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Society & Environment

Education/Curriculum
EDUC2007/EDUC4156

Final Assignment

Developing a Unit of Work in


Society and Environment

Genuine Inquiry Booklet

Teagan Sargent

Elizabeth Osis

Tuesday 1pm

Guidelines/ Assessment Criteria for the Final Assignment

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This assignment requires you to apply your understanding of all aspects of the
Society & Environment course to the development of a unit of work on an S&E topic.
The following guidelines outline the sequence of eight steps you need to undertake in
order to successfully complete this assignment. The guidelines also serve as the
assessment criteria we will use to assess your unit of work.

Your unit of work must be developed within the electronic version of the ‘Genuine
Inquiry Booklet’ proforma (available on the course online pages) and be submitted
electronically via Assign IT by the due date. Please note that Assign IT will not
accept very large files. Therefore, if you wish to include detailed appendices to
your unit of work, you will need to submit this component (with an assignment cover
sheet attached) in hard copy to the S&E assignment box adjacent the reception area
of G-Building. We will then match the appendices to your unit of work.

Step 1: Choose one of the broad topics from the options below.
Environmental topics Social topics
Ecological sustainability Poverty
Climate change Human rights / Animal rights
Biodiversity Conflict in the world

Please note that you may then choose to narrow the focus for your unit of
work. For example, you might decide to focus on ‘Indigenous Australia’ or ‘Asylum
seekers’ within the broader issue of human rights. Similarly, you might elect to
develop a unit on ‘Oceans and coasts’ or ‘Sustainable agriculture’ within the broader
topic of ecological sustainability.

In selecting your topic it might be useful to consider:


 your knowledge of the topic / your level of interest in the topic
 the age/year level you might design the unit for
 the relevance / usefulness of the topic
 the availability of resources and references (i.e. whether you readily access
appropriate resources)

Step 2: Check with your tutor that the topic you have chosen is appropriate for
this assessment task.

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Step 3: Provide a concise rationale. In other words explain in one or two
paragraphs why you think it is important to teach this topic.

Step 4: Include the overarching Educational Aim of the unit and the Guiding
Questions that will serve to direct the study.

Step 5: Provide a brief summary of the empirical understandings (scientific /


social) and ethical understandings you are aiming to develop in students through
teaching this unit.

Step 6: Indicate how your unit of work fits within the SACSA Framework for S&E by
completing the SACSA checklist on page 7.

Step 7: Develop a logical sequence of ideas/lessons that will help students make
progress in answering the guiding questions, taking the following factors into
account:
- the sequence of ideas/lessons must address both the empirical and ethical
components of the study
- the sequence of ideas and lessons must include opportunities for students to
consider and apply all elements of the ETHIC model in relation to the topic at
hand
- the number of ideas/lessons will vary considerably from one student’s unit to
another (roughly somewhere between 5 and 15), and that a single idea/concept
might well need to be developed over a number of lessons
- you will need to describe the activities/ processes of each lesson succinctly but
in enough detail to enable a colleague to understand and teach the unit.
- you must include at least two detailed ethical inquiry discussion plans in your
sequence of ideas/lessons. At least one of these must be your own work.
The second can either be your own work or adapted from another source, but in
this case, please include a copy of the original author’s work as an appendix.

Step 8: Indicate in a paragraph or two how you will go about assessing the
development of students’ knowledge, skills and values in relation to the topic at
hand. Be explicit about the different kinds of assessment tools you will use and why
you have chosen them. Attach assessment tools as appendices where appropriate.

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UNIT TOPIC/ TITLE: LYING

YEAR LEVEL: 4/5

TIME FRAME: 10 WEEKS


RATIONALE –

The teaching of lying and dishonesty is important as we raise awareness with the
children of the effects, short and long term, on relationships. There are many different
kinds of lying and dishonesty, it is important to define these so that individuals know
the severity or reasoning behind the lies.

