You are on page 1of 179

Describe Image

02/29/2016

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

23

24

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

10

11

12

13

14

15
16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

23

24

24

25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

36

37

38

39

40

41

42

43

To write a short description of this graph ask yourself (and


answer!) the following questions:
What exactly does the chart show? (Use the chart title to help you
answer this question)
What are the axes and what are the units?
What similarities are there? Trend?
Highest and lowest?
Conclusion?

PICTURE DESCRIPTION

Kinds of pictures
picture, image painting photograph / photo portrait
landscape painting
Artists
artist photographer

Structure
next to /near
in front of =/=behind
in the foreground
in the background
in the upper part / at the top
Information on artist and year and origin
poster
cartoon
drawing
cover / front page comic strip
cartoonist painter
in the lower part / at the bottom
on the left handside / on the left
on the right hand side / on the right in the central part / in the middle
... (image title) is a painting/drawing/cartoon by ... (artist), painted
in ... (year). ... (artist) painted ... (image) in ... (year).....in (source)
This (image) was published in .....(year) and extracted from ........
(source)
Describing the scene
The picture was taken in/at/near ... (place). / the scene takes in.....
The photo was taken in/at/during....(time)
The picture depicts/ shows / ... (scene).
What can you see?
The picture is composed of ......(number) parts.
... (position: on the left/right/...) there is / are ... / we can see....
... is ... (position: on the left/right/...)
In this picture, the character is (Vb)-ing ...../ the characters are
(Vb)-.ing ..
Impression
The characters look as if ...
The viewer has the impression that ...
The painting is vivid / happy / expressive.
The picture makes the viewer feel ... (sad/happy) The picture inspires the
viewer to think about ...
Intention
The artist / photographer / painter/ cartoonist uses ... to express ...
He / She (probably) wants to criticise / express / show ...
It is obvious that the artist wants to criticise / express / show ...
What the artist / photographer / painter wants to criticise / express /
show is ... What the artist / photographer / painter wants to point out /
focus on is ...

I think / believe / am sure that ...


It seems / appears to me that ...
The problem illustrated here is ... / The issue raised is ...... ...
symbolises ...
... is typical of ...
1 Memory and imagination have been shown to be affected by one
another."Images made by functional magnetic resonance imaging
technology show that remembering and imagining sends blood to identical
parts of the brain.An optimal balance of intrinsic, extraneous, and
germane forms of information processing can heighten the chance of the
brain to retain information as long term memories, rather than short term
memories.
2 Since imagination involves many different brain functions, such as
emotions, memory, thoughts, etc., portions of the brain where multiple
functions occursuch as the thalamus and neocortexare the main
regions where imaginative processing has been documented. [15] The
understanding of how memory and imagination are linked in the brain,
paves the way to better understand one's ability to link significant past
experiences with their imagination
3 Internet users are impatient and are likely to get more impatient
with time.[7] In a large-scale research study that completed in 2012
involving millions of users watching videos on the Internet, Krishnan and
Sitaraman show that users start to abandon online videos if they do not
start playing within two seconds.
4 social networks are more addictive than drugs and can have a
severe psychological impact in the long run of constant Internet use. He
believes people go through phases and being a social network junkie is a
common phase people eventually will find themselves out of. He states "It
can take years to break through the social network addiction."
5 It is, therefore, necessary that parents should let the children
play when it is time to play. Some parents force their children to study as
it is thought to be far more useful for life than play. It is a mistake on
their part to think play as a waste of time. Through the experience of play
a child enriches his life and becomes not only physically strong but also
emotionally.

6 . We can have French, German or Russian, if you like, but


obviously it is infinitely simpler for us to deal with a language which we
know than to shift over to French, German, Russian or Spanish which will
be a tremendous job. Every competent scientist today has to know two or
three non-native languages. In the present age of industrialization,
mechanization, scientific progress and research, we cannot progress
without knowledge of English or, for that matter French , german or
Russian .
7 A scientist uses a very great variety of exploratory stratagems,
and although a scientist has a certain address to his problems- a certain
way of going about things that is more likely to bring success than the
groping of an amateur- he uses no procedure of discovery that can be
logically scripted. According to Popper's methodology, every recognition of
a truth is preceded by an imaginative preconception of what the truth
might be - by hypotheses such as William Whewell
8 Some types of fat actually help to reduce harmful cholesterol
levels. Polyunsaturated fats such as corn, soybean, and sesame oil, and
monounsaturated fats like chicken fat and olive oil, seem to lower blood
cholesterol, while saturated fats-those found in red meat, dairy products,
and tropical oils - seem to raise the level of the kind of cholesterol that
accumulates as plaque on arterial walls.
9 Digging channels for service ships and barges, building docks and
other structures at the waterfront, and, to a lesser extent, laying pipeline
cause another kind of environmental disruption. Instead of poisoning
marine creatures, these activities tend to bury them, choke them, or cut
off the light, which is essential to their whole food chain.
10 This is a conclusion, which is partly projected upon the
occupational scene as the result of their experience with the curriculum in
college and university, and also as the result of experience with college
and university as organizations, which are viewed as bureaucratic,
monolithic, and unchangeable by many students.

