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Augustine’s School
Iba, Zambales
S.Y. 2009-2010

A Thesis Paper entitled “Biogas as an effective substitute of fuel in Iba”

In Partial Fulfillment for the requirements in Social Studies IV

Presented by:
Ma. Stephany Pulga
Eva Marie Nicole Ecalnir
Reena Jane Dacayo
Rose Anne Castillo
Anne Charmaine Cabal

Presented to:
Mr. Johnny G. Galla


Biofuel is produced either directly from plants or indirectly from industrial,

commercial, domestic, or agricultural wastes. In this thesis entitled, “Biogas

as an effective substitute of fuel in Iba”, will cover its effectivity when it’s

going to use in Iba, Zambales. Through surveys to the drivers, consumers,

and sellers of the gas these will help to accept of using Biogas in Iba as a

substitute in any fuel for vehicles.


I. Chapter I: Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study 5

1.2 Statement of the Problem

1.3 Significance of the Study 5

1.4 Scope and Delimitation 6

1.5 Theoretical Framework 6

1.6 Conceptual Paradigm 6

1.7 Definition of Terms 7

II. Chapter 2: Review of Related Literature

III. Chapter 3: Formulation of Hypothesis


IV. Chapter 4: Methodology

4.1 Procedure 19

4.4 Sampling 19

4.3 Data Gathering 19

4.4 Presentation and Analysis of Data


V. Chapter 5: Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data 20

VI. Chapter 6: Summary of Findings, Conclusion, and Recommendation

6.1 Summary of Findings


6.2 Conclusion 22

6.3 Recommendation 22

6.4 Bibliography 23

Chapter I


1.1 Background of the Study

Biogas refers to a gas produced by the biological breakdown of organic

matter in the absence of oxygen. Nowadays, many people prefer biogas

especially for vehicles. It is one of the best discoveries for environmental

advocacy and can be a great help to our economy.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

This thesis aims to answer the following questions:

1) Is biogas applicable to any kind of engine?

2) What types of vehicle is compatible with biogas?

3) How can biogas help the people in Iba?

1.3 Significance of the Study

This study aims to:

a) To know if biogas is applicable in different types of vehicles here in Iba.

b) To determine if biogas can help in the life of people here in Iba.

c) To provide the people the knowledge to become aware and to have an

eco-friendly inventions.

1.4 Scope and Delimitation

This thesis focuses mainly on what type of vehicles and engines are

compatible with biogas. The researchers will only prove that biogas is an

effective substitute for fuel.

The researchers conduct the study through questionnaire to distributed

only in selected consumers like motorcycle drivers, family drivers,

vendors, and students using motorcycles.

1.5 Theoretical Framework

Biogas as an effective substitute of fuel is the researchers’ chosen

topic. This study aims to know what will be the impact for the people of

Iba if biogas can be implemented here, if it is applicable for any type of

vehicle here and how they manage it. So they come up with this thesis.

Through this they will be able to know the impact of biogas as a substitute

of fuel here in Iba.

This study will widen our knowledge in the status of our economy

especially in Iba. This thesis will serve as an inspiration to discover new

things for the Filipino people especially, the drivers who will benefit from


1.6 Conceptual Paradigm

The following are the procedures to be done by the researchers in order
for the researchers to accomplish the objectives of the study.
Observe the researchers will The
consumers now analyze researchers
and sellers their research will now
who are using using analyze and
vehicle fuels questionnaires interpret the
like diesel, to be given to gathered
unleaded, etc. the selected data.
1.7 Definition of Terms

1) Absorption – the uptake of liquid into the fibers of a substance

2) Adsorption – the adhesion of a thin layer of molecules of some

substances to the surface of a solid or liquid

3) Biofuel - any solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel produced from organic

(once-living) matter.

4) Biogas – a type of biofuel made up of organic materials.

5) Butane – a colorless, highly flammable gas that has two different

molecular structure isomers

6) Efficient – well organized

7) Esters – an organic, often fragrant compound formed in a reaction

between an acid and alcohol with the elimination of water

8) Ethane – colorless, odorless gas that is highly flammable

9) Fermentation – chemical changes in organic substances produced

by the action of enzymes

10) Isomers – each of two or more molecules have the same

number of atoms but have different chemical structures and

therefore different properties

11) Natural Gas - a flammable gaseous mixture consisting mostly

of hydrocarbons

12) Propane – a flammable colorless hydrocarbon gas

Chapter II

Review of Related Literature

2.1 Natural Gas

Natural Gas is a flammable gaseous mixture consisting mostly of

hydrocarbons (chemical compounds that contain carbon and hydrogen).