It is important to teach about lying in Society and Environment as we teach children


to think of the ethics involved in lying. Children need to understand about
accountability and responsibility and also understand the difference between what is
right and what is wrong. To do this they need to be able to consider how circumstance
plays a role in the process and to also consider the harm that can result from
dishonesty. Students need to also consider what makes a lie and can the degree of
honesty/dishonesty vary based on situations. Students should aware of the effects of
lying and the importance of honesty in relationships develops.

Lying and dishonesty is important to teach to children so they can better understand
what honesty is. Proper development of the topic should make honesty an intrinsic
motivation, with this it becomes something that we do when nobody is looking.

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AIM –
To help students think for themselves rationally and fair-mindedly about the concepts
of honesty and dishonesty and the effects of lying on individuals their relationships.

GUIDING QUESTIONS

What makes an action a lie/dishonest?


Is honesty always important? Why? Why not?
What are the effects of lying on individuals and relationships?
What types of lies/dishonesty are there? Are some more serious than others? Why?
Why not?
Why should we tell the truth?

EMPIRICAL UNDERSTANDINGS –

Students will learn what types of lies/dishonesty there are and how these lies impact
on their relationships. Students will look at why people lie and where this behaviour
stems from. Students will also consider the short term effects of honesty/dishonesty
and then the long term effects.

ETHICAL UNDERSTANDINGS –

Students will need to develop an understanding of what makes a lie a wrongful act.
Through discussions and empirical research the students will develop ethical
understandings about when is it ok to lie or be dishonest and the different levels of
dishonesty.
Students will also develop consider the ethical dilemmas of lying in particular
situations where they believe lying to be the best action and consider the
repercussions of this action.

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ASSESSMENT – Indicate briefly how you would go about assessing the
development of students’ knowledge, skills and values in relation to your unit of
work.

Knowledge
Knowledge will be assessed through the number of worksheets that the students will
use throughout the unit. These are:
- The Many Forms of lies1
Assessing: Definition of a lie, understanding of how and when that lie may
occur, communication skills and teamwork through role plays.
- Exercise: Lying
Assessing: Understanding of what makes a lie dishonest, differentiating
between the different forms of lies.
- How lies affect my relationships.2
Assessing: Understanding the severity of lies, how they affect relationships
and impact on self.

Their knowledge will also be assessed in the role plays, as to the accuracy of their
skits in relation to their assigned task.

Skills
Students skills for community of inquiry can be assessed using the Community of
Inquiry Report form3. This will record the student’s participation and attitudes during
the community of inquiries in relation to the topic.

Values
The values that have been developed by the students over the unit can be assessed
through the community of inquiry and through the responses recorded on their
worksheets.

1
 Appendix 2 – The Many Forms of Lies.
2
 Appendix 6 – How Lies Affect Relationships.
3
 Appendix 7 – Community of Inquiry Report Form.

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SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT UNIT PLANNER (SACSA FRAMEWORK)

SELECT STRAND(S)

 Time, continuity and change


 Place, space and environment
 Societies and cultures
 Social Systems

IDENTIFY CURRICULUM PERSPECTIVES


TO BE EMPHASISED

 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples


 Multicultural
 Gender
 Socioeconomic
 Disability
 Rural and Isolated

IDENTIFY ESSENTIAL LEARNINGS


TO BE EMPHASISED

 Futures
 Identity
 Interdependence
 Thinking
 Communication

KEY COMPETENCIES TO BE EMPHASISED

 KC1: collecting, analysing and organising information


 KC2: communicating ideas and information
 KC3: planning and organising activities
 KC4: working with others in teams
 KC5: using mathematical ideas and techniques
 KC6: solving problems
 KC7: using technology

IDENTIFY VALUES
 Democratic Process LITERACY FOCUS 
 Social Justice NUMERACY FOCUS 
 Ecological Sustainability ICT FOCUS 

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SEQUENCE OF IDEAS / LESSONS

Lesson 1: Introducing the topic

1. Read the story, George Washington and the Cherry Tree by M.L. Weems4 to the students. Discuss the
text in relation to lying and dishonesty to create interest in the topic and to allow children to express
their ideas.

