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The procedures and limitations for the design of structures shall be determined by the following factors.

Minimum number of stories recommended to be provided with at least 3 approved recording accelerographs.
Maintenance and service of accelerographs shall be provided by the___.
Who shall be responsible for keeping the actual live load below the allowable limits and shall be liable for
any failure on the structure due to overloading.
The period of continuous application of a given load or the aggregate of periods of intermittent application of
the same load.

Zoning, site characteristics

Occupancy, configuring
structural system, and
Occupant of the building
Load duration

Minimum area in square meters a member supports which the design live load may bereduced.

14 sqm.

Minimum height of any wall requiring structural design to resist loads onto which they are subjected.

1.50 mts.

Maximum deflection of a brittle finished wall subjected to a load of 250 Pascal applied perpendicular to said

1/240 of wall span

Maximum deflection of a flexible finished wall subjected to a load of 250 Pascal applied perpendicular to said

1/120 of wall span

Maximum floor area for a low-cost housing unit.

The level at which the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or the level at
which the structure, as a dynamic vibrator, is supported.

60 sqm.

A member or an element provided to transfer lateral forces from a portion of a structure to vertical elements
of the lateral force resisting system.


A horizontal or nearly horizontal system acting to transmit lateral forces to the vertical resisting elements, it
includes horizontal bracing system.


The total designed lateral force or shear at the base of a structure.

An element at edge of opening or at perimeters of shear walls or diaphragm.
An essentially vertical truss system of the concentric or eccentric type which is provided to resist lateral
An essentially complete space frame which provides supports for gravity loads.
A combination of a Special or Intermediate Moment Resisting Space Frame and Shear Walls or Braced
That form of braced frame where at least one end of each brace intersects a beam at a point away from the
column girder joint.
The entire assemblage at the intersection of the members.
The horizontal member in a frame system, a beam.

Base Shear, V
Boundary Element
Braced Frame
Building Frame System
Dual System
Eccentric Braced Frame
(EBF )

An element of a diaphragm parallel to the applied load which collects and transfers diaphragm shear to
vertical resisting elements or distributes loads within the diaphragm. Such members may take axial tension
or compression.

Diaphragm Strut

The boundary element of a diaphragm or a shear wall which is assumed to take axial stresses analogous to
the flanges of a beam

Diaphragm Chord

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Those structures which are necessary for emergency post-earthquake operations.

That part of the structural system assigned to resist lateral forces.
Moment resisting space frame not meeting special detailing requirements for ductile behavior.
The displacement of one level relative to the level above or below.

Essential facilities
Lateral Force Resisting
Ordinary Moment Resisting
Space Frame
Story Drift

The usable capacity of a structure or its members to resist loads within the deformation limits prescribed in
this document.


The lower rigid portion of a structure having a vertical combination of structural system.


Horizontal truss system that serves the same function as a diaphragm.

An assemblage of framing members designed to support gravity loads and resist lateral forces.
A structural system without complete vertical load carrying space frame. This system provide support for
gravity loads. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames.
A structural system with essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Resistance to
lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames.
A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Moment
resisting space frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of members.
Is one in which the story strength is less than 80% of that of the story above.
An elastic or inelastic dynamic analysis in which a mathematical model of the structure is subjected to a
ground motion time history. The structure's time-dependant dynamic response to these motion is obtained
through numerical integration of its equations of motions.
The effects on the structure due to earthquake motions acting in directions other than
The secondary effect on shears and moments of frame members induced by the vertical loads acting on the
laterally displaced building frame.
Material other than water, aggregate, or hydraulic cement, used as an ingredient of concrete and added to
concrete before or during its mixing to modify its properties.
Concrete that does not conform to definition of reinforced concrete.
Upright compression member with a ratio of unsupported height to average least lateral dimension of less
than three.

Horizontal Bracing System

Bearing Wall System
Building Frame System
Moment Resisting Frame
Weak Story
Time History Analysis
Orthogonal Effect
P-delta Effect
Plain Concrete

Ratio of normal stress to corresponding strain for tensile or compressive stresses below proportional limit of

Modulus of Elasticity

In prestressed concrete, temporary force exerted by device that introduces tension into prestressing tendons.

Jacking Force

Length of embedded reinforcement provided beyond a critical section.

Embedment Length

Stress remaining in prestressing tendons after all losses have occurred, excluding effects of dead load and
superimposed loads.

Effective Prestress

Length of embedded reinforcement required to develop the design strength of reinforcement at a critical
Friction resulting from bends or curves in the specified prestressing tendon profile.

Development Length
Curvature Friction

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Concrete containing lightweight aggregate.

prestressing tendon that is bonded to concrete either directly or through grouting.
High-Yield Strength Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Plate, Suitable for Welding.
True or False, Bar larger than 32mm in diameter shall not be bundled in beams.
Minimum concrete cover for a Prestressed concrete for beams and columns for primary reinforcements.
In a material under tension or compression, the absolute value of the ratio of transverse strain to the
corresponding longitudinal strain.
In column, the ratio of its effective length to its least radius of gyration.
A quantity which measures the resistance of the mass to being revolved about a line.
A type of concrete floor which has no beam.
The tendency for one part of a beam to move vertically with respect to an adjacent part.
A change in shape of a material when subjected to the action of force.
The maximum value of tension, compression, or shear respectively the material sustain without failure.
It means that by which a body develops internal resistance to 'stress'.

