proportion of the complex
gases was H2 (6295%) (Ref. 28).
Due to different thermal conductivity and the thermal pinch effect, the
arc column electric potential gradients
in the hydrogen, vapor, and oxygen atmosphere were about 20, 8, and 4
times that in the argon atmosphere,
respectively (Ref. 26). Therefore, the
water environment and special mixed
gas led to the high arc electric potential gradient.
The welding current density in the
arc column could be calculated based
on the set current (measured as 205 A)
and arc diameter. At the anode spot on
the wire tip, the arc diameter was
about 2.28 mm, and correspondingly,
the arc diameter at the substrate was
about 4.98 mm. Subsequently, the
current density in the arc column has
a maximum value about 5024 A/cm2
and a minimum value about
1053A/cm2 (near the substrate). Assuming the arc was a circular truncated cone, the average current density
through the arc can be calculated according to the given equation:

VC / h 1 (4.982 + 4.98
2.28 + 2.282 )/400

= 1894 A/cm2


where I meant the welding current, VC

meant the assumed arc volume with a
circular truncated cone shape, and h
meant the arc length.

1) During underwater wet FCAW,
the bubbles, welding arc, and molten
droplets continuously interacted with
each other, and the very complex behaviors were captured by the developed visual sensing system. Two background light sources, i.e., a large dysprosium lamp and laser were employed to monitor the bubbles inside
and outside, respectively. The bubbles
grew violently in a pulsed way with
varying speed rather than in a continuous, smooth way. And the bottom
bubbles on the substrate surface could
cover the weld pool.

JIA ET AL SUPP JUNE 2016_Layout 1 5/13/16 11:14 AM Page 209

2) The typical droplet transfer
mode during this underwater welding
experiment was classified as repelled
globular transfer with large droplets
and low frequency. Under the given
condition, the metal transfer frequency was obviously lower than the bubbles evolution frequency. This may
have caused the extra forces on the
droplets due to the unstable gas flow
of the evolving bubbles. The big volume molten droplets were repelled by
the complex forces, among which the
cathode jet force and gas flow drag
force may have contributed.
3) The arc cathode spot was captured drifting on the substrate intensively and continuously with very high
frequency and speed. This behavior
was negative for maintaining a stable
welding process and made the forces
on the droplets more complicated. The
authors deduced that the oxide distribution and cold cathode substrate
caused this phenomenon. Adding
more oxides in the flux was considered
a feasible method to reduce the arc
drifting and deviation.
4) Under the impact of the water environment, the average electric potential gradient of the arc column was apparently much higher than other conventional GMAW methods. The special
arc burning atmosphere, including hydrogen, oxygen, and vapor, caused the
higher thermal conductivity and consequently higher electric potential gradient. The welding arc current density increased significantly due to the compression by the environment.
5) The asymmetric weld appearance
and uneven surface with distortions
were closely concerned with the complicated physical welding process.
High-frequency evolving bubbles, lowfrequency droplet transfer, and drifting arc were the main factors influencing the welding process stability. The
repelled large droplet transfer mode
especially caused random transfer
paths, uncertain landing locations,
and intense fluctuation of the weld
pool. And it was considered one of the
most important factors causing the
uneven weld appearance.

The authors are grateful for the financial support for this research from

the National Natural Science Foundation (No. 51105237) and Fundamental

Research Funds of Shandong University
(No. 2015TB002).
1. Perez-Guerrero, F., and Liu, S. 2005.
Maintenance and repair welding in the open
sea. Welding Journal 84(11): 54-s to 59-s.
2. Delaune, P. T., and Weber, J. D.
1979. Hyperbaric underwater welding:
The state of the art I. Welding Journal
58(8): 17-s to 25-s.
3. Liu, S., Olson, D. L., and Ibarra, S.
1993. Underwater welding. Welding, Brazing, and Soldering ASM Handbook 6:
4. Gao, H., Jiao, X. D., Xu, Y. G., X. U.,
and Zhou, C. F. 2014. Study of underwater friction welding technology. Welding
Journal 93(9): 54-s to 58-s.
5. Rowe, M., and Liu, S. 2001. Recent
developments in underwater wet welding.
Science and Technology of Welding & Joining
6(6): 387 to 396.
6. Bucurel, R., and Hlifka, G. 2010.
Laser beam welding process automates
underwater repairs. Welding Journal
89(1): 47 to 49.
7. Lizunkova, Y., Hassel, T., Klotz, J.,
Wolyniec, A., and Bach, W. 2009. Development of filler wire for underwater welding
as a repair tool for adaptation on AUV.
OCEANS 2009-EUROPE, pp. 16. IEEE.
8. Paton, B. E. 1997. PWI activities in the
field of underwater welding and cutting
technologies. Underwater Wet Welding and
Cutting, pp. 15. Woodhead Publishing.
9. Wu, C. S. 2008. Welding Thermal
Processes and Weld Pool Behaviors. 141,
Beijing, China Machine Press.
10. Pan, C. H., Du, S. M., Li, H., and Li,
J. Y. 1997. Judgment local thermodynamic equilibrium of underwater plasma arc.
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering
33(5): 12 to 16, 48.
11. Wang, G. R., and Yang, Q. M. 1997.
Spectroscopic study in temperature of underwater welding arc. Chinese Journal of
Mechanical Engineering 33(2): 93 to 98.
12. Li, Z. G., Zhang, H., and Jia, J. P.,
2009. Plasma component calculation in
underwater wet welding. Transactions of
China Welding Institute 30(4): 13 to 16.
13. Jia, C. B., Zhang, T., Maksimov, Y. S.,
and Yuan, X. 2013. Spectroscopic analysis on
the arc plasma of underwater wet flux-cored
arc welding. Journal of Materials Processing
Technology 213(8): 1370 to 1377.
14. Tsai, C. L., and Masubuchi, K.
1979. Mechanisms of rapid cooling in underwater welding. Applied Ocean Research
1(2): 99 to 110.
15. Ghadimi, P., Ghassemi, H., Ghassabzadeh, M., and Kiaei, Z. 2013. Three-di-

mensional simulation of underwater welding and investigation of effective parameters. Welding Journal 92(8): 239-s to 249-s.
16. Zhang, H. T., Dai, X. Y., Feng, J. C.,
and Hu, L. L. 2015. Preliminary investigation on real-time induction heating-assisted underwater wet welding. Welding Journal 94(1): 8-s to 15-s.
17. Kim, Y. S., and Eagar, T. W. 1993.
Analysis of metal transfer in gas metal arc
welding. Welding Journal 72(1): 269-s to
18. Shi, Y., Liu, X., Zhang, Y. M., and
Johnson, M. 2008. Analysis of metal transfer and correlated influences in dual-bypass GMAW of aluminum. Welding Journal
87(9): 229-s to 236-s.
19. Madatov, N., Pokhodnya, I., and
Kostenko, B. 1965. High speed x-ray cinematography of the underwater welding arc.
Weld Prod 12(9): 72 to 73.
20. Guo, N., Du, Y. P., Feng, J. C., Guo,
W., and Deng, Z. Q. 2015. Study of underwater wet welding stability using an x-ray
transmission method. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology 225: 133138.
21. Fu, Y. L., Feng, J. C., Du, Y. P., Deng
Z. Q., Wang, M. R., and Tang D. Y. 2016.
Classification of metal transfer mode in
underwater wet welding. Welding Journal
95(4): 133-s to 140-s.
22. Shi, Y. H., Wang, G. R., Zhong, J. G.,
Liu, S., and Liang, M. 2000. Edge detection
of weld seam image during underwater
flux-cored arc welding. Manufacturing Automation 22(11): 37 to 39.
23. Liu, S. 2000. Research on the welding area information of underwater fluxcored arc welding. PhD dissertation.
Guangzhou, South China University of
24. Santos, V. R., Monteiro, M. J., Rizzo,
F. C., Bracarense, A. Q., Pessoa, E. C. P.,
Marinho, R. R., and Vieira, L. A. 2012. Development of an oxyrutile electrode for wet
welding. Welding Journal 91(12): 319-s to
25. Guo, N., Guo, W., Du, Y. P., Fu, Y. L.,
and Feng, J. C. 2015. Effect of boric acid on
metal transfer mode of underwater fluxcored wire wet welding. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology 223: 124128.
26. Hirotaira, A., and Hasegawa, M.
1978. Welding arc phenomenon (supplement). 164, Beijing, China Machine Press.
27. Hrabovsky, M., Konrad, M.,
Kopecky, V., and Sember, V. 1997. Processes and properties of electric arc stabilized
by water vortex. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science 25(5): 833 to 839.
28. Yushchenko, K. A., Gretskii, Y. Y.,
and Maksimov, S. Y. 1998. Study of physico-metallurgical peculiarities of wet arc
welding of structural steels. Underwater
Wet Welding and Cutting, pp. 629. Woodhead Publishing.


Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 210


Investigating Friction Stir Welding

on Thick Nylon 6 Plates
Exploring the effects of rotational speed on micromechanical properties,
flow behavior, and thermal variations


Polymeric materials, despite being thermal insulators, are now being welded using
different welding techniques. In the current work, the feasibility of the friction stir weld
ing (FSW) process on 16mmthick Nylon 6 plates was studied. The effects of rotational
speed on the weld quality were investigated by the temperature development, micro
mechanical properties, crystallization growth, and fracture analysis of the joints. Results
showed the dependence of temperature and tensile values on rotation rates was insignif
icant. However, appearance of considerable defects at higher rotation rates, observed in
visual and microscopic analysis, indicated that Nylon 6 is weldable only at lower rotation
rates due to its low melt viscosity. Moreover, identical fracture locations during tensile
tests revealed that the interface of weld zone on the retreating side was the weakest
part of the joint. It can be attributed to the lack of bonding at the interface of the weld
zone on retreating side and relatively low crystallinity in the retreating side region. Due
to different rheological and physical properties of polymers than metals, the flow
phenomenon in Nylon 6 was found to be different from that of metals, resulting in a dis
tinct isolated pin plunged zone.

