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CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

This section explains how the research was carried out. It looks at the research design and

instruments that were used for collection of data. In other words the researcher is going to

discuss different methods used in gathering data and research designs for the research on

recapitalisation challenges and strategies to overcome them.. The researcher used sources of

data such as primary sources, which are personal interviews and questionnaires. The

instruments used are important so as to ensure their validity and reliability.

3.1 Research Design

A research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and

analyzing the needed information (Zikmund, 1994). Borg and Gall (1989:324) also defined

research design as, “a process of creating an empirical test to support or refute a knowledge

claim.” Therefore, the research design provides a blue print for reacting to the objectives of

the research hence gives a framework for the research plan of action (Smith, 1996). In this

research study, case study and descriptive research design were used. Murimba and Moyo

(1987:14) defined case study research design as “the intensive investigation into aspects of an

individual, a social unit, or a small portion of the community in an effort to gain deeper

insight about these.” In this regard, the researcher therefore focused on Zimbabwe Iron and

Steel Company using this design on intensive investigation into the recapitalisation

challenges and strategies to overcome them.

3.1.1 Descriptive Research Design

The researcher conducted in-depth surveys through open interviews and questionnaires with

the small number of the intended target respondents to investigate on recapitalisation


challenges and strategies to overcome them.. Descriptive research design provides answers to

questions such as who, what, when, where and how of topic under study, (Kotler, 1997). It is

concerned with the conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held processes that

are going on and effects that are evident (Best and Khan 1993:105).

The method was chosen because the data solicited is not static, the recapitalisation challenges

faced today may not be the same in future. Descriptive research thus allowed for the

collection of both qualitative and quantitative data, therefore, some statistical techniques were

used to summarise the information. Through descriptive research, the researcher was also

able to use both primary and secondary data, which could not have been utilised if

exploratory research had been used.

3.2 Sampling

3.2.1 Target Population

This defines the aggregate of all elements from where information is to be derived.

According to Martins (1995), target population is that part of the population to which the

study is based. The research is based on Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company. All company

managerial staff formed part of the target population. There are 5 people from top

management, 11 middle management and 19 low level management thus making a total of 35

3.2.2 Sample Size


The researcher considered various factors such as accuracy and cost hence a total sample of
15 respondents was used. The sample units which are the basic level of investigations consist
of top, low and middle management.
Table 3.2 Sample Size Used
RESPONDENTS USED TARGETED NUMBER
SELECTED Source: Research
Top level management 3
Middle level management 5 Only a group of
Low level management 7 individuals w selected
Total 15 who will be readily
available and
accessible with a minimum effort and those people with expert knowledge will be chosen and
this method will be generally cost effective
The researcher will use a sample of 15employees. The sample size is considered
representative because management from all departments will be interviewed.

3.2.3 Sampling techniques


This is the way used to choose research subjects that were used to constitute a sample that is
representative of the population. These are classified into two that is probability and non-
probability sampling procedure. A probability sampling procedure is one in which every
element has known non-zero probability of being chosen (Hair, 1998:160). Non probability
sampling relies on the judgment of the researcher and is only representative as far as the
researchers’ skill permits (Martins, 1995:239). In this research the researcher adopted both
sampling method at different stages. The researcher used stratified sampling first and then
judgmental sampling.

3.2.3.1 a) Stratified sampling


This method falls under probability sampling and it involves segregating the population of
study into mutually exclusive population or strata. In the research project, the population had
to be divided into different departments that are Human Resources, Marketing, Production
and finance department. This technique was used to allow each department to get full
representation. Also it allows the use of other sampling procedures thus after using this
technique; individuals from each department were selected using judgmental technique.
However, stratified sampling has some limitations. If undue weight is given to the unit the
sample becomes unrepresentative. Also when the sizes of the different stratus are unequal
attainment of correct proportion becomes difficult
b) Judgmental Sampling
This falls under non probability sampling. According to Kotler P (2000), judgmental
sampling is whereby the researcher finds and interviews a prescribed number of people and
exercises his or her own judgment this helped the researcher to make a judgment on whom to
give questionnaires and not to give. The researcher sought to know the management and their
positions through asking them about the positions they held. The management was the
essential informants for the research. The researcher used her discretion and judgment to
choose the managerial staff that she thought had information that could help in the
assessment of recapitalization challenges and strategies adopted by the company. The
researcher mainly focused on people with knowledge about recapitalization and this was
management. Judgmental sampling technique was used in selecting respondents mainly
because it was necessary to judge on the type of employees who could provide more
sufficient and reliable information by virtue of their positions in the organization. However
this research has a lot of bias.

3.3 Sources of data


For the purpose of this research the researcher made use of primary sources of data. .

3.3.1 Primary Data


Primary sources according to Peterson (2000) are directed explanations or descriptions of
events. Primary data is the first hand data direct from the respondents through the use of the
questionnaires and personal interviews. First hand information about the recapitalization
challenges facing ZISCO was obtained. The researcher used the primary source of data
because it was free from misinterpretations and loss of data as the researcher mainly focused
on relevant data specifically for the research problem although its major draw back was that it
was time consuming.

3.4 Data Collection Instruments


Kotler (2000) identifies four major technique tools for collecting primary data that is:
Observation, focus groups, surveys through questionnaires and personal interviews and
experiments. The researcher made use of questionnaires and personal interviews as the
technique tools.