Once youve picked a general topic for your paper, you need to
come up with a thesis. Thesis is the main and focal point of your paper
and its the position youll take on your particular topic. Formulating a
strong thesis is one of the most important things you need to do to ace
your paper.
Once: Youve; picked; thesis; position; ace ;paper

Many papers you write in college will require you to include quotes
from one or more sources. even if you don't have to do it, integrating a
few quote into your writing can add life and persuasiveness to your
argument the key is to use quote to support a point you are trying to
make rather than just include them to fill space.
Papers; college; quotes; persuasiveness,

Recently more research has focused on the relationship between


color and psychological functioning.
_____ (Q) Two further experiments establish the link between red
and avoidance motivation as indicated by behavioral (i.e., task choice)
and psychophysiological (i.e., cortical activation) measures.
_____ (R) Four experiments, in fact, demonstrate that the brief
perception of red prior to an important test (e.g., an IQ test) impairs
performance, and this effect appears to take place outside of participants'
conscious awareness.
_____ (S) Red impairs performance on achievement tasks, because
red is associated with the danger of failure in achievement contexts and
evokes avoidance motivation.
_____ (T) All of these findings suggest that care must be taken in
how red is used in achievement contexts and illustrate how color can act
as a subtle environmental cue that has important influences on behavior.
_____ (U) Indeed, startling findings occurred in regard to the
relationship between red and performance attainment.

2,5,3,1,4
Recently more research has focused on the relationship between
color and psychological functioning.
_____ (Q) Two further experiments establish the link between red
and avoidance motivation as indicated by behavioral (i.e., task choice)
and psychophysiological (i.e., cortical activation) measures.

_____ (R) Four experiments, in fact, demonstrate that the brief


perception of red prior to an important test (e.g., an IQ test) impairs
performance, and this effect appears to take place outside of participants'
conscious awareness.
_____ (S) Red impairs performance on achievement tasks, because
red is associated with the danger of failure in achievement contexts and
evokes avoidance motivation.
_____ (T) All of these findings suggest that care must be taken in
how red is used in achievement contexts and illustrate how color can act
as a subtle environmental cue that has important influences on behavior.
_____ (U) Indeed, startling findings occurred in regard to the
relationship between red and performance attainment.
4,3,2,5,1

In one of the standard methods of primitive potters, rings or


coils of clay are built up from a circular base.
_____ (Q) It is not known when or where the potter's wheel was
introduced.
_____ (R) When a pot is built up from the base by hand, it is
impossible that it will be perfectly round.
_____ (S) The walls of the pot are then smoothed and thinned (by
simultaneous pressure on the inner and outer surfaces) before
being fired in a bread oven or in the most elementary of kilns - a
hole in the ground, above which a bonfire is lit.
_____ (T) The solution to this problem is the potter's wheel,
which has been a crucial factor in the history of ceramics.
_____ (U) Indeed it is likely that it developed very gradually, from
a platform on which the potter turns the pot before shaping
another side (thus avoiding having to walk around it).
Pottery: -->4,2,1,3,5
In 1381, some 35 years after the Black Death had swept
through Europe decimating over one third of the population, there
was a shortage of people left to work the land.

_____ (Q) In addition to this, extra revenue was required to


support a long and drawn out war with the French, and so a poll
tax was introduced.
_____ (R) Recognizing the power of supply and demand,
the remaining peasants began to re-evaluate their worth and
subsequently demanded higher wages and better working
conditions.
_____ (S) Not surprisingly the government of the day,
comprised mainly of the land-owning Bishops and Lords, passed a
law to limit any such wage rise.
_____ (T) Things appear to have come to a head when in
May 1381 a tax collector arrived in the Essex village of Fobbing to
find out why the people there had not paid their poll tax and the
villagers promptly threw him out
_____ (U) It was the third time in four years that such a tax
had been applied and this crippling tax meant that everyone over
the age of 15 had to pay one shilling - a significant amount to the
average farm laborer!
Peasant's revolt of 1381 ----> 3,1,2,5,4
We need marine algae a whole lot more than they need us.
_____ (Q) Trees and other land plants are very important, no doubt about
it.
_____ (R) Think about it, 70 to 80 percent of all the oxygen we breathe
comes from algae!
_____ (S) Without them we would really be sucking wind, but not for
long!
_____ (T) But for pure survival, we couldnt make it without algae.
_____ (U) At this point, you may be saying, Yo! What about the trees
and other land plants?
Q=4, R=1, S=2, T=5, U=3

Tim Beatley has long been a leader in advocating for the "greening"
of cities.
_____ (Q) While these are important aspects of re-imagining urban living,
they are not enough, says Beatley.
_____ (R) But too often, he notes, urban greening efforts focus on
everything except nature.
_____ (S) And any vision of a sustainable urban future must place its
focus squarely on nature, on the presence, conservation, and celebration
of the actual green features and natural life forms.
_____ (T) Instead, elements such as public transit, renewable energy
production, and energy efficient building systems are emphasized.
_____ (U) We must remember that human beings have an innate need to
connect with the natural world (the biophilia hypothesis).