Friction Stir Welding Nylon 6 Polymer Material Flow Threaded Pin

The use of polymeric materials has
grown widely in various sectors such
as packaging, building, electronic, automotive, and aerospace industries.
Particularly, Nylon 6 has wide engineering applications and is used in
large quantities in automotive oil
pans, gears, slides, cams, bearings, fluid reservoirs, and the sports industry
(Ref. 1). Polymeric materials offer
many advantages over metal and its alloys owing to certain distinct properties: light weight, high specific
strength, high specific modulus, design flexibility, low production costs,

good corrosion and environmental resistance, thermal and electrical insulation, and durability (Ref. 2).
Increase in use of a particular material, on the other hand, increases the importance of the joining process. In engineering, the production of a single piece
from molding is an ideal situation because it eliminates many steps of assembling. However, due to the complexity of parts and dissimilarity in joining
components in some cases, efficient
joining processes are necessary.
Friction stir welding (FSW), among
modern joining techniques, is now
widely considered as a joining process,
owing to its low-cost production and

eco-friendly process. Moreover, by using this technique, the weld joint can
be accomplished by controlling fewer
parameters, such as rotational speed,
feed rate, plunge depth, and tool dimension (Ref. 3). Since its inception, a
variety of metal alloys has been successfully joined by this process. Investigations regarding their mechanical
and microstructural properties are
widely reported in literature. However,
in the case of polymers, application of
FSW to produce joints is a relatively
new approach and requires further investigation. The nonconductor nature
of polymers makes it challenging to
weld them, especially in the case of a
thick workpiece. However, some polymeric materials have been successfully
friction stir welded up to the maximum workpiece thickness of 10 mm.
The results, in order to achieve the
maximum strength, are characterized
through various means and reported
in literature.
In order to avoid the root defect
fracture and to enhance the weld
strength, different approaches have
been adopted to eliminate this particular defect. For this purpose, Arici et
al. (Ref. 4) used double passes of the
tool on 5-mm-thick polyethylene (PE)
sheets. Pirizadeh et. al. (Ref. 5) used a
bobbin tool on 5-mm-thick acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) sheets.
However, in the case of polymers with
low melt viscosity or low melting temperatures, such as Nylon 6, which has
a melt viscosity of 300 Pa-s at 250C
(low shear rate) (Ref. 6), double passes

A. ZAFAR (, M. AWANG (, S. R. KHAN, and S. EMAMIAN are with the department
of mechanical engineering, Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Perak, Malaysia.

210-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 211


Fig. 2 A schematic of the thermocouple locations.

Fig. 1 Friction stir welding tool with a schematic of dimensions.

of the tool or bobbin tool may result in

excess heat due to the dual friction on
upper and lower surfaces of the workpieces, eventually increasing the flash.
The preweld heating, performed by
Aydin (Ref. 7) on 4-mm-thick ultrahigh molecular weight (UHMW) polyethylene sheets, may not be suitable
for polymers with low melt viscosity
and can intensify the flash formation
due to increasing heat.
The influence of pin shape, studied
on PE sheets by Bilici et al. (Ref. 8) and
Ahmadi et al. (Ref. 9) made them conclude that the truncated cone pin has
the highest tensile strength as compared to other pin shapes. However,
due to large rheological and property
differences among polymers, one pin
profile cannot be assumed as optimum
for all polymers. Another tool consisting of the hot shoe was investigated
by Bagheri et al. (Ref. 10) on ABS
sheets. The main reason to use this
shoe was to heat the polymer through
the shoulder during the welding
process. Their results were comparable
with the work carried out by Mendes
et al. (Ref. 11), who used a stationary
shoulder tool on the same material
without external heating. However,
squeezing out of the plasticized material below the shoulder, particularly in
low melt viscosity polymers still remained a problem.
Inaniwa et al. (Ref. 12) and Panneerselvam et al. (Ref. 13) joined Nylon 6 sheets with thicknesses of 5 and
10 mm, respectively. In their studies,
they eliminated the primary heat
source by keeping a small opening between the shoulder and workpiece top
surface. Comparing their approaches,
it was found that Panneerselvam et al.
(Ref. 13) joined Nylon 6 at a quite
higher revolution pitch (ratio between

welding speed
and rotation rate)
compared to
Fig. 3 Configuration of the tensile test specimen.
Inaniwa et al.
(Ref. 12) work.
from the weld zone to the base materiHowever, considering the Nylon 6
al. Similarly, a clear distinction beproperties especially low melt viscositween the shoulder-affected zone and
ty behavior, it is believed that higher
pin-affected zone could be seen.
revolution pitch will produce enorCurrent work involved studying the
mous flash. Flash formation has been
process on 16-mm-thick Nylon 6
reported by Panneerselvam et al. (Ref.
plates by investigating the tempera13) as well. On the other hand, the gap
ture development, micromechanical,
between shoulder and workpiece will
and thermal properties of the joint.
certainly lead to the formation of a
With the aim to reduce the flash forcrown above the weld zone.
mation, a small-diameter shoulder tool
Material flow, due to its direct relawith right-hand threaded pin was
tion with weld quality, has been thorused. Moreover, marker material inoughly investigated on metals by varisert technique was utilized to examine
ous means. Lorrain et al. (Ref. 14) and
the flow phenomenon and stirring
Li et al. (Ref. 15) used foil insert techuniformity in the weld.
nique, Edwards and Ramulu (Ref. 16)
used powder as a tracer material, SeiMaterials and Method
del and Reynolds (Ref. 17) utilized the
marker material insert technique,
In the present investigation, 180whereas Colligan (Ref. 18) inserted
weld passes were made on
small steel balls in aluminum to study
16-mm-thick Nylon 6 (Polyamide-6)
material flow. Colligan (Ref. 18) conplates in butt joint configuration at
cluded that material moved behind the
room temperature. Bridgeport VMC
pin and deposited on the retreating
2216 CNC machine was utilized for
side. In another study on aluminum
FSW of specimens welded at a 0-deg
6061, Guerra et al. (Ref. 19) reported
tilt angle and FSW-TS-F16 FSW madifferent flow on advancing side (AS)
chine was used to prepare welds at a 3and retreating side (RS). Seidel and
deg tilt angle.
Reynolds (Ref. 17) observed that the
The FSW tool used in this study
majority of the material in the weld
was machined from H13 tool steel rod
nugget simply moved around the pin
Fig. 1. The pin of the tool was made
and displaced behind the pin.
right-hand threaded for uniform stirThe material flow in polymeric maring, while rotating in a clockwise diterials has been studied on poly
rection (Ref. 13). The tool was heat
methyl methacrylate (PMMA) by
et al. (Ref. 20). They compared
treated before being used for welding
and, therefore, its hardness was intheir flow study with the Arbegast
creased to 56 HRC from 24 HRC.
(Ref. 21) flow model and observed
Rotational speed, due to its main
that the pin-affected zone remained
contribution in the FSW process, has
isolated and straight along the pin.
been studied (Ref. 22). It was thereTheir results showed no cross flow


Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 212


Fig. 4 Cross sections of specimens

welded at the following: A 300
rev/min with 0deg angle; B 400
rev/min with 0deg angle; C 500
rev/min with 0deg angle; D 1000
rev/min with 0deg angle; E 300
rev/min with 3deg angle.

were made and were observed visually.

The mechanical strength of the joints
was analyzed by tensile testing on
specimens that were obtained perpendicular to the welding direction. The
tensile tests were performed in accordance to ASTM Standard D638-10 using a Zwick-Roell UTM machine at the
crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. A
schematic of the D638-10 specimen is
shown in Fig. 3. Weld zone and fractured surfaces during tensile tests
were analyzed by scanning electron
microscope (SEM). In order to determine the crystalline content in the
WZ, a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) test was carried out using a
Perkin-Elmer differential scanning
calorimeter at a heating rate of
10C/min. Furthermore, material flow
during the welding process was studied by marker material insert technique at achieved optimum parameters. Subsequently, due to the marker
materials difference in color from the
base material, its movement was visually analyzed by different sectioning of
the specimens.

Results and Discussion

Morphological and
Micrographic Analysis

optimum FSW angle for HDPE by

Bozkurt (Ref. 22), was also used at the
optimum rotation speed. The optimum rotation speed, used in the present work, was obtained from performed tests.
Furthermore, a K-type thermocouple was also placed at 1 mm below the
pin tip to estimate the weld zone (WZ)
temperature at each rotation speed
Fig. 2. In all experiments, a clockwise
rotating tool was plunged into the
workpiece with a 10-mm/min plunge
rate to the depth equal to the pin
length. All the welding operations
were performed at room temperature.
Cross sections of weld specimens,
perpendicular to welding direction,

fore varied between 300 and 1000

rev/min. The other parameters, such
as feed rate or welding speed, dwell
time, and tilt angle, were kept constant and were selected based on previous studies and preliminary tests
(Refs. 12, 13). Feed rate in polymers
was usually kept low so that the material in front of the pin could get sufficient time to plasticize. Parameters
used in this study are shown in Table
1. A tilt angle of 3 deg, reported as an

In order to observe any visual defects, friction stir welded specimens

were cross-sectioned perpendicular to
the welding direction. Figure 4AE
shows the different morphologies of
top surfaces of the welded specimens.
Although the flash formation can be
observed in all specimens, Fig. 4A, B
specimens show comparatively less
flash formation. It is also noted that the
flash in Fig. 4B is on retreating side
(RS). For this reason, it is believed that
the temperature on the RS is always
higher than the advancing side (AS),
which leads to the formation of flash on
the RS (Ref. 23). Further increase in rotation speed to 500 rev/min resulted in

