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GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON)
Wall thickness Report
Issued
Date
17/12/13

PROJECT NUMBER: 13027
DOCUMENT NUMBER :

Z.202.1

REVISION CONTROL SHEET
REV.NO

SECTION NO.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES

B

Table 4.1

WT changed

B

Table 4.2

WT changed

B
B

Table 5.2
Table 6.2

Design parameters confirmed
WT changed

Sht. No.

Rev. No.

2 of 25

B

.............0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS ................................................................................ 16 Required Wall thickness ................................................ 10 Conclusions & Recommendations ........... 12 Design Pressure & Temperature ...................................................................... 16 General .............0 INTRODUCTION .................. 13 Corrosion Allowance ..................................................... CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS10 Summary & Results .......................................................................... 19 APPENDIX A – WALL THICKNESS CALCULATIONS .. 16 Pressure Containment ....................................................................................................................................... No..GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.................. 17 Propagation Buckling.. 14 Water depth & Ground Elevation along the route.... 9 Company Engineering Standards ......................................202......... 12 Fluid category ....... 9 International Codes.......................................................... 6 3....................................... 20 ............................................................................................................................................................. 4 Scope of work ...................................................... 10 5........0 DESIGN METHODOLOGY .................. 15 6........................................................................................... 12 Line Pipe Design Data .......................1 Sht..............0 UNITS. RESULTS................................................................................... 6 Nomenclature ................................................... 3 of 25 B TABLE OF CONTENTS 1............................................... 9 Project Reference Documents ................................................................................................................................................................................................................ ABBREVIATIONS & NOMENCLATURES ....................... 14 Tidal and Wave data .......................... 6 Abbreviations ....... 9 4................. 13 Design Factors . 4 2........ 4 General .........................................................0 DESIGN DATA .................................... Rev............................................................0 SUMMARY........ No........................................................ 18 Design Loads ............ Standards and Guidelines ......................................................................... 6 System of Units ......................................................... 13 Dimensional Tolerances ............. 17 Hydrostatic Collapse due to External Pressure ............................................................ 18 Results ........

Crude is treated and exported from the Gamba Terminal to tankers through a 30 inch dual offshore export line connected to a SBM via a PLEM and 2 x 16 inch floating hose strings (risers).0 INTRODUCTION General Shell Gabon is operating and producing oils from numerous fields located in the western part of Gabon.202. Scope of work The wall thickness of the both offshore and onshore 22 inch Gamba Export dual pipelines with material grade API 5L X-65 are calculated based on the following failure modes have been considered in this analysis. The total length of the existing export line is about 10.  Internal Pressure containment as per ASME B31.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z. Figure 1-1: Project Location Shell Gabon intends to replace the existing export pipeline. has been awarded by Shell to perform a concept replacement study for dual pipelines and Front End Engineering Design (FEED) for the selected concept. No.7km from the export pump in Gamba terminal to a PLEM (1. 4 of 25 B 1.4km located offshore).1 Sht.3km located onshore and 9.V.8 & ISO 13623  Propagating buckle pressure & Collapse as per API RP 1111 . Rev. No. Zeetech B.

No.1 The required wall thickness has been calculated by taking into account of the corrosion allowance and fabrication tolerances.202. 5 of 25 B Z. Rev.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Sht. No. The selected wall thicknesses are determined in accordance to API SPEC 5L standard wall thickness. .

Abbreviations API American Petroleum Institute ASME American Society of Mechanical Engineers DEP Design Engineering Practice FEED Front End Engineering Design HAT Highest Astronomical Tide ISO International Standard LAT Lowest Astronomical Tide MAOP Maximum Allowable operating Pressure MSL Mean Sea Water Level OD Outside diameter PLEM Pipeline End Manifold RP Recommended practice SBM Single Buoy Mooring SI International System of Units SMYS Specified minimum yield strength SPEC Specification TBC To be Confirmed WD Water Depth Nomenclature Ap Area of Pipe D Outside Diameter DFoff Design factor offshore pipeline DFon Design factor onshore pipeline . No. Rev.1 Sht.00. ABBREVIATIONS & NOMENCLATURES System of Units In accordance with Shell DEP 00. 6 of 25 B 2.10.20. No. the International System (SI) of units is adopted as the main system of units unless noted otherwise.0 UNITS. [1]).GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.202. (Ref.

