You are on page 1of 28

1

APPLYING INTEGRATED ECOLOGICAL


PLANNING AND ADAPTIVE LANDSCAPE
EVALUATION TOOL FOR DEVELOPING
COUNTRIES,
IN THE FRAMEWORK OF SUSTAINABLE SPATIAL PLANNING AND
DEVELOPMENT,
STUDY CASE BINTAN ISLAND INDONESIA

by
Gunawan Tanuwidjaja
MSc. Environmental Management (NUS), S.T. (ITB)
Urban Planner & Researcher

,,

and
Dr. Malone-Lee Lai Choo
Ph.D. (Tokyo), Masters Urban Planning (Sydney), B.Sc Real Estate (NUS)
Director of Centre for Sustainable Asian Cities
School of Design and Environment
National University of Singapore
2
,,

Presentation Structure
,,

 Introduction
 The Word’s Environmental Challenges
 Indonesia’s Environmental Challenges
 The Importance of Sustainable Spatial Planning
 Description of The Research
 Adaptive Landscape Evaluation Tool (ALiT)
Methodology
 Application of ALiT in Bintan Buyu, Bintan Island,
Indonesia
 Research Findings
 Discussion & Evaluation
 Conclusion
 Acknowledgment & Bibliography

,, ,,
3

The World’s
Environmental
Challenges

,
4
,, ,,

The Word’s Environmental Challenges


The world faces
six major
environmental
problems such
as:
• resource
depletion,
• global climate
change,
• extinction of
plants and
animals,
• loss of wildlife
habitats,
• increasing
pollution,
• and poverty
(Miller, 2003, p.1).

,, ,,
5
,, ,,

The Word’s Environmental Challenges (2)

Resource Depletion
We believe this is
caused by 2
reasons, which Global Climate
are: Poverty Change
• World’s Population
Explosion
• Anthropocentrism
and Liberalism
World’s
Population
Explosion;
Anthropocentrism
and Liberalism

Increasing Loss of Wildlife


Pollution Habitats

Extinction of Plants
,, ,,
and Animals
6
,, ,,

World’s Population Explosion


The world’s
population has
increased from
2.521 billion in
1950 to 6.782
billion in 2009.

The population is
predicted to
reach 9 billion
by 2040.

Later on, it
causes great
pressure to
Earth
environment.
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/)

,, ,,
Rank Country / Territory Population Date % of World’s 7
Classification
,, ,,
Population
The Distribution of 1 China excluding 1,332,670,710 28th August 19.67% Developing
2009 Countries
World’s Population 2
Hongkong and Macau
1,166,925,850 21st July 2009 17.23% Developing
India
Countries
3 499,673,300 1st January 2009 7.38% Developed
Developing countries European Union
Countries
(Territories)
contributes mostly to the
population as well as 4 United States 307,162,899 21st July 2009 4.52% Developed
Countries
population growth
5 Indonesia ^ 230,729,491 21st July 2009 3.41% Developing
Countries
6 Brazill 191,466,483 21st July 2009 2.83% Developing
Countries
7 Pakistan 166,962,000 21st July 2009 2.47% Developing
Countries
8 Bangladesh 156,836,399 21st July 2009 2.32% Developing
Countries
9 Nigeria 148,235,170 n.a. 2.19% Developing
Countries
10 Russia 141,837,010 21st July 2009 2.09% Developing
Countries
11 Japan 127,614,000 21st July 2009 1.88% Developed
Proportion of Developed and Countries
Developing Countries 12 Mexico 111,305,663 21st July 2009 1.64% Developing
(Source: The WRI et all., 1996 – World Countries
Resources 1996-1997;
13 Philippines 94,377,140 21st July 2009 1.39% Developing
www.newhorizons.org ) Countries
14 Vietnam 87,017,453 21st July 2009 1.28% Developing
Countries
The 16 The Most Populated 15 Ethiopia 79,221,000 07th July 2008 1.17% Developing
Countries In The World Countries
Source:http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Worl 16 Egypt 76,947,962 21st July 2009 1.14% Developing
d_population ,, Countries
,,
8
,, ,,

Unequal World’s Population Distribution

The world’s
population is not
equally distributed
over the Earth.

Asia is facing great


problems of resource
depletion, extreme
weather, wildlife The Map of Countries by Population 2006.
habitat and (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/)

biodiversity loss,
extreme pollution
and poverty because
of the great
population pressure

The Map of Countries by Population Density 2006.


,, ,,
(Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/)
9
,, ,,

Unequal World’s Population Distribution (2)

World’s Population Density Map


(Copyrights 2005, The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York, Source: http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp;
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) Columbia University, and Centro Internacional de Agriculture
Tropical (CIAT), Gridded Population of The World (GPW) Version)
,, ,,
10
,, ,,

The Rise of Anthropocentrism & Liberalism


We also believe that
anthropocentrism and liberalism
contribute to current problems.

The anthropocentrism suggested that


“human beings are the central of the
universe and the nature is created
only to serve human interest.”

While Liberalism upheld “the


autonomy of the individual and
political liberties.”

Unfortunately, they were used to


justify the extreme exploitation of
the earth and unsustainable
economic activities.

,, ,,
11
,,
The Mainstream View of the ,,

Unsustainable Economic System


(Sources: Miller, 2003)
Current
Economic
System
The mainstream
economists believe that
economic system is
independent from
natural capital

And natural resources are


could be substituted by
other material or human
invention.

The main goal of economic


development is GDP
growth and economic
profit.