2. Guide for discussion: (ensure the children they will not be penalised for what they talk about in this
discussion)
 Do you think George Washington would have got into trouble if he hadn’t told the truth? Why?
Why not?
 Why do you think his father thanked him, even though he cut down his cherry tree?
 Do you think that it is important to be honest? Why? Why not?
 Has anyone got in trouble for something they shouldn’t have done? When and where?
 How did that make you feel?
 How do you feel if you tell a lie?
 What made you tell that lie?
 Did you get caught out? How and when?
 How did that affect your relationship with that person?
 How did that make you feel?
 Like George Washington, has anyone owned up to something that they have done wrong? When
and where?
 How did you feel after you owned up? Why did you feel that way?
 If the other person doesn’t find out, does it matter if we lie?
 How do you think you may feel if you found out someone close to you has lied to you?

3. Once the discussion comes to an end talk to the students about the focus for the unit:
Focus for our study:
Is honesty always important? Why? Why not?
What are the effects of lying on individuals and relationships?
Why should we tell the truth?
We need to find out:

4
 Appendix 1 – Text: George Washington and the Cherry Tree.
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What makes an action a lie/dishonest, what types there are and whether some are more serious
than others.

Lesson 2: Assessing Students Prior Knowledge on Lying/Dishonesty.

1. To begin the lesson, brainstorm ideas through a whole group discussion. On the board, draw a concept map
that records the students’ responses about “lying”.

2. Question the students to help prompt their ideas and guide their thinking. Use these questions to help
structure your concept map.

Examples of questions:
 What is a lie?
 What kinds of lies are there? (e.g. – white lies, excuses, blatant lies to deceive, lies to protect yourself or
another, not telling the whole truth)
 In what ways can we lie? (e.g. – body language, costume, words, symbols etc)
 What does lying look like, feel like?
 What does honesty look like, feel like?
 When we think it is better to lie? (e.g. – receiving a gift you do not like, lying to a liar or an enemy)
 What kinds of acts are dishonest? (e.g. – lying, stealing, cheating, withholding information)

3. If there are conflicting beliefs about anything note these to the side of the board, in the structure of a
question. These can be addressed throughout the unit of work, or discussed after brainstorming. What the
children know, and what they don’t know needs to be noted for teaching purposes.

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Lesson 3-4: Honest Reflections

The following lesson idea was taken from Rowan et al (2007) Teaching Values.

1. Explain to the students that to help them better understand the impacts of lying that they are going to
consider how they value honesty and trust. These values are very important in establishing quality
relationships not only among family and friends but also among peers, sporting teams and school
associates.

2. Organise a class discussion about ‘honesty and trustworthiness’. Ask the students what these values
mean to them in the relationships that they share with other people in their lives. These relationships can
include their friends, family, teachers, peers, sporting clubs and other community or social groups.

3. To help the students in their later activity it will help if you note some of their ideas on the board.

4. After the discussion, ask the students to draw a picture that shows that trustworthiness and honesty they
have just talked about. Encourage them to picture a moment that they have required trust/honesty from
someone, or have needed to be display those values for other people.

5. Students use also need to use words on their pictures to help portray their ideas on the topic, these can
be sourced from the previous class discussion.

6. These illustrations are then hung in the class or working area as a display of their values.

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Lesson 5: The knife.
1. Read to the students Phillip Cam’s The Knife (1993a pp.42-28)5

2. Explain to the students that we will be having a discussion that relates to that text, and that students
should be prepared to have reasons for their answers.

Discussion plan: Telling the Truth Cam (1993 p.41)6


This discussion plan has been slightly adapted to suit this lesson.