Table 1 Friction Stir Welding Parameters

Tilt Angle (Deg)

Feed Rate (mm/min)

Dwell Time (s)

Rotation Rate (rev/min)




500, 400, 300

212-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 213


Fig. 5 Micrographs of welds at a rotational speed of the following: A 300 rev/min

with 0deg angle; B 400 rev/min with 0deg angle; C 500 rev/min with 0deg angle;
D 300 rev/min with 3deg angle.

higher heat input, leading to excess

flash in the form of bubbles, which appeared at some intervals Fig. 4C. 300
rev/min with a 3-deg-angle specimen
also showed bubble-like flash, which indicates that tilting of the angle at 3 deg
generated high heat during the process
Fig. 4E. It may be due to the tilted
tool trailing edge of the shoulder that
applies higher compressive load in the
surface of material increasing friction
and resulting in higher heat generation.
The formation of a crown-like
shape was also observed in all specimens except the 1000-rev/min specimen. Crown peak was less in 300
rev/min with 0-deg specimen angle
compared to 400, 500, and 300
rev/min with 3-deg-angle specimens.
A specimen welded at 1000 rev/min
showed a different morphology Fig.
4D. Excess semimolten Nylon 6
squeezed out of the WZ, and after
swirling around the shoulder, appeared to have solidified on the shoulder. As a result, the WZ decreased in
thickness, which would eventually reduce the tensile strength. It is believed
the appearance of weld defects at higher rotation rates is due to overheat
generation, which eases the plasticized

polymer to flow out.

Low magnification SEM images of
weld zones, taken on cross sections,
are shown in Fig. 5. The specimen
welded at 1000 rev/min was excluded
from further results and discussion
due to its poor weld quality. The weld
in Fig. 5A, which was made with the
lowest rotation speed of 300 rev/min
with 0-deg angle, presented an excellent superficial appearance, unlike
welds produced at higher rotation
rates (Fig. 5BD), which showed different defects, likely caused by excess
heat input. However, a minor defect in
the form of improper bonding was observed at the bottom of the RS interface. A specimen welded at 400
rev/min rotation rate showed various
small porosities with improper bonding on the RS border line Fig. 5B.
Likewise, increasing the rotational
speed to 500 rev/min resulted in a major defect called tunnel defect with poor
bonding on the RS border line Fig.
5C. Considering the good weld appearance of 300 rev/min with a 0-deg-angle
specimen, and in order to remove the
minor weld defect at the bottom, it was
investigated using a 3-deg tilt angle as
well. However, the micrograph result

showed a large cavity with a slight improper bond on the RS in Fig. 5D.
Moreover, weld zones were also analyzed at higher magnification. Micrographs shown in Fig. 6AD are the higher magnifications of Fig. 5AD, respectively. It is clear rotation speed has a significant effect on the microstructure of
the welds. The 300 rev/min with 0-deg
angle specimen in Fig. 6A showed uniform and perfect surface quality, whereas the specimens at higher rotation
rates or a 3-deg tilt angle showed a relatively rough surface Fig. 6BD. It is
assumed that fracture is easy to occur in
rough surface compared to smooth surface, as it can provide stress concentration points.
From the above detailed description, it can be deduced that, due to low
melt viscosity compared to other polymers, such as ABS (Ref. 11), PE (Ref.
22), PP (Ref. 24), and PMMA (Ref. 25),
Nylon 6 is weldable only at lower rotation speeds.

Tensile Test Results

Figure 7 exhibits the peak stress
values of tensile specimens, obtained
from stress strain curves. The trend
indicates the increase in tool rotational speed leads to a decrease in tensile
strength. However, considering the
visible aforementioned defects, Fig. 7
shows the difference in strength values is not that large. The tensile
strength obtained at 500 rev/min is
also comparable to that of the specimen at 400 rev/min, even though it
comprises tunnel defect in it. Moreover, the strength of each specimen, in
terms of value, was quite less than
that of the base material. The highest
tensile strength, obtained at 300
rev/min, 0-deg tilt angle, was 27.21
MPa, which corresponds only to about
32% of base material. At the same rotational rate when the angle is tilted to
3 deg, the strength decreased to its
lowest value of 18.08 MPa.
Compared with Panneerselvam et al.
(Ref. 13) and Inaniwa et al. (Ref. 12),
who studied 10- and 5-mm-thick Nylon
6, respectively, almost similar results
were found. Although Nylon 6 FSW results are lower in tensile strength compared to other polymers, such as PE
(Ref. 4), ABS (Ref. 10), and polypropylene (PP) (Ref. 24), it is believed that
this process, due to its certain advanJUNE 2016 / WELDING JOURNAL 213-s

Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 214


Fig. 7 Effect of rotational speed on tensile

strength of Nylon 6 FSW specimens.

Fig. 6 SEM microstructures of welds, observed in weld nugget, at rotational speed

of A 300 rev/min with 0deg angle; B 400 rev/min with 0deg angle; C 500
rev/min with 0deg angle; D 300 rev/min with 3deg angle.

tages over other techniques, can be suitable for this material.

Fracture Analysis
The fractured area in any place of the
welded joint is a direct indication of the
weakest part of that joint. In the present investigation it was noted that all
specimens of each set of parameters exhibited identical fracture location,
which is at the interface of the WZ on
the retreating side (IW-RS). However,
interface of the WZ on the advancing
side (IW-AS) remained intact. One fractured specimen for each rotation rate is
shown in Fig. 8. It is also important to
note here the specimen welded at 500
rev/min (Fig. 8C) also showed fracture
at the IW-RS, despite the fact it contains a tunnel defect. It indicates that
the IW-RS is weaker than the tunnel
Inaniwa et al. (Ref. 12) and N.
Mendes et al. (Ref. 11) also observed
the same fracture locations in their
study on FSW of different polymers.
This prefered fracture location in these
specimens can be related to the formation of flash preferrentially on the retreating side. In general, flash forma-

tion causes the lack of material, which

ultimately results in cavities and blowholes. In addition to it, other phenomena in the WZ make the RS weaker than
the AS include higher temperature on
the RS (Ref. 23), low shear velocity on
the RS (Ref. 12), and difference in flow
on both sides (Ref. 10). Scanning electron microscopy results of fractured
specimens observed toward the WZ,
shown in Fig. 9, exhibit the same fracture phenomenon in all specimens.

Temperature Analysis
Temperatures measured at 1 mm below the pin tip are shown graphically in
Fig. 10. An increase in temperature
with the increase of rotation speed is
obvious and can be observed in the
graph. Although the temperature differences at low rotation rates are not
significant, noticeable differences in
weld quality were observed. Cavities,
tunnel defect, and smoke during the
process were seen above 400 rev/min
rotation speeds. A maximum temperature of 167C at 1000 rev/min showed
large amounts of flash formation with
the emission of smoke. Smoke is a combination of different volatiles, majorly

214-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and

ammonia (NH3), evolved due to endothermic reaction during the FSW
process. Evolution of volatiles is directly linked to the weight, suggesting a decrease in polymer weight (Ref. 26).
Therefore, it is believed that at relatively higher rotation rates, a small decrease in weight also occurred.
Considering the melting point of
Nylon 6 is 220C, it can be assumed all
rotation rates used in the present
study are applicable for Nylon 6, as
thermal degradation of polymer occurs at 350C (Ref. 27). It was observed that temperature for optimum
weld parameter 300 rev/min with 0deg angle is 119C. There was low
flash formation and no visible defect
that could be attributed to the welding
in plasticized condition due to low
heat input avoiding low melt viscosity.
Low heat input results in avoiding the
deterioration in the properties of base
material. Increase in temperature
above this point may cause the formation of excess flash due to lower melt
viscosity, which eventually results in
lower weld quality.

Analysis of Crystallinity
In order to analyze the postweld
thermal conditions of the joint and to
investigate the reason of identical fracture locations, the degree of crystallinity of different sections of the
WZ was analyzed using DSC curves.
The specimens, for this purpose, were
taken from the base material (BM),
weld center (WC), AS, and RS. The degree of crystallinity of any polymer
has a direct relation to its mechanical
and physical properties. Increase in
the degree of crystallinity has shown
increase in tensile strength, stiffness,

Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 215


deg-angle specimen, due to its comparatively good micro-mechanical results.

The peak value of the curve gives the
melting enthalpy (Hm) of the polymer, which is directly proportional to
the crystallinity according to this formula (Ref. 31)

Wc = Hm/Hm 100%

Fig. 8 Fractured specimens during tensile tests welded at the following: A 300 rev/min
with 0deg angle; B 400 rev/min with 0deg angle; C 500 rev/min with 0deg angle; D
300 rev/min with 3deg angle.


where Hm is the enthalpy of fusion

and Hm is the enthalpy of fusion of
100% crystalline Nylon 6, of which the
value is 230 J/g (Ref. 32).
Keeping in view Equation 1 and Fig.
11, it can be concluded the crystallinity of the specimen is reduced in the
WZ compared to the base material. It
reduced further in the RS and became
lowest in the WC by making the AS the
comparatively highest crystalline region in the WZ. However, low crystallinity along with some defects on
the borderline of the RS made the RS
the preferred fracture location. It is
also important to mention here the reduction in crystallinity is basically
linked to the rapid cooling of the material (Ref. 32). In this case, the cooling rate for the whole joint was the
same, as postweld specimens were
placed in an open environment at
room temperature. Therefore, it is believed that it is mainly the temperature differences at different regions of
the WZ that lead to the cooling difference and, therefore, the difference in

Material Flow during

Friction Stir Welding

Fig. 9 SEM micrographs of fractured surfaces, observed at the interface of the RS toward
the weld zone, welded at the following: A 300 rev/min with 0deg angle; B 400 rev/min
with 0deg angle; C 500 rev/min with 0deg angle; D 300 rev/min with 3deg angle.

yield point, and hardness, but a reduction in impact strength (Refs. 2830).

