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CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

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LAST NAME: __________________________________________________________


FIRST NAME: _________________________________________________________
Student Number: ______________________________________________________

CHM 1311 A
Midterm #1 A
Fall 2014
Please keep your work covered at all times and keep your eyes on your
own paper! Cheating or any appearance of cheating will result in an F in
the course and possible expulsion from the university.
There are 10 pages in this test. A periodic table and data sheets are
provided at the end. You may rip these pages off of the exam and use
them to cover your work during the test. Any scratch work should be
done on the back of these pages.
Please show all work to receive partial credit.
You have 80 minutes to complete the test.

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

Page 3 of 10

#1. (10 points) Short Answer Questions


a) The standard heat of formation of solid ammonium chloride is 314.4 kJ. Write the
chemical equation for the reaction to which this value applies (include phases).

b) Name the following compounds:


Co(ClO)2

_________________________________________________

CaSO4 7 H2O

_________________________________________________

c) Complete the following table:


Element

Mass Number

Se

79

Number of
protons

Number of
electrons

Number of
neutrons

Charge

d) Breaking chemical bonds is always an endothermic process.

TRUE

FALSE

e) If the molar mass of a gas is doubled, the root-mean-squared speed of the molecules
will increase by a factor of ______________________.
f) You take a 4.0 L volume of gas at 600 K. You expand the gas to an 8.0 L volume and
simultaneously heat the vessel to 1200 K. The pressure of the gas:
DOUBLES

HALVES

QUADRUPLES

STAYS CONSTANT

g) Which compound has the highest oxidation state of nitrogen?


NO+

N2

NH3

NO2

N2O

NO3

h) When the power was turned off to a 125 L water heater, the temperature of the water
dropped from 75.0C to 22.5C.

The amount of heat, in kilojoules, transferred to the

surroundings was: ___________________________________________________.


BONUS: The energy change shown in the diagram at right corresponds to a(n):

! ENDOTHERMIC CONTRACTION
! EXOTHERMIC EXPANSION
! ENDOTHERMIC EXPANSION

U2

Energy

! EXOTHERMIC CONTRACTION

U1

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

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#2. 45.0 g of solid calcium carbonate is added to 1.25 L of an aqueous hydrochloric acid
solution. The hydrochloric acid solution has a density of 1.13 g/mL and is 25.7% acid by
mass. The solid calcium carbonate reacts with the acid to yield liquid water, aqueous
calcium chloride, and carbon dioxide gas.
a) (2 pts) Write a balanced chemical equation for the described reaction, including phases.

b) (3 pts) What is the initial molarity of the acid solution?

Answer: __________________________________
c) (5 pts) What is the molarity of the acid solution after the reaction is complete? You may
assume no volume changes.

Answer: __________________________________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

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#3. A 3.902 g sample of an unknown compound containing only C, H, and O is combusted


in an oxygen-rich environment.
a) (3 pts) The CO2 gas produced in the reaction is collected over water at 20.00C in a
5.000 L flask. The pressure in the flask is measured to be 100.52 kPa. What is the
number of moles of carbon dioxide gas produced in the combustion?

Answer : __________________________________
b) (5 pts) The reaction was found to also produce 3.633 g of liquid H2O. What is the
empirical formula of the unknown compound?

Answer : __________________________________
c) (2 pts) If the molecular mass of the unknown compound is found to be 116.2 u, what is
its molecular formula?

Answer : __________________________________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

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#4. This past summer, Dr. Fox went scuba diving in False Bay, South Africa, where the
water temperature was a chilly 13.5C. Despite wearing two 5 mm thick neoprene wetsuits,
Dr. Fox still lost body heat at a rate of 38.0 J per second.
a) (2 pts) How much body heat, in kJ, was lost over the course of a 45.0 min dive?

Answer : __________________________
b) (3 pts) To recuperate this energy loss, Dr. Fox decides to eat a candy bar, which contains
glucose, C6H12O6. Using the data tables, determine the enthalpy of combustion of
glucose, in kJ/mol.

Answer : __________________________
c) (5 pts) If the candy bar contains 8.55% glucose by mass, how many grams of it will Dr.
Fox need to eat to balance out the heat lost in part (a)?

Answer : __________________________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

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#5. Cyanide ion, CN, is the conjugate base of a highly poisonous substance, hydrogen
cyanide (and if you saw the movie Skyfall you saw its effects). In an environmental test for
cyanide, the ion is treated in a redox reaction in basic solution with permanganate.
CN(aq) + MnO4(aq) ! CNO(aq) + MnO2(s)

(basic conditions)

a) (5 pts) Determine the overall balanced redox reaction equation.

b) (5 pts) 450.0 mL of a 0.02270 M Ca(CN)2 solution are added to 725.0 mL of a 0.01055 M


KMnO4 solution. If the above reaction has a percent yield of 78.3%, what is the expected
mass of solid manganese dioxide?

Answer: _____________________________

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

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LAST NAME: __________________________________________________________


FIRST NAME: _________________________________________________________
Student Number: ______________________________________________________

CHM 1311 A
Midterm #2 A
Fall 2014
Please keep your work covered at all times and keep your eyes on your own
paper! Cheating or any appearance of cheating will result in an F in the
course and possible expulsion from the university.
There are 10 pages in this test. A periodic table, data tables, and a formula
sheet are provided at the end. You may gently remove these pages off and
use them to cover your work. Any scratch work should be done on the back
of these pages.
Please show all work to receive partial credit.
You have 80 minutes to complete the test.

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

Page 3 of 10

1. (10 pts) Short Answer Questions


a. For the majority of reactions, reaction rate is fastest when:
Ea high, T low

Ea high, T high

Ea low, T low

Ea low, T high

b. Benzoic acid is titrated with sodium hydroxide. At the equivalence point, the pH will be:
ACIDIC

NEUTRAL

BASIC

IMPOSSIBLE TO PREDICT

c. The steady-state assumption states that intermediates are consumed at a constant rate.
TRUE
d. For the reaction
reaction

2A! B+3C

2B+6C! 4A

FALSE

the value of K is 44.5 at 25C. The value of K for the

would be _________________________________.

e. Predict the products of the following acid-base reaction. Is K > or < 1?


N3 + HF

______________________________________

K>1

K<1

f. For a second order reaction, the plot of _______________________________ versus time will
yield a straight line, with a slope equal to _____________; its unit is ___________________.
g. A chemical equilibrium can be considered to be going to completion when the value of
K is at least

1010

105

10

105

or greater.

h. The conjugate acid and conjugate base of HPO42 are ______________________________

BONUS:
Draw representative concentration lines/curves for
both A and B as a function of time in the
following first-order decomposition:

Concentration

and ___________________________ respectively.