1. Was it better that Carl told the truth?


2. Are there times when it is better to not tell the truth?
3. Are there times when it is important to tell the truth?
4. Should your parents always tell the truth to you? Why/Why not?
5. Should you always tell the truth to your parents? Why/Why not?
6. Should the teacher always tell the truth to the students?
7. Should you always tell the truth to your friends?
8. Should you ever lie to save yourself?
9. Is there a difference between lying and failing to tell the truth?
10. Is there a difference between telling the truth and telling the whole truth?
11. What would the world be like if know one cared about telling the truth?
12. What would the world be like if know one ever told the truth?
13. Would you like to live in a world where no one told the truth?

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 Appendix 4 – Story The Knife (Cam 1993a)
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 Appendix 5 – Discussion Plan – Telling the Truth (Cam 1993)
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Lesson 6-7: What is a lie?

Role plays

1. Talk to the class about lies. Explain how there are many different types of lies and these all effect people
in different ways. Explain how the type of lie can indicate how severe the lie is.

2. Use an example to demonstrate your point. E.g. lying to a friend about their new hair cut would not be
considered as serious as lying to a friend about a death in the family.

3. Explain to the students that they are going to learn about a particular kind of lie and demonstrate what
that lie may look, feel and sound like through group role plays.

4. Break the students into groups and assign a form of lying for them to role play. Allow time for recitals
and come back as a group to watch the performances.

5. Take note of student participation. Students that are watching will need to guess what type of lie it is
using the ‘Many forms of lies’ worksheet7

Lesson 8: Assessing what we know

1. Students will be expected to complete the following worksheet using what they have done in the
previous lessons to help them. It will help the teacher assess attitudes and also the content that the
students have so far achieved.

2. When everyone has completed the worksheet discuss answers as a class. Students will need to give
reasons for their answers.

3. When you have discussed each one go through the list as a class and determine what kind of lie each
example is.

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 Appendix 2 – Types of lies.
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Adapted from Phillip Cam’s The Knife – Accompanying Exercises. (1993 p.39)8

Exercise: LYING
Are the following examples of lying? Be ready to give reasons for your answer. If you finish, think
about the type of lie it may have been (if it was one). Please use your previous worksheet of ‘The
many forms of Lying’ to help you with this activity.
Extension: .
Lying Not Lying Unsure Type of Lie
1. You tell your mother that you didn’t any of
the ice cream, when in fact you did.

2. Someone asks you to come and play with


them; you make up an excuse so that you
do not have to.

3. You tell a joke to your friends.

4. A judge in court asks you if you are friends


with the accused, which you reply no,
when he has been a friend for years.

5. Someone asks you what the weather is


tomorrow, you don’t know, so you just
guess.

6. You get given a present that you do not


like, but tell the giver that you love it
anyway.

7. You are sure that the bus comes at


10o’clock. You tell your sister that is when
to catch it, but really it comes at 9.45am.

8. You tell someone that the ice cream man


is outside just to make them go away.

9. You tell a bully that you don’t like them


bullying you.

8
 Appendix 3 – Cam (1993, p.39)
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Lesson 9: Importance of Honesty: Is honesty the best policy?

1. Talk to you students about honesty. Ask them if there have been times when they though that telling the
truth would not have desirable.

2. Admit that sometimes it is important to consider that telling the raw truth can be hurtful to others.

For example:
If I don’t like my friend’s new haircut would it be unkind for me to tell them that I hate it?
Why? Why not?

If so, what are some ways that we can get around this without being dishonest or hurtful?

3. Explain to the students that this is a chance for everyone to work through some strategies together and
share each others thinking.

4. Get an example of this kind of situation from the students and make a list of pro’s and con’s for telling
the truth and lying.

5. Cross off ideas that may be cancelled out by other ideas as you go.

6. Consider all the options and what the consequences would be to those actions.

7. Once this activity is completed, talk about the strategy that you used to determine this outcome.

Teaching example next page.

