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7.

RECOMMENDATIONS
The structural cracks observed in four columns (A2, A3, D2, D3) shall
be retrofitted immediately so as to prevent any serious damage to the
structure. Columns should be retrofitted for both compressive failure
and shearing failure. To prevent compressive failure micro-concrete
Jacketing is chosen. And for shearing failure fiber wrapping is
recommended.

7.1
MICRO-CONCRETE JACKET DESIGN (AS PER IS
15988:2013)
Height of Column
=
8.65 m,
Width (b)
= 1500 mm,
Depth (D)
= 1700 mm,
Ultimate Axial Load (P) = 42226.23 kN,
Ultimate Moment (M) = 13450.95 kN.m,
Concrete grade
: M25
d= effective cover
= 50 mm.,
Reinforcement Provided: 62-32 = 49863.4 mm2
Pu= 0.4 x fck x Ac + 0.67 x fy x Ast
Pu = 0.4 x 25 x [(1700*1500) - (49863.4)] + 0.67 x 415 x 49863.4
Pu = 38865.88 kN < 42226.23 kN not safe
Load deficiency = 42226.23-38865.88 = 3360.35 kN

Reinforcement required
d/D = 50 / 1700 = 0.0294
P/ b*D = 3360.35 x 103 / (1500 x 1700) = 1.3177 MPa
M/ b*D2 = 13450.95 x 106 / (1500 x 17002) = 3.0103 MPa
Using the P M interaction curve for rectangular section
% p / fck
= 0.012
% p = 0.012 x 25= 0.3%
Area of steel required = 0.3 % x 1500 x 1700 = 7650.0 mm2
But as per IS 15988:2013,
Area of steel for jacketing = (4/3) Ast
= (4/3) x 7650 = 10200 mm2
But minimum steel for jacketing section= 0.8% of C/S Area of jacketed section
= 5440 mm2 (< 10200 mm2)

Hence provide 22-25 mm for jacketing section.


Thickness of the jacket section to be provided is 125 mm.
Revised jacketed section of the column will be 1725 mm wide x 1925 mm deep.

Design of lateral Ties


Diameter of bar = of of largest longitudinal bar
= x 32 = 8 mm
1. Least lateral dimension = 1500 mm
Spacing of bar <

2. 300mm
3. 16 x of smallest longitudinal reinforcement = 16x32
= 512 mm

Provide 8 mm @300mm c/c.

7.2
tf=

FIBER

WRAP

DESIGN

V f sin
2 d Ef f

where,
tf = thickness of fiber wrap;
Vf = shear to be carried by fiber wrap;
Ef = elastic modulus of fiber wrap;
f = yield strain of fiber wrap;
Vf= 2*(Vreq-Vconcrete) = 5500kN
Ef = 242 GPa (Carbon fiber wrap 600gsm)
= 76 GPa (Glass fiber wrap 900gsm)

f = 0.0155 (Carbon fiber wrap 600gsm)


= 0.028 (Glass fiber wrap 900gsm)
d = 1700 mm
= 45o

tf = 0.3049 mm (1 layer CFRP = 0.331 mm)


= 0.5375 mm (1 layer GFRP = 0.363 mm)

Provide either 1 layer of Carbon fiber wrap (600 gsm) or 2 layers of Glass
fiber wrap (900 gsm). Carbon fiber is chosen based on cost of retrofitting and
working temperature (as temperature is very high inside building during
daytime).
Following steps shall be exercised for retrofitting:
i.
ii.

iii.
iv.

v.
vi.
vii.
viii.

First, groove cutting is done and then epoxy injected to ensure bonding
the parts of columns.
After the epoxy dries column surface should be made rough by
chipping off the surface of column so that the RC jacket can bond
properly with old concrete.
Then, shear connectors are drilled for stirrup fastening and main steel
is rebarred.
Stirrups and main steel are placed and fastened to the connectors. At
slab column junction reinforcement is placed by drilling hole into the
slab. Since it is impractical for jacketing to be done from foundation
level, RC jacketing is done from ground level.
Then shuttering is placed and micro-concrete is poured. Columns are
cured for at least 7 days thereafter.
After the jacket has gained its full strength corners of columns are
rounded to ensure better efficiency of fiber wrap.
Then, two layers of epoxy are applied (for priming and bonding
purposes) and fiber sheet is wrapped around the column.
A layer of epoxy is applied over fiber wrap to ensure epoxy
impregnates deep enough.

FIG. 3 Installation of Stirrups, Main steel and Shuttering


FIG. FIG.
1 Chipping
4 Specifications of Fiber wrap
FIG. 2 Steel Connectors

7.3

MATERIAL SPECIFICATIONS

Micro-Concrete
Compressive Strength:
After
After
After
After

1 day: 25 MPa
3 days: 35 MPa
7 days: 45 MPa
28 days: 65 MPa

Tensile strength = 2.5 MPa (after 7 days);


Water/Powder ratio = 0.14-0.16;
Curing period: at least 7 days;
Wet density: 2000 kg/m3;
Mixing time: 5 min;
Workable for 20 minutes after mixing at +30C;
Benefits:

# High early and final compressive strength;


# Placement without any vibration;
# Easy to mix and apply, high flow characteristic;
# No chloride content hence prevents reinforcement
corrosion;
# Low density and hence add less weight on structure.

Carbon Fiber sheet


Fabric width = 500 mm;
Carbon fiber content = 600 gsm;
Fabric thickness = 0.331 mm;
Fiber density = 1.82 g/cm3;
Elastic Modulus = 242 GPa;
Yield strain = 1.55%
Benefits:
# Low density for minimal additional weight;
# Improving service life and durability;
# Structural upgrading to comply with current safety
standards;
# Increasing the strength and ductility of columns;
# Increasing resistance to seismic movement.

Epoxy Resin
Very soft brushable paste consisting of two parts (Resin and

hardener);
Density of mixed resin = 1.31kg/L (at 23o C);
Application temperature: +10C min. / +35C max.
Viscosity = 6 mPa (at 23o C);
Service temperature = -45o C to 50o C;
Resin/Hardener ratio = 4:1;
Mixing time = 3 min;
Minimum Overcoat time = 6 hours (at 35o C);
Cure time: 2 days (at 35o C);