CHAPTER THREE METHODOLOGY 3.0 Introduction This section explains how the research was carried out.

It looks at the research design and instruments that were used for collection of data. In other words the researcher is going to discuss different methods used in gathering data and research designs for the research on recapitalisation challenges and strategies to overcome them.. The researcher used sources of data such as primary sources, which are personal interviews and questionnaires. The instruments used are important so as to ensure their validity and reliability.

3.1 Research Design A research design is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analyzing the needed information (Zikmund, 1994). Borg and Gall (1989:324) also defined research design as, “a process of creating an empirical test to support or refute a knowledge claim.” Therefore, the research design provides a blue print for reacting to the objectives of the research hence gives a framework for the research plan of action (Smith, 1996). In this research study, case study and descriptive research design were used. Murimba and Moyo (1987:14) defined case study research design as “the intensive investigation into aspects of an individual, a social unit, or a small portion of the community in an effort to gain deeper insight about these.” In this regard, the researcher therefore focused on Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company using this design on intensive investigation into the recapitalisation challenges and strategies to overcome them. 3.1.1 Descriptive Research Design The researcher conducted in-depth surveys through open interviews and questionnaires with the small number of the intended target respondents to investigate on recapitalisation

challenges and strategies to overcome them.. Descriptive research design provides answers to questions such as who, what, when, where and how of topic under study, (Kotler, 1997). It is concerned with the conditions or relationships that exist, opinions that are held processes that are going on and effects that are evident (Best and Khan 1993:105).

The method was chosen because the data solicited is not static, the recapitalisation challenges faced today may not be the same in future. Descriptive research thus allowed for the collection of both qualitative and quantitative data, therefore, some statistical techniques were used to summarise the information. Through descriptive research, the researcher was also able to use both primary and secondary data, which could not have been utilised if exploratory research had been used.

3.2 Sampling 3.2.1 Target Population This defines the aggregate of all elements from where information is to be derived. According to Martins (1995), target population is that part of the population to which the study is based. The research is based on Zimbabwe Iron and Steel Company. All company managerial staff formed part of the target population. There are 5 people from top management, 11 middle management and 19 low level management thus making a total of 35

3.2.2 Sample Size The researcher considered various factors such as accuracy and cost hence a total sample of 15 respondents was used. The sample units which are the basic level of investigations consist of top, low and middle management.

Table 3.2 Sample Size Used RESPONDENTS USED Top level management Middle level management Low level management Total TARGETED NUMBER SELECTED 3 5 7 15 Only a group of individuals w selected who will be readily available and accessible with a minimum effort and those people with expert knowledge will be chosen and this method will be generally cost effective The researcher will use a sample of 15employees. The sample size is considered representative because management from all departments will be interviewed. 3.2.3 Sampling techniques This is the way used to choose research subjects that were used to constitute a sample that is representative of the population. These are classified into two that is probability and nonprobability sampling procedure. A probability sampling procedure is one in which every element has known non-zero probability of being chosen (Hair, 1998:160). Non probability sampling relies on the judgment of the researcher and is only representative as far as the researchers’ skill permits (Martins, 1995:239). In this research the researcher adopted both sampling method at different stages. The researcher used stratified sampling first and then judgmental sampling. 3.2.3.1 a) Stratified sampling This method falls under probability sampling and it involves segregating the population of study into mutually exclusive population or strata. In the research project, the population had to be divided into different departments that are Human Resources, Marketing, Production and finance department. This technique was used to allow each department to get full representation. Also it allows the use of other sampling procedures thus after using this technique; individuals from each department were selected using judgmental technique. However, stratified sampling has some limitations. If undue weight is given to the unit the sample becomes unrepresentative. Also when the sizes of the different stratus are unequal attainment of correct proportion becomes difficult Source: Research

b) Judgmental Sampling This falls under non probability sampling. According to Kotler P (2000), judgmental sampling is whereby the researcher finds and interviews a prescribed number of people and exercises his or her own judgment this helped the researcher to make a judgment on whom to give questionnaires and not to give. The researcher sought to know the management and their positions through asking them about the positions they held. The management was the essential informants for the research. The researcher used her discretion and judgment to choose the managerial staff that she thought had information that could help in the assessment of recapitalization challenges and strategies adopted by the company. The researcher mainly focused on people with knowledge about recapitalization and this was management. Judgmental sampling technique was used in selecting respondents mainly because it was necessary to judge on the type of employees who could provide more sufficient and reliable information by virtue of their positions in the organization. However this research has a lot of bias. 3.3 Sources of data For the purpose of this research the researcher made use of primary sources of data. . 3.3.1 Primary Data Primary sources according to Peterson (2000) are directed explanations or descriptions of events. Primary data is the first hand data direct from the respondents through the use of the questionnaires and personal interviews. First hand information about the recapitalization challenges facing ZISCO was obtained. The researcher used the primary source of data because it was free from misinterpretations and loss of data as the researcher mainly focused on relevant data specifically for the research problem although its major draw back was that it was time consuming. 3.4 Data Collection Instruments Kotler (2000) identifies four major technique tools for collecting primary data that is: Observation, focus groups, surveys through questionnaires and personal interviews and experiments. The researcher made use of questionnaires and personal interviews as the technique tools. 3.4.1 Questionnaires