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Teaching example:

If I don’t like my friend’s new haircut would it be unkind for me to tell them that I hate it? Why? Why not?
Tell a Lie Tell the truth
PRO CON PRO CON
Friend doesn’t get hurt. I lied. I am being honest. Friend’s feelings get hurt.
Doesn’t find out what I They find out, then: I am being true to my They feel self conscious.
really think.  I look like a bad friend. They may think I do not
Still thinks I like them person. Find a good thing to like them.
just as much.  Ruins a friendship. say about the hair cut, I feel guilty I may have
Boosts their confidence.  They think that I hurt their feelings.
rather than notice the
Makes me look like a don’t like them. I have to put thought into
bad.
kinder person. what I say and how I say
 They no longer trust
I feel good about being
I avoid an uncomfortable it.
me.
honest.
moment in the short term.
 Makes them feel
I avoid an uncomfortable
insecure.
moment in the long term.
I risk my friendship so I
do not feel bad.
Strategies:
In this situation, consider:
The truth:
 The positives: Are there some positives that you can compliment them on?
 The negatives: Is there a way that you can suggest improvements for next time, while still considering
that persons feelings.
 How it feels to be honest with someone.
The lie:
 How would you feel if someone said something negative to you in an unconstructive way?
 How is this lie going to affect you relationship with this person, in the short term as well as the long
run?
 How lying make you feel as a person.

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Lesson 10: What makes a lie a lie?

1. Get the students together as a whole group and talk to them about how lying can take many different
forms, as previously seen.

2. Explain to the students that to know whether someone is being dishonest or lying we have to consider
what actually makes a lie, a lie.

3. Involve the students in the thinking by the following community of inquiry. Make the children aware
that they will need to be prepared to give reasons for their answers.

Has anyone here thought that they have been lied to?
What would it feel if you were lied to?
How would you feel about that person after you found out that they had lied to you?
Would you feel different if they hadn’t meant to tell you an untruth?
What if they were telling you a joke? Do you think that they are still lying?
If the contents of the joke are true, is it still a joke?
If the contents of that joke are untrue is that a lie?
If I can tell untruths in a joke and it not be a lie, can I tell you a lie in a joking way so it is not a
lie?
Can I tell stories about something make believe and it is not a lie?
If I tell a story that I know you think is true is that a lie?
If I tell a story that I think you know isn’t true is that lying?
Is it possible for me to tell you something that is untrue and it not be a lie?
What makes that different from me telling you a lie?
What makes a lie, a lie?

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Lesson 11: Weighing Up the Consequences: Augustine’s Taxonomy of Lies.

1. With the students in a whole group talk to them about how lying can have consequences.

2. Explain to the students that a man a very long time ago called Augustine who came up with the
taxonomy of lies (Imre, Mooney & Clarke, 2008 p.75), that helped us categorize the lies we tell and
listed them in order of how severe they are.
For example a lie that harms someone else and helps no one is more serious than a lie harms no one and
helps someone.

Augustine’s Taxonomy of Lies

• Lies in religious teaching.

• Lies that harm others and help no one.

• Lies that harm others and help someone.

• Lies told for the pleasure of lying.

• Lies told to "please others in smooth discourse."

• Lies that harm no one and that help someone.

• Lies that harm no one and that save someone's life.

• Lies that harm no one and that save someone's "purity."

Augustine believed that "jocose lies" (jokes) are not, in fact, lies. (Imre et al, 2008 p.75)

3. Ask the students to think back to the honesty posters that they made and how they valued that in their
relationships. Their task is to pick one of the elements in Augustine’s taxonomy and consider the
following on the worksheet “How Lies Affect Me and My Relationships”9:

9
 Appendix 6 – How Lies Affect Me and My Relationships ­ Worksheet
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Lesson 12: Looking Back

Reflection of the units work with the students.

1. Show a list of the guiding questions and address each one through class discussion singularly. Ask the
students if they think they answered that question and how.
- Talk to the students about how these goals were reached.
- Through working together
- Building on each others ideas
- Thinking about the topic on a personal level.