Figure 11 shows the DSC curves of a

specially chosen 300 rev/min with 0-

Material flow during the welding

process was studied by employing a
1.5-mm-thin ABS sheet as a marker
material. For this purpose, specimens
were friction stir welded at optimum
parameters of 300 rev/min rotation
speed, 0-deg tilt angle, and 25mm/min feed rate, selected based on
previous results. The set of parameters
is shown in Table 1. Postweld specimens were cut in different sections,
such as longitudinal-section (parallel
to welding direction), vertical cross
section (perpendicular to welding direction), and horizontal cross section,
to visually analyze the displacement of
marker material in x, y, and z directions. The sectioning scheme is also
shown in Fig. 12.


Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 216


Fig. 10 Effect of the rotational speed on temperature; measured 1 mm

below the pin tip.
Fig. 11 DSC curves of 300 rev/min with a 0deg angle
Nylon 6 sample of different locations.

lar phenomenon
was observed on
the adjacent right
and left
sides of the
Fig. 12 Sectioning scheme of material flow specimens.
area. This
of WZ withFigure 13A shows the specimen bein the plunged area is also mentioned
fore welding with marker material in
and Rodrigues (Ref. 20) in
by Simoes
the longitudinal direction (parallel to
their study of PMMA.
welding direction). After welding, verIn order to observe the y-direction
tical cross sections of the specimen
flow (parallel to WD) of the specimen,
were made to observe the flow in
marker materials were placed transx-direction, which is perpendicular to
versely (perpendicular to WD) on the
the welding direction (WD). It can be
AS (I), weld interface (II), and RS (III),
clearly seen in Fig. 13B that thin markas shown in Fig. 14A. After welding,
er material, when placed on the RS (I),
horizontal sections were prepared. It is
spread all over the welding zone,
clear from Fig. 14BD marker material
equivalent to pin diameter. Similarly,
after stirring was displaced behind the
in Fig. 13C, marker material placed on
pin. The maximum displacement
AS (II) stirred and spread in complete
measured in Fig. 14C, D was remarkwelding zone. This spreading indicates
ably very long, 11 mm, whereas the dia uniform stirring, either marker maameter of the pin is 7.5 mm. However,
terial is on the AS or the RS. However,
distribution of marker material
in both cross sections it can be ob(shown in Fig. 14C, D) was uniform,
served that marker material at the top
but narrowing of marker material at
of the specimen is not well stirred and
the end was observed. It is believed
positioned toward the AS. It is bethe farthest narrow part is squeezed
lieved this unstirred area is due to a
and extruded by the pin. This extrusmall, unthreaded part of pin near the
sion phenomenon is similar to Collishoulder. Furthermore, it is also obgans (Ref. 18) material flow study on
served the depth of the WZ is equivaFSW of aluminum alloy, in which he
lent to the pin plunged length. It
considered the welding process due to
shows there was no cross flow from
stirring and extrusion. As the material
the plunged area to the unplunged
of the AS in Fig. 14B is prone to flow
zone at the bottom of the pin. A simi216-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

on sides, it can be said the vacant sides

at the end in Fig. 14C, D can be filled
by material from the AS. Thereby, it
covers a complete welding zone and
leaves no defects.
In order to understand the complete
flow during welding, flow in the zdirection was also observed. For this
purpose, marker materials were placed
at bottom, middle, and top of the AS
and RS. It is shown in Fig. 15A, B, respectively. After welding, longitudinal
sections of welded specimens were
made to observe vertical movement.
These are shown in Fig. 15C, D. It is
clear from the sections that material at
the bottom expanded up to the surfaces
of both specimens. A similar case was
observed for middle marker materials.
Marker material at the top expelled out
from the specimen and resulted in formation of flash. No difference in this
upward movement of marker materials
was found either on the AS or RS of
specimens. A large, vertical movement
of material during welding was also observed by Guerra et al. (Ref. 19), Li et al.
(Ref. 15), and Seidel and Reynolds (Ref.
17) in their study on aluminum.

Systematic work was carried out on
the friction stir welding of 16-mmthick Nylon 6 plates using a threaded
pin tool with a small-diameter shoulder. Based on the aforementioned results and discussion, the following
conclusions can be made:

Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 217


Fig. 13 A Specimen before welding with a marker mate

rial parallel to the WD; B vertical cross section of postweld
specimens when marker material is on the RS; C the AS.

Fig. 14 A Specimen before welding with marker material perpen

dicular to the WD; B horizontal cross section of postweld specimens
when marker material is on the AS; C weld interface; D RS.

retreating side, and low crystalline

content in the retreating side region.
Material flow examination revealed large (more than pin diameter)
backward displacement of plasticized
material. However, overall a uniformly
mixed distinct isolated pin plunged
zone was found.


The authors would like to thank

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS for
the research facilities and financial

Fig. 15 Specimens before welding with marker material at the bottom, middle, and top of
the following: A AS; B RS; C longitudinal section of postweld specimen AS; D RS.
Nylon 6, due to its low melt viscosity, is weldable only at lower rotation rates. Therefore, a 300 rev/min
rotation speed and 25-mm/min feed
rate has given comparatively good
weld results at 0-deg tool angle.
At higher rotation rates, squeezing out of excess plasticized material
and defects formation in the weld
zone were observed.
A small-diameter shoulder, on the
other hand, reduced the amount of
flash by reducing the primary heat.
The processing temperatures,
measured 1 mm below the pin plunged
zone, were quite below the thermal
degradation temperature of Nylon 6
(350C). Thus, it is assumed the Nylon
6 in the stirring zone did not undergo
extreme thermal degradation, although minor reduction in molecular

weight due to smoke evolution is believed to have occurred.

The tensile strength of all joints
was quite lower than that of the base
As the result of microstructure
observation in the weld zone regions,
relatively smooth and uniform microstructure was observed at the optimum set of parameters.
DSC results showed the crystallinity of the weld zone decreased
compared to base material. Moreover,
the retreating side compared to the advancing side was found to have low
During tensile tests, all specimens
fractured at the interface of the weld
zone on the retreating side. It can be
attributed to the lack of bonding at
the interface of the weld zone on the

1. A Guide to nylon. Available:
2. Magnus, C. Feasibility Study of Metal
to Polymer Hybrid Joining. 2012.
3. Liu, F. C., Liao, J., and Nakata, K.
2014. Joining of metal to plastic using friction lap welding. Materials & Design 54(2):
4. Arici, A., and Sinmazelk, T. 2005.
Effects of double passes of the tool on friction stir welding of polyethylene. Journal of
Materials Science 40(6): 33133316.
5. Pirizadeh, M., Azdast, T., Ahmadi, S.
R., Shishavan, S. M., and Bagheri, A. Friction stir welding of thermoplastics using a
newly designed tool. Materials & Design
54(2): 342347.
6. Olabisi, O., and Adewale, K. 1997.
Handbook of Thermoplastics. Vol. 41. CRC
7. Aydin, M. 2010. Effects of welding
parameters and pre-heating on the friction

Zafar Supplement June_Layout 1 5/13/16 2:51 PM Page 218

stir welding of UHMW-polyethylene. Polymer-Plastics Technology and Engineering
49(5): 595601.
8. Bilici, M. K., and Ykler, A. I. 2012.
Influence of tool geometry and process parameters on macrostructure and static
strength in friction stir spot welded polyethylene sheets. Materials & Design 33(1):
9. Ahmadi, N. B. M. A. H., Ashenai
Ghasemi, F., and Eslami Farsani, R. 2012.
Influence of pin profile on quality of friction stir lap welds in carbon fiber reinforced polypropylene composite. International Journal of Mechanics and Applications.
10. Bagheri, A., Azdast, T., and Doniavi,
A. 2013. An experimental study on mechanical properties of friction stir welded
ABS sheets. Materials & Design 43(1):
11. Mendes, N., Loureiro, A., Martins,
C., Neto, P., and Pires, J. N. 2014. Effect of
friction stir welding parameters on morphology and strength of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene plate welds. Materials & Design 58(6): 457464.
12. Inaniwa, S., Kurabe, Y., Miyashita,
Y., and Hori, H. 2013. Application of friction stir welding for several plastic materials. Proceedings of the 1st International Joint
Symposium on Joining and Welding. Osaka,
Japan, p. 137.
13. Panneerselvam, K., and Lenin, K.
2014. Joining of Nylon 6 plate by friction
stir welding process using threaded pin
profile. Materials & Design 53(1): 302307.
14. Lorrain, O., Favier, V., Zahrouni, H.,
and Lawrjaniec, D. 2010.Understanding
the material flow path of friction stir welding process using unthreaded tools. Journal
of Materials Processing Technology 210(3):

15. Li, W. Y., Li, F. J., Zhang, Z. H., Gao,

D. L., and Chao, Y. J. 2013. Metal flow during friction stir welding of 7075-T651 aluminum alloy. Experimental Mechanics
53(11): 15731582.
16. Edwards, P. D., and Ramulu, M.
2015. Material flow during friction stir
welding of Ti-6Al-4V. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology 218(4): 107115.
17. Seidel, T. U., and Reynolds, A. P.
2001. Visualization of the material flow in
AA2195 friction-stir welds using a marker
insert technique. Metallurgical and Materials Transactions A 32(11): 28792884.
18. Colligan, K. 1999. Material flow behavior during friction welding of aluminum.
Welding Journal 75(7): 229-s to 237-s.
19. Guerra, M., Schmidt, C., McClure, J.
C., Murr, L. E., and Nunes, A. C. 2002.
Flow patterns during friction stir welding.
Materials Characterization 49(9): 95101.
20. Simes, F., and Rodrigues, D. M.
2014. Material flow and thermo-mechanical conditions during friction stir welding
of polymers: Literature review, experimental results and empirical analysis. Materials
& Design 59(7): 344351.
21. Arbegast, W. J. 2007. A flow-partitioned deformation zone model for defect
formation during friction stir welding.
Scripta Materialia 58(3): 372376.
22. Bozkurt, Y. 2012. The optimization
of friction stir welding process parameters
to achieve maximum tensile strength in
polyethylene sheets. Materials & Design
35(3): 440445.
23. Mishra, R. S., and Mahoney, M. W.
2007. Friction Stir Welding and Processing.
ASM International.
24. Kiss, T. C. Z. 2007. Applicability of
friction stir welding in polymeric materials. Polytech. Mech. Eng. 51(1): 1518.

