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The majority of states in the world have a unitary system of

government. Of the 193 UN member states, 165 of them are


governed as unitary states.
Federal
Federalism is a system of
government in which the
same territory is controlled
by two levels of government.
Generally, an overarching
national government governs
issues that affect the entire
country,
and
smaller
subdivisions govern issues of
local concern.

Unitary
A unitary state is a state
governed as a single power
in
which
the
central
government
is
ultimately
supreme
and
any
administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only
powers that the central
government
chooses
to
delegate.

Both
the
national
government and the smaller
political subdivisions have
the power to make laws and
both have a certain level of
autonomy from each other.

In a unitary state, subnational units are created


and abolished, and their
powers may be broadened
and narrowed, by the central
government.
Although
political
power
may
be
delegated through devolution
to local governments by
statute,
the
central
government
remains
supreme; it may abrogate the
acts
of
devolved
governments or curtail their
powers.

Unitary

Federal
Laws may be made to
Laws may be applied
Advantages
suit individual needs of
uniformly to all
the states
Governmen Efforts seldom duplicateTyranny can be avoided
t
or contradict themselves more easily
DecisionGovernment is closer to
Fast and efficient
making
the people
Disadvanta Concentration of power State governments are
ges
can lead to tyranny
susceptible to quarrels
If the country is large, a The
distant
central

country

has

government
control

can

lose

tendency to split apart

Sub-governments may
Central officials may not
lack resources that a
always understand the
central government has
needs of their citizens
Federalism refers to the mixed or compound mode of
government, combining a general government (the central
or 'federal' government) with regional governments
(provincial, state, Land, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit
governments) in a single political system. Its distinctive
feature, exemplified in the founding example of modern
federalism of the United States of America under the
Constitution of 1789, is a relationship of parity between the
two levels of government established. It can thus be defined
as a form of government in which there is a division of
powers between two levels of government of equal status.
The pros and cons of federalism have been the subject of
debate since the creation of the republic.

Federalisms Advantages
Proponents argue that federalism does the following:

Fosters state loyalties: Many Americans feel close


ties to their home state, and federalism maintains that
connection by giving power to the states.

Practices pragmatism: Running a country the size of


the United States, with such a diverse population, is
much easier to do if power is given to local officials.
Likewise, state and local officials are closer to the
problems of their areas, so it makes sense for them to
choose policies to solve those problems.

Creates laboratories of democracy: State


governments can experiment with policies, and other
states (and the federal government) can learn from
their successes and failures.

Example: California has frequently led the nation in


environmental regulations: Many measures adopted by
California are subsequently adopted by other states. And
during the 1990s, Wisconsin governor Tommy Thompson

experimented with welfare policy, and those experiments


influenced federal welfare reform.

Leads to political stability: By removing the national


government from some contentious issue areas,
federalism allowed the early U.S. government to
achieve and maintain stability.

Encourages pluralism: Federal systems expand


government on national, state, and local levels, giving
people more access to leaders and opportunities to get
involved in their government.

Ensures the separation of powers and prevents


tyranny: Even if one person or group took control of all
three branches of the federal government, federalism
ensures that state governments would still function
independently. Federalism, therefore, fulfills the
framers vision of a governmental structure that
ensures liberty.

Federalisms Disadvantages
Critics argue that federalism falls short in two ways:

Prevents the creation of a national policy: The


United States does not have a single policy on issues;
instead, it has fifty-one policies, which often leads to
confusion.

Leads to a lack of accountability: The overlap of the


boundaries among national and state governments
makes it tricky to assign blame for failed policies.

States in which the federal government shares power with


semi-independent regional governments. The central
government may or may not be (in theory) a creation of the
regional governments; prime examples are Switzerland and
the United States.

Argentina (23 provinces and one autonomous city:


Buenos Aires)

Australia (six states and two territories)

Austria (nine states)

Belgium (three regions and three linguistic


communities)

Bosnia and Herzegovina (two entities and one


district)

Brazil (26 states and the Federal District)

Canada (ten provinces and three territories)

Comoros (Anjouan, Grande Comore, Mohli)

Ethiopia (nine regions and two chartered cities)

Germany (16 states)

India (29 states and seven union territories)

Iraq (18 governorates and one region: Kurdistan)

Malaysia (13 states and three federal territories)

Mexico (31 states and one federal district: Mexico


City)

Federated States of Micronesia (Chuuk, Kosrae,


Pohnpei and Yap)

Nepal (14 zones)

Nigeria (36 states and one federal territory (the


Federal Capital Territory)

Pakistan (4 provinces, 2 autonomous areas and 2


territories)

Russia (46 oblasts, 21 republics, nine krais, four


autonomous okrugs, three federal cities, one
autonomous oblast)

Saint Kitts and Nevis (two states)

South Sudan (ten states)

Sudan (17 states)

Switzerland (26 cantons)

United Arab Emirates (seven emirates)

United States (50 states, one incorporated territory,


and one federal district: District of Columbia)

Venezuela (23 states, one capital district and one


federal dependency)

Unitary Governments

Afghanistan

Albania

Algeria

Angola

Armenia

Azerbaijan

Bangladesh

Belarus

Benin

Bolivia

Botswana

Bulgaria

Burkina Faso

Burundi

Cameroon

Cape Verde

Central African Republic

Chad

Chile

China[4]

Colombia

Congo

Costa Rica

Croatia

Cuba

Cyprus

Czech Republic

Djibouti

Dominica

Dominican Republic

Democratic Republic of the Congo

East Timor

Ecuador

Egypt

El Salvador

Equatorial Guinea

Eritrea

Estonia

Fiji

Finland

France

Gabon

Gambia

Georgia

Ghana

Greece

Guatemala

Guinea

Guinea-Bissau

Guyana

Haiti

Honduras

Hungary

Iceland

Indonesia

Iran

Ireland

Israel

Italy

Ivory Coast

Kazakhstan

Kenya

Kiribati

Kyrgyzstan

Laos

Latvia

Lebanon

Liberia

Libya

Lithuania

Macedonia

Madagascar

Malawi

Maldives

Mali

Malta

Marshall Islands

Mauritania

Mauritius

Moldova

Mongolia

Montenegro

Mozambique

Myanmar

Namibia

Nauru

Nicaragua

Niger

North Korea

Palau

Palestine

Panama

Paraguay

Peru

Philippines

Poland

Portugal

Romania

Rwanda

Samoa

San Marino

So Tom and Prncipe

Senegal

Serbia

Seychelles

Sierra Leone

Singapore

Slovakia

Slovenia

South Africa

South Korea

Sri Lanka

Suriname

Syria

Taiwan

Tajikistan

Tanzania

Togo

Trinidad and Tobago

Tunisia

Turkey

Turkmenistan

Uganda

Ukraine

Uruguay

Uzbekistan

Vanuatu

Vietnam

Yemen

Zambia

Zimbabwe