7 of 25 B . No. Rev.202. No.1 dmax Design water depth for collapse & buckling criteria dmin Design water depth for Hoop stress criteria E Young’s modulus fo Collapse factor fp Propagating buckling factor Hmax Wave Height HWL Highest water level oC Temperature in degrees Celsius Pb Specified minimum bursting pressure Pc Collapse pressure Pe Elastic collapse pressure Pe_max Pe_min External Hydrostatic pressure for Collapse & Buckling External Hydrostatic pressure for hoop stress PiH Maximum Operating Pressure Pp Critical buckling pressure Py Yield pressure at collapse Ta Axial tension in pipe tCA Corrosion allowance thickness Teff Effective tension in pipe tf Fabrication tolerance thickness( 8% of tprovide) tmin Minimum pipeline wall thickness tminI Minimum pipeline wall thickness based on D/t ratio tminp Minimum thickness including Corrosion allowance tprovide Final thickness of pipeline treq Required thickness Ty Yield tension in pipe U Minimum ultimate tensile strength UCcom Combined load check WDmax Maximum water depth WDmin Minimum water depth ϑ Poissons ratio Sht.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.

Rev. No. 8 of 25 B .GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.202. No.1 ρsea Seawater density σa Axial stress in pipe wall σhd Circumferential hoop stress due to Fluid pressure Sht.

2007.20.8. Submarine Pipeline Systems. 2010. [7] API RP 1111. . [2] Shell DEP 31.00. [6] DNV OS F101.0 REFERENCE DOCUMENTS The following company standards.31. [4] Shell DEP 34.00.202. [8] ASME B31. Construction.Gamba Export Loading Line. Rev. Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries. No:13027-ER-001 [11] Concept Evaluation . 2005.00.10.1. [10] Design Basis Doc. Doc. 44th Edition. Specification for Line Pipe. 1998. 2009.40. the Use of SI Quantities and Units. [3] Shell DEP 34. [9] API Specification 5L. Gas Transmission and Distribution Piping Systems. Doc.No: Z.00. Standards and Guidelines [5] ISO 13623. [12] Gabon Metocean Geophysical and Environmental data collection.1 Sht.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 DOCUMENT NUMBER : Z.100. Design. 2007. Company Engineering Standards [1] Shell DEP 00. International Codes. Minimum Requirements for Structural Design and Engineering.28. codes and standards have been utilized in the wall thickness calibration. 2009. Operation and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon Pipelines– Limit state Design. Pipeline Transportation Systems.01. 9 of 25 B 3. No.30. Project Reference Documents The following related project documents are referenced. 2010. No. Steel Structures.10. No: GSL-08207-GPH-003. Pipeline Engineering (amendments/ supplement to ISO 13623). 1996.

material grade and manufacturing process:  22 inch (559 mm) Outer Diameter Pipe. No. Analyses have been performed to confirm the required wall thicknesses for the above mentioned pipe parameters for the following assessment criterion:  Pressure Containment(bursting)  Hydrostatic System Collapse  Buckle Propagation Design methodology of the above-mentioned analyses has been presented in Section 6.0 SUMMARY. Based on the calculations performed.X65 Material Grade (Seamless). CONCLUSIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS Summary & Results This section presents the summary of results in accordance with the calculations performed in Appendices A of this report.0 of this report.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.1 4.0 Hydrotest Internal Pressure 8% 8% Minimum Required WT(mm) 5.74 8.202. Rev.0 3. . No.1: Summary of wall thickness Results Pipe Material tCA Governing tf OD(mm) Grade (mm) Load Case (mm) 559 559 X65 X65 0. The analyses have been performed considering the following pipe outer diameters. API Spec 5L .0 10.74 Selected WT(mm) 10.0 Conclusions & Recommendations The proposed wall thickness for dual pipelines is based on API 5L Specification Standard wall thickness and meets all requirements of the wall thickness checks. the results have been summarized in the following table. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 10 of 25 B Z. Table 4. RESULTS.