A! 2B
Dont forget to label your lines/curves!
Time

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

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2. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an air pollutant produced during photochemical smog events.
PAN is unstable and dissociates into peroxyacetyl radicals and nitrogen dioxide.
O
CH3COONO2

O
CH3COO

NO2

PAN

a) (3 pts) Using the data in the table below, derive a rate law for the decomposition of PAN at
25.0C, as well as the value of the rate constant (with appropriate units).
Trial
1
2
3

Initial [PAN]
(M)
8.30x1010
1.66x109
2.49x109

Initial Rate
(M/min)
1.92x1011
3.84x1011
5.78x1011

Rate law is:

___________________________

Rate constant is:

___________________________

b) (2 pts) The decomposition of PAN has a half-life of 35.0 hr at 0.00C. What is the rate
constant for this reaction at this temperature? Use the same units as part (a).

d) (2 pts) The enthalpy for the decomposition of


PAN is about 88 kJ/mol. On the axes provided,
draw a representative reaction profile for this
reaction, with labels.

Energy

c) (3 pts) What is the activation energy, in kJ/mol, for this reaction?

reaction coordinate

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

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3. Rick Grimes and his group of survivors are dealing with a major lack of resources in the
zombie apocalypse. Their current water source is contaminated and needs to be treated with
chlorine to be disinfected. Eugene suggests they produce the needed chlorine via the gasphase electrolysis of salt:
2 NaCl (g)

! 2 Na(g) + Cl2(g)

a) (6 pts) The above reaction is carried out at 750 K using 1.25 kg of salt in a 35.0 L reaction
vessel. If only 0.120 kg of chlorine gas is obtained at equilibrium, what is the value of KC
at this temperature?

Answer = ______________________
b) (2 pts) What is the value of KP at 750 K?

Answer = ______________________
c) (2 pts)The equilibrium mixture from part (a) is transferred to a 20.0 L container. What is
the qualitative effect on the value of KC? Explain, in one or two sentences.

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

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4. You wish to determine the pH of a 0.0200 M solution of NH4NO2.


a) (2 pts) The Kb of ammonia is 1.8x105. What is the Ka value of its conjugate acid?

Answer = ______________________
b) (6 pts) Determine the [H3O+] and [OH] produced by the hydrolysis (if any) of 0.0200 M
NH4NO2.

[H3O+] = ______________________

[OH] = ______________________

c) (2 pts) Calculate the expected pH of the solution.

Answer = ______________________

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

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5. Your lab TA asks you to prepare a buffer solution with a pH of 7.40. The following reagents
are all available to you: 550 mL of 0.200 M formic acid, 450 mL of 0.200 M hypochlorous
acid, solid sodium formate and solid sodium hypochlorite.
a) (2 pts) Which 2 ingredients will you use to prepare the desired buffer?

b) (2 pts) What is the base/acid ratio in the desired buffer?

Answer: ______________________
c) (3 pts) What mass (in g) of solid base must you dissolve in the corresponding acid solution
to achieve the desired buffer pH?

Answer: _____________________
d) (3 pts) If 1.00 mL of 1.00 M NaOH is added to the buffer solution, what will be the new pH?

Answer: __________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 1 of 15

Surname (last name): __________________________________________________


Given name (First name): _____________________________________________
Student Number: ______________________________________________________

Seat Number: ___________

CHM 1311 A
Final Exam
December 2014
Attention: If you didnt have Dr. Focsaneanu (Fox) as your Instructor, you
shouldnt be writing this exam!

Please keep your work covered at all times and keep your eyes on your
own paper! Cheating or any appearance of cheating will result in an F in
the course and possible expulsion from the university.
There are 15 pages in this test. A periodic table, data tables, and a
formula sheet are provided at the end. You may rip these pages off of the
exam and use them to cover your work. Any scratch work should be done
on the back of these pages.
Please show all work to receive partial credit.
You have 180 minutes to complete the exam.

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 3 of 15

1. (20 points) Short Answer Questions.


a) The number of atoms in 10.0 g of CaCO3 (100.0 g/mol) is:
18.1 x 1022 atoms

6.02 x 1022 atoms

3.01 x 1023 atoms

12.1 x 1023 atoms

b) Breaking chemical bonds is always an endothermic process.

TRUE

FALSE

c) Balance the following reaction:


____ Fe (s) + ____ HCl (aq) ! ____ FeCl3 (s) + ____ H2 (g)
When 4.55 g of Fe (s) was reacted with HCl (aq), 0.101 g of H2 (g) was formed. The
percent yield of the reaction is _____________________.
d) Which of the following isotopes has the greatest number of neutrons?

Cl

37
17

e) On the axes provided a right, draw a line (or


curve) representing the percent ionization of
a weak acid as a function of the initial
concentration of the acid.

40
20

Cl

Percent Ionization

40
19

35
17

Ca

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%

Initial Concentration of Acid

f) An exothermic expansion of a gas has a


a

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

value of q, and a

NEGATIVE

value of W,

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

value of !U.
g) In the following reaction, indicate the oxidizing agent:
NO (g)

O3 (g)

NO2 (g)

O2 (g)

h) Phosphorous acid has pKa1 = 1.30 and pKa2 = 6.70. An aqueous solution of this acid is
titrated with NaOH (aq). At the first equivalence point, the pH of the solution will be
ACIDIC

BASIC

Write the equation for the expected hydrolysis:

NEUTRAL

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 4 of 15

i) According to the Bohr Model, which of the following electronic transitions corresponds
to the absorption of a photon with the shortest wavelength?
n=1!n=3

n=2!n=3

n=3!n=1

n=3!n=2

j) Write a balanced net ionic equation for the expected reaction that occurs when 1.0 M
MgCl2 is mixed with 1.0 M AgNO3.

k) It is possible to prepare a buffer by taking a weak acid and titrating it with a strong
acid to the half equivalence point.

TRUE

FALSE

l) For a given reaction, the plot of lnk versus 1/T yields a slope of - 13.9 and a y-intercept
of 2.6x106. Knowing this information, the reaction has:
Ea > 0

!H < 0

Ea < 0

!H > 0

m) Determine the overall balanced redox reaction (acidic conditions) from the following
half reactions:
Al ! Al2O3
Cu+ ! Cu
OVERALL: ___________________________________________________________________
n) A solution contains 0.050 M Pb2+. The minimum chloride concentration needed to
observe the formation of a solid precipitate is: ___________________________________
o) Name two ways to accelerate a chemical reaction:
i. ___________________________________________________________
ii. ___________________________________________________________
BONUS
How many nodal planes are there in the f orbitals? _____________
Draw the Lewis structure of CO2.