2. Evaluate with the students what they have learnt and then ask for feedback on usefulness of the topic.
- Was the information interesting?
- Is it something that they can use at home/school?
- Have they learnt anything?
- How could it be improved?

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Reference

Bok, S 1978, Lying: The Moral Choice in Public and Private Life, The Harvester Press Limited, Hassocks,
Sussex.

Cam, P 1993, Thinking Stories: Philosophical Inquiry for Children, Exercises from Teacher Resource/Activity
Book – The Knife, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney.

Cam, P 1993a, The Knife, Thinking Stories: Philosophical Inquiry for Children, Hale & Iremonger, Sydney.

Imre, R Mooney, B Clarke, C 2008, Responding to Terrorism, Ashgate Publishing, Hampshire.

Mahon, JE 2006, Lying, 2nd ed, vol. 5, Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, Farmington Hills, Michigan.

Nettler, G 1982, Lying, Cheating, Stealing: Criminal Careers, vol. 3, Criminal Justice Studies, Anderson
Publishing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio.

Rowan, L Gauld, J Cole-Adams, J Connolly, A 2007, Teaching Values, Primary English Teaching Association,
Newton, New South Wales.

Bibliography

Bronson, P 2008, Learning to Lie, New York Magazine, New York.

Cam, P 1995, ‘Building a Community of Inquiry’ in Thinking Together, Philosophy in the classroom, Primary
English Teaching Association and Hale & Iremonger, Sydney, pp. 34-54.

Lowell, P. n.d., What the Heck Were You Thinking? Adoption, Foster Care and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy,
Adoption Books, viewed 10 November, 2008, <http://www.comeunity.com/adoption/special_needs/post-
adoption-therapy.html>

Wagland, P & Bussey, K 2005, Factors that Facilitate and Undermine Children’s Beliefs about Truth Telling,
Law and Human Behavior, Vol. 29, No. 6, pp.639-655.

Carroll, A Hemingway, F Bower, J Ashman, A Haughton, S & Durkin, K 2006, Impulsivity in Juvenile
Delinquency: Difference Among Early-Onset, Late-Onset, and Non-Offenders, Journal of Youth and
Adolescence, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 519–529.

 
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Appendices

Appendix 1: The Cherry Tree by M.L. Weems.


Appendix 2: Types of Lies.
Appendix 3: Cam (1993, p.39) Exercise: Stealing.
Appendix 4: Cam (1993a, pp.42-49) The Knife.
Appendix 5: Cam (1993, p.42) Discussion Plan: Telling the truth.
Appendix 6: Worksheet - How lies affect me and my relationships.
Appendix 7: Community of Enquiry Report Form
Appendix 8: Student Individual Report Form.

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Appendix 1 : The Cherry Tree by M.L. Weems

Sourced from:

Legends and Short Stories, 2008, Apples for the Teacher, viewed 11 November, 2008,
<http://www.apples4theteacher.com/holidays/presidents-day/george-washington/short-stories/the-cherry-
tree.html>

The Cherry Tree


by M. L. Weems

When George was about six years old, he was made the wealthy
master of a hatchet of which, like most little boys, he was
extremely fond. He went about chopping everything that came his
way.
One day, as he wandered about the garden amusing himself by hacking his mother's pea
sticks, he found a beautiful, young English cherry tree, of which his father was most
proud. He tried the edge of his hatchet on the trunk of the tree and barked it so that it
died.
Some time after this, his father discovered what had happened to his favorite tree. He
came into the house in great anger, and demanded to know who the mischievous person
was who had cut away the bark. Nobody could tell him anything about it.
Just then George, with his little hatchet, came into the room.
"George,'' said his father, "do you know who has killed my beautiful little cherry tree
yonder in the garden? I would not have taken five guineas for it!''
This was a hard question to answer, and for a moment George was staggered by it, but
quickly recovering himself he cried:
"I cannot tell a lie, father, you know I cannot tell a lie! I did cut it with my little hatchet.''
The anger died out of his father's face, and taking the boy tenderly in his arms, he said:
"My son, that you should not be afraid to tell the truth is more to me than a thousand
trees! Yes - though they were blossomed with silver and had leaves of the purest gold!''