Table 4.2: Recommended wall thickness from PLEM to landfall Pipe Material OD(mm) Grade 558. Rev. . DOCUMENT NUMBER : 11 of 25 B Z.8 X65 WT(mm) D/t 10. No.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.84 Note:  No buckle arrestors are required based on the cases analyzed for buckle propagation in the calculations.  The Diameter to the wall thickness (D/t) ratio for the recommended wall thickness is in accordance with reference [2]. The results are tabulated in the following table. No.0 58.1 It is recommended that a single wall thickness fulfilling all wall thickness checks be proposed for both offshore and onshore sections.202.

ethylene. Table 5. [10]) and presented in the following table. Methanol is an example of a flammable and toxic fluid.2: Design Pressure & Temperature Parameter Unit Value Design Pressure Design Temperature barg o C 60 60 . As the product to be transported through the pipelines oil.1: Categorization of Fluids Description Typical non-flammable water-based fluids. Design Pressure & Temperature The operating/ design pressure and temperatures have been extracted from design basis (Ref.1 5. natural gas (not otherwise covered in category D). Typical examples are oil and petroleum products. carbon dioxide. ammonia and chlorine. [10]). liquefied petroleum gas (such as propane and butane). Typical examples are hydrogen. natural gas liquids. No.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. presented in the following subsections. Table 1).2. Typical examples are nitrogen. No. Rev. have been obtained from the Specification –Design Basis (Ref. Fluid category Fluids transported by the pipeline system are to be categorized according to their hazard potential with respect to public safety (Reference. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 12 of 25 B Z. ethane. the product belongs to Category B.202. single-phase natural gas. Non-toxic. Non-flammable fluids that are non-toxic gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions. Fluid Category A B C D E Table 5. Flammable and/or toxic fluids that are gases at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure conditions and are conveyed as gases and/or liquids. all design data considered in the wall thickness calculations for the proposed offshore pipeline. argon and air. Flammable and/or toxic fluids that are liquids at ambient temperature and at atmospheric pressure conditions.0 DESIGN DATA Unless otherwise stated.

No.0 Collapse design factor.77 - Landfall 0. Rev. Design Factors Design factors considered for the wall thickness analysis as tabulated below table.202.67 stress General route design factor Value Crossings Temperature derating factor 1.8 . fo 0.67 - - 0. f p 0.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.and are tabulated in the following table.3 Corrosion Allowance The corrosion allowance 3.70 Propagating buckling design factor. Table 5.1 Line Pipe Design Data The line Pipe material properties extracted from the Design Basis (Ref. No.77 - 0.0mm shall be considered as specified by Company.3: Line Pipe material Properties Parameter Dual pipelines OD Material Grade Specified Minimum Yield Stress Young’s Modulus Density Poisson’s ratio Unit Value mm 559(22”) - API 5L X65 Psi/MPa 65000/448 MPa 207 x 103 kg/m3 7850 ϑ 0. Table 5.4: Design Factors Description Hoop offshore onshore General 0. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 13 of 25 B Z. [10]).

Figure. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 14 of 25 B Z.Out of roundness: no greater than 0.5-1: Seabed profile along the Existing Pipeline route.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. [9]): . Rev.202.Wall thickness: -8%. No.5% .75 Water depth & Ground Elevation along the route The maximum water depth along the offshore pipeline are taken from the Design basis (Ref. in accordance API Spec 5L for Line Pipe (Ref. No.1 Dimensional Tolerances Dimensional tolerances for the dual pipelines are as follows. +19. Figure. [10]).5-2: Ground Elevation along the Existing Pipeline route .

No. Hmax (Assumed) m m m Height 1.Water Depth (m) Offshore dual Pipelines 0.1 Table 5.5: Water Depth Description KP (from – To) Min.000-10. Rev. [12]) and those values are tabulated as below: Table 5.99 1. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 15 of 25 B Z.6: Tidal & Wave data Description Unit Highest Astronomical Tide(HAT) Mean Sea Level ( MSL) Max.01 7.0 24.Wave Height.Water Depth (m) Max.700 0. No.0 .0 Tidal and Wave data Tidal and wave data considered in the design are taken from the Gabon LNG Metocean Geophysical and Environmental data (Ref.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.202.

Rev. No.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. [5] & Ref. [8]) to ensure that the pipelines are strong enough to withstand both the Operating and Hydrotest conditions. . 5L and shall be not less than ???? .1 6.6. No.0 DESIGN METHODOLOGY General This section presents the design methodology for the wall thickness checks for the proposed dual pipelines.6-1: Dual Pipelines concept layout.2. ISO 13623 & ASME B31. Ref. Required Wall thickness The required wall thickness shall considerer corrosion allowance and fabrication tolerance as follow: ???? = ???? + ??? + ?? (Eq. [7]. Wall thickness design shall also consider collapse and buckle propagation due to external Hydrostatic pressure.8 (Ref. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 16 of 25 B Z.1) The final selected wall thickness refers to API Spec. Pipeline wall thickness shall be calculated in accordance with API RP 1111.202. Figure.