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 5 of 15

2. Barium sulfate is used in medical imaging of the gastrointestinal tract because it is


opaque to X rays. A barium sulfate solution is ingested by the patient, whose stomach
and intestines can then be visualized via X-ray imaging.
a) (5 pts) If a patient ingests 200 mL of a saturated barium sulfate solution, how many
toxic Ba2+ ions has the patient consumed?

Answer: ______________________________
b) (3 pts) There are some data that suggest that zinc lozenges can significantly shorten the
duration of a cold. If the solubility of zinc acetate, Zn(CH3COO)2, is 43.0 g/L, what is
the Ksp of this compound?

c) (2 pts) How might one improve the solubility of zinc acetate? Explain, using Le
Chateliers Principle.

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 6 of 15

3. The mechanism for the gas-phase reaction described by the equation


A +B ! C
is suggested to be:
A! X
X+ B! C
a) (4 pts) Assuming that [X] is governed by steady-state conditions, derive the rate law for
the production of C in terms of [A] and [B], and any appropriate k values.

b) (1 pt) What is the expected overall order of the rate law at very low gas pressures?
ZERO ORDER

FIRST ORDER

SECOND ORDER

THIRD ORDER

c) (1 pt) What is the expected overall order of the rate law at very high gas pressures?
ZERO ORDER

FIRST ORDER

SECOND ORDER

THIRD ORDER

d) (4 pts) Using the graph below, calculate the initial rate and average rate (both in M/s)
for the reaction.
1

Concentration (mol/L)

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

0
0

10

15
20
25
Time (min)

30

35

40

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 7 of 15

4. Quantum Numbers and Electronic Configurations.


a) (3 pts) For the following sets of quantum numbers, give the subshell label, the allowed
values of ml and the number of orbitals in the subshell (the first row is an example).
n and l
n = 0 and l = 0
n = 5 and l = 1
n = 3 and l = 2

subshell label
1s

ml values
0

number of orbitals
1

b) (3 pts) How many electrons can be described by each of the following sets of quantum
numbers?
i. n = 4, l = 2, ml = 1
ii. n = 3, l = 3, ml = -1, ms= !
iii. n = 4, l = 3

c) (4 pts) Draw the orbital energy diagram for Fe3+ in the space below. What is the
expected magnetism of this species?

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 8 of 15

5. The haemoglobin content of blood is about 15.5g/100mL. The molar mass of


haemoglobin is about 64 500 g/mol, and there are four iron atoms in each haemoglobin
molecule.
a) (5 pts) Approximately how many iron atoms are present in the 6 L of blood in a typical
adult?

Answer: _________________________
b) (5 pts) One isotope of iron, iron-58, has a relative abundance of 0.280% and an exact
mass of 57.933 g/mol. Approximately how many litres of human blood would contain
1.00 g of iron-58?

Answer: ___________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 9 of 15

6. A calorimeter contains 24.0 mL of water at 13.0C. When 2.20 g of X (molar mass 47.0
g/mol) is added, it dissolves via the reaction:
X(s) ! X(aq)
and the temperature of the solution increases to 28.0C.
a) (4 pts) Calculate the enthalpy change for the dissolution, in kJ/mol. You may assume
the specific heat capacity and density of the solution are equal to those of pure water;
however, you may NOT assume that the mass of the solution is equal to the mass of the
water.

Answer: _____________________________
b) (2 pts) Calculate the internal energy change for the dissolution, in kJ/mol.

Answer: _____________________________
c) (4 pts) Determine the enthalpy change for the following reaction, using the provided
data.
X (s) ! 2Y (s)
!H = ?
!H = +24.7 kJ
Y(s) ! Y(aq)
2 Y(aq) ! X(aq) !H = -1.44 kJ

Answer: _____________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 10 of 15

7. When Dr. Fox goes scuba diving, she uses NITROX, a special blend of enriched air that
allows for more repetitive dives by reducing the build-up of nitrogen in the blood (that
way, she wont get the bends!). The local scuba shop prepares 6.50 L tanks of
NITROX by mixing 26.0 g of O2 with 44.2 g of N2 at a temperature of 25.0C.
a) (4 pts) What is the mole fraction of each gas in the mixture?

! of N2 = _________________

! of O2 = __________________

b) (4 pts) What is the partial pressure of each gas, in bar?

P of N2 = _________________

P of O2 = __________________

c) (2 pts) What will be the total pressure left in the tank after Dr. Fox breathes 85% of it by
volume during a dive?

PT = _________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

14
12
10
8
pH

8. (10 pts) You are performing a


titration of 80.0 mL of 0.150 M
HOCl with 0.150 M NaOH.
Determine the pH of the
solution:
a) (3 pts) initially
b) (2 pts) at the half-equivalence
point
c) (4 pts) at the equivalence point
d) (1 pt) Use these values to
sketch a titration curve on the
graph provided.

Page 11 of 15

6
4
2
0
0

20

40

60

80

mL OH added

100

120

140

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 12 of 15

9. 45.0 g of solid calcium carbonate is added to 1.25 L of an aqueous hydrochloric acid


solution. The hydrochloric acid solution has a density of 1.13 g/mL and is 25.7% acid by
mass. The solid calcium carbonate reacts with the acid to yield liquid water, aqueous
calcium chloride, and carbon dioxide gas.
a) (2 pts) Write a balanced chemical equation for the described reaction, including phases.

b) (3 pts) What is the initial molarity of the acid solution?

Answer: __________________________________
c) (5 pts) What is the molarity of the acid solution after the reaction is complete? You may
assume no volume changes.

Answer: _____________________________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

Page 3 of 10

#1. (10 points) Short Answer Questions

! N2(g) + 2 H2(g) + ! Cl2(g) ! NH4Cl(s)


a) The standard heat of formation of solid ammonium chloride is 314.4 kJ. Write the
chemical equation for the reaction to which this value applies (include phases).
b) Name the following compounds:
Co(ClO)2

_____cobalt (II) hypochlorite__________________

CaSO4 7 H2O

_____calcium sulphate heptahydrate__________________

c) Complete the following table:


Element

Mass Number

Number of
protons

Number of
electrons

Number of
neutrons

Charge

Se

79

34

36

45

d) Breaking chemical bonds is always an endothermic process.

TRUE

FALSE

e) If the molar mass of a gas is doubled, the root-mean-squared speed of the molecules
will increase by a factor of _____! __________.
f) You take a 4.0 L volume of gas at 600 K. You expand the gas to an 8.0 L volume and
simultaneously heat the vessel to 1200 K. The pressure of the gas:
DOUBLES

HALVES

QUADRUPLES

STAYS CONSTANT

g) Which compound has the highest oxidation state of nitrogen?


NO+

N2

NH3

NO2

N2O

NO3

h) When the power was turned off to a 125 L water heater, the temperature of the water
dropped from 75.0C to 22.5C.

