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Subject : Mathematics
Topic : Diffrential Equations

Index
1. Theory
2. Short Revision
3. Exercise (Ex. 1 to 5)
4. Assertion & Reason
5. Que. from Compt. Exams
6. 34 Yrs. Que. from IIT-JEE
7. 10 Yrs. Que. from AIEEE

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An equation involving independent and dependent variables and the derivatives of the dependent variables is
called a differential equation. There are two kinds of differential equation:
1.1

Ordinary Differential Equation : If the dependent variables depend on one independent variable
x, then the differential equation is said to be ordinary.
dy
dz
+
= y + z,
for example
dx
dx
d3 y

dy
+ xy = sin x ,
dx

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for example

2.

+2

dy
+ y = ex ,
dx

3/2

dy 2
dy
dy
1
+

, y=x
k 2 =
+ k 1 + dx
dx

dx
dx
Partial differential equation : If the dependent variables depend on two or more independent
variables, then it is known as partial differential equation
2

d2 y

1.2

dx

y2

2
2
z
2z
+y
= ax, z + z = 0
x
y
2
x
y2

Order and Degree of a Differential Equation:


2.1
2.2

Order : Order is the highest differential appearing in a differential equation.


Degree :
It is determined by the degree of the highest order derivative present in it after the differential
equation is cleared of radicals and fractions so far as the derivatives are concerned.
n

n
dm y 1
dm1y 2
dy k
f 1 (x, y) m + f 2 (x, y) m1 + ........ fk(x, y) = 0
dx
dx
dx

The above differential equation has the order m and degree n1.

Example :
Find the order & degree of following differential equations.

(i)

(iii)

d2 y
dx 2

dy

y
+

=
dx

1/ 4

dy d2 y

sin dx + 2 = y
dx

dy d2 y
+

dx dx 2

(ii)

y= e

(iv)

ey xy + y = 0

Solution.
4

(i)
(ii)
(iii)

6
d2 y

= y + dy
dx 2
dx

d2 y
dx

d2 y
dx

d3 y

order = 2, degree = 4

dy
= ny
dx

order = 2, degree = 1

dy
= sin1 y
dx

order = 2, degree = 1

3
e dx

d2 y

+y=0

equation can not be expressed as a polynomial in differdx 2


ential coefficients, so degree is not applicable but order is 3.
Self Practice Problems :
1.
Find order and degree of the following differential equations.
dy
1
(i)
+y=
Ans.
order = 1, degree = 2
dy
dx
dx
3
d5 t

dy d y

+ 1
dx dx 3 = n
(ii)
Ans.
order = 5, degree = not applicable.
5

e
dx

(iv)

2 of 35 Difrential Equations

Introduction :

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1.

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

Differential Equation

d2 y
dx 2

Ans.

order = 2, degree = 2

Formation of Differential Equation:

Differential equation corresponding to a family of curve will have :


(a) Order exactly same as number of essential arbitrary constants in the equation of curve.
(b) no arbitrary constant present in it.
The differential equation corresponding to a family of curve can be obtained by using the following
steps:
(a)
Identify the number of essential arbitrary constants in equation of curve.
NOTE : If arbitrary constants appear in addition, subtraction, multiplication or division, then we can club
them to reduce into one new arbitrary constant.
(b)
Differentiate the equation of curve till the required order.
(c)
Eliminate the arbitrary constant from the equation of curve and additional equation obtained in step
(b) above.
Example :
Form a differential equation of family of straight lines passing through origin.
Sol.
Family of straight lines passing through origin is y = mx wherem is parameter.
Differentiating w.r.t. x
dy
=m
dx
Eliminating m from both equations
dy
y
=
dx
x
which is the required differential equation.
Example :
Form a differential equation of family of circles touching x-axis at the origin ?
Sol.
Equation of family of circles touching x-axis at the origin is
x2 + y2 + y = 0
..........(i)
where is parameter
dy
dy
2x + 2y
+
=0
.........(ii)
dx
dx
Eliminating from (i) and (ii)
2xy
dy
= 2
x y2
dx
which is required differential equation.
Self Practice Problems :
1.
Obtain a differential equation of the family of curves y = a sin (bx + c) where a and c being arbitrary constant.

2.

d2 y

+ b2y = 0
dx 2
Show the differential equation of the system of parabolas y2 = 4a(x b) is given by
Ans.

d2 y

3.

dy
y
+ =0
dx 2
dx
Form a differential equation of family of parabolas with focus origin and axis of symmetry along the
x-axis.
2

Ans.