25. Oliveira, P. H. F., Amancio-Filho, S.

T., dos Santos, J. F., and Hage Jr., E. 2010.
Preliminary study on the feasibility of friction spot welding in PMMA. Materials Letters 64(10): 20982101.
26. Braun, E., and Levin, B. C. 1987.
Nylons: A review of the literature on products of combustion and toxicity. Fire and
Materials 11(2): 7188.
27. Lehrle, R. S., Parsons, I. W., and
Rollinson, M. 2000. Thermal degradation
mechanisms of Nylon 6 deduced from kinetic studies by pyrolysis-g.c. Polymer
Degradation and Stability 67(1): 2133.
28. Yu, T., Wu, C., Chang, C., Wang, C.,
and Rwei, S. 2012. Effects of crystalline
morphologies on the mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforcing polymerized cyclic butylene terephthalate composites. Express Polymer Letters 6(4): 318328.
29. El-Hadi, A., Schnabel, R., Straube,
E., Mller, G., and Henning, S. 2002. Correlation between degree of crystallinity,
morphology, glass temperature, mechanical properties and biodegradation of poly
(3-hydroxyalkanoate) PHAs and their
blends. Polymer Testing 154(21): 665674.
30. Starkweather, H. W., Moore, G. E.,
Hansen, J. E., Roder, T. M., and Brooks, R.
E. 1956. Effect of crystallinity on the properties of nylons. Journal of Polymer Science
21(98): 189204.
31. Gao, J., Shen, Y., Zhang, J., and Xu,
H. 2014. Submerged friction stir weld of
polyethylene sheets. Journal of Applied
Polymer Science 131(22).
32. Millot, C., Fillot, L.-A., Lame, O.,
Sotta, P., and Seguela, R. Assessment of
polyamide-6 crystallinity by DSC. Journal
of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 122(1):

Authors: Submit Research Papers Online

Peer review of research papers is now managed through an online system using Editorial Manager software. Papers can be submitted into the system directly from the Welding Journal page on the AWS website
( by clicking on submit papers. You can also access the new site directly at
Follow the instructions to register or log in. This online system streamlines the review process, and makes
it easier to submit papers and track their progress. By publishing in the Welding Journal, more than 70,000
members will receive the results of your research.
Additionally, your full paper is posted on the American Welding Society website for FREE access around
the globe. There are no page charges, and articles are published in full color. By far, the most people, at the
least cost, will recognize your research when you publish in the world-respected Welding Journal.

218-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 219


Measurement and Application of Arc Separability

in Plasma Arc
The distribution of pressure and heat from a separated arc plasma was
analyzed for a novel welding system based on a split anode

The authors recently demonstrated that the arc plasma and electron flow in an arc
could be separated. This separability provided the foundation to develop an ability to
adjust the heat and arc pressure distribution without changing the current. To better
understand this property, a novel system was developed based on the split anode.
The distribution of the pressure and heat from the separated arc plasma was analyzed
quantitatively. It was verified that the arc pressure mainly concentrated in the arc
plasma. Also, the heat input from the arc plasma exceeded that from the eletron flow.
To explore possible applications of this separability, a novel process, namely,
separated plasma transferred arc weld surfacing (SPTAWS) is proposed. Grade D steel
workpieces were hardfaced using this process. As the separated electron flow
increased, the heataffected zone (HAZ) of the deposited bead was reduced. The mi
crostructure with SPTAWS was found to be better than with conventional plasma
transferred arc weld surfacing (PTAWS), especially in the finegrain zone. The grain is
more refined and uniform.

Plasma Arc Arc Separability Arc Pressure Arc Heat SPTAWS

In 1802 Petrov discovered the phenomenon of continuous electrical discharge, and in 1911 Mathers described the plasma as a heat source
for the first time (Refs. 1, 2). Subsequently, scientists proposed many arc
welding methods including submerged arc welding (SAW), gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW), gas metal
arc welding (GMAW), and plasma arc
welding (PAW) (Ref. 3). Scientists
also proposed many hardfacing methods, including plasma spray, plasma
transferred arc weld surfacing
(PTAWS), and plasma transfer wire
arc (PTWA) thermal spraying (Refs.

As a special arc welding process,

PAW belongs to the category of highenergy density welding. Its unique mechanical, heat, and magnetic compression in its small orifice results in its
distinguished directionality and high
restraint (Refs. 911) that are useful
for welding applications such as space
shuttles, airplanes, and rockets (Refs.
1214). Similar to PAW, the heat
source of PTAWS is also plasma arc
(PA).The PTAWS process has been
used in surface modification, repairing
techniques, and additive manufacturing (Refs. 4, 1518). Better controllability for the distribution of pressure
and heat flow undoubtfully will further expand its use.
Generally, scientists consider that

the pressure and the heat flow of PA

are coupled together. If the heat flow
increases, the pressure also increases.
It is also thought that the electron
flow as determined by the welding
current is carried by the arc plasma.
The arc plasma, consisting of equal
numbers of ions and electrons, and
the electron flow, which ionizes the
shielding gas to form the arc plasma,
are hard to separate. In our previous
study, the authors found (Refs. 19,
20) that the plasma arc can be separated from the electron flow: as the
arc plasma has been formed through
ionization, the electron flow can be
separated from the arc plasma partly
or completely. For PA, because of the
directionality and high restraint, separating the electron flow has little effect on the form of arc plasma. However, the pressure and heat are
changed, providing an opportunity to
provide better controllability of the
plasma arc to meet different needs.
This paper first presents results on
distributions of pressure and heat of
the separated, partially or completely,
arc plasma and electron flow for the
effects from major parameters including the plasma gas flow rate, distance
from the cathode to workpiece, and
welding current. Then a novel separated plasma transferred arc weld surfacing (SPTAWS) process is proposed
to realize the controllability made
possible by separating the arc, and
also to experimentally test for the results due to this improved controllability. The results from this study provided fundamentals to better under-

S. J. CHEN, R. Y. ZHANG, F. JIANG (, and Z. Y. YAN are with the Ministry of Education Engineering Research Center of Ad
vanced Manufacturing Technology for Automotive Components, Beijing University of Technology, China. Y. M. Zhang is with the Institute for
Sustainable Manufacturing and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky.


Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 220


Fig. 1 Test platform. A Schematic diagram; B experiment

system for pressure measurement; C experiment system for heat

stand the PA and expand the application range from the conventional PA.

Measurement of
Experimental System
This experimental study relied on
the analysis of the data from measurements of pressure and heat associated with the arc. Scientists around
the world have made great progress in
the measurement of arc pressure. The
pressure of plasma arc has been measured by pendulum with rotary optical

encoder, U-tube
barometer, and
piezoelectric pressure transducer
(Refs. 2123). The
temperature field
in the arc column
was measured by
infrared radiation
(IR) and spectroscopy (Refs. 2426). The current
distribution was
measured by a series of annular anodes and split anode method (Refs.
27, 28). In the previous study, the authors measured the distribution of
pressure and heat of the completely
separated arc plasma and electron
flow. However, systematic measurements needed to study the properties
of the partially separated arc plasma
and electron flow were lacking. Such
properties and degree of the partial
separation were critical for free control on the pressure and heat. An experimental setup was thus established
to provide the ability to study the partial separation.

Figure 1A illustrates the principle

of the test platform, which is based
on a split anode. Figure 1B and C
shows the systems for pressure and
heat measurement. A PAW power
source and a GTAW power source
(that are represented by A and B power sources in Fig. 1) were used to provide the total current that flows
through the PAW torch. The torch was
vertically fixed on a test stand and
driven by a travel mechanism to implement translational motion and
connected to the negative terminals
of the both power sources. The workpieces were replaced by two watercooled copper blocks. One of them
served as the electron flow receiver. It
was connected to the positive terminal of the GTAW power source and
used to separate the electron flow
from the arc plasma partly or completely. It also received heat from the
separated electron flow. Another
served as the arc plasma receiver,
which was connected to the positive
terminal of the PAW power source
and used to receive the heat and pressure from the arc plasma, containing
the electron flow varying from 0 to

Table 1 Major Experimental Parameters


Experimental Type

PAW Current (A)

GTAW Current (A)

Plasma Gas Flow Rate (L/min)

Arc Length (mm)







220-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 221


Fig. 2 Pressure measurement experiment. A Starting the GTAW power; B starting

the transfer arc of PAW; C crossing; D ending.