The amount of heat, in kilojoules, transferred to the

surroundings was: _______2.75 x 104 kJ (note that the sign isnt necessary in this case,
since it says transferred to._______.
BONUS: The energy change shown in the diagram at right corresponds to a(n):

! ENDOTHERMIC CONTRACTION
! EXOTHERMIC EXPANSION
! ENDOTHERMIC EXPANSION

U2

Energy

! EXOTHERMIC CONTRACTION

U1

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

Page 4 of 10

#2. 45.0 g of solid calcium carbonate is added to 1.25 L of an aqueous hydrochloric acid
solution. The hydrochloric acid solution has a density of 1.13 g/mL and is 25.7% acid by
mass. The solid calcium carbonate reacts with the acid to yield liquid water, aqueous
calcium chloride, and carbon dioxide gas.
This question is Petrucci Ch. 4 #110 and was covered in DGD #3
a) (2 pts) Write a balanced chemical equation for the described reaction, including phases.
CaCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) ! H2O (l) + CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g)
b) (3 pts) What is the initial molarity of the acid solution?

? mol HCl 25.7 g HCl 1.13 g soln 1000 mL


mol HCl
=
!
!
!
L
100 g soln
mL soln
L
36.45 g HCl
= 7.97 mol/L
Answer: ________7.97 M______________
c) (5 pts) What is the molarity of the acid solution after the reaction is complete? You may
assume no volume changes.
The question implies that there is excess HCl (i.e. CaCO3 is the limiting reagent).

? initial mol HCl = 1.25 L soln !

7.97 mol HCl


L

= 9.96 mol
? mol HCl reacted = 45.0 g CaCO3 !

mol CaCO3
2 mol HCl
!
100.1 g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3

= 0.899 mol
? mol HCl leftover = 9.96 mol 0.899 mol
= 9.06 mol

? mol HCl leftover 9.06 mol


=
L
1.25 L
= 7.25 mol/L
Answer: ________7.25 M_________________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

Page 5 of 10

#3. A 3.902 g sample of an unknown compound containing only C, H, and O is combusted


in an oxygen-rich environment.
This is a slightly changed version of the Sample Midterm Problem on Sapling
a) (3 pts) The CO2 gas produced in the reaction is collected over water at 20.00C in a
5.000 L flask. The pressure in the flask is measured to be 100.52 kPa. What is the
number of moles of carbon dioxide gas produced in the combustion?

PH2O = 2.3393 kPa (from Table on data sheets)


Ptotal = PCO2 + PH2O
PCO2 = Ptotal ! PH2O = 100.52kPa-2.3393kPa = 98.18kPa
? mol CO2 =

PCO2V
RT

(98.18 kPa)(5.000 L)
= 0.2014 mol
(8.3145 kPa " L/mol " K)(293.15 K)

Answer : _______0.2014 mol_______________


b) (5 pts) The reaction was found to also produce 3.633 g of liquid H2O. What is the
empirical formula of the unknown compound?
1 mol C
= 0.2014 mol C
1 mol CO2
mol H2O
2 mol H
? mol H = 3.633 g H2O !
!
= 0.4032 mol H
18.02 g H2O 1 mol H2O
12.011 g C
? g C = 0.2014 mol C !
= 2.42 g C
1 mol C
1.008 g H
? g H = 0.4031 mol H !
= 0.406 g H
1 mol H
"? g O = 3.902 g sample 2.42 g C 0.406 g H = 1.07 g O
1 mol O
? mol O = 1.07 g O !
= 0.0669 mol O
15.999 g O
"C 0.2014 H 0.4032 O 0.0669 = C3H6O
? mol C = 0.2014 mol CO2 !

0.0669

0.0669

0.0669

Answer : ________C3H6O_______________
c) (2 pts) If the molecular mass of the unknown compound is found to be 116.2 u, what is
its molecular formula?
MF mass 116 u
=
=2
EF mass 58 u
!MF = 2 " EF = C6H12O2

Answer : ______C6H12O2__________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

Page 6 of 10

#4. This past summer, Dr. Fox went scuba diving in False Bay, South Africa, where the
water temperature was a chilly 13.5C. Despite wearing two 5 mm thick neoprene wetsuits,
Dr. Fox still lost body heat at a rate of 38.0 J per second.
NEW QUESTION: I actually thought up this question during the dive!
a) (2 pts) How much body heat, in kJ, was lost over the course of a 45.0 min dive?
? kJ = 45.0 min !

60 s 38.0 J 1 kJ
!
!
= 102.6 kJ
1 min
s
1000 J

Technically, the sign here would be negative (to show heat leaving the system), but since
this is already acknowledged in the question, its not necessary.
Answer : ____102.6 kJ____________
b) (3 pts) To recuperate this energy loss, Dr. Fox decides to eat a candy bar, which contains
glucose, C6H12O6. Using the data tables, determine the enthalpy of combustion of
glucose, in kJ/mol.
C6H12O6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) ! 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l)
!Hcomb = {(6 x !Hf CO2) + (6 x !Hf H2O)} {(1 x !Hf C6H12O6) + (6 x !Hf O2)}
= {(6 x 393.5) + (6 x 285.8)} {(1 x 1273.3) + (6 x 0)}
= 2802.5 kJ/mol

Answer : ______2802.5 kJ/mol ___________


c) (5 pts) If the candy bar contains 8.55% glucose by mass, how many grams of it will Dr.
Fox need to eat to balance out the heat lost in part (a)?

? g candy = 102.6 kJ !

mol C6H12O6 180 g C6H12O6


100 g candy
!
!
2802.5 kJ
mol C6H12O6 8.55 g C6H12O6

= 77.1 g candy

Answer : ______77.1 g__________

CHM1311A Midterm #1A 2014

Page 7 of 10

#5. Cyanide ion, CN, is the conjugate base of a highly poisonous substance, hydrogen
cyanide (and if you saw the movie Skyfall you saw its effects). In an environmental test for
cyanide, the ion is treated in a redox reaction in basic solution with permanganate.
CN(aq) + MnO4(aq) ! CNO(aq) + MnO2(s)

(basic conditions)

a) (5 pts) Determine the overall balanced redox reaction equation.