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Appendix 2: The Many Forms of Lying

Read the definitions10 and complete at least two examples of each.

Omission:
These lies occur when someone holds back an important fact that leaves someone else with the
wrong idea. This type of lying also includes when we don’t correct people on misunderstandings. This
sounds tricky because a person is not telling a lie, but instead is withholding the
truth, or parts of, so the story is interpreted differently.

Example:
1. Charlie tells the teacher that he has been at the toilet, which is true, but fails to
tell the teacher that he also went out to the playground and played on the swings.

2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..…….
……………………………………………………………………………………………

Bold-Faced Lie:
A bold-faced lie is the kind that is obviously a lie. It is clear to the liar and to the receivers that it is a
lie. They are often told when someone is more afraid of what the punishment is for what the lie is
about, then being caught for the lie itself.

Example:
1. Mother asks Sally if she ate any of the chocolate pudding. Sally replies “No” as
she wipes away chocolate mixture from her face.
.

2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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 Definitions sourced from Mohan (2006) and Bok (1978)
22
3.………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Fabrication:
A fabrication is when someone says something without knowing whether or not it is actually true.
Fabrications can seem true and possible but is not based on any fact, and is therefore a lie. .

Example:
1. Shannon tells Alli that the bins have been put out for collection, even though she
did not do it nor see anyone else do it.

2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

White Lie:
White lies are often used to avoid offending someone and to avoid the upset
that may be caused by telling the truth. These lies are generally harmless
and told for no particular reason. A white lie often benefits not only the liar
but sometimes the hearer as well.

Example:
1. Shirley has just got a new dress for the party; her boyfriend tells her that
her outfit looks excellent even though he may actually think it looks ordinary.

2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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3.………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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Perjury:
Lies of perjury occur when someone makes false statements under
oath in a court of law, or in a sworn statement. Perjury is against the
law because that person has sworn to tell the truth, the whole truth
and nothing but the truth. It is important for people to tell the truth in
court so people get a fair trial.

Example:
1. A man who robbed a supermarket says he was at home all night
the day of the robbery. He say’s this in a sworn statement.

2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

Contextual Lies:
Contextual lies occur when a person speaks a truth in a way that makes the hearer believe that it is
an untruth. This can be done by adding tone to phrase or speaking it out of context. Contextual lies
are often spoken with sarcasm.

Example:
1. Johnny laughs and says “Yeah, I think your pretty” sarcastically to
Sarah. Sarah thinks Johnny is just teasing her, when really he does think
she is very pretty.

2……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
………………….………………………………………………………………………………………………….

3.………………...
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………….

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Appendix 3: Cam (1993, p.39) – Stealing Exercise

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Appendix 4: Cam (1993a, pp.42-49) The Knife

The following is the first two pages from Cam’s (1993a, pp.42-49) The Knife.

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Appendix 5: Cam (1993, p.42) – Discussion Plan

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Appendix 6: Worksheet – How lies effect relationships.
How Lies affect me and my relationships

My chosen element from Augustine’s Taxonomy of Lies:……………………………………

………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
………………....................................................................................................................
My example of this is:……………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
This benefits:………..…………………………………………………………………………………………….
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
This hurts who:……………………………………………………………………………………………………
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
This hurts them because:………………………………………………………………………………………..
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...
How would this affect my relationship with that person?.........................................................................
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Severity:
If someone did this to me I would feel:

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And that emotion is:
……………………………………………………………………………………………...

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Appendix 7:
Community of Enquiry Report Form
Adapted from Society & Environment ‘Book of Readings’ 2008

Discussion Topic_________________________________________________________
Date ____/____/____

Contributes Considers
Actively Shows Supports
Student Names Questions ideas with alternative
listens respect own ideas
Confidence. ideas

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