100%. There was a narrow gap (0.5

mm) to separate the two water-cooled
copper blocks, which had ceramic
coatings on their facing surfaces to
furtheensure insulation. A pressure
sensor was placed under the arc plasma receiver to receive the arc plasma
pressure signal. A calculation based
on the circular segment principle was
used to analyze the distribution of
pressure. A high-speed video system
was used to image the arc separation
phenomenon occurring during the
For the heat measurement, the receivers received the majority of the
heat from the arc plasma, except for
radiation loss of the arc column, and
all the heat from the electron flow.
However, these measurements represented the actual case for welding
where the radiation was also lost. The
method for the calculation of the heat
distribution was detailed in our previous study (Ref. 19). Two watercooling circulatory systems were built
for the two copper blocks, respectively. To minimize the heat loss to better
ensure accuracy, enough thermal insulation was used to enclose the water
flow pipes. Each water-cooling circulatory system was installed with two

sensors to measure the temperature

of the cooling water. Further, one sensor was installed near the outlet of
the pump, and the other was fixed
near the outlet of the water-cooled
copper block. A multichannel oscilloscope was used to collect the signals
and a comprehensive algorithm was
used to analyze the data.

Experimental Procedure
In all experiments, the plasma
torch had a 3-mm orifice diameter,
4.8-mm tungsten diameter, and 4mm tungsten setback. Pure argon
(99.99%) was used for the shielding
gas and plasma gas, and the flow rate
for the shielding gas was 12 L/min.
The major parameters for the designed experiments are given in Table
1, including the current of the PAW
(CP), the current of the GTAW (CG),
plasma gas flow rate, and arc length.
The current flowing through the plasma torch was 100 A. The electron
flow was separated from the arc plasma, with the CG from 0 to 100 A representing conventional PAW, partial
separation at different degrees, and
full separation. The CP reduced from
100 to 0 A, accordingly.

In the pressure measurement experiments, the arc was ignited on the

electron flow receiver without contact
to the arc plasma receiver Fig. 2A.
After being ignited, the arc moved at
a speed of 8 mm/min. The arc of the
PAW power source started immediately when the fringe of the arc contacted the border-right of the arc plasma
receiver. The torch kept moving until
it arrived in the middle of the plasma
arc receiver Fig. 2D. The force sensor under the arc plasma receiver was
sampled at 1 Hz. The data received
was filtered and then calculated based
on the circular segment principle.
In the heat measurement experiments, a standstill welding arc was
used, as shown in Fig. 3. In order to
better understand the heat property
of the arc plasma, which contains part
of the electron flow, the CG was increased and the CP was decreased,
and the arc was ignited by starting
the PAW power source and GTAW
power source at the same time. The
distance from the border-left of the
electron flow receiver to the axis of
the plasma torch was 6 mm. The heating time was 500 s after the arc was
ignited. The initial temperature of the
cooling water was 18C, the flow rate
of each water circulation was 11
L/min, and the inner diameter of the
water flow pipes was 8.5 mm. The
heat was calculated based on the heat
balance equation (energy Equation 1),
Q = cmDT


where DT is the temperature elevation, c is the specific heat capacity of

water, and m is the total water mass
in circulation. In all experiments, the
c and m were the same. The energy
output (P) of the arc plasma can be
calculated based on power Equation 2,
P = Q/t


where Q is the heat of the workpieces

received and t is the heating time.

Measurement Results and

Pressure Distribution
As shown in Table 1, Experiments
13 were designed to measure the

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 222


Fig. 3 Heat measurement experiment.

Fig. 4 Arc pressure distribution under different currents in Ex

periment 1. Arc length, 4 mm; plasma gas flow rate, 3 L/min. The
currents are given as CPCG.

formed. The charged

particles accelerate
in the electric field.
As the electron flow
was separated from
the arc plasma, the
ionizability of the
arc plasma decreased, and the
number of the
charged particles decreased. The electric
field intensity thus
decreased and the
Fig. 5 Arc pressure distribution under different arc lengths in
velocity of charged
Experiment 2. CP, 50 A; CG, 50 A; plasma gas flow rate, 3 L/min.
particles decreased
when they reached
the arc plasma repressure distribution for the separatceiver. Hence, the pressure of the arc
ed arc in different conditions. The replasma was reduced. As can be seen in
sults are shown in Figs. 46.
Fig. 4, the pressure of the arc plasma
The results from Experiment 1 are
decreased as the CG (the electron flow
shown in Fig. 4. In each legend of the
that was separated from the arc plasfigure, the first number refers to the
ma) increased. With the increase in
CP and the second represents the CG.
the separated electron flow, both of
As such, 100-0 implies the CP and CG
the peak pressure and the distribuat 100 A and 0, respectively. In all the
tion radius decreased.
experiments, the sum of the currents
When the arc length was changed
was 100 A, i.e., the current flowing
at three levels, i.e., 4, 6, and 8 mm,
through the plasma torch was unthe results are shown in Fig. 5. The
changed. As the electron flow separatCP and the CG remained 50 A, respeced from the arc plasma, it gradually
tively, and the plasma gas flow rate
increased until completed. The plasremained 3.0 L/min. When other conma gas flow rate remained 3 L/min
ditions were unchanged, the temperaand the arc length remained 4 mm. As
ture of the arc plasma decreased, the
known, the ionization starts at the
density and the voltage of the arc
cathode and continues in the arc colplasma increased as the arc length inumn. An electric field was thus
222-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

creased. The velocity of the arc plasma was influenced by voltage and
temperature, and the effect of the
voltage depended on the polarity of
charged particles and the direction of
the electric field. Based on the fundamental law of electricity that like
charges repel and opposite charges attract, the acceleration direction of the
cations was toward the cathode, and
the acceleration direction of the negatively charged particles was toward
the anode. The temperature had a
negative effect on the velocity of all
the particles in the arc plasma as the
temperature decreased. In this case,
compared to temperature, the voltage
had a smaller influence on the velocity of the arc plasma. The velocity of
the arc plasma thus decreased as the
arc length increased. As shown in Fig.
5, the peak of the pressure curve decreased as the arc length increased.
The results from Experiment 3 are
shown in Fig. 6. The plasma gas flow
rate was changed at three levels, 2.5,
3.0, and 3.5 L/min. The arc length remained 4 mm and the CP and the CG
remained 50 A, respectively. When
other conditions were unchanged, the
initial velocity of the arc plasma increased as the plasma gas flow rate increased, based on the fluid dynamics.
In addition, the running distance of
the arc plasma remained unchanged.
The final velocity of the arc plasma,
when reaching the workpiece, in-

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 223


Fig. 6 Arc pressure distribution under different plasma gas

flow rates in Experiment 3. CP, 50 A; CG, 50 A; arc length, 4 mm.

Fig. 7 Energy output of the arc plasma and the electron flow
under different currents in Experiment 4. Arc length, 4 mm;
plasma gas flow rate, 3 L/min. The current is given as CPCG.

Fig. 8 Energy output of the arc plasma and the electron

flow under different arc lengths in Experiment 5. CP, 50 A; CG,
50 A; plasma gas flow rate, 3 L/min.

Fig. 9 Energy output of the arc plasma and the electron

flow under different plasma gas flow rates in Experiment 6. CP,
50 A; CG, 50 A; arc length, 4 mm.

creased as the plasma gas flow rate increased. As can be seen in Fig. 6, the
peak value has been significantly increased as the plasma gas flow rate increased, the pressure of the arc plasma was reducing as the arc radius increased, and the pressure mainly distributed within the 2.5 mm radius.

Heat Distribution
As shown in Table 1, Experiments
46 are designed to measure the heat
from the arc plasma and electron flow
under different conditions. The results are shon in Figs. 79. The points
on the lines are the measurements. In
the Y-axis, the energy output is calculated based on Equations 1 and 2.
As illustrated in Fig. 7, the current
is applied at seven pairs; and in the Xaxis, the first number represents the
CP and the second represents the CG.

The sum of the two currents remained 100 A. In all experiments, the
arc length was 4 mm. As seen from
Fig. 7, as the separated electron flow
(the CG) decreases (i.e., toward the
right in the current axis in the figure),
the heat of the electron flow (the lower curve in the figure) decreases, but
the heat of the arc plasma (the upper
curve) (as reflected by the temperature elevation of the cooling water)
increases because the proportion of
the electron flow that is not separated
increases. Further, as can be observed, the heat of the arc plasma was
greater than the electron flow. The
first reason was that the heat being
received by the electron flow receiver
mainly came from the anode spot and
decreased as the separated electron
flow (the CG) decreased. The heat of
the electron flow receiver decreased
as the separated electron flow de-

creased. However, when the separated

electron flow was zero, the temperature elevation of the cooling water
that flowed through the electron receiver was not zero because of the
thermal radiation of the arc plasma.
Another reason was the heat received
by the workpiece mainly comes from
the ionized gas, highly compressed
and with a high temperature. The ionization starts at the cathode and continues in the arc column. Due to the
total current flowing through the
plasma torch was unchanged, the ionizability of the ionized gas was unchanged until the electron flow started to separate from the arc plasma.
The ionizability of the arc plasma increased as the separated electron flow
decreased. With the decrease in the
separated electron flow, the electron
flow, which is still contained within
the arc plasma, increased, and the anJUNE 2016 / WELDING JOURNAL 223-s

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 224


Fig. 10 Schematic of the separated plasma transferred arc weld surfacing (SPTAWS)
where 14 are the plasma gas, powders, powder feeding gas, and shielding gas.

Fig. 11 Appearance of typical deposited bead by conventional PTAWS.

changed. With the increase in the arc

length, the radius of the arc plasma
increased. The thermal radiation
transfer of the arc plasma thus increased. Hence, the heat received by
the electron flow receiver tends to increase, but very slightly.
The results from Experiment 6 are
shown in Fig. 9. The plasma gas flow
rate was applied at five levels, 2.0,
2.5, 3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 L/min. The arc
length remained 4 mm. The CP and
CG both remained at 50 A. As the
plasma gas flow rate increased, the
heats from the arc plasma and electron flow (the temperature elevation
of the cooling water) both increased.
In this case, the ionized gas needed
more energy to keep the degree of
ionization in the plasma arc flowing
through the plasma torch with a
fixed diameter, which was attained
by increasing the voltage. The arc
plasma thus carried additional energy to the arc plasma receiver. Based
on the fluid dynamics, the initial velocity and the final velocity of the arc
plasma increased as the plasma gas
flow rate increased, and the dynamic
energy that was transformed into the
internal energy of the arc plasma receiver increased. Hence, the heat of
the arc plasma receiver increased as
the plasma gas flow rate increased.
For the electron flow receiver, the
heat from the electron flow was unchanged. Due to the arc plasma containing part of the electron flow, the
degree of ionization in the arc plasma
increased as the plasma gas flow rate
increased, and the thermal radiation
of the arc plasma increased.

