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4/5/2012

Using SAP2000 Software Package in Earthquake Engineering (Part II Pushover)

Using SAP2000 Software Package in


Earthquake Engineering (Part II: Pushover)

Sameframebut
differentloading

QD =4.5kips/ft
QD =10.5kips/ft
QD =10.5kips/ft

Loads on structures:
- Static (e.g. self-weight)
- Dynamic (e.g. earthquake)

Structures response:
- Linear (constant stiffness)
- Nonlinear (variable stiffness)
Structural Analysis Approaches:
- Linear static (ELF)
((least accurate; least complex)
p )
- Linear dynamic (response spectra)
- Nonlinear static (pushover)
- Nonlinear dynamic (time history)
(most accurate; most complex)

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Pushover analysis:
Applying a force distribution to the structure in an
incremental fashion while monitoring the
occurrence of nonlinear behavior and plotting the
base shear (Vb) versus control node displacement
(uN).

compromise the simplicity of linear static approaches


and accuracy of nonlinear dynamic methods.

1- Nonlinearity sources:
- Geometrical (P-Delta effects)
(consider or not: codes)
- Material
(too many materials behavior models)
2- Nonlinearity modeling:
- Concentrated

- Distributed

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Plastic hinge properties:


- running section analysis and coming up with M- curves

Plastic hinge properties:


- using codes tabulated properties

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3- Lateral load pattern:


- a single concentrated force at the top
(good for one-story buildings)
- in proportion to the standard code procedure:
Fx wxhx / wxhx V

- in proportion to the product of story masses and


predominant mode shape of the elastic model of the
structure
Fx wxx / wxx V

4- Control node:
- For common buildings, the control node could be
selected as roof (top) story node
h
l i is
i stoppedd when
h the
h structure reaches:
h
- Pushover
analysis
pre-defined displacement
or
ultimate capacity

5- Gravity loads should be applied prior to the


application of lateral loads

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6- Check at performance point :


The global response of the structure and individual
component deformations are compared to limits in
li ht off the
th specific
ifi performance
f
l off the
th system
t
light
goals

Using SAP2000 for Pushover Analysis


We will use the same frame (elastic beams), just
modify dead loads:

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1- Run Modal Analysis

(1 )

1 .0

0 .7 5 9
0 .3 4 5

Select lateral load pattern:

Fx

1 0 0 0

759
345

k ip s

2- Lateral Load Case

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3- Modify Dead Load Case

3- Define Push Load Case

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2

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3- Define Push Load Case

4- Assign Plastic Hinges


Select column elements:

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4- Assign Plastic Hinges

4- Assign Plastic Hinges


Select beam elements:

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5- Run

6- Results Output
Display displacement:

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6- Results Output
Display pushover curve:

7- Checking Hinges Status


Looking for 0.5 ft roof displacement:

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4/5/2012

7- Checking Hinges Status

At 0.5 ft roof displacement: the performance level


of the system is Collapse Prevention (CP)

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