This is taken directly from the course notes
oxidation:
CN ! CNO
H2O + CN ! CNO
H2O + CN ! CNO + 2 H+

2 OH + H2O + CN ! CNO + 2 H+ + 2 OH
2 OH + H2O + CN ! CNO + 2 H2O
2 OH + CN ! CNO + H2O
2 OH + CN ! CNO + H2O + 2 e
6 OH + 3 CN ! 3 CNO + 3 H2O + 6 e

reduction:
MnO4 ! MnO2
MnO4 ! MnO2 + 2 H2O
4 H+ + MnO4 ! MnO2 + 2 H2O

4 OH + 4 H+ + MnO4 ! MnO2 + 2 H2O + 4 OH


4 H2O + MnO4 ! MnO2 + 2 H2O + 4 OH
2 H2O + MnO4 ! MnO2 + 4 OH
3 e + 2 H2O + MnO4 ! MnO2 + 4 OH
6 e + 4 H2O + 2 MnO4 ! 2 MnO2 + 8 OH

Adding the two together and simplifying gives the overall balanced redox reaction:
H2O + 2 MnO4 + 3 CN ! 3 CNO + 2 MnO2 + 2 OH
b) (5 pts) 450.0 mL of a 0.02270 M Ca(CN)2 solution are added to 725.0 mL of a 0.01055 M
KMnO4 solution. If the above reaction has a percent yield of 78.3%, what is the expected
mass of solid manganese dioxide?

? mol MnO2 from CN = 0.4500 L !

0.02270 mol Ca(CN)2


2 mol CN
2 mol MnO2
!
!
L
1 mol Ca(CN)2 3 mol CN

= 0.01362 mol
0.01055 mol KMnO4 1 mol MnO4 2 mol MnO2
!
!
L
1 mol KMnO4 2 mol MnO4
= 0.007649 mol

? mol MnO2 from MnO4 = 0.7250 L !

Therefore, permanganate is the limiting reagent.


"
86.94 g MnO2 %
? actual g MnO2 = $ 0.007649 mol MnO2 !
' !78.3%
mol MnO2 &
#
= 0.52 g

Answer: _______0.52 g___________

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

Page 3 of 10

1. (10 pts) Short Answer Questions


a. For the majority of reactions, reaction rate is fastest when:
Ea high, T low

Ea high, T high

Using k = AeEa/RT

Ea low, T low

Ea low, T high

b. Benzoic acid is titrated with sodium hydroxide. At the equivalence point, the pH will be:
ACIDIC

NEUTRAL

BASIC

IMPOSSIBLE TO PREDICT

At the EQ PT: benzoate ion hydrolyzes: C6H5COO + H2O ! C6H5COOH + OH

c. The steady-state assumption states that intermediates are consumed at a constant rate.
TRUE

FALSE

It states that intermediates are PRODUCED and CONSUMED at EQUAL RATES.

d. For the reaction


reaction

2A! B+3C

2B+6C! 4A

the value of K is 44.5 at 25C. The value of K for the

would be ____K = 1/K2 = 5.05x104_________________.

e. Predict the products of the following acid-base reaction. Is K > or < 1?


!

N3 + HF

Ka = 6.6 x 10

__HN3

F______________

K>1

K<1

Ka = 1.9 x 10

f. For a second order reaction, the plot of _____1/concentration___________ versus time will
yield a straight line, with a slope equal to ____k______; its unit is ____M1s1_______.
g. A chemical equilibrium can be considered to be going to completion when the value of
K is at least

1010

105

10

105

or greater.

h. The conjugate acid and conjugate base of HPO42 are ______ H2PO4 ___________ and
_______ PO43 ________ respectively.

Note: 2 moles of B formed for


every mol of A consumed!

Draw representative concentration lines/curves


for both A and B as a function of time in the
following first-order decomposition:
A! 2B

Concentration

BONUS:

[B]

[A]

Dont forget to label your lines/curves!


Time

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

Page 4 of 10

2. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) is an air pollutant produced during photochemical smog events.
PAN is unstable and dissociates into peroxyacetyl radicals and nitrogen dioxide.
O

CH3COONO2

CH3COO

NO2

PAN

NOTE: THIS IS TAKEN FROM MIDTERM 2 2012


a) (3 pts) Using the data in the table below, derive a rate law for the decomposition of PAN at
25.0C, as well as the value of the rate constant (with appropriate units).
Trial
1
2
3

Initial [PAN]
(M)
8.30x1010
1.66x109
2.49x109

Initial Rate
(M/min)
1.92x1011
3.84x1011
5.78x1011

Or:

Trials 1 & 2:
Trials 1 & 3:

[PAN] x 2 ! rate x 2
[PAN] x 3 ! rate x 3
! rate = k[PAN]

(its first order)

rate 1.92 !10 11M " min 1


k=
=
= 2.31!10 2 min 1
10
[PAN]
8.30 !10 M
Rate law is:

___rate = k[PAN]___________

Rate constant is:

___k = 0.0231 min1_________

b) (2 pts) The decomposition of PAN has a half-life of 35.0 hr at 0.00C. What is the rate
constant for this reaction at this temperature? Use the same units as part (a).
Its first order, so:

t1 =
2

ln2
k

!k =

ln2
ln2
1 hr
=

t1
35.0 hr 60 min

= 3.30 "10 4 min 1

c) (3 pts) What is the activation energy, in kJ/mol, for this reaction?


k1 = 2.31x102 min1 @ T1 = 298 K
k2 = 3.30x104 min1 @ T2 = 273 K

! 3.30 )10 4min 1 $


! 1
Ea
1 $
( ln #
='
'
&
2
1 &
1 1 #
8.3145J * mol K " 273K 298K %
" 2.31)10 min %

Solve for Ea:


Ea = 1.15x105 J/mol = 115 kJ/mol

Energy

!k $
E !1 1$
ln # 2 & = ' a # ' &
R " T2 T1 %
" k1 %

E a = 115 kJ/mol

d) (2 pts) The enthalpy for the decomposition


of PAN is about 88 kJ/mol. On the axes
provided, draw a representative reaction
profile for this reaction, with labels.

products
H = 88 kJ/mol

PAN (rxt)

reaction coordinate

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

Page 5 of 10

3. Rick Grimes and his group of survivors are dealing with a major lack of resources in the
zombie apocalypse. Their current water source is contaminated and needs to be treated with
chlorine to be disinfected. Eugene suggests they produce the needed chlorine via the gasphase electrolysis of salt:
2 NaCl (g)

! 2 Na(g) + Cl2(g)

a) (6 pts) The above reaction is carried out at 750 K using 1.25 kg of salt in a 35.0 L reaction
vessel. If only 0.120 kg of chlorine gas is obtained at equilibrium, what is the value of KC
at this temperature?
THIS IS JUST A TYPE 1 EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEM
? initial mol NaCl
1000 g
mol NaCl
1
= 1.25 kg !
!
!
= 0.6111 mol/L NaCl initial
L
1 kg 58.44 g NaCl 35.0 L
? EQM mol Cl 2
1000 g
mol Cl 2
1
= 0.120 kg !
!
!
= 0.0484 mol/L Cl 2 @ EQM
L
1 kg 70.90 g Cl 2 35.0 L

2 NaCl (g) !
I
C
E

KC =

2 Na(g) +

Cl2(g)

0.6111
-2x

0
+2x

0
+x

-2(0.0484)

+2(0.0484)

+0.0484

0.5143

0.0968

0.0484

[Na]2[Cl 2 ] (0.0968)2 (0.0484)


=
= 1.71x10 3
2
2
[NaCl]
(0.5143)
Answer = ______________________

b) (2 pts) What is the value of KP at 750 K?