3.4.1 Questionnaires
A questionnaire is a set of questions carefully designed to get responses, which would help,
in meeting the objectives of the research (Beri, 2000). Ganguil (2001) suggested that
questionnaires are designed using dichotomous (yes/no) type of answers, multiple choice
select answers and open ended questions where the respondents answer using his/her own
wording on the viability of the banking sector. A ‘pilot survey’ was conducted at ZISCO.
This type of instrument was targeted at middle and low level management and each
individual received the same set of questions phrased exactly the same way thus yielding data
which was more comparable.

Justification
• Cheaper and easier to administer in limited time.
• Respondents have the opportunity to respond to questions during their
own time outside the daily pressure of work.
• It enlisted respondent anonymity and privacy, which encouraged honest
answers.
• Data provided by questionnaires was easy to analyze and interpreted.
• The response was good, as the respondents felt honored to be chosen as
the sample population.
• The respondents had time to deeply think about the issues highlighted in
the questionnaire.
• The use of questionnaires also provided the researcher with extra space to
use secondary data sources.

Disadvantages
• The return rate could usually be low.
• Where the question sought clarity, the respondent has no room for that.
• No room to probe further for responses

3.4.2 Interviews
The researcher collected data from the management through the use of the interview
technique. Brink (1996:154) defines an interview as a method of data collection in which an
interviewer obtains responses from the subject in a face-to-face encounter. The researcher
chose the method because it ascertains values, attitude, beliefs and experiences from
management. It helps interviewer to observe non-verbal behavior, thereby assessing the
respondents’ motives. The method was directed at top management because they are few and
have more information about the company than other levels. The researcher had to secure
appointments with them. Placing of the appointments and securing interview dates took at
least 3 days and was quite enough to make preparations. They were briefed on the issues to
be discussed hence they had to prepare and gather relevant information before the interview
dates.

Interviews are generally classified as either structured or unstructured. Structured interviews


are formalized such that all respondents hear the same question in the same order and in the
same manner. Unstructured interviews leave the wording and organization of the question
and even the topic to the discretion of the interviewer. The two methods complement each
other’s disadvantages resulting in the researcher to use a semi-structured interview approach.
Semi-structured interviews encourage the interviewer to develop new ideas, adjust questions
and change direction as new insights emerge. For example during the interview following the
formalized questions would deter aspects that emerged hence additional probes were thrown
into play.

Justification
• Clarity ensures that respondents fully understand.
• Interviews also have great flexibility in terms of sampling and special observations.
• Interviews expose areas that the respondent is unwilling to discuss and inconsistencies
in responses.
• They provide the opportunity to persuade for answers.
• Interviews also exposed the researcher to some key elements that he had not been
thought of before.

Disadvantages
• The researcher noted that interviews were time consuming with arrangements being
difficult to make and some scheduled interviews being cancelled due to tight schedules on
the part of management.
• The expensive nature of interviews affected the sample size, making it smaller than
the sample for questionnaires.
• Confidential information was not clearly revealed due to confidentiality clauses and
of course fear of victimization
• Non-verbal behavior was sometimes misinterpreted leading to in accurate
conclusions.

3.5 Data analysis and presentation

3.5.1 Data presentation


Tables, bar graphs and pie charts are used to present the data. Tables were used because they
are simple devices that arrange data in rows and columns. They are simple to interpret and
have a visual effect of revealing data on sight. However they only represent unprocessed data
hence the use of graphs. Graphs show processed data and are used to articulate depiction of
tabulated data which will allow easier comparison. Charts give overall impression of research
findings making it easy for the researcher to draw conclusions.

3.5.2 Data analysis


Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to analyses the data. Marshall and

Rossman (1999) explain that qualitative data analysis focuses on data in the form of words.

They stated that qualitative data analysis is concerning of three flows of activity: data

reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/verification. Data reduction activity involves

the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data.

Quantitative analysis involves using figures to analyses the data and the researcher made use

of percentages to analyze the data. Qualitative analysis was used to support and explain

quantitative presentation. Qualitative analysis involves mere facts, comments and statements

made from the findings. The researcher used both inductive and deductive techniques to

analyse the data.

3.5.2.1 Inductive technique


This is a technique which analyses data from particular instances to general principles, from

facts to theories. One starts from the observed data and develops the generalization that

explains a relationship between objects observed. This technique was used because it

condenses extensive and varied raw text data into a brief summary format. It establishes clear

link between research objectives and the summary findings derived from the raw data and

ensure these links are both transparent 9 able to demonstrate to others) and defensible

(justifiable given the objective of the research). It also helps in developing a model or theory

about the underlying structure of experience or processes, which are evident in the raw data.

3.5.2.2 Deductive techniques

Deductive techniques analyse data from the general to the particular, applying a theory to the

particular case. One starts from the same general law and applies it to a particular instance.

The major concern is that, does the premises used in the argument still valid. The researcher

used deductive technique because they represent the commonest view of the nature of

relationships between theory and research. It is the common best view of the nature of

existing relationships of cases under study. The researcher found it easy to use deductive

technique because data analysis is determined by the research objectives.

3.6 Conclusion
The chapter outlined the research design, sources of data collection procedure, data
presentation and analysis techniques. It also evaluated the chosen methods and techniques as
their relevance to the study. The next chapter looks at data presentation and analysis.