Fig. 12 Appearance of typical deposited bead by SPTAWS.

ode spot transfered heat to the arc

plasma receiver. Hence, the heat of
the arc plasma increased as the separated electron flow decreased.
The results from Experiment 5 are
shown in Fig. 8. The arc length is at
three levels, 4, 6, and 8 mm. The
plasma gas flow rate remained 3.0
L/min, and the CP and the CG both
remained at 50 A. As shown in Fig. 8,
the heat from the arc plasma (the
temperature elevation of the cooling
water flowing through the arc plasma
receiver) exhibited a slow decrease as
the arc length increased, while the
heat from the separated electron
flow illustrated a reversal trend. The

increment of the heat from the separated electron flow was smaller than
the reduction of the heat from the
arc plasma. As the arc length increased, the distance from the orifice
exit to the workpiece increased. The
travel distance and the radius of the
arc plasma both increased. The heat
loss through the radiation and air
convection both increased. The heat
received by the arc plasma receiver
thus reduced as the arc length increased. For the electron flow receiver, the separated electron flow (the
CG) was unchanged despite the increase in the arc length. The heat
from the electron flow was thus un-

224-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Separated Plasma
Transferred Arc Weld
Principle and System
As verified previously, the heat input
and arc pressure on the base metal can
be both reduced from the conventional
PAW and adjusted by changing the degree of the separation. A novel process,
namely the separated plasma transferred arc weld surfacing (SPTAWS), is
thus proposed and developed. Its test
platform is shown in Fig. 10. As illustrated, the system includes a power
source (transferred arc power source or

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 225


TAPS) to provide the electron flow with

an amperage I1 and a constant current
power (separated power source or SPS)
to provide the separated electron flow
I2. Their equivalences in Fig. 1 are power source A and B, respectively. The negative terminals of both power sources
were connected together to the plasma
torch. The positive terminal of the
TAPS was connected to the base metal
and that of the SPS was connected to
the guidance terminal. In this way, the
total current through the PAW torch
was the sum of the currents: I = I1 + I2.
Thus, the SPS controls the electron flow
that was separated from the arc plasma.
This is similar to the double-electrode
GMAW (DE-GMAW) (Refs. 2932) and
the arcing wire GTAW (Refs. 33, 34),
but the SPTAWS separated the electron
flow from the stiff arc plasma while in
the two comparative processes, the arc
plasma was distributed and no electron
flow was separated from the distributed
arc plasma.

Experimental Procedure
Plasma transferred arc weld surfacing (PTAWS) is a standard technology
used for hardfacing. Surfacing experiments were thus conducted using
both the SPTAWS process and the
PTAWS to compare. Grade D steel
plates were used as the base metal
with dimensions 250 100 10 mm.
The high-chromium, iron-based alloy
powders were used for cladding. The
particle size was between 53 and 150
mm. The guidance terminal was re-

Fig. 13 Bead cross section made using conventional PTAWS.

Fig. 14 Illustration of zones in base metal after surfacing.

placed by a tungsten
electrode. 99.99%
pure argon was used
when away from the weld interface exas the shielding gas, plasma gas, and
periencing a change from the overheatpowder feeding gas. Their pressures
ed subzone where the grains were
were 800, 400, and 400 kPa, respeccoarse toward the less heated subzone,
tively. The plasma torch traveled at
where grains were finer. In Zone II, the
0.08 m/min and oscillated with a
annealing was incomplete and finer
fixed magnitude of 16 mm. The arc
grains were mixed with unaffected base
length was 15 mm.
metal grains.
It can be further observed from
Results and Discussion
Fig. 13 that as the base metal heat input decreases, the thickness of Zones
Formation and Macro
I and II are both reduced. In particuAppearance of the
lar, for A with 150-A current, Zone I
Deposited Bead
approximately extends over 70% of
the base metal and Zone II reaches
the bottom of the base metal. In B
The bead shown in Fig. 11 is the
with 130 A current, Zone I approxiappearance of the deposited bead promately reaches 60% of the base metal
duced by conventional PTAWS, using
and Zone II also reaches the bottom
130 A. Figure 12 shows the SPTAWS
of the base metal, but the extent is
deposited bead made using 11 = 110
less than that of A. When the current
A and 12 = 20 A, and the sum of curwas further reduced to 110 A in C,
rents is 130 A. Adjusting these two
Zones I and II only reached 25 and
currents while maintaining their sum
35% of the base metal, respectively.
constant, the deposited bead appearThis suggests that adjusting the heat
ance was not significantly changed
input may provide an effective way to
because of the torch oscillation. Thus,
control the microstructure of the dethe separation did not significantly
posited beads. Unfortunately, for
control the deposited bead appearconventional PTAWS, the needed
ance, while the oscillation did.
current was dictated by the needed
Macro metallurgical graphs of the
melting rate of the powders and was
bead cross section made using the conthus not allowed to be freely adjusted
ventional PTAWS are shown in Fig. 13.
to control the microstructures. In
The base metal after surfacing can be diFig. 13AC, the deposition is apparvided into three zones as illustrated in
ently different.
Fig. 14, where Zones I and II belong to
On the other hand, for the prothe heat-affected zone (HAZ) and Zone
posed SPTAWS, while the sum of the
III is the unaffected base metal. In Zone
total currents can be determined
I, the size of the grains were reduced


Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 226


based on the needed melting rate of

powders to produce the desired deposited bead appearance, the heat input can be adjusted by the degree of
the separation (CP-CG rate) to
achieve the desired microstructures.
As such, SPTAWS experiments were
conducted with different degrees of
separation, thus different heat inputs.
Macro metallurgical graphs of the
bead cross section made using the
SPTAWS process are shown in Fig. 15.
In all experiments, the total current
flowing through the torch remained
130 A. The heat input of the base
metal was controlled through CP-CG
rate. Figure 15 clearly suggests that as
the CG (electron flow separated) increased, Zones I and II both became
thinner. In particular, for A without
the separation, Zone I approximately
extended to 60% of the base metal
and Zone II reached the bottom of the
base metal. In B with 20 A of separated electron flow, Zone I approximately extended to 50% of the base metal;
Zone II also reached the bottom of
the base metal but the extent was less
than that in A. In C with 40 A of separated electron flow, Zone I apparently
did not reach half of the base metal
and Zone II apparently did not reach
the bottom of the base metal, and
only extended to 90% of the base
metal. In the meantime, from the
cross sections of all these deposited
beads, the amounts of the melted
powders are approximately the same.
The same deposited bead appearance
and powder melting were thus

Fig. 15 Bead cross section made using SPTAWS.

achieved using
different heat inputs. Of course,
the microstructures changed accordingly and the
separation was
determined to
achieve the desired microstructures without affecting the deposited
bead appearance and powder melting.

Microstructure of the Bead

Cross Section
Figure 15 suggests that the separation with 40 A of electron flow produces the most desirable results for
hard surfacing, which prefers minimal
heat input. This bead cross section
was thus compared with the one made
using conventional PTAWS, i.e., the
one given in Fig. 15A. To examine the
micrographs, samples were cut, prepared, and etched following standard
procedures for being examined by a
confocal laser scanning microscope.
The micrographs for the bead cross
sections shown in Fig. 15A and C are
given in Figs. 16 and 17, respectively.
That is, Fig. 16 is the microstructure
of the bead cross section made using
the conventional PTAWS process with
130 A current and Fig. 17 is the microstructure with a separated electron
flow of 40 A. In Figs. 16 and 17, the
dark organization represents pearlite
and the light represents ferrite (Ref.
35). The microstructure characteristics changed obviously from A to C
when away from the weld interface.
Comparison between Fig. 16A and
Fig. 17A clearly suggests that the
grain-size distribution in Fig. 17A by
the proposed method is more uniform
than that in Fig. 16A by the conventional method. The comparison between Figs. 16B and 17B and the com-

226-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

parison between Figs. 16C and 17C

also show the same trend, especially
in the fine-grain zone. The peak temperature was one of the key factors
that controlled the microstructure of
bead cross section, and the coarse
grains formed because of high temperatures. The microstructure of bead
cross section was also affected by the
heating speed. As the heating speed
increased, the temperature of Ac3 and
Ac1 (which can be found in the iron
carbon metal alloy equilibrium diagram) increased, the tendency of element migrating decreased, and the
degree of homogenization decreased
(Ref. 36). The grain-size distribution
was nonuniform. As the separated
electron flow was 40 A, the heat input
decreased, and the microstructure of
bead cross section was favorably modified. The microstructure of SPTAWS
bead cross section was better than
that of the conventional PTAWS bead
cross section.

In this study, the property of arc
separability was analyzed by measurement. It was verified that the pressure distribution of arc plasma was affected by the ratio of the CP and the
CG (the electron flow separated from
the arc plasma), arc length, and the
plasma gas flow rate, but the ratio of
the currents was the main factor and
the effects from the arc length and
the plasma gas flow rate were insignificant. The heat applied into the
workpiece through the electron flow
was less than that from the arc plasma. Based on the measurement and
the property of the arc separability,
the separated plasma transferred arc
weld surfacing (SPTAWS) process is
proposed and was tested on Grade D
steel for surfacing. The influence of
current on the macro profile and mi-

Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 227


Fig. 16 Microstructures in the HAZ of the bead cross section produced by PTAWS. Current = 130 A without separation. A Coarse
grains; B fine grains in Zone I; C Zone II contains both coarse grains and fine grains.