A questionnaire is a set of questions carefully designed to get responses, which would help, in meeting the objectives of the research (Beri, 2000). Ganguil (2001) suggested that questionnaires are designed using dichotomous (yes/no) type of answers, multiple choice select answers and open ended questions where the respondents answer using his/her own wording on the viability of the banking sector. A ‘pilot survey’ was conducted at ZISCO. This type of instrument was targeted at middle and low level management and each individual received the same set of questions phrased exactly the same way thus yielding data which was more comparable. Justification • • own time • answers. • • • • Data provided by questionnaires was easy to analyze and interpreted. The response was good, as the respondents felt honored to be chosen as The respondents had time to deeply think about the issues highlighted in The use of questionnaires also provided the researcher with extra space to Cheaper and easier to administer in limited time. Respondents have the opportunity to respond to questions during their outside the daily pressure of work. It enlisted respondent anonymity and privacy, which encouraged honest

the sample population. the questionnaire. use secondary data sources. Disadvantages • • • 3.4.2 The return rate could usually be low. Where the question sought clarity, the respondent has no room for that. No room to probe further for responses Interviews

The researcher collected data from the management through the use of the interview technique. Brink (1996:154) defines an interview as a method of data collection in which an interviewer obtains responses from the subject in a face-to-face encounter. The researcher chose the method because it ascertains values, attitude, beliefs and experiences from

management. It helps interviewer to observe non-verbal behavior, thereby assessing the respondents’ motives. The method was directed at top management because they are few and have more information about the company than other levels. The researcher had to secure appointments with them. Placing of the appointments and securing interview dates took at least 3 days and was quite enough to make preparations. They were briefed on the issues to be discussed hence they had to prepare and gather relevant information before the interview dates. Interviews are generally classified as either structured or unstructured. Structured interviews are formalized such that all respondents hear the same question in the same order and in the same manner. Unstructured interviews leave the wording and organization of the question and even the topic to the discretion of the interviewer. The two methods complement each other’s disadvantages resulting in the researcher to use a semi-structured interview approach. Semi-structured interviews encourage the interviewer to develop new ideas, adjust questions and change direction as new insights emerge. For example during the interview following the formalized questions would deter aspects that emerged hence additional probes were thrown into play. Justification • • • • • Clarity ensures that respondents fully understand. Interviews also have great flexibility in terms of sampling and special observations. Interviews expose areas that the respondent is unwilling to discuss and inconsistencies in responses. They provide the opportunity to persuade for answers. Interviews also exposed the researcher to some key elements that he had not been thought of before. Disadvantages • The researcher noted that interviews were time consuming with arrangements being difficult to make and some scheduled interviews being cancelled due to tight schedules on the part of management. • The expensive nature of interviews affected the sample size, making it smaller than the sample for questionnaires.

• •

Confidential information was not clearly revealed due to confidentiality clauses and of course fear of victimization Non-verbal behavior was sometimes misinterpreted leading to in accurate conclusions.

3.5 Data analysis and presentation 3.5.1 Data presentation Tables, bar graphs and pie charts are used to present the data. Tables were used because they are simple devices that arrange data in rows and columns. They are simple to interpret and have a visual effect of revealing data on sight. However they only represent unprocessed data hence the use of graphs. Graphs show processed data and are used to articulate depiction of tabulated data which will allow easier comparison. Charts give overall impression of research findings making it easy for the researcher to draw conclusions. 3.5.2 Data analysis Both qualitative and quantitative techniques are used to analyses the data. Marshall and Rossman (1999) explain that qualitative data analysis focuses on data in the form of words. They stated that qualitative data analysis is concerning of three flows of activity: data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/verification. Data reduction activity involves the process of selecting, focusing, simplifying, abstracting and transforming the data. Quantitative analysis involves using figures to analyses the data and the researcher made use of percentages to analyze the data. Qualitative analysis was used to support and explain quantitative presentation. Qualitative analysis involves mere facts, comments and statements made from the findings. The researcher used both inductive and deductive techniques to analyse the data.

3.5.2.1 Inductive technique

This is a technique which analyses data from particular instances to general principles, from facts to theories. One starts from the observed data and develops the generalization that explains a relationship between objects observed. This technique was used because it condenses extensive and varied raw text data into a brief summary format. It establishes clear link between research objectives and the summary findings derived from the raw data and ensure these links are both transparent 9 able to demonstrate to others) and defensible (justifiable given the objective of the research). It also helps in developing a model or theory about the underlying structure of experience or processes, which are evident in the raw data.

3.5.2.2 Deductive techniques Deductive techniques analyse data from the general to the particular, applying a theory to the particular case. One starts from the same general law and applies it to a particular instance. The major concern is that, does the premises used in the argument still valid. The researcher used deductive technique because they represent the commonest view of the nature of relationships between theory and research. It is the common best view of the nature of existing relationships of cases under study. The researcher found it easy to use deductive technique because data analysis is determined by the research objectives.

3.6 Conclusion The chapter outlined the research design, sources of data collection procedure, data presentation and analysis techniques. It also evaluated the chosen methods and techniques as their relevance to the study. The next chapter looks at data presentation and analysis.

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