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149

Discussion & Evaluation

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150
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Bintan ,,

Research Buyu’s
Group 1
Conclusion and Score
(Conser-
Recommendation vation
(1) Score).

The research concluded


that Bintan Buyu was a
fragmented natural area
with some important
biological areas. The
remaining ecological
areas needed a serious
conservation and
enhancement strategy.
Bintan
Buyu’s
Conserva
tion Area

Possible
Area for
develop-
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,,
Sustaina ,,

Research ble Eco-


tourism
Conclusion and Practice
by
Recommendation Banyan
(2) Tree

Further, this strategy


could be combined with
sustainable eco-tourism.
This had been
implemented successfully
by Banyan Tree Resorts
and Hotels in northern
area of Bintan Island.

We also recommended Forest


preserving and Conserva-
improving several areas tion,
of scrubland, forest, & Forest
Buffer
riparian area as well as
rehabilitating the forest
to improve ecological Improve-
connectivity of the area. ment of
Ecological
Corridor

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,,
Bintan ,,

Research Buyu’s
Group 2
Conclusion and Score
(Resi-
Recommendation dential
(3) Suitabi-
lity
Score)
Meanwhile evaluation of
other natural factors
recommended several
areas which possible to
be carefully developed
northern area of Bintan
Buyu. Bintan
Buyu’s
However, critical threats, Suitable
such as landslide Area for
potential, flooding Residen-
potential and land tial
subsidence, must receive Develop
proper attention. Finally, ment
the spatial plan must be
prepared carefully with Possible
integration with other Area for
infrastructures. develop-
ment

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Research
Conclusion and
Recommendation
(4)

To be able to achieve a
sustainable township in
Bintan Buyu, it is
important to set the
population according
sustainable principal.

There were two possible


recommendations
identified.

The first method was


suggested by McHarg’s The scrub, agriculture and some of plantation areas,
with limiting approximately 10.5 sq km in the northern of Bintan Buyu,
development to less were suggested for development.
ecological important
areas (McHarg 1998). Later with multiplying the area with sustainable population
density, we could produce population number.

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Research
Conclusion and
Recommendation
(5)

McHarg recommended
another way to
population setting for
sustainable township.
He suggested limiting
the city population
following its ecological
carrying capacity.

This was prescribed for


Wilmington and Dover, We decided to follow McHarg recommendation but using
considering sewage local rain-water supply capacity. With calculating the
disposal capacity, lowest monthly rainfall in Bintan, area of Bintan River
ground water supply catchments, runoff coefficient, we could produce
and reservoir water minimum amount of possible available rain-water.
supply. And he
suggested a population Assuming 30% of the flow was utilised by the municipal
of 33,100 people for water supply, we could prescribe sustainable township’s
the respective city population of Bandar Seri Bintan of 57,000 persons.
(McHarg 1998).
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Research Conclusion and Recommendation (6)

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,, Neighbourhood Unit with Low Cost Apartment ,,

Research
Conclusion and
Recommendation
(7)

Combining both methods,


the authors
recommended 57,000
populations (19,000
housing units) to be
settled in the less A. Low Cost Apartment
ecological important B. Badminton Court
C. Parking and Multifunction Hall
areas in the Northern D. Stall or Grocery Store
area of Bintan Buyu. E. Child Playground
F. Car Park
G. Water Tank
Further assuming only H. Septic Tank
50% of the areas were
designated as residential,
the average residential
density could reach 109 Later, proposed development type could be elaborated
persons/ ha, with a low following mixed-used neighbourhood unit concept with 400 -
to medium rise 600 m radius adapted from Perry’s Neighbourhood (Urban
development. Planning Guide, 1986). This option was recommended
because of limited economic capacity of the developing
countries. Further public utilities and integrated waste
,,
management should be provided for the area. ,,
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,,
Bandar Seri Bintan Broad Land Use Plan ,,

suggested by Bintan Planning Agency, Investors and CSL Architects Singapore

As presented before
that the Planning
Agency disagreed with
our recommendation
and pursued other
development or original
alternative.

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Bandar Seri Bintan Broad Land Use Plan 158
Comparison
,, between suggested by Gunawan & Malone Lee ,,

ALiT’s
Recommendation Bintan
Buyu’s
and Conventional Conservati
Master Plan by on Area
Bintan Planning suggested
Agency (1). by
Gunawan
& Malone
Lee
And currently new
master plan has
been prepared but
still abandoning the
recommendation of
this research

The master plan Encroachment


suggested to to Important
Natural Area
encroach important
natural areas in
Bintan Buyu
especially Coral
Reef, Fresh Water Bandar Seri
Bintan
Swamp Forest, Master Plan
Secondary Forest suggested by
Bintan Planning
and Mangrove. Agency, Investors
and CSL
Architects
,, ,, Singapore
Bandar Seri Bintan Broad Land Use Plan 159
Comparison
,, between suggested by Gunawan & Malone Lee ,,

ALiT’s
Recommendation
and Conventional
Master Plan by
Bintan Planning
Agency (2).

The development of
CBD and other
residential area
actually encroaches
the lowland areas
causing expensive
infrastructure
development because
the area were mostly
lowland area or flood-
prone area.

Bandar Seri
The lowland areas Bintan
with 0-1 percent Master Plan
suggested by
slope were Bintan Planning
definitely not Agency, Investors
suitable for and CSL
Architects
,,
development ,, Singapore
160
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Evaluation of ALiT (1)

ALiT
implementation
in Bintan was
considered
successful. The
evaluation
method was
found feasible by
Officer of Bintan
Planning Agency,
because of
simple ALiT
application and
improving
capacity of local
planning agency.

On the other hand, several obstacles were found in implementing the process,
including expensive GIS software and remote sensing data. For example, Arc
View GIS 3.1 software would cost around US$ 7,500, while SPOT (remote
sensing) images would cost US$ 3,000. These were the main challenges for its
application.
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Evaluation of ALiT (2)

Lack of important data was


found to be critical lesson in
Bintan’s case. It was
responded with proposing
adaptive criteria evaluation
list.

For future development, the


authors recommend the
government of developing
countries should compile and
manage comprehensive
planning data to implement
more accurate and sustainable
planning.

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Evaluation of ALiT (3)

The important factor of landscape


evaluation is evaluator. Possible users of
ALiT are the government agents and
consultants. The authors suggest
including a team comprising a civil
engineer, planner and ecologist for
comprehensive application. It is
suggested to prescribe an ecologically
balanced recommendation.

The team must work integrally and each


of the experts must possess skill set. The
skill set needed are comprehension the
local ecology; knowledge of existing land
use and its potential, geological
condition, soil types and hydrology
regimes; understanding of social and
economic potentials and other constraints
in the location. We believe that this will
produce integrated recommendations.

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Evaluation of ALiT (4)

The authors believed


the importance of
screening process
for hazardous
potential. The
rationale is to
reduce the
environmental
destructions and
costs from natural
disasters.

The cases of the


hurricane in New
Orleans, tsunami
and earthquake in
Aceh signify this
need

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