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INFECTION is a disease state resulting from invasion and growth of microbes in the body.
Systematic infection Involves the whole body.
local infection is in a body part.
Microorganism - (microbe) is a small (micro) living plant or animal ( organism) seen only with a microscope.
Pathogen microbes cause infections and are harmful
Nonpathogens microbes that usually do not cause an infection.
5 types of microbes:
1. Bacteria microscopic plant life that multiply rapidly. They consist of one cell. Often called germs. Can cause infection in any body
2. Fungi plants that live on other plants or animals.
ex. mushrooms, yeasts, and molds
infect: mouth, vagina, skin, feet, and other body areas
3. Protozoa Microscopic one- cell animals. They can infect the blood, brain, intestines, and other body areas.
4. Rickettsia microscopic forms of life found in fleas, lice, ticks, and other insects. Transmitted to humans by insect bites.
5. Viruses extremely small microscopic organisms that grow in living cells. Diseases: colds, herpes, AIDS (Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome), and hepatitis.
Reservoir (host) The environment in which the microbe lives and grows.
Normal Flora Microbes that usually live and grow in a certain location.
The Chain of Infection:

1. Source is a pathogen
2. Reservoir where it grow
3. Portal of Exit respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary,
and reproductive tract, breaks in the skin and the blood.
4.Mode of transmission direct or indirect
5. Portal of Entry the same with portal of exit
6. Susceptible Host a person at risk of infection

Asepsis is being free of disease-producing microbes.

1. Medical asepsis ( clean technique) is the practice used to remove or destroy pathogens and to prevent their spread from
one person to another person or place. The number of pathogens is reduced.
2. Surgical Asepsis ( sterile technique) is the practice that keep equipment and supplies free of all microbes.
Sterile the absence of all microbes. Ex. sterile gloves, sterile equipment
Sterilization is the process that destroy all microbes. Boiling water, radiation, liquid or gas chemicals, dry heat
and steam under pressure or autoclave 30 to 45 mins.
Disinfection is the process of destroying pathogens but spores are not destroyed.
Spores bacterium protected by hard shell that forms around the microbe. Killed by extremely high temperatures.
Germicide disinfectants applied to skin, tissues, and nonliving objects.
Alcohol common germicide.
Detergent and Hot water disinfectants used eating and drinking utensils, linens and clothes.
Contamination is the process of becoming unclean. (Contaminated object ex. contaminated gloves, masks, etc.)
Handwashing is the easiest and most important way to prevent the spread of Infection. Wash hands before and after giving care.
lasts for 10 15 seconds
Precautions practiced:
1. Standard Precaution
- handwashing - care of equipment
- linen
- Patient or resident placement
- wearing PPE
- environmental control - Occupational Health and Bloodborne Pathogens
2. Transmission-Based Precautions
- Airborne
- droplet
- contact
- bloodborne
- fomine