Therefore, the mainstream


economists believe that The Natural Capital provided by the Earth
economy could expand for human livelihood.
without considering the (Sources: Miller, 2003)
Earth’s carrying capacity
(Miller, 2003). World GDP and Population Since 1750
,, (Sources: Bradford J. De Long, retrieved from: http://econ161.berkeley.edu),,
12
,, ,,

Unsustainable
Current
Economic
System (2)

Further, it was
unsustainable also
because of :
 speculative and
inefficient
production;
 over-utilisation of
non-renewable
resources
 and excessive
pollution.

Therefore, severe
resource depletion,
biodiversity loss and
increasing pollution
happened.

The Ecological View of the Economic System ,,


,,
(Sources: Miller, 2003)
13
,, ,,

Unsustainable Current Economic System (3)


Example of
Natural Cycle:
Different from the the
economic cycle, the Hydrological
Natural system needs Cycle
(Sources: Miller,
time to restore its 2003)
condition after
pollution and
degradation of
resources.
Even, sometimes it could not
recover at all.

,, ,,
Example of Natural Cycle: the Carbon Cycle (Sources: Miller, 2003)
14
,, Global ,,

Unsustainable Distribution
Wealth of Income
in 2002
Distribution (Source: Conley,
2008)
System
On the other hand,
unbalanced the global
income distribution
happened as shown:

The top 20% world’s


richest population
received more than 80%
the world income.

While, the rest or 80%


world population only
received less than 20%
the world income.

This worsens the world’s Differential Income


environmental condition Growth
(Saragedin, 2002). (Sources: Angus Maddison,
Monitoring the World Economy
1820–1992 (Paris:
Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development,
,, ,,
1995); and IMF staff estimates.)
15
,, ,,

Unsustainable Wealth Distribution System (2)

Distribution of GDP per capita in 1995


(Source: Sachs & Malaney, 2002)

Global Distribution
of Income in 2002
,, ,,
(Source: Conley, 2008)
16
,, ,,

World’s
Biodiversity
Hotspot
The Environmental
Impacts are worse
in Developing
Countries which
are located in
Biodiversity
Hotspot

World’s Biodiversity
Hotspot
(Source: Miller, 2003,
Wright
,, R. & Nebel B. 2007) ,,
17
Increasing Environmental Impact in Developing
,, ,,

Countries due to Biodiversity Richness

Relationship between Biodiversity Hotspot Location and Developing Countries (with Low HDI/
Low Human Development Index).
Legend:
Biodiversity Hotspot Location

(Sources: http://maps.grida.no; Mulongoy K.J. & Chape S., 2004; UNEP-WCMC, 2002 - World Atlas of Biodiversity; UNDP 2004 -
,, ,,
Human Development Report 2004)
18
,, ,,

Environmental
Impact from
Unsustainable
Economic System

Environmentalists
believed that
combination great
population,
unsustainable
economic pattern
and technology The Combined Environmental Impact of Population,
could produce Consumption Pattern and Technological Advancement
to the World.
enormous (Sources: Miller, 2003)
environmental
impact. The Comparison of
Ecological Footprint
(amount of biologically
And it would increase productive area per
Earth’s person
environmental required to produce
vulnerability index renewable resources).
(Sources: Miller, 2003)
(Miller, 2003, Kaly et all, 2004;
Kaly et all, 2005).

,, ,,
19
Environmental Impact from Unsustainable Economic
,, ,,

System (2)

Environmental Vulnerability Index Map of the World.


,, ,,
(Source: http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp; Kaly et all, 2004).
20
,, ,,

Pressure on the Land as one of The Natural Capital

Land (or Soil) also


faces development
pressure.

Due to its limited


supply and
speculation
activities, many
Land
important natural (or Soil)
areas were
sacrificed for land
development.

This increased rates


of deforestation
and desertification
worldwide.

(Millennium Ecosystem
Assessment, 2005)

The Natural Capital provided by the Earth


for human livelihood.
(Sources: Miller, 2003)
,, ,,
21
,, ,,

World’s Land Development

The World’s Anthropogenic Biomes (Land Development) in 2000.


,, (Source: http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp; Ellis, E.C. and N. Ramankutty, 2008). ,,
22
,,
Expansive Land Development ,,

causing Deforestation and Desertification

The World Deforestation in 2000.


(Source: Millenium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005; http://images.wri.org)

,, ,,
23
,, ,,

The World’s Human Influence Index

(Source: http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp;
Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University
,, and Wildlife Conservation Society, the Bronx Zoo, New York, The Last of Wildlife Data set. ) ,,
24
,, ,,

The Asia’s
Expansive Land
Development
(in 2000)

(Source:
http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp;
,, ,,
Ellis, E.C. and N. Ramankutty, 2008)
25
,, ,,

The Asia’s
Human Influence
Index

(Source:
http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp;
Center for International Earth Science
Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia
University and Wildlife Conservation Society,
the Bronx Zoo, New York, The Last of Wildlife
,, ,,
Data set. )
26
,, ,,

The Oceania’s
Expansive Land
Development
(in 2000)

(Source:
http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp;
,, ,,
Ellis, E.C. and N. Ramankutty, 2008)
27
,, ,,

The Oceania’s
Human Influence
Index

(Source:
http://sedac.ciesin.org/wdc/map_gallery.jsp;
Center for International Earth Science
Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia
University and Wildlife Conservation Society,
the Bronx Zoo, New York, The Last of Wildlife
,, ,,
Data set. )
28

Back to Main Menu