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Angle Modulation

In this type of modulation, the frequency or phase of carrier is

varied in proportion to the amplitude of the modulating signal.

c(t)

Ac

1. Phase modulation:

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θi (t) = ωc t + kp m(t)

where ωc = 2πfc .

2. Frequency Modulation:

ωi (t) = ωc + kf m(t)

Z t

θi (t) = ωi (t) dt

0

Z t Z t

= 2π fi (t) dt + kf m(t) dt

0 0

signal, then the phase modulated signal is given by

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• Frequency Modulation If m(t) = Am cos(2πfm t) is the message

signal, then the Frequency modulated signal is given by

k f Am

θi (t) = ωc t + sin(2πfm t)

2πfm

k f Am ∆f

here, is called frequency deviation (∆f ) and is called

2π fm

modulation index (β). The Frequency modulated signal is

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given by

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FM(β << 1) or Wideband FM(β ≈ 1).

– Narrow-Band FM (NBFM)

In NBFM β << 1, therefor s(t) reduces as follows:

= Ac cos(2πfc t) cos(β sin(2πfm t)) −

Ac sin(2πfc t) sin(β sin(2πfm t))

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The above equation is similar to AM. Hence, for NBFM the

bandwidth is same as that of AM i.e.,

2 × message bandwidth(2 × B).

A NBFM signal is generated as shown in Figure ??.

DSB−SC +

m(t) NBFM signal

−Asin(ωc t)

A cos( ωc t)

oscillator

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– Wide-Band FM (WBFM)

A WBFM signal has theoritically infinite bandwidth.

Spectrum calculation of WBFM signal is a tedious process.

For, practical applications however the Bandwidth of a

WBFM signal is calculated as follows:

Let m(t) be bandlimited to BHz and sampled adequately at

2BHz. If time period T = 1/2B is too small, the signal can

be approximated by sequence of pulses as shown in Figure

??

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m

p

t

T

the sinusoid is mp , the minimum and maximum frequency

deviations will be ωc − kf mp and ωc + kf mp respectively.

The spread of pulses in frequency domain will be 2π

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T = 4πB

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as shown in Figure ??

ω − k mp ωc + kf mp

4 πB c f

deviation is considered

1

BWf m = (2kf mp + 8πB)

2π

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BWf m = 2(∆f + 2B)

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∗ The bandwidth obtained is higher than the actual value.

This is due to the staircase approximation of m(t).

∗ The bandwidth needs to be readjusted. For NBFM, kf is

very small an d hence ∆f is very small compared to B.

This implies

Bf m ≈ 4B

But the bandwidth for NBFM is the same as that of AM

which is 2B

∗ A better bandwidth estimate is therefore:

BWf m = 2(∆f + B)

kf m p

BWf m = 2( + B)

2π

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This is also called Carson’s Rule

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– Demodulation of FM signals

Let Φf m (t) be an FM signal.

Z t

Φf m (t) = A cos(ωc t + kf m(α) dα)

0

Z t

Φ̇f m (t) = A (ωc + kf m(t)) sin ωc t + kf m(α) dα

0

amplitude and frequency modulated.

Hence, to recover the original signal back an envelope

detector can be used. The envelope takes the form (see

Figure ??):

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FM signal

Envelope of FM signal

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.

Φ (t) Φ (t )

fm fm A( ω c + k m(t))

Envelope f

d/dt

Detector

– Analysis of bandwidth in PM

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ωi = ωc + kp m0 (t)

m0p = [m0 (t)]max

∆ω = k p mp

BWpm = 2(∆f + B)

kp m0p

BWpm = 2( + B)

2π

is independent of signal bandwidth in FM while it is

strongly dependent on signal bandwidth in PM. a

a owing to the bandwidth being dependent on the peak of the derivative of

m(t) rather than m(t) itself

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Angle Modulation: An Example

• An angle-modulated signal with carrier frequency

ωc = 2π × 106 is described by the equation:

2. What is ∆f ?

3. What is β?

4. Determine ∆φ, the phase deviation.

5. Estimate the bandwidth of φE M (t)?

1. P = 122 /2 = 72 units

2. Frequency deviation ∆f , we need to estimate the

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instantaneous frequency:

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d

ωi = θ(t) = ωc + 7, 500 cos 1500t + 20, 000πt

dt

The deviation of the carrier is

∆ω = 7, 500 cos 1500t + 20, 000πt. When the two sinusoids

add in phase, the maximum value will be 7, 500 + 20, 000π

∆ω

Hence ∆f = 2π = 11, 193.66Hz

∆f 11,193.66

3. β = B = 1000 = 11.193

4. The angle θ(t) = ωc t + 5 sin 1500t + 10 sin 2000πt). The

maximum angle deviation is 15, which is the phase

deviation.

5. BEM = 2(∆f + B) = 24, 387.32 Hz

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