4.

dy
dy
y2 = y2 + 2xy
dx
dx

Solution of a Differential Equation:


Finding the dependent variable from the differential equation is called solving or integrating it. The solution or
the integral of a differential equation is, therefore, a relation between dependent and independent variables
(free from derivatives) such that it satisfies the given differential equation
NOTE : The solution of the differential equation is also called its primitive, because the differential equation
can be regarded as a relation derived from it.
There can be three types of solution of a differential equation:
(i) General solution (or complete integral or complete primitive) : A relation in x and y satisfying a
given differential equation and involving exactly same number of arbitrary constants as order of
differential equation.
(ii) Particular Solution : A solution obtained by assigning values to one or more than one arbitrary constant of general solution.
(iii) Singular Solution : It is not obtainable from general solution. Geomatrically, General solution acts
as an envelope to singular solution.

5.

Differential Equation of First Order and First Degree :


A differential equation of first order and first degree is of the type
dy
+ f(x, y) = 0, which can also be written as :
dx
Mdx + Ndy = 0, where M and N are functions of x and y.

3 of 35 Difrential Equations

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3.

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(iii)

dy 1 / 2

+ y
dx

Variables separable : If the differential equation can be put in the form, f(x) dx = (y) dy w e
say that variables are separable and solution can be obtained by integrating each side separately.

Example :
Solution.

A general solution of this will be f ( x ) dx = ( y ) dy + c, where c is an arbitrary constant


Solve the differential equation
(1 + x) y dx = (y 1) x dy
The equation can be written as y 1
1+ x
dy

dx =
x
y
1

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x + 1 dx = 1 y dy

Solution.

n x + x = y ny + c
ny + nx = y x + c
xy = ceyx
dy
Solve :
= (ex + 1) (1 + y2)
dx
The equation can be written asdy
= (e x + 1)dx
1+ y2
Integrating both sides,
tan1 y = ex + x + c.

Example :

Solve : y x

Example :

Solution.

2 dy
dy

= a y +
dx
dx

The equation can be written as dy


y ay2 = (x + a)
dx
dx
dy
=
x + a y ay 2

dx
1
=
x + a y(1 ay ) dy
1
dx
a

= +
x + a y 1 ay dy
Integrating both sides,
n (x + a) = n y n (1 ay) + n c
cy
n (x + a) = n 1 ay

cy = (x + a) (1 ay)
where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
6.1.1 Sometimes transformation to the polar co-ordinates facilitates separation of variables. In this
connection it is convenient to remember the following differentials:
If x = r cos ; y = r sin then,
(i)
x dx + y dy = r dr (ii) dx2 + dy2 = dr2 + r2d2
(iii) x dy y dx = r2d
If x = r sec & y = r tan then
(i)
x dx y dy = r dr (ii) x dy y dx = r2 sec d.
Example :
Solve the differential equation xdx + ydy = x (xdy ydx)
Solution.
Taking x = r cos, y = r sin
x2 + y2 = r2
2x dx + 2ydy = 2rdr
xdx + ydy = rdr
.........(i)
y
= tan
x
dy
d
y
d
dx
= sec2 .
dx
x2
xdy y dx = x2 sec2 . d
xdy ydx = r2 d
........(ii)
Using (i) & (ii) in the given differential equation then it becomes
r dr = r cos. r2 d

4 of 35 Difrential Equations

6.1

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Elementary Types of First Order and First Degree Differential


Equations :

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

6.

x + y2

y +1

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6.1.2

Example :
Solution.

= c where = c
x2 + y2
2
(y + 1) = c(x2 + y2)
Equations Reducible to the Variables Separable form : If a differential equation can be reduced into a variables separable form by a proper substitution, then it is said to be
dy
Reducible to the variables separable type. Its general form is
= f(ax + by + c) a, b 0. To
o
dx
solve this, put ax + by + c = t.
dy
Solve
= (4x + y + 1)2
dx
Putting 4x + y + 1 = t
dy
dt
4+
=
dx
dx
dy
dt
=
4
dx
dx
Given equation becomes
dt
4 = t2
dx
dt
= dx
(Variables are separated)
t2 + x
Integrating both sides,
dt
= dx
4 + t2
4x + y + 1
1
t
1
=x+c

tan1
=x+c

tan1
2

2
2
2

Example :
Solution.

