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The Importance of
Sustainable Spatial Planning

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,, Importance of Sustainable Planning and ,,

Landscape Evaluation
Understanding the current
ecological as well as the
economic context,
Environmentalists warned the
world on the importance of the
sustainable development in
“Our Common Future” in
1987.

They defined sustainable


development as “development Economy
that meets the needs of the Sustainable
present without compromising Development
the ability of future
generations to meet their own
Environ-
needs.” Social
mental

(Source: WCED, 1987 – Our Common Future,


www.sustainabilitysa.org )

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,, Importance of Sustainable Planning and
,,

Landscape Evaluation (2)


On the contrary, the
implementation of
sustainable
development faces a lot
of obstacles in
developing countries,
such as:
- Lack of political wills,
- Limited government
budget,
- Low Human Resources
Capacity
- Corruptions,
- Poverty

But, we believe that


sustainable
development needed
with application of
sustainable spatial
planning and
development control.

(Picture Source:www.bendib.com
www.indiabuzzing.com,
,, ,,
http://3.bp.blogspot.com, /www.polyp.org.uk
)
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,, ,,

Sustainable Spatial
Planning in
Singapore (2)
Initially, Singapore sustainable
spatial planning was started in
1955.

The government prepared a Draft


Master Plan for mitigating
uncontrolled urban development.

To ensure the successful


implementation, Govt. also
gazetted “Land Acquisition
Ordinance” that control the
acquisition of critical land for
sustainable city as well as
reducing land speculation.

,,
(Source: Wong,, T-C. et all. 2008)
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Master Plan Singapore 2008


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Source: http://www.ura.gov.sg/MP2008/

Master Plan Singapore is revised


regularly and developed to
fulfill the vision of dengan
keadaan ”Global City” atau
”International and Regional
Center” for South East Asia.
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Planning of HDB Town


in Singapore
Integrated Urban Planning later was
developed for detail planning and
development of HDB townships
catering sustainable high density
living, such as Toa Payoh.

Sources: http://www.hdb.gov.sg,
,, ,,
and Singapore MP 2003
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,, ,,

Sustainable Spatial Planning in Singapore (3)

Singapore is one Singapore’s Model Of Sustainability


successful city with
sustainable urban
planning Cultural
Sustainability
It was transformed from Multi-ethnic
the third world city to Tolerance
the first world city Demographic Social
catering more than 4.7 Sustainability Sustainability
Birth Incentive Universal Public
million resident and & Skill-led Housing and Law
achieved Singapore’s Immigration Enforcement
model of sustainability Law

Enhancing the city Economy


condition, the Sustainability
government further
prepared strategies such Environ-
as Singapore’s Green Educational
mental
Plan, and Singapore’s Sustainability
Sustainability
Universal
Sustainable National Green
Education & Skill
Development Blueprint. Plan & Land
Training Political Transport
Policy
Sustainability
(Source: Wong T-C. et all. 2008;
One-Party
http://app.mewr.gov.sg/web/Conten
ts/Contents.aspx?ContId=1342 Dominance &
http://app.mewr.gov.sg/data/ImgCo Efficiency
nt/1292/sustainbleblueprint_forweb.
,, (Source: Wong T-C. et all. 2008) ,,
pdf )
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,, ,,

The Root of Ecological Planning


The sustainable spatial
planning was
invented in by Ian
McHarg, which also
recognised as
Ecological Planning.

The Ecological Planning


could be defined as,
“Comprehensive land
use planning which
consider the social,
legal, economy, the
need, aspiration and
perception of the
future user.”

(Sources: McHarg, 1992;


McHarg, 1998).

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Application of
McHarg’s
Ecological
Planning

Ian McHarg had


implemented the
ecological planning
concept and landscape
evaluation in the Staten
Island, New York City.

The purpose of the


research was to find
suitable land for
conservation; active
and passive recreation;
commerce and
industry; and lastly
residential use.

And he prescribed
alternative
development to the
island conserving the
important areas and
develop the other non-
critical area.
Composite Map of Conservation, Recreation, Urbanisation Areas
(Sources: McHarg, 1992; McHarg, for Staten Island
1998).
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( Source: McHarg, 1998)
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,, Integrated Spatial Planning ,,

with Focus on Ecological Approach

Based on this
approach, we later
on develop the
ecological planning
to be “Integrated
Spatial Planning
with Focus on
Ecological
Approach”.

It is defined as:
“Planning process
which consider the
ecological condition
(biodiversity),
environmental
capacity, and social-
economic context
that influence the
site.......

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,, Integrated Spatial Planning ,,

with Focus on Ecological Approach


….
In the planning
process, integration
of infrastructure
planning such as
water resource
management, mass
transportation,
waste management,
energy use and
conservation, etc
must be evaluated
and implemented……

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,, Integrated Spatial Planning ,,

with Focus on Ecological Approach


……..
Lastly but not least,
the stakeholders’
participation must
be considered in the
decision making of
the planning
process.”

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,,
Integrated Spatial Planning ,,

with Ecological Approach


Landscape Evaluation *
(Ecologically - Focused and
Multidisclipinary Approach)
Setting the* Survey and and Environmental Impact
Vision of Secondary
* Assessment
SWOT Analysis*
Sustainable Data
Spatial Plan Collection Analysing*
Previous Spatial Plan and
Infrastructure Plan
(Macro and Micro)

Economic *
Feasibility Study

Preparation of *
Discussion Revision *
Preparation* Infrastructure Concept Integration *
and Supporting with Clients and Perfecting
Concepts of Spatial Plan
Modelling : and Other Concept of
the Spatial and Other
- Water Management Stake- Integrated
Plan Infrastructure
- Solid Waste and Sewage holders Spatial Plan
Management etc.

* These Activities
,,
could be done with participation of Client and Other Stakeholders ,,
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The Critical Points of The Methods

 Conducting multidisciplinary
landscape evaluation
(ecological, physical and
social aspects) to determine
the conservation area and
mitigate major environmental
impact to the site.
 Conserving of critical
ecological area that are
important for ecology and for
other environmental services
 Evaluating of local natural
resources, such as water
resources, infrastructure
provisions etc.
 Lastly but not least,
determining the carrying
capacity of potential area for
development.

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The Need of Landscape Evaluation Tool/ Method

 A simple landscape evaluation


tool is needed to support the
concept above which suitable
for developing countries.
 The tool must be simple
enough for the users without
compromising its validity.
 But it is able to prescribe the
sustainable recommendation
and to cater stakeholders
participation.

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