K P = K C (RT)

!ngas

= (1.71x10 3 )(0.083145 !750)32 = 0.107

Answer = _____0.107_____
c) (2 pts)The equilibrium mixture from part (a) is transferred to a 20.0 L container. What is
the qualitative effect on the value of KC? Explain, in one or two sentences.
The volume of the new container is SMALLER than the volume of the original container. This
means that the equilibrium will shift to the side that contains FEWER gas particles (to
accommodate the decrease in available space). In this case, the equilibrium will shift to the
LEFT and so K will DECREASE.

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

Page 6 of 10

4. You wish to determine the pH of a 0.0200 M solution of NH4NO2.


THIS QUESTION WAS COVERED IN DGD#9
a) (2 pts) The Kb of ammonia is 1.8x105. What is the Ka value of its conjugate acid?

Ka =

K W 1.0x10 14
=
= 5.56x10 10
5
K b 1.8x10
Answer = ______________________

b) (6 pts) Determine the [H3O+] and [OH] produced by the hydrolysis (if any) of 0.0200 M
NH4NO2.
Both ions will hydrolyze, so two ICE tables are necessary:

I
C
E

NH4+ + H2O ! H3O+ + NH3


0.0200
0
0
-x
+x
+x
0.0200 - x
x
x

I
C
E

NO2 + H2O ! OH + HNO2


0.0200
0
0
-x
+x
+x
0.0200 - x
x
x

[H3O+] = ____3.33x106 M_______ [OH] = ___5.27x107 M______


c) (2 pts) Calculate the expected pH of the solution.
[H3O+] > [OH], therefore, the excess H3O+ will determine the pH of the solution:
leftover [H3O+] = 3.33x106 5.27x107 = 2.80x106 M
pH = log(2.80x106) = 5.55
Answer = _____5.55_________

CHM1311A Midterm #2A - 2014

Page 7 of 10

5. Your lab TA asks you to prepare a buffer solution with a pH of 7.40. The following reagents
are all available to you: 550 mL of 0.200 M formic acid, 450 mL of 0.200 M hypochlorous
acid, solid sodium formate and solid sodium hypochlorite.
THIS IS A SLIGHTLY MODIFIED VERSION OF THE EXAMPLES IN THE COURSE NOTES
a) (2 pts) Which 2 ingredients will you use to prepare the desired buffer?
HCOOH/HCOO
pKa = log(1.8x104) = 3.74
HOCl/OCl
pKa = log(2.9x108) = 7.54
Therefore, hypochlorous acid/sodium hypochlorite is the appropriate choice.
b) (2 pts) What is the base/acid ratio in the desired buffer?

! [OCl ] $
pH = pK a + log #
&
" [HOCl] %
'

[OCl ]
= 10pHpKa = 107.40-7.54 = 0.724
[HOCl]
Answer: _____0.724________

c) (3 pts) What mass (in g) of solid base must you dissolve in the corresponding acid solution
to achieve the desired buffer pH?
[OCl ]
= 0.724
[HOCl]
![OCl ] = 0.724 "[HOCl] = 0.724 " 0.200 M = 0.145 M
? g NaOCl = 0.450 L "

0.145 mol OCl 1 mol NaOCl 74.44 g NaOCl


"
"
L
1 mol OCl
mol NaOCl

= 4.86 g

Answer: _____4.86 g_______


d) (3 pts) If 1.00 mL of 1.00 M NaOH is added to the buffer solution, what will be the new pH?
1.00 mol OH
= 0.00100 mol
L
0.145 mol OCl
? mol OCl initial = 0.450 L !
= 0.06525 mol
L
0.200 mol HOCl
? mol HOCl initial = 0.450 L !
= 0.0900 mol
L
? mol OH added = 0.00100 L !

HOCl + OH !
B 0.0900
A
0.001
M -0.001
-0.001
A 0.0890
0

! [OCl ] $
! 0.06625 $
pH = pK a + log #
& = 7.41
& = 7.54 + log #
" 0.0890 %
" [HOCl] %

Answer: __________7.41_______

OCl + H2O
0.06525
+0.001
0.06625
-

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 3 of 15

1. (20 points) Short Answer Questions.


a) The number of atoms in 10.0 g of CaCO3 (100.0 g/mol) is:
18.1 x 1022 atoms

6.02 x 1022 atoms

3.01 x 1023 atoms

12.1 x 1023 atoms

b) Breaking chemical bonds is always an endothermic process.

TRUE

FALSE

c) Balance the following reaction:


__2__ Fe (s) + __6__ HCl (aq) ! __2__ FeCl3 (s) + __3__ H2 (g)
When 4.55 g of Fe (s) was reacted with HCl (aq), 0.101 g of H2 (g) was formed. The
percent yield of the reaction is ___41%_________.
d) Which of the following isotopes has the greatest number of neutrons?

Cl

37
17

e) On the axes provided a right, draw a line (or


curve) representing the percent ionization of
a weak acid as a function of the initial
concentration of the acid.

40
20

Cl

Percent Ionization

40
19

35
17

Ca

100%
80%
60%
40%
20%

Initial Concentration of Acid

f) An exothermic expansion of a gas has a


a

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

POSITIVE

value of q, and a

NEGATIVE

value of W,

POSITIVE

NEGATIVE

value of !U.
g) In the following reaction, indicate the oxidizing agent:
NO (g)

O3 (g)

NO2 (g)

O2 (g)

h) Phosphorous acid has pKa1 = 1.30 and pKa2 = 6.70. An aqueous solution of this acid is
titrated with NaOH (aq). At the first equivalence point, the pH of the solution will be
ACIDIC

BASIC

NEUTRAL

Write the equation for the expected hydrolysis:


H2PO3(aq)

H2O(l)

HPO32(aq)

H3O+(l)

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 4 of 15

i) According to the Bohr Model, which of the following electronic transitions corresponds
to the absorption of a photon with the shortest wavelength?
n=1!n=3

n=2!n=3

n=3!n=1

n=3!n=2

j) Write a balanced net ionic equation for the expected reaction that occurs when 1.0 M
MgCl2 is mixed with 1.0 M AgNO3.
Ag+ (aq) + Cl (aq) ! AgCl (s)

k) It is possible to prepare a buffer by taking a weak acid and titrating it with a strong
acid to the half equivalence point.