dy
sin1 = x + y
dx
dy
= sin (x + y)
dx
putting x + y = t
dy
dt
=
1
dx
dx
dt

1 = sin t
dx
Integrating both sides,
dt
dx
1 + sin t =

Solve

1 sin t

cos
(sec

2
2

dt = x + c

t sec t tan t ) dt = x + c
tan t sec t = x + c
1 sin t

=x+c
cos t
t
t
cos sin
2
2

t
t =x+c
cos + sin
2
2
t
tan = x + c
4 2

dt
= 1 + sin t
dx

dt
1 + sin t = dx

5 of 35 Difrential Equations

y
2

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= cos d
r2
1
= sin +
r
1

=
2
x + y2

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dr

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Ans.

Solve the differential equation


xdx + ydy
ydx xdy
=
x2 + y2
x2
Solve :

4.

Solve : xy

5.

Solve

6.
7.

x2 + y2 +

Ans.

dy
= ex + y + x2ey
dx

3.

y n (y + 1) = nx

= ex +

1
+c
x

y
=c
x
x3
+c
3

Ans.

Ans.

y = x + n |x (1 + y)| + c

Ans.

ey x = x + c

dy
= sin(x + y) + cos (x + y)
dx

Ans.

log tan

dy
= x tan (y x) + 1
dx
6.2
Homogeneous Differential Equations :

Ans.

sin (y x) = ex + c

dy
= 1 + x + y + xy
dx

dy
= 1 + ex y
dx

Solution.

x+y
+1 = x + c
2

f ( x, y )
dy
=
where f and g are homogeneous function of
g( x, y )
dx
x and y, and of the same degree, is called homogeneous differential equaiton and can be solved
easily by putting y = vx.
y 2
y

dy
Solve 2 + x 1
x

dx
Putting y = vx
dy
dv
=v+x
dx
dx
dv

=0
2v + (v 2 1) v + x
dx

A differential equation of the from

Example :

ey

v+x
x

dv
2v
= 2
dx
v 1

dv
v(1 + v 2 )
=
dx
v2 1

v2 1

v(1 + v
2v

dv =

dx

1
dv = n x + c
v
2
n (1 + v ) n v = n x + c

1 + v

1+ v2
.x
n
v
x2 + y2
n
y
x2 + y2 = yc'

=c

=c
where

c = ec

Example :

Solve : (x2 y2) dx + 2xydy = 0 given that y = 1 when x = 1

Solution.

x2 y2
dy
=
2xy
dx

6 of 35 Difrential Equations

2.

Solve the differential equation


dy
x2 y
= (x + 1) (y + 1)
dx

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1.

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

x+y
+x+c=0
tan
2
4
Self Practice Problems :

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6.2.1

dv
1 v2
=
dx
2v

dx

n (1 + v 2) = nx + c
x = 1, y = 1

v=1
n 2 = c

y 2

n 1 + 2 . x = n2
x

2
2
x + y = 2x

Equations Reducible to the Homogeneous form


dy
ax + by + c
=
Equations of the form
.........(1)
dx Ax + By + C
can be made homogeneous (in new variables X and Y) by substituting x = X + h and y = Y + k,
aX + bY + (ah + bk + c )
dY
where h and k are constants, we get
=
.
.........(2)
AX
+ BY + ( Ah + Bk + C)
dX
Now, h and k are chosen such that ah + bk + c = 0, and Ah + Bk + C = 0; the differential equation
can now be solved by putting Y = vX.
x + 2y 5
dy
= 2x + xy 4
dx
x = Y + h,
y=Y+k
dy
dy dY dX
=
.
.
dx
dY dX dx
dY
= 1.
. 1.
dX
dY
dY
X + h + 2( Y + k ) 5
=

=
dX
dX
2 X + 2h + Y + k 4
X + 2Y + (h + 2k 5)
=
2 X + Y + (2h + k 4)
h & k are such that
h + 2k 5 = 0 & 2h + k 4 = 0
h = 1, k = 2
dY
X + 2Y
=
which is homogeneous differential equation.
dX
2x + Y

Example :

Solve the differential equation

Solution.

