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Main

Memory
Lecture 4 Day 5

What is Main Memory?


Types of Main Memory
Primary Memory
RAM
ROM
Cache

Agenda

Memory is one of the most


important component of the
computer. It is a kind of storage
that may be used for storing data
and
programs
for
future
references, as well as used for
processing instructions by the
CPU.

Memory

Every computer has a temporary


storage built into the computer
hardware
It stores instructions and data of a
program mainly when the program
is being executed by the CPU

Primary Memory

Physically, it consists of some


chips either on the motherboard
or on a small circuit board
attached to the motherboard of a
computer
It has random access property
It is volatile
Each location has a unique
address

Primary Memory

Primary Memory
RAM
ROM
Cache

Types of Primary Memory

SRAM
RAM
DRAM
Memory
Chip

PROM
ROM
EPROM
Cache

Memory Chips

UVEPRO
M
EEPROM

Primary storage of a computer is


often referred to as RAM because of
its random access capability
RAM chips are volatile memory

Random Access Memory


(RAM)

A computers motherboard is
designed in a manner that the
memory capacity can be enhanced
by adding more memory chips
The additional RAM chips, which
plug into special sockets on the
motherboard, are known as singlein-line memory
modules
(SIMMs)
Random
Access
Memory

(RAM)

RAM
SRA DRA
M
M

Types of RAM

Static random-access memory


(SRAM) is a type of semiconductor
memory that uses flip-flop circuitry to
store each bit. SRAM exhibits data
remainance, but it is still volatile in
the conventional sense that data is
eventually lost when the memory is
not powered.

SRAM

As this form of memory is less


expensive to produce than static
RAM, it is the predominant form of
computer memory used in modern
computers
DRAM stores a bit of data using a
transistor and capacitor pair,
which together comprise a memory
cell.

DRAM

The capacitor holds a high or low charge


(1 or 0, respectively), and the transistor
acts as a switch that lets the control
circuitry on the chip read the capacitor's
state of charge or change it.

DRAM

ROM a non-volatile memory chip


Data stored in a ROM can only be
read and used, they cannot be
changed
ROMs are mainly used to store
programs and data, which do not
change and are frequently used.
For example, system boot program

Read Only Memory (ROM)

TYPE
Standard ROM

USAGE
Data is burnt by the manufacturer of the
electronic equipment in which it is used.

Programmable

The user can load and store read-only

ROM (PROM)

programs and data in it using special

Erasable PROM

program called PROM.


The user can erase information stored in

(EPROM)

it and the chip can be reprogrammed to


store new Information

Types of ROM

TYPE

USAGE

Ultra Violet

A type of EPROM chip in which the stored

EPROM(UVEPRO

information is erased by exposing the chip for

M)

some time to ultra-violet light

Electrically

A type of EPROM chip in which the stored

EPROM (EEPROM) information is erased by using high voltage


electric pulses. It is also called Flash Memory.

Types of ROM

RAM
Random
Access
Memory
Data,
instructions,
and the intermediary
& final result.

ROM
Read-only memory
ROM
stores
the
program required to
initially boot the
computer. They are
hardwired.

RAM Vs ROM

RAM
RAM allows quick
access and
modifications.
It allows reading
and writing.

ROM
Data stored in ROM
cannot be easily
altered or
reprogrammed
It only allows reading.

RAM Vs ROM

RAM
RAM is volatile i.e.
its contents are lost
as the device is
powered of
The two main types
of RAM are static
RAM and dynamic
RAM.

ROM
It is non-volatile i.e.
its contents are
retained even if the
device is powered of.
The types of ROM
include PROM, EPROM
and EEPROM.

RAM Vs ROM

It is commonly used for minimizing the


memory-processor speed mismatch.
It is an extremely fast, small memory
between CPU and main memory whose
access time is closer to the processing
speed of the CPU.
It is used to temporarily store very
active data and instructions during
processing.

Cache Memory

Cache Memory

Types of Cache Memory

Also known as primary cache,


internal cache, or system cache. L1
cache is cache that is built into the
processor and is the fastest and most
expensive cache in the computer. The
L1 cache stores the most critical files
that need to be executed and is the
first thing the processor looks when
performing an instruction.

L1 Cache Memory

Short for Level 2 cache, cache memory


that is external to the microprocessor. In
general, L2 cache memory, also called
the secondary cache, resides on a
separate chip from the microprocessor
chip.
Although,
more
and
more
microprocessors are including L2 caches
into their architectures.

L2 Cache Memory

Level 3 cache name comes in existence as


more and more processors begin to include
L2 cache into their architectures, as an
extra cache built into motherboards
between the microprocessor and the main
memory.
Simply once L2 cache on motherboards
now becomes L3 cache when used with
microprocessors containing built-in L2
caches.

L3 Cache Memory