Structural Lightweight
Bonded Tendon
Structural Steel
40 mm
Poisson's Ratio
Slenderness Ratio
Flat Slab
Yielding Stress

The greatest stress which a material is capable of developing without permanent deformation remaining
upon the complete release of stress.

Allowable Stress

Intensity of force per unit area.

Loop of reinforcing bar or wire enclosing longitudinal reinforcement.
The measure of stiffness of a material.
The failure in a base when a heavily loaded column strikes a hole through it.
The deformation of a structural member as a result of loads acting on it.
Nominal thickness of of a timber.

Tie / Stirrup
Stiffness Ratio
Punching Shear
6 inches

The sum of forces in the othorgonal directions and the sum of all moments about any points are zero.
The complete records of tests conducted (slump, compression test, etc.) shall be preserved and made
available for inspection during the progress of construction and after completion of the project for a period of
not less than.
Wood board should have a thickness specification of.
The distance from the first to the last riser of a stair flight.
A high-speed rotary shaping had power tool used to make smooth cutting and curving on solid wood.
The major horizontal supporting member of the floor system.
Wood defects are: heart shake, cup shake, star shake, and___.
Dressed lumber is referred to ___.
The other kind of handsaw other than rip-cut saw.
It refers to the occupancy load which is either partially or fully in place or may not be present at all.
The distance between inflection points in the column when it breaks.


2 years
not less than 1"X4"
Portable Hand router
Smoothed or planed lumber
Cross-cut saw
Live load
Effective length

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The amount of space measured in cubic units.

In the formula e=PL/AE, E stands for___.
An expansion joint of adjacent parts of a structure to permit expected movements between them.
the total of all tread widths in a stair.
The force adhesion per unit area of contact between two bonded surfaces.
A structural member spanning from truss to truss or supporting a rafter.
Size of camber for a 25 meters steel truss.
A connector such as a welded strut, spiral bar, or short length of channel which resists horizontal shear
between elements.
The force per unit area of cross section which tends to produce shear.
Size of camber for a 25 meters steel truss.
The law that relates the linear relationship between stresses and strains

Modulus of Elasticity
Contraction joint
Total run
Bond Stress
Size of Dead Load
Shear Connector
Shear Stress / Shearing
Size of Dead Load
Hook's Law

Minimum spacing of Bolts in timber connectionn measured from center of bolts parallel for parallel to grain
loading is equal to ___.

4 X diameter of bolt

According to the provisions of the NSCP on timber connections and fastenings, the lodaed edge distance for
perpendicular to grain loading shall be at least ___.

4 X diameter of bolt

NSCP specifies spacing between rows of bolts for perpendicular to grain loading shall be at least ___ times
bolt diameter for L/d ratio of 2.


Minimum diameter of bolts to be used in timber connections and fastening in accordance with NSCP
Simple solid timber columns have slenderness ratio not exceeding ___.

12 mm

Nails or spikes for which the wire gauges or lengths not set forth in the NSCP specifications shall have a
required penetration of not less than ___.

11 diameters

Notches in sawn lumber bending members in accordance with the NSCP specifications shall not exceed.

1/6 depth of member

Notches in sawn lumber shall not be located in the ___.

Notches in the top and bottom of joists shall not exceed ___.

Middle Third Span

1/4 the depth

Allowable stresses for tension in structural steel in terms of gross area.

0.60 of specified min. yield


Allowable tensile stress of structural steel based on effective area.

0.50 of specified minimum

tensile strength

Allowable stress for tension on pin connected members based on net area.
Allowable shear stress on structural steel on the cross sectional area effective in resisting shear.
For structures carrying live loads which induce impact, the assumed live load shall be increased sufficiently
to provide for same, for supports of elevators the increase shall be.
The slenderness ratio of compression members shall not exceed ___.
The slenderness ratio main members in tension shall not exceed ___.

0.45 Fy
0.40 Fy

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Concrete cover for pipes, conduits, and fittings shall not be less than ___ for concrete exposed to earth or

40 mm

Concrete cover for pipes, conduits, and fittings shall not be less than ___ for concrete not exposed to earth
or weather.

20 mm

Curing of concrete (other than high-early strength) shall be maintained above 10C and in moist condition for
at least the first ___ days after placement.

If concrete in structure will dry under service conditions, cores shall be air-dried for ___ days before test and
shall be tested dry.

Curing for high-early strength concrete shall be maintained above 10C and in moist condition for at least
the ___ days after palcement.

The minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in layer shall be db (diameter of bar) but not less than ___.

25 mm

Standard hooks used in reinforced concrete beam shall mean.

180 bend + 4db extension

but not less than 65mm at
free end of bar

Standard hooks for stirrups and tie hooks 16mm bar and smaller.

90 bend + 6db extension

at free end

Standard hooks for stirrups and tie hooks 20-25mmbar.

90 bend + 12db extension

at free end

Allowable tolerance on minimum concrete cover for depths greater than 200mm
Allowable tolerance for longitudinal location of bends and ends of reinforcement.

12 mm
50 mm

Individual bars with a bundle terminated within the span of flexural members shall teminate at different points
with a stagger of at least ___.


Clear distance between pre-tensioning tendons at each end of member shall not be less than ___ for strands.


Clear distance between pre-tensioning tendons at each end of member shall not be less than ___ for wire.


Minimum concrete cover provided for reinforcement of cast in place against permanently exposed to earth or
weather using bars larger than 36mm.

75 mm

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