TRUE

FALSE

l) For a given reaction, the plot of lnk versus 1/T yields a slope of - 13.9 and a y-intercept
of 2.6x106. Knowing this information, the reaction has:
Ea > 0

!H < 0

Ea < 0

!H > 0

m) Determine the overall balanced redox reaction (acidic conditions) from the following
half reactions:
3 H2O + 2 Al ! Al2O3 + 6 H+ + 6 e
6 e + 6 Cu+ ! 6 Cu
OVERALL: ________3 H2O + 2 Al + 6 Cu+ ! Al2O3 + 6 H+ + 6 Cu ________________
n) A solution contains 0.050 M Pb2+. The minimum chloride concentration needed to
observe the formation of a solid precipitate is: __[Cl] = "(Ksp/[Pb2+]) = 0.019 M ________
o) Name two ways to accelerate a chemical reaction:
i. ___add catalyst, increase concentrations, increase temperature, etc..._______
ii. ___________________________________________________________
BONUS
How many nodal planes are there in the f orbitals? _____3________
Draw the Lewis structure of CO2.

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 5 of 15

2. Barium sulfate is used in medical imaging of the gastrointestinal tract because it is


opaque to X rays. A barium sulfate solution is ingested by the patient, whose stomach
and intestines can then be visualized via X-ray imaging.
a) (5 pts) If a patient ingests 200 mL of a saturated barium sulfate solution, how many
toxic Ba2+ ions has the patient consumed?
Ksp of BaSO4 = 1.1 x 10-10
BaSO4(s)
I
m
C
s
E
ms

Let s represent the solubility of barium sulfate:

! Ba2+(aq) + SO42(aq)
0
0
+s
+s
s
s

Ksp = [Ba2+][SO42] = s2
s = !Ksp = !(1.1x1010) = 1.05x105 M = [Ba2+]
1L
1.05x10 5 mol Ba2+ 6.022x1023 Ba2+ ions
!
!
1000 mL
L
mol Ba2+ ions
ions

? Ba2+ ions = 200 mL !


= 1.3x1018

Answer: ______________________________
b) (3 pts) There are some data that suggest that zinc lozenges can significantly shorten the
duration of a cold. If the solubility of zinc acetate, Zn(CH3COO)2, is 43.0 g/L, what is
the Ksp of this compound?
Let s represent the solubility of zinc acetate:

? mol Zn(CH3COO)2
L
43.0 g Zn(CH3COO)2
mol Zn(CH3COO)2
=
!
1L
183.5 g Zn(CH3COO)2

s=

= 0.234 mol/L
Zn(CH3COO)2 (s)
I
m
C
s
E
ms

! Zn2+(aq) + 2 CH3COO(aq)
0
0
+s
+2s
s
2s

Ksp = [Zn2+][CH3COO]2 = (s)(2s)2 = 4s3 = 4 x (0.234)3 = 0.051


c) (2 pts) How might one improve the solubility of zinc acetate? Explain, using Le
Chateliers Principle.
The anion formed in the dissolution, acetate, is the CONJUGATE BASE of a WEAK ACID.
Therefore, it will HYDROLYZE when added to water:
CH3COO + H2O
!
CH3COOH + OH
Thus, this salt will be MORE SOLUBLE in ACIDIC SOLUTIONS (because the acid will
consume the produced OH and pull the equilibrium forward).

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 6 of 15

3. The mechanism for the gas-phase reaction described by the equation


A +B ! C
is suggested to be:
A! X
X+ B! C
a) (4 pts) Assuming that [X] is governed by steady-state conditions, derive the rate law for
the production of C in terms of [A] and [B], and any appropriate k values.
rate 2 = k2[X][B]
SSA for X:

rates of reactions that form X = rates of reactions that consume X


rate 1 forward = rate 1 reverse + rate 2
k1[A] = k1[X]+ k2[X][B]
![X] =

k1[A]
k1 + k2[B]

" k1[A] %
rate = k2 $
'[B]
# k1 + k2[B] &
=

k1k2[A][B]
k1 + k2[B]

b) (1 pt) What is the expected overall order of the rate law at very low gas pressures?
ZERO ORDER

FIRST ORDER

SECOND ORDER

THIRD ORDER

c) (1 pt) What is the expected overall order of the rate law at very high gas pressures?
ZERO ORDER

FIRST ORDER

SECOND ORDER

THIRD ORDER

d) (4 pts) Using the graph below, calculate the initial rate and average rate (both in M/s)
for the reaction.
Initial Rate = slope of tangent

Concentration (mol/L)

0.8

0.6

Average Rate = slope of diagonal

0.4

0.2

0
0

10

15
20
25
Time (min)

30

35

40

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 7 of 15

4. Quantum Numbers and Electronic Configurations.


a) (3 pts) For the following sets of quantum numbers, give the subshell label, the allowed
values of ml and the number of orbitals in the subshell (the first row is an example).
n and l
n = 0 and l = 0
n = 5 and l = 1
n = 3 and l = 2

subshell label
1s
5p
3d

ml values
0
1, 0, +1
2, 1, 0, +1, +2

number of orbitals
1
3
5

b) (3 pts) How many electrons can be described by each of the following sets of quantum
numbers?
i. n = 4, l = 2, ml = 1

This is one of the five possible 4d orbitals. It can hold 2


electrons.

ii. n = 3, l = 3, ml = -1, ms= !


iii. n = 4, l = 3

This is an impossible set of quantum numbers.


Therefore NO electrons can have this set.

This is the 4f subshell. There are 7 orbitals in this subshell, and


each can hold 2 electrons. Therefore, 14 electrons total.

c) (4 pts) Draw the orbital energy diagram for Fe3+ in the space below. What is the
expected magnetism of this species?

!"#$%&'

Fe (neutral atom) = 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d6


Fe3+ (ion) = 1s22s22p63s23p64s03d5
Since this ion has unpaired electrons, it is PARAMAGNETIC.

+-'

.)'
+,'
+)'
*,'
*)'

()'

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 8 of 15

5. The haemoglobin content of blood is about 15.5g/100mL. The molar mass of


haemoglobin is about 64 500 g/mol, and there are four iron atoms in each haemoglobin
molecule.
a) (5 pts) Approximately how many iron atoms are present in the 6 L of blood in a typical
adult?
Let Hb = haemoglobin

? Fe atoms = 6 L blood !