Along with coal and petroleum, natural gas is a fossil fuel. Natural gas may

contain as much as 85 percent methane (CH4) and about 10 percent ethane

(C2H6), and also contains smaller amounts of propane (C3H8), butane

(C4H10), pentane (C5H12), and other alkanes. Natural gas, which is usually

found together with petroleum deposits in Earth’s crust, is extracted and

refined into fuels that provide approximately 25 percent of the world energy


It is used both as a fuel and as a raw material in the manufacture of

chemicals. As a residential fuel, it is burned in furnaces, water heaters,

cooking stoves, and clothes dryers. As an industrial fuel, it is burned in kilns

(special furnaces) used to bake bricks and ceramic tiles and to produce

cement. Natural gas is also used for generating steam in water boilers and as

a source of heat in glass making and food processing.

Natural gas serves as a raw material for creating petrochemicals,

which are chemicals that are specifically derived from natural gas or

petroleum. In turn, petrochemicals are used as a base product for making

fertilizers, detergents, pharmaceuticals, plastics, and numerous other goods.

Once natural gas has been extracted from the ground, it is usually

transported by pipeline to a refinery, where it is processed.

Natural gas is processed in an extraction unit to remove the

nonhydrocarbon compounds, especially hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide.

Two processes used for this purpose are absorption and adsorption.

Absorption uses a liquid that absorbs the natural gas and impurities

and disperses them throughout its volume. In a process known as

chemisorption, the impurities react with the absorbing liquid. The natural gas

can then be stripped from the absorbent, while the impurities remain in the

liquid. Common absorbing liquids are water, aqueous amine solutions, and

sodium carbonate.

Adsorption is a process that concentrates the natural gas on the

surface of a solid or a liquid in order to remove impurities. A substance

commonly used for this purpose is carbon, which has a large surface area

per unit mass. For example, sulfur compounds in natural gas collect on a

carbon adsorbing surface. The sulfur compounds are then combined with

hydrogen and oxygen to form sulfuric acid (H2SO4), which can be removed.

After the impurities have been removed in the extraction unit, the

natural gas is transported to a processing plant, where compounds such as

ethane, propane, butane, and other substances are separated and removed

for different uses. For example, ethane, propane, and butane are used

extensively in the petrochemical industry.

2.2 Biofuel

Any solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel produced from organic (once-living)

matter. Biofuel is produced either directly from plants or indirectly from

industrial, commercial, domestic, or agricultural wastes. There are three

main methods for the development of biofuels: the burning of dry organic

wastes (such as household refuse, industrial and agricultural wastes, straw,

wood, and peat); the fermentation of wet wastes (such as animal dung) in

the absence of oxygen to produce biogas (containing up to 60 percent

methane), or the fermentation of sugarcane or corn to produce alcohol and

esters; and energy forestry (producing fast-growing wood for fuel).

Fermentation produces two main types of biofuels: alcohols and esters.

These could theoretically be used in place of fossil fuels but, because major

alterations to engines would be required, biofuels are usually mixed with

fossil fuels. The European Union will require 5.75 percent ethanol, derived

from wheat, beet, potatoes, or corn, to be added to fossil fuels by 2010 and

20 percent by 2020. About a quarter of Brazil's transportation fuel in 2002

was ethanol.


Table I shows the chemical properties of biogas and other kinds of biofuel.


Table II shows the physical properties of biogas that differ it from

natural gas.

2.3 Local Study

Economics of using Biogas


Biogas technology is a complete system in itself with its set objectives (cost

effective production of energy and soil nutrients), factors such as microbes,

plant design, construction materials, climate, chemical and microbial

characteristics of inputs, and the inter-relationships among these factors.

Brief discussions on each of these factors or subsystems are presented in

this section.

Economic. An ideal plant should be as low-cost as possible (in terms of the

production cost per unit volume of biogas) both to the user as well as to the

society. At present, with subsidy, the cost of a plant to the society is higher

than to an individual user.

Simple design. The design should be simple not only for construction but

also for operation and maintenance. This is an important consideration

especially in areas where the rate of literacy is low and the availability of

skilled human resource is scarce.

Utilization of local materials. Use of easily available local materials

should be emphasized in the construction of a biogas plant. This is an

important consideration, particularly in areas where transportation system is

not yet adequately developed.

Durability. Construction of a biogas plant requires certain degree of

specialized skill which may not be easily available. A plant of short life could

also be cost effective but such a plant may not be reconstructed once its

useful life ends. Especially in situation where people are yet to be motivated
for the adoption of this technology and the necessary skill and materials are

not readily available, it is necessary to construct plants that are more

durable although this may require a higher initial investment.

Suitable for the type of inputs. The design should be compatible with the

type of inputs that would be used. If plant materials such as rice straw,

maize straw or similar agricultural wastes are to be used, then the batch

feeding design or discontinuous system should reused -instead of a design

for continuous or semi-continuous feeding.

Frequency of Using Inputs and Outputs. . Selection of a particular

design and size of its various components also depend on how frequently the

user can feed the system and utilize the gas.

Inputs and their Characteristics Any biodegradable organic material can

be used as inputs for processing inside the biodigester. However, for

economic and technical reasons, some materials are more preferred as

inputs than others. If the inputs are costly or have to be purchased, then the

economic benefits of outputs such as gas and slurry will become low. Also, if

easily available biodegradable wastes are used as inputs, then the benefits

could be of two folds: (a) economic value of biogas and its slurry; and (b)

environmental cost

avoided in dealing with the biodegradable waste in some other ways such as

disposal in landfill.


