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through Media

Nachiketa Tiwari

Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur

LECTURE-13

WAVE PROPAGATION IN SOLIDS

Unlike 3-D solids, thin plates have surfaces which may be free

from constraints, thereby developing Poisson strains. Thus in

plates, longitudinal strains will produce lateral strains due to

Poisson contraction.

As a consequence, pure longitudinal waves can not exist in

thin plates and thus waves in one direction will generate

disturbances in other directions as well.

Hence, waves in thin isotropic plates are termed as quasilongitudinal.

For thin plates, deriving the wave equation for quasilongitudinal disturbances involves the same steps as that

needed for longitudinal waves in a 3-D solid, except the fact

that stress-strain relationship for plates is different.

It is known from elasticity theory that longitudinal stress and

longitudinal strain in a thin plate are related as:

Eq. 13.1

Eq. 13.2

homogenous plate and is expressed as:

Eq. 13.3

For long 1-D homogenous isotropic bars, the wave

propagation equation is very similar to that for a thin plate,

except for the fact that its development requires a different

stress-strain relationship, which is:

Using this relationship, we get 1-D wave equation for bar as:

Eq. 13.4

where,

Eq. 13.5

Unlike fluids, solids can resist shear deformation as well.

In case if fluids, shear stress are associated with flow

gradients, and then gradients are driven by viscous dissipative

effects. Thus, shear waves generated in fluids dissipate rapidly

and hence are not of much importance.

However, in solids, it is the shear modular G, which couples

shear stress to shear strain. Thus shear waves in solids do not

dissipate as rapidly as in case of fluids.

differential shear stress as shown in Fig. 13.1.

and

on its right face. Because of the

imbalance of their shear stresses, the material element

accelerates in y direction and this motion is governed by Eq.

13.6.

or

Eq. 13.6

Further, the application of shear stress on left and right faces

causes the material element to distort by angle r, and the

governing equation for it is:

or

Eq.13.7

Eq.13.8

or

Eq.13.9

where,

Eq.13.10

and this speed is smaller than that of quasi-longitudinal

waves.

Bars when subjected to torsional forces, exhibit torsional

waves.

Such torsional waves are essentially shear waves.

The governing equation for such waves is:

where,

ct=Speed of torsional shear wave

Ip=Polar moment of inertia per unit length of bars.

GJ=Torsional stiffness.

Eq. 13.11

Bending waves in bars (and plates) are of great practical

significance from an acoustical stand point.

This is so because bending waves in solids can generate

significant transverse displacements (w.r.t. propagation

direction of bending waves) and these transverse

displacements of significant amplitude can very effectively

disturb adjacent fluid to generate considerable sound levels.

Further, bending waves are associated with transverse

impedance which may be similar magnitude as that of sound

wave in adjacent fluid. This implies that the energy exchange

levels in solid and fluid media associated with bending waves

may be significant.

The bending wave equation for a bar can be written as:

Eq. 13.12

where,

E=Youngs modulus of material

I=Moment of inertia of bar at cross-section of interest

m=mass per unit length of bar

=Transverse displacement of bars at position x at its neutral

axis.

Unlike longitudinal waves, shear wave, and torsional wave in

solids, where the governing equation is a 2nd order PDE in x

and t, governing equation for bending waves for bars, Eq.

13.12 is a 4th order PDE in x, and 2nd order PDE in t.

bending waves, cb, is determined to be:

Eq. 13.13

Thus, unlike other waves discussed earlier, bending waves

propagation velocity depends on angular frequency of

excitation. Hence if a bar is excited in bending at several

frequencies, then all of these waves will disperse as they

propagate through the media.

Thus, bending waves are dispersive in nature.

Finally, the solution for bending waves excited by a simple

harmonic source, contains 4 terms. This is in contrast with the

solution for longitudinal shear or torsional waves.

and ve directions at a speed of

.

their amplitudes decay with distance. The velocity of the

decaying fields is imaginary.

Further these decaying fields do not transport energy and

hence do not qualify as waves. However, in literature, they

are referred as evanescent waves or alternatively as near

fields.

References

Acoustics, Beranek Leo L., Acoustical Society of

America, 1993.

Introduction to Acoustics, Finch Robert D., Pearson

Prentice Hall, 2005.

Fundamentals of Acoustics, Kinsler Lawrence E., et al,

4th ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

Sound and Structural Vibration, Fahy Frank, et al, 2nd

ed., Academic Press 2007.

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