Fig. 17 Microstructures in the HAZ of the bead cross section produced by SPTAWS. Total current = 130 A with 40 A separation of the
electron flow. A Coarse grains; B fine grains in Zone I; C Zone II contains both coarse grains and fine grains.

crostructure of the bead cross sections was investigated. For conventional PTAWS, increasing the current
from 110 to 150 A expanded the
HAZ. For SPTAWS, the HAZ decreased as the separated electron flow
increased. According to microstructure analysis, it was found that the
SPTAWS produced beads with finer
and more uniform grains than the
conventional PTAWS, especially in the
fine-grain zone, because of the effect
from the separated electron flow.

This work is supported financially

by the National Science and Technology Major Project of China (Grant No.
2014ZX04001171) and National Natural Science Foundation of China
(Grant No.51375021) and the Project
was supported by Beijing Postdoctoral
Research Foundation (Grant No.
2015zz-15) and by the Chaoyang District Postdoctoral Research Foundation (Grant No.2014zz-02).

1. Menschutkin, B. N. 1936. Vasilij
Vladimirovic Petrov and his physico-chemical work. The History of Science Society 25(2):
2. Sanders, N., Etemadi, K., Hsu, K. C.,
and Pfender, E. 1982. Studies of the anode
region of a high-intensity argon arc. Journa1
of Applied Physics 53(6): 41364145.
3. Welding Handbook. 9th Ed. Vol. 2,
Welding Processes. 2004. Ed. A. O'Brien. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.
4. ASM Handbook. 10th Ed. Vol. 5, Surface Engineering. 1994. Ed. Catherine M.
Cotell, James A. Sprague, and Fred A. Smidt,
Jr. Materials Park, Ohio: ASM International.
5. Saltzman, G. A., and Sahoo, P. 1991.
Applications of plasma arc weld surfacing in
turbine engines. Proceedings of the Fourth National Thermal Spray Conference, Pittsburgh,
Pa., pp. 541548.
6. Hallen, H, Mathesms, H., AitMekideche, A., Hettiger, F., Morkramer, U.,
and Lugscheider, E. 1992. New applications
for high power PTA surfacing in the steel industry. Proceedings of the Conference of the International Thermal Spray, Orlando, Fla., pp.
7. Edrisy, A., Perry, T, Cheng, Y. T., et al.
2001. Wear of thermal spray deposited lowcarbon steel coatings on aluminum alloys.
13th International Conference on Wear of Ma-

terials, Vancouver, Canada, 251: 10231033.

8. Schramm, L., Schwenk, A., and
Hauser, E. 2012. Plasma transfer wire arc
thermal spray system. Pub. No. US
2012/0018407 Al.
9. Shaw, C. B. 1980. Effect of orifice
geometry in plasma arc welding of Ti-6Al-4
V. Welding Journal 59(4): 121125.
10. The Physics of Welding. 2nd Ed. 1986.
Ed. J. F. Lancaster. Pergamon Press.
11. Recommended Practices for Plasma Arc
Welding. C5.l-73. 1973. Ed. Jay Bland. Miami, Fla.: American Welding Society.
12. Irving, B. 1997. Why aren't airplanes
welded? Welding Journal 76(1): 3141.
13. Nunes, A. C., Bayless, E. 0 ., and
Jones, C. S. III, et al. 1984. Variable polarity
plasma arc welding on the space shuttle external tank. Welding Journal 63(9): 2735.
14. Irving, B. 1992. Plasma arc welding
takes on the advanced solid rocket motor.
Welding Journal 71(12): 4950.
15. Liu, Y. F., Xia, Z. Y., Han, J. M., et al.
2006. Microstructure and wear behavior of
(Cr, Fe)7C3 reinforced composite coating
produced by plasma transferred arc weldsurfacing process. Surf Coat. Technol.
201(34): 863867.
16. Su, C., Chou, C., Wu, B., and Lih, W.
1997. Plasma transferred arc repair welding
of the nickel-base superalloy IN-738LC.


Chen 6-12_Layout 1 5/13/16 3:51 PM Page 228

Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance 6(5): 619627.
17. Zhang, H., Xu, J., and Wang, G. 2002.
Fundamental study on plasma deposition
manufacturing. Surface and Coatings Technology 171(13): 112118.
18. Klimpel, A., Dobrzan ski, L., Lisiecki,
A., and Janicki, D. 2006. The study of the
technology of laser and plasma surfacing of
engine valves face made of X40CrSiMo10-2
steel using cobalt-based powders. Journal of
Materials Processing Tecnnology 175(13):
19. Chen, S. J., Jiang, F., Zhang, J. L.,
Zhang, Y. M., et al. 2015. Measurement and
analysis of plasma arc components. Journal
of Manufacturing Science and Engineering
Transactions of the ASME 137(1): 011006-110.
20. Chen, S. J., Jiang, F., Lu, Y. S., and
Zhang, Y. M. 2013. Separation of arc plasma
and current in electrical arc An initial
study. Welding Journal 93(7): 253261.
21. Marks, H. S., Beilis, I. I., and Boxman,
R. L. 2009. Measurement of the vacuum arc
plasma force. IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 37(7):
22. Chabrerie, J. P., Haidar, J., and Manenc, L., et al. 1988. Experimental study of
forces acting on arc electrodes. Proceedings of

the 14th International Conference on Electric

Contacts, Paris, pp. 2024. AQ6.
23. Huff, C. F., and Graham, R. A. 1975.
Pressure measurements very near an electrical arc discharge in a liquid using a lithium
niobate piezoelectric transducer. Appl. Phys.
Lett. 27(4): 163.
24. Chin, B. A., and Madsen, N. H. 1983.
Infrared thermography for sensing the arc
welding process. Welding Journal 62(9):
25. Key, J. F., Chan, J. W., and Mcilwaine,
M. E. 1983. Process variable influence on arc
temperature distribution. Welding Journal
62(7): 179184.
26. Parmer, A. J. D., and Haddad, G. N.
1984. Local thermodynamic equilibrium in
free-burning arcs in argon. Appl. Phys. Lett.
45(1): 2425.
27. Drouet, M. G. 1987. Measurement of
the current distribution at the anode of an
arc burning in a gas and in a vacuum. J. Phys.
E: Sci. Instrum. 20(6): 625626.
28. Nestor, O. H. 1962. Heat intensity
and current density distributions at the anode of high current inert gas arcs. J. Appl.
Phys. 33(5): 16381648.
29. Zhang, Y. M., Jiang, M., and Lu, W.
2004. Double electrodes improve GMAW
heat input control. Welding Journal 83(11):

30. Kehai, L., and Zhang, Y. M. 2007.
Metal transfer in double-electrode gas metal
arc welding. Journal of Manufacturing Science
and Engineering Transactions of the ASME
129: 391999.
31. Zhang, Y. M., Jiang, M., and Lu, W.
2004. Double electrodes improve GMAW
heat input control. Welding Journal 83(11):
32. Li, K. H., Chen, J. S., and Zhang, Y. M.
2007. Double-electrode GMAW process and
control. Welding Journal 86(8): 231-s to 237s.
33. Zhou Wang, Z., and Zhang, Y. M.
2007. Image processing algorithm for automated monitoring of metal transfer in double-electrode GMAW. Measurement Science
and Technology 18: 20482058.
34. Chen, J. S., Lu, Y., Li, X. R., et al.
2012. Gas tungsten arc welding using an arcing wire. Welding Journal 91(10): 261-s to
35. Metallurgy and Heat Treatment. 2007.
Ed. Z. Q. Cui, and J. C. Yan., China Machine
Press, Beijing, China.
36. Welding Metallurgy and Weldability.
2008. Ed. H. J. Liu, and J. C. Yan, China Machine Press, Beijing, China.

The Welding Journal staff encourages an exchange of ideas with you, our readers. If youd like to ask a question, share an
idea, or voice an opinion, you can call, write, e-mail or fax. Staff e-mail addresses are listed below, along with a guide to help
you interact with the right person.
Andrew Cullison, Extension 249
Article Submissions
Mary Ruth Johnsen,
Extension 238
Feature Articles
Features Editor
Kristin Campbell,
Extension 257
News of the Industry
Press Time News
Assistant Editor
Annik Babinski,
Extension 256
Section News, Personnel

Assistant Editor
Melissa Gomez,
Extension 475
Society News,
International News,
and Product & Print Spotlight
Production Manager
Zaida Chavez, Extension 265
Design and Production
Senior Production Coordinator
Brenda Flores, Extension 330
Senior Advertising Executive
Annette Delagrange,
Extension 332
Advertising Sales

228-s WELDING JOURNAL / JUNE 2016, VOL. 95

Senior Advertising Executive

Sandra Jorgensen,
Extension 254
Advertising Sales
Manager of Advertising Sales
Lea Paneca, Extension 220
Promotion and Adverrtising
Senior Advertising Production
Frank Wilson, Extension 465
Advertising Production
Welding Journal Dept.
8669 NW 36th St. #130
Miami, FL 33166
(800) 443-9353
FAX (305) 443-7404

arcos.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:19 AM Page C3

s Delivers Soluttions
to High
ckel Allloy
e ding Ch

Arcos Industries, LLC offfers

f over 30 high nickel allloy electrode products to handle
the wide
variety of critical weldingg applications that you face each day.. Our reputation
n for excellent
quality and superb servicce ensures that you can rely on Arcos to provide you
u with the best in
bare wire, covered and tu
ubular high nickel alloy weelding electrodes.


For Info, go to

lincoln electric.qxp_FP_TEMP 5/11/16 9:11 AM Page C4

For Info, go to