There are two (2) kinds of benefits that can be derived from using the biogas

system. First are the tangible benefits in which we can put money value on

it. These include the savings in energy, feed materials and fertilizer. These

benefits are in the form of savings because the amount that was allocated

for the purpose was not spent because of available biogas.

The other type of benefits are the intangible benefits which we cannot put

money value on it. These include the promotion of the conservation of

natural resources by not cutting trees for firewood, and controlling pollution

by proper waste disposal. These benefits are more rewarding because you

have given man the right to live in a fresh, clean and beautiful environment.

Energy Value of Biogas


a) Fresh manure production : 54.75 cu.m./ year

b) Volume of slurry @ 1:1 ratio : 109.5 cu.m./year

c) Biogas production : 3.6 cu.m./day

d) Equivalent in conventional energy:

Firewood : 4,559.58 kg/ year

Peso equivalent : Php 13,678.74

LPG : 657 kg/year

Peso equivalent : Php 29,860.65

The value of recovered sludge as feed materials and organic fertilizer follows

the same format of substitution and extent of use. As much as 5% of the

feed requirement can be substituted by sludge and that sufficient organic

fertilizer (40%) can be recovered from the digested sludge.

e) Feed material recoverable from sludge

Total feed consumption of hog : 25,000 kgs./year

Amount of feed materials which can be substituted with sludge: 15%

Savings in feed materials : 3,750 kgs.

Peso equivalent : Php


f) Organic fertilizer from sludge

1) Volume of digested sludge : 109.5 cu.m./year

2) Organic fertilizer recovered (20%): 21,900 kgs./year

Peso equivalent (less 35% processing cost) : Php


3) Equivalent in commercial fertilizer:

14-14-14 : 2 bags

Urea (60-0-0) : 5 bags

Muriate of Potash: 3.33 bags

g) Cost of the system : Php 55,000.00

1) Labor (case to case basis) : Php 15,600.00

2) Repair and maintenance (3% IC) : Php 1,650.00

3) Interest on investment (21% IC) : Php 11,550.00

4) Depreciation : Php 2,200.00

5) Total Operating Cost : Php 31,000.00

h) Total savings : savings in feeds + fertilizer + energy

: Php 93,883.74

i) Net savings: total savings – total operating cost

: Php 62,883.74

j) Return of Investment : Net Savings / IC

: 114.33 %

k) Payback Period : 0.87 year

C. Cost and Return Analysis

1) Initial Investment.

This refers to the capital used in the construction and installation of


2) Operating Expenses.

These refer to the amount used in operating the biogas system which

includes labor, repair and maintenance, interest on investment and


Chapter III

Formulation of Hypothesis

Null hypothesis:

This study will not be effective if there will be no cooperation coming from

the respondents.

Alternative hypothesis:

This study will be effective through the cooperation of the people.

Chapter IV


4.1 Procedure

a) Distributed the survey sheets to drivers, students and other


b) Tally the results and put it into a pie chart.

c) Compare the physical and chemical properties of biogas and

natural gas.

4.2 Sampling

There were 24 randomly selected respondents who live in Iba,

Zambales. They will be the one who will take the survey and insights of using


4.3 Data Gathering

The researchers will now gather questions with the limit of using

biogas as an effective substitute on other vehicle fuels and will distribute to

the selected respondents. Once they’re done on answering the survey, the

researchers will analyze the data and graph it.

4.4 Presentation and Analysis of Data

The gathered data were graphed depending on the answers of the
respondents using a pie graph. And the people who agreed on using biogas
were also graphed.

Chapter V

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation of Data


1. Do you think that biogas can be an effective substitute for fuel?

25 23



yes no maybe

2. Do you think it(biogas) will be a help in our economy?

15 answer
0 0
yes no maybe

3. Would you prefer biogas rather than commercial gas?

20 18


10 answer
yes no maybe

4. Do you agree if biogas will be used here in Iba?

18 17
4 2
yes no maybe

5. If biogas will be used here, would you change your engine compatible with it?

20 19


10 answer

yes no maybe

Chapter VI:

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

6.1 Summary of Findings

Based from the survey done by the researchers, most of the

respondents agreed that biogas can be a good substitute for fuel.

6.2 Conclusion

The researchers therefore conclude that biogas can be an effective

substitute for natural gas. It is simply because its sources come from wastes.

But it can also cost a lot of money because it needs an engine of its own.

Biogas can be a help to our economy if it will be used properly and it can also

help to lessen the pollution because of its components that consist of wastes.

6.3 Recommendation

The researchers recommend the following:

 Try to do an interview to those people who already made biogas

 Try to do a research if the engine compatible to biogas can also

be made from recycled materials

 If you can, try to make biogas and compare it to natural gas by

testing if it would work

6.4 Bibliography


- Encarta Encyclopedia