Let

Now, substituting Y = vX
dY
dv
=v+X
dX
dX
dv
1 + 2v

X
=
v
dX
2+v
2+v
dx
2 dv =
X
1 v

1
3

dv = n X + c
+
2
(
v
+
1
)
2
(
1
v )

1
3
n (v + 1)
n (1 v) = n X + c
2
2
v +1
n
= nX2 + 2c
(1 v )3
( Y + Y)

X2

= e2c
( X Y) X2
X + Y = c(X Y)3
where e2c = c1
x 1 + y 2 = c ( 1 y + 2)3
x + y 3 = c (x y + 1)3
3

Special case :
(A)
In equation (1) if aB = Ab, then the substitution ax + by = v will reduce it to the form in which
variables are separable.

7 of 35 Difrential Equations

at

dv =

v+x

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1+ v

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

y = vx
dy
dv
=v +
dx
dx
2v

Putting u = 2x + 3y
du
dy
= 2+3.
dx
dx

1 du
u 1
2 =

3 dx
2u 5

du
3u 3 + 4u 10
=
dx
2u 5
2u 5
dx = dx
7u 13
1
2
9
1.du

. du = x + c
7
7 7u 13
2
9 1

u .
n (7u 13) = x + c
7
7 7
9

4x + 6y
n (14x + 21y 13) = 7x + 7c
7
9

3x + 6y
n (14x + 21y 13) = c
7
In equation (1), if b + A = 0, then by a simple cross multiplication equation (1) becomes an
exact differential equation.

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(B)

Example :
Solution.

x 2y + 5
dy
= 2x + y 1
dx
Cross multiplying,
2xdy + y dy dy = xdx 2ydx + 5dx
2 (xdy + y dx) + ydy dy = xdx + 5 dx
2 d(xy) + y dy dy = xdx + 5dx
On integrating,

Solve

y2
x2
y=
+ 5x + c
2
2
2
2
x 4xy y + 10x + 2y = c
2xy +

(C)

where

c = 2c

If the homogeneous equation is of the form :


yf(xy) dx + xg(xy)dy = 0, the variables can be separated by the substitution xy = v.

Self Practice Problems :


Solve the following differential equations
1.
2.

dy

y tan1 y = x given that y = 0 at x = 1


x
dx

x
dy
y
x
= y x tan
dx
x

Ans.

x 2 + y 2 = e x tan

Ans.

x sin

1 y

y
=C
x

3.

x + 2y 3
dy
= 2x + y + 3
dx

Ans.

x + y = c (x y + 6)3

4.

x + y +1
dy
= 2 x + 2y + 3
dx

Ans.

3(2y x) + log (3x + 7y + 4) = C

5.

3 x + 2y 5
dy
= 3 y 2x + 5
dx

Ans.

3x2 + 4xy 3y2 10x 10y = C

6.3

Exact Differential Equation :

dy
=0
...........(1)
dx
Where M and N are functions of x and y is said to be exact if it can be derived by direct differentiation
(without any subsequent multiplication, elimination etc.) of an equation of the form f(x, y) = c
dx
e.g.
y2 dy + x dx +
= 0 is an exact differential equation.
x

The differential equation M + N

8 of 35 Difrential Equations

Solution.

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Solve

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

2x + 3 y 1
dy
= 4 x + 6y 5
dx

Example :

xdy ydx
y
ln
=
d
xy
x
x2 y2

x +y

1 y

= d tan
x

(f)

xdy + ydx
= d(ln xy)
xy

1
= d xy

0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

xdy + ydx

(g)

xdy ydx

(e)

xdy ydx

Example :

Solve : y dx + x dy =

Solution.

ydx + xdy =

x2 + y2

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xdy ydx
x2 + y2
d (xy) = d (tan y/x)
Integrating both sides xy = tan1 y/x + c
1

Example :
Solution.

x2

Solve : (2x ny) dx + y + 3 y dy = 0

The given equation can be written as dy


ny (2x) dx + x2 y + 3y2 dy = 0

ny d (x2) + x2 d (ny) + d (y3) = 0

d (x2 ny) + d (y3) = 0


Now integrating each term, we get
x2 ny + y3 = c

Self Practice Problems :


1.

Solve : xdy + ydx + xy ey dy = 0

2.