1000 mL
15.5 g Hb
mol Hb
4 mol Fe 6.022x1023 Fe atoms
!
!
!
!
1L
100 mL blood 64 500 g Hb 1 mol Hb
mol Fe

= 3.5x1022 atoms

Answer: _________________________
b) (5 pts) One isotope of iron, iron-58, has a relative abundance of 0.280% and an exact
mass of 57.933 g/mol. Approximately how many litres of human blood would contain
1.00 g of iron-58?

mol 58Fe
100 mol Fe
1 mol Hb 64500 g Hb 100 mL blood
!
!
!
!
58
58
57.933 g Fe 0.280 mol Fe 4 mol Fe
mol Hb
15.5 g Hb
1 L blood
= 6.4x103 mL !
1000 mL blood
= 641 L

? L blood = 1.00 g 58Fe !

Answer: ___________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 9 of 15

6. A calorimeter contains 24.0 mL of water at 13.0C. When 2.20 g of X (molar mass 47.0
g/mol) is added, it dissolves via the reaction:
X(s) ! X(aq)
and the temperature of the solution increases to 28.0C.
a) (4 pts) Calculate the enthalpy change for the dissolution, in kJ/mol. You may assume
the specific heat capacity and density of the solution are equal to those of pure water;
however, you may NOT assume that the mass of the solution is equal to the mass of the
water.

q soln = msoln csoln !Tsoln


= (2.20g + 24.0g)(4.184

J
)(28.0C 13.0C)
gC

= + 1644 J
!q rxn = 1644 J
!H rxn =

? kJ 1644 J 47.0 g 1 kJ
=
"
"
= 35.1 kJ/mol
mol
2.20 g
mol 1000 J

Answer: _____________________________
b) (2 pts) Calculate the internal energy change for the dissolution, in kJ/mol.
!U = q + W = !H + W
But: there are no gases involved. Therefore W ~ 0 and thus:
!U ~ !H = 35.1 kJ/mol
Answer: _____________________________
c) (4 pts) Determine the enthalpy change for the following reaction, using the provided
data.
X (s) ! 2Y (s)
!H = ?
!H = +24.7 kJ
Y(s) ! Y(aq)
2 Y(aq) ! X(aq) !H = -1.44 kJ
Using the value from part (a):
1 (same)
3 reversed
2 reversed, x2
SUM

X(s) ! X(aq)
X(aq) ! 2 Y(aq)
2 Y(aq) ! 2 Y(s)
X (s) ! 2Y (s)

!H = 35.1 kJ
!H = +1.44 kJ
!H = -49.4 kJ
!H = 83.2 kJ

Answer: _____________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 10 of 15

7. When Dr. Fox goes scuba diving, she uses NITROX, a special blend of enriched air that
allows for more repetitive dives by reducing the build-up of nitrogen in the blood (that
way, she wont get the bends!). The local scuba shop prepares 6.50 L tanks of
NITROX by mixing 26.0 g of O2 with 44.2 g of N2 at a temperature of 25.0C.
a) (4 pts) What is the mole fraction of each gas in the mixture?
? mol O2 = 26.0 g O2 !

mol O2
= 0.812 mol O2
31.998 g O2

? mol N 2 = 44.2 g N 2 !

mol N 2
= 1.578 mol N 2
28.014 g N 2

Total mol n T = 0.812 + 1.578 = 2.39 mol


" !N =
2

1.578 mol
= 0.660
2.39 mol

0.812 mol
= 0.340
2.39 mol
! of N2 = _________________
" !O =
2

! of O2 = __________________

b) (4 pts) What is the partial pressure of each gas, in bar?

n TRT
(2.39 mol)(0.083145 L ! bar/mol ! K)(298K)
=
V
6.50 L
= 9.11 bar

PT =

PN2 = ! N2 " PT = (0.660)(9.11 atm)


= 6.0 bar
PO2 = ! O2 " PT = (0.340)(9.11 atm)
= 3.1 bar

P of N2 = _________________

P of O2 = __________________

c) (2 pts) What will be the total pressure left in the tank after Dr. Fox breathes 85% of it by
volume during a dive?

If 85% has been consumed, there is 15% left.


V2 is 15% of V1 ! Therefore, P2 is 15% of P1
P2 = (0.15)(9.11 bar) = 1.4 bar
PT = _________________________

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

14
12
10
8
pH

8. (10 pts) You are performing a


titration of 80.0 mL of 0.150 M
HOCl with 0.150 M NaOH.
Determine the pH of the
solution:
a) (3 pts) initially
b) (2 pts) at the half-equivalence
point
c) (4 pts) at the equivalence point
d) (1 pt) Use these values to
sketch a titration curve on the
graph provided.

Page 11 of 15

6
4
2
0

a) initial pH:

20

40

60

80

100

120

mL OH added

HOCl + H2O ! H3O+ + OCl


0.150
0
0
x
+x
+x
0.150 x
x
x

I
C
E

pH = log(6.60x105) = 4.18

b) At the ! equivalence point: pH = pKa = log(2.9x108) = 7.54


c) At the equivalence point:
mol HOCl = mol OH added = 0.0120 mol
(this corresponds to adding 80.0 mL of base)

new [OCl ] = 0.0120 mol/(0.080 L + 0.080L) = 0.0750 M


Hypochlorite is the conjugate base of a weak acid, so it hydrolyzes:
I
C
E

OCl + H2O ! HOCl + OH


0.075
0
0
-x
+x
+x
0.075 - x
x
x

pOH = log(1.61x104) = 3.79


pH = 14 3.79 = 10.21

140

CHM1311A Final Exam 2014

Page 12 of 15

9. 45.0 g of solid calcium carbonate is added to 1.25 L of an aqueous hydrochloric acid


solution. The hydrochloric acid solution has a density of 1.13 g/mL and is 25.7% acid by
mass. The solid calcium carbonate reacts with the acid to yield liquid water, aqueous
calcium chloride, and carbon dioxide gas.
a) (2 pts) Write a balanced chemical equation for the described reaction, including phases.
CaCO3 (s) + 2 HCl (aq) ! H2O (l) + CaCl2 (aq) + CO2 (g)
b) (3 pts) What is the initial molarity of the acid solution?

? mol HCl 25.7 g HCl 1.13 g soln 1000 mL


mol HCl
=
!
!
!
L
100 g soln
mL soln
L
36.45 g HCl
= 7.97 mol/L

Answer: __________________________________
c) (5 pts) What is the molarity of the acid solution after the reaction is complete? You may
assume no volume changes.
The question implies that there is excess HCl (i.e. CaCO3 is the limiting reagent).

? initial mol HCl = 1.25 L soln !

7.97 mol HCl


L

= 9.96 mol
? mol HCl reacted = 45.0 g CaCO3 !

mol CaCO3
2 mol HCl
!
100.1 g CaCO3 1 mol CaCO3

= 0.899 mol
? mol HCl leftover = 9.96 mol 0.899 mol
= 9.06 mol

? mol HCl leftover 9.06 mol


=
L
1.25 L
= 7.25 mol/L

Answer: _____________________________