3. According to section 4. the minimum required wall thickness is calculated based on the net internal design pressure.1) √(?? 2 +?? 2 Yield Pressure at Collapse. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 17 of 25 B Z.1 Pressure Containment The hoop stress formula in API RP 1111 is used to determine minimum required wall thickness for the dual pipelines. [7]). The minimum required wall thickness for a given net internal design pressure is determined using the following formula: ?ℎ? = (??? −??_??? )(?−???? ) 2???? ????? (Eq. corrosion allowance. No.4.2) . ???? ) ? ?? = 2 ???? ( (Eq.202. In this analysis. design factor. No. the collapse pressure of the pipe must exceed the net external pressure everywhere along the pipeline as follows: Collapse Pressure.6.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.2.1 of API RP 1111. Rev.6. The analyses are performed for the Hydrotest and Operating conditions. non-pressurized pipe for a depressurization case.3. pipe outside diameter and the SMYS of the line pipe.4.1) Hydrostatic Collapse due to External Pressure The pipeline shall be designed to resist collapse due to external pressure in accordance with API RP 1111(Ref. fabrication tolerance. Hydrostatic Collapse shall be checked for operation condition considering a corroded. ?? = ?? ?? (Eq.6.

Any requirements such as increased line pipe wall thickness or using buckle arrestors shall be assessed in this section. ??_??? − ??? ≤ ?? ?? (Eq.3) (1−?2 ) Permissible Criteria Check. The use of buckle arrestors regularly spaced along the pipeline length potentially subject to propagation buckling will be preferred to an increase of the pipeline wall thickness.5.5. Rev.1) Permissible Criteria Check.6. ???? 2.4 ) ? ?? = 24 ???? ( (Eq.6. [7]).1 Elastic Collapse Pressure. ?? = ? 2 ? ( ??? ) ? (Eq. empty and without any internal pressure.4.6. Critical Propagation Buckling Pressure.4) Propagation Buckling The propagation buckling pressure shall be determined in accordance with API RP 1111 (Ref. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 18 of 25 B Z.4.2) Design Loads The load combinations to be considered in the wall thickness analysis for the operating & Hydrotest conditions are summarized below: . ??_??? − ??? ≤ ?? ?? (Eq. The propagation buckling assessment has been performed for the pipeline lying on the seabed after installation. No.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.6. No.202.

1: Design loads for Wall thickness analysis Design Load Design Condition Pressure Containment Collapse Buckling Propagation Buckling Operating Hydrotest Operating Operating design hydrotest de-pressurized de-pressurized Pressure pressure pressure Corrosion 100% tCA un-corroded 100% tCA removed un-corroded allowance removed Fabrication tf removed tf removed tf removed tf removed min.7 Results Based on Mathcad sheets are attached in Appendix A. No. The analyses performed herein satisfy the requirements for wall thickness checks for the pre-project engineering stage. results of wall thickness calculation for the 22 inch dual pipelines is presented in the following Tables. Table 6. Water depths are in accordance with Section 5.0 559 X65 3.WD Internal tolerance Water Depth Note: 1.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.WD max.1 Table 6.WD max.202. The wall thickness has been selected in accordance with the wall thickness presented in API 5L specification.0 hydrotest 8% 5. No.74 10.2: Wall thickness Results Pipe Material OD(mm) Grade tCA Governing (mm) Load Case tf Minimum Selected (mm) Required WT(mm) WT(mm) 559 X65 0. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 19 of 25 B Z.WD min.74 10. Rev. No buckle arrestors are required.0 Internal pressure 8% 8.0 .

No. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 20 of 25 B Z.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.202. Rev.1 APPENDIX A – Wall Thickness Calculations . No.

No. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 21 of 25 B Z.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. Rev.202.1 . No.

DOCUMENT NUMBER : 22 of 25 B Z. No.1 .GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. No.202. Rev.

DOCUMENT NUMBER : 23 of 25 B Z.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. No. Rev. No.202.1 .

GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht. DOCUMENT NUMBER : 24 of 25 B Z. Rev.1 .202. No. No.

Rev.202.GAMBA EXPORT LOADING LINE (SHELL GABON) Wall thickness Report Issued Date 17/12/13 PROJECT NUMBER: 13027 Sht.1 . DOCUMENT NUMBER : 25 of 25 B Z. No. No.