Solve : yex/y dx (xex/y + y3) dy = 0

6.4

Linear Differential Equation :

Ans.
Ans.

n (xy ) + ey = c

2ex/y + y2 = c

When the dependent variable and its derivative occur in the first degree only and are not multiplied together,
the differential equation is called linear
The mth order linear differential equation is of the form.
dm y

dm1y

dy
m1 + .................... + Pm1 (x) dx + Pm (x) y = (x),
dx
dx
where P0(x), P1(x) ..................Pm(x) are called the coefficients of the differential equation.
dy
NOTE :
+ y2 sinx = lnx is not a Linear differential equation.
dx
Linear differential equations of first order :
dy
The differential equation
+ Py = Q , is linear in y..
dx
where P and Q are functions of x.
Integrating Factor (I.F.) : - It is an expression which when multiplied to a differential equation converts it
into an exact form.
Pdx
I.F for linear differential equation = e
(constant of integration will not be considered)
after multiplying above equation by .F it becomes;
Pdx
Pdx
dy Pdx
.e
+ Py . e
= Q. e
dx
d
Pdx

( y. e Pdx ) = Q. e
dx

P0(x)

+ P1(x)

Pdx
+C.

y. e Pdx = Q. e
NOTE : Some times differential equation becomes linear if x is taken as the dependent variable and y as
independent variable. The differential equation has then the following form :

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(d)

9 of 35 Difrential Equations

M N
The necessary condition for (1) to be exact is y = x .
(ii)
For finding the solution of Exact differential equation, following exact differentials must be remembered :
y
xdy ydx
= d
(c) 2(x dx + y dy) = d (x2 + y2)
(a) xdy + y dx = d(xy)
(b)
2
x
x

NOTE : (i)

P=

10 of 35 Difrential Equations

3x 2
1+ x3

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3x2

F = e P.dx = 1+ x 3 dx = e n(1+ x
e
General solution is

y(F) =

= 1 + x3

Q(IF).dx + c
sin2 x

1+ x

y (1 + x3) =

(1 + x3) dx + c

1 cos 2x
dx + c
2
1
sin 2x
y(1 + x3) =
x
+c
2
4

y(1 + x3) =

Example :
Solution.

dy
+ y = 2 n x
dx
dy
1
2
+
y=
dx
xnx
x
1
2
P=
,Q=
xnx
x

Solve : x nx

IF = e P.dx = e xnx dx = e n( nx ) = n x

General solution is
2
.nx.dx + c
y. (n x) =
x
y (n x) = (n x)2 + c

Example :
Solution.

Solve the differential equation


t (1 + t2) dx = (x + xt2 t2) dt and it given that x = /4 at t = 1
t (1 + t2) dx = [x (1 + t2) t2] dt
x
t
dx
= t
(1 + t 2 )
dt
dx x
t
=
dt t
1+ t2
which is linear in
Here, P =
IF = e

dx
dt

1
t
, Q=
t
1+ t 2

1
t dt = ent = 1

t
General solution is 1
t
1
.
dt + c
x- =
t 1+ t2
t
x
= tan1 t + c
t
putting x = /4, t = 1
/4 = /4 + c
c=0

x = t tan1 t

0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

Solution.

dy
3x 2
sin2 x
+
y=
3
dx
1+ x
1+ x3
dy
+ Py = Q
dx

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

dx
dy + P1 x = Q1.
where P1 and Q1 are functions of y.
P1 dy
The .F. now is e
Example :
Solve

2 cot x dx

z. sin2 x =

= e 2n sin x = sin2 x

2 cos x. sin

General solution is -

x. dx + c

2
sin3 x + c
3
Bernoullis equation :
dy
Equations of the form
+ Py = Q.yn, n 0 and n 1
dx
where P and Q are functions of x, is called Bernoullis equation and can be made linear in v by
dividing by yn and putting y n+1 = v. Now its solution can be obtained as in (v).
dy
y cos x = xy3 ex .
e.g. : 2 sin x
dx

y2 sin2x =

6.4.2

Example :
Solution.

dy y y 2
=
(Bernoulli's equation)
dx x x 2
2
Dividing both sides by y
1 dy 1
1

= 2
..... (1)
2 dx
xy x
y

Solve :

1
Putting y = t
1 dy dt
=
y 2 dx dx
differential equation (1) becomes,
dt t
1
=

dx x x 2
dt t
1
dt
+ = 2 which is linear differential equation in
dx x
dx
x

IF = e x

dx

= enx = x

General solution is 1
t. x = 2 . x dx + c
x
tx = nx + c
x
y = nx + c
Self Practice Problems :

1.

Solve : x (x2 + 1)

2.

Solve : (x + 2y3)

3.

Solve : x

4.

dy
= y (1 x2) + x2 nx
dx
dy
=y
dx

dy
+ y = y2 log x
dx
Solve the differential equation
dy
xy2 2y3 = 2x3 given y = 1 at x = 1
dx

Ans.

x 2 + 1

x y = x n x x + c

Ans.

x = y (c + y2)

Ans.

y (1 + cx + log x) = 1

Ans.

y3 + 2x3 = 3x6

11 of 35 Difrential Equations
0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

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IF = e

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Equations reducible to linear form


6.4.1 By change of variable.
dy
Example :
Solve : y sinx
= cos x (sinx y2)
dx
Solution.
The given differential equation can be reduced to linear form by change of variable by a suitable
subtitution.
Substituting y2 = z
dy
dz
=
2y
dx
dx
differential equation becomes
sin x dz
+ cos x.z = sin x cos x
2 dx
dz
dz
+ 2 cot x . z = 2 cos x which is linear in
dx
dx

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y = px + f(p),

..............(10), where p =

dy
dx

is known as Clairouts Equation.


To solve (10), differentiate it w.r.t. x, which gives
dp
=0p=c
...........(11)
either
dx
or
x + f(p) = 0
............(12)
NOTE : (i)
If p is eliminated between (10) and (11), the solution obtained is a general solution of (10)
(ii)
If p is eliminated between (10) and (12), then solution obtained does not contain any arbitrary
constant and is not particular solution of (10). This solution is called singular solution of (10).
dy
Example :
Solve : y = mx + m m3
where, m =
dx
Solution.
y = mx + m m3
..... (i)
The given equation is in clairaut's form.
Now, differentiating wrt. x dy
dm dm
dm
=m+x
+
3m 2
dx
dx
dx
dx
dm dm
dm
+
3m 2
m=m+x
dx
dx
dx
dm
(x + 1 3m2) = 0
dx
dm
=0

m=c
..... (ii)
dx
x +1
or
x + 1 3m2 = 0

m2 =
..... (iii)
3
Eliminating 'm' between (i) & (ii) is called the general solution of the given equation.
y = cx + c c3 where, 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
Again, eliminating 'm' between (i) & (iii) is called singular solution of the given equation.
y = m (x + 1 m2)
1/ 2

x + 1

y=
3

1/ 2

x + 1

y=
3

x + 1

x + 1

2
(x + 1)
3

3/2

x + 1

y=2
3
4
y2 =
(x + 1)3
27
27y2 = 4 (x + 1)3
Self Practice Problems :
1.
Solve the differential equation
dy
dx
Ans.
General solution : y = cx + 2/c where c is an arbitrary constant
Singular solution : y2 = 8x
dy
Solve : sin px cos y = cos px sin y + p where p =
dx
Ans.
General solution : y = cx sin1 (c) where c is an arbitrary constant.

Y = mx + 2/m

2.

where, m =

Singular solution :

y=

Orthogonal Trajectory :

x 2 1 sin1

x2 1
x2

An orthogonal trajectory of a given system of curves is defined to be a curve which cuts every member of
a given family of curve at right angle.
Steps to find orthogonal trajectory :
(i)
Let f (x, y, c) = 0 be the equation of the given family of curves, where 'c' is an arbitrary constant.
(ii)
Differentate the given equation w.r.t. x and then eliminate c.

12 of 35 Difrential Equations

The differential equation

0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

Clairauts Equation :

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

7.

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Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of straight lines passing through the origin.
Family of straight lines passing through the origin is y = mx ..... (i)
where 'm' is an arbitrary constant.
Differentiating wrt x
dy
=m
..... (ii)
dx
Eliminate 'm' from (i) & (ii)
dy
x
y=
dx
dx
dy
Replacing
by dy ,
we get
dx
dx
y = dy x
x dy + y dy = 0
Integrating each term,

x2 y2
+
=c
2
2

x2 + y2 = 2c
which is the required orthogonal trajectory.
Example :
Solution.

Find the orthogonal trajectory of y2 = 4ax (a being the parameter).


y2 = 4ax
..... (i)
dy
2y
= 4a
..... (ii)
dx
Eliminating 'a' from (i) & (ii)
dy
y2 = 2y
x
dx
dx
dy
Replacing
by dy , we get
dx
dx
y = 2 dy x

2 x dx + y dy = 0
Integrating each term,

y2
=c
2
2
2
2x + y = 2c
which is the required orthogonal trajectories.
x2 +

Self Practice Problems :


1.
Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of circles concentric at (a, 0)
Ans.
y = c (x a)
where c is an arbitrary constant.
2.

Find the orthogonal trajectory of family of circles touching x axis at the origin.
Ans.
x2 + y2 = cx
where c is an arbitrary constant.

3.

Find the orthogonal trajectory of the family of rectangular hyperbola xy = c2


Ans.
x2 y2 = k
where k is an arbitrary constant.

Geometrical application of differential equation :


Example :
Solution.

Find the curves for which the portion of the tangent included between the co-ordinate axes is
bisected at the point of contact.
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve.
Equation of tangent at P (x, y) is -

13 of 35 Difrential Equations

Example :
Solution.

0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

(iv)

dy
dx
by
in the equation obtained in (ii).
dx
dy
Solve the differential equation obtained in (iii).
Hence solution obtained in (iv) is the required orthogonal trajectory.

Replace

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

(iii)

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Y y = m (X x) where m =

dy
is slope of the tangent at P (x, y).
dx

mx y
, 0 & B (0, ymx)
Co-ordinates of A
m

P is the middle point of A & B


mx y

= 2x
m

mx y = 2mx

mx = y
dy

x=y
dx
dy
dx

+ y =0
x

nx + ny = nc

xy = c

Example :
Solution.

Example :
of
which
Solution.

Show that (4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy = 0 represents a hyperbola having as asymptotes


the lines x + y = 0 and 2x + y + 1 = 0
(4x + 3y + 1) dx + (3x + 2y + 1) dy = 0
4xdx + 3 (y dx + x dy) + dx + 2y dy + dy = 0
Integrating each term,
2x2 + 3 xy + x + y2 + y + c = 0
2x2 + 3xy + y2 + x + y + c = 0
which is the equation of hyperbola when x2 > ab & 0.
Now, combined equation of its asymptotes is 2x2 + 3xy + y2 + x + y + = 0
which is pair of straight lines

=0
1 1 3
1
1
9

2.1 + 2 . . . 2 .
1.

=0
2 2 2
4
4
4

= 0

2x2 + 3xy + y2 + x + y = 0
(x + y) (2x + y) + (x + y) = 0
(x + y) (2x + y + 1) = 0
x+y=0
or
2x + y + 1 = 0
The perpendicular from the origin to the tangent at any point on a curve is equal to the abscissa
the point of contact. Find the equation of the curve satisfying the above condition and
passes through (1, 1)
Let P (x, y) be any point on the curve
Equation of tangent at 'P' is Y y = m (X x)
mX Y + y mx = 0
Now,
y mx

2 = x
1
+
m

y2 + m2x2 2mxy = x2 (1 + m2)


y 2 x 2 dy
=
which is homogeneous equation
2xy
dx
Putting y = vx
dy
dv
=v+x
dx
dx
dv
v2 1

v+x
=
dx
2v
x

dv v 2 1 2v 2
=
dx
2v

14 of 35 Difrential Equations

0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

P(
x,
y)

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

y2

x 2 + 1 = c
x

Curve is passing through (1, 1)

c=2
x2 + y2 2x = 0
Example :

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Solution.

Find the nature of the curve for which the length of the normal at a point 'P' is equal to the radius
vector of the point 'P'.
Let the equation of the curve be y = f(x). P(x, y) be any point on the curve.
dy
Slope of the tanget at P(x, y) is
=m
dx

Slope of the normal at P is

P(x,y)

m =

1
m

Equation of the normal at 'P'


1
Yy=
(X x)
m
Co-ordinates of G (x + my, 0)
Now, OP2 = PG2
x2 + y2 = m2y2 + y2
x
m= y
x
dy
= y
dx
Taking as the sign
x
dy
= y
dx
y . dy = x . dx

y2
x2
=
+
2
2
x2 y2 = 2
x 2 y2 = c
(Rectangular hyperbola)
Again taking as ve sign
x
dy
= y
dx
y dy = x dx
y2
x2
=
+
2
2
2
2
x + y = 2
x2 + y2 = c
(circle)

G(x+my,0)

15 of 35 Difrential Equations

dv =

0 98930 58881 , BHOPAL, (M.P.)

TEKO CLASSES, H.O.D. MATHS : SUHAG R. KARIYA (S. R. K. Sir) PH: (0755)- 32 00 000,

2v

dx
x
+1
n (v 2 + 1) = n x + n c