Q=3, R-1, S=5, T=2, U=4


In mid-19th century America, most abolitionists were willing to
move slowly toward their goal of ending slavery.
_____ (Q) John Brown saw the cause in a different light.
_____ (R) Brown was unrepentant at trial, stating: "Now, if it is
deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the
ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children
and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are
disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments, I submit; so let it
be done."
_____ (S) After U.S. Marines (commanded by Robert E. Lee)
stormed the armory, a wounded Brown was captured.
_____ (T) He thought that "slavery, throughout its entire existence
in the United States, is none other than the most barbarous, unprovoked
and unjustifiable war of one portion of its citizens against another
portion," and he was willing to pursue just about any means at his
disposal to stop the practice.

_____ (U) On October 16, 1859, Brown, hoping to obtain weapons


for a slave uprising, led a raid on the federal arsenal in Harpers Ferry,
Virginia (now West Virginia), but Brown and his men were surrounded
before they could escape.
Q=1, R=5, S=4, T=2, U=3
By the age of 33 Ghazali was appointed a professor in
Baghdad, where he became recognized as an authority on canon
law.
_____ (Q) His greatest work of synthesis was in The
Revivification of the Religious Sciences, which also argues that
only the Sufi emphasis on inner devotion can fulfill the strict
demands of the Quran.
_____ (R) In spite of his success, Ghazali entered a period of
spiritual crisis.
_____ (S) Therefore, in 1095 Ghazali became a wandering
ascetic, returning to the Sufism of his youth, spending 11 years in
meditation and retirement, until a Sultan persuaded him to teach
again.
_____ (T) As he wrote in his autobiography: I examined my
motives in my work of teaching, and realized that it was not a
pure desire for the things of God, but that the impulse moving me
was the desire for an influential position and public recognition."
_____ (U) In the public teachings and writings which
followed his retirement, Ghazali set forth a synthesis of orthodox
theology and mysticism.
Q= 5, R=1, S=3, T=2, U=4
Perhaps Jeff Koons' most famous work of art is his balloon
dog, a giant polished steel structure which looks like a long
inflated balloon twisted and shaped into the image of a dog.
_____ (Q) The Balloon Dog is, in fact, eternally optimistic
while simultaneously creating a dialogue between its interior and
exterior surroundings through its reflective surfaces.
_____ (R) Indeed, he reveals that the design inspiration for
his inflatable pieces stems from the human body and how a breath
of air can become a symbol of optimism.

_____ (S) Jeff Koons has, in fact, been into inflatable art
since the beginning of his career as an artist.
_____ (T) The huge reflective surfaces give the dog a light,
airy balloon feel, while, in reality, the sculpture weighs an
immense amount.
_____ (U) He often speaks about the concept of inflatable
objects and their symbolic meaning for life itself.
Balloon Dog: 4,3,1,5,2
While A Love Supreme is a recognized musical masterpiece,
it had enormous personal significance for Coltrane.
_____ (Q) In the spring of 1957, his dependence on drugs
and alcohol lost him one of the best jobs in jazz.
_____ (R) Alternately catatonic and brilliant, Coltrane's
behavior and playing became increasingly erratic and Davis fired
him after a live show that April.
_____ (S) Soon after, Coltrane resolved to clean up his act.
_____ (T) He was playing sax and touring with Miles
Davis' popular group when he became unreliable and strung out.
_____ (U) He would later write, in the 1964 liner notes to A
Love Supreme, "In the year of 1957, I experienced, by the grace
of God, a spiritual awakening, which was to lead me to a richer,
fuller, more productive life."
John Coltrane

1,3,4,2,5

1. Scientists that have been studying sleep have determined


that teens need more sleep than they currently get.
A. At school, teens have difficulty with complex thought because
many of them do not get enough sleep each night.
B. Research determined that sleep is necessary to help with creating
memories and solving problems.
C. To help teens get more sleep, many schools are pushing back
their start times so their students perform better.
D. Along with difficulty thinking, teens who do not get enough sleep
can have more stress in their lives, simply due to an increase in cortisol,
the hormone that causes stress.

E. In response to the high levels of stress in the body, teens also act
impulsively and they can lose their sense of humor.
.BADEC
2. Concussion laws are changing the way that many sports
are played, but many people do not know very much about
concussions at all.
A. While the intensity of the impact may or may not cause a
concussion, researchers have found that when athletes are hit on the top
of the head they are more likely to suffer from a concussion.
B. Many people believe that concussions only occur when athletes
are hit on the head.
C. In reality, concussions can occur if direct impact occurs on the
face or neck as well as anywhere else that the force can be sent to the
head.
D. Due to the uncertainty of whether or not an impact has actually
caused a concussion is the major reason why concussion laws have been
enacted.
E. One of the scariest things about concussions is that they happen
with varying degrees of impact.
BCEAD
3. Homecoming celebrations have been held at colleges and
high schools across the United States since the mid-1800s.
A. Even though other schools think they had homecoming games
prior to Missouri, the reason that Missouri has the title is because the
athletic director invited alumni to come home to see a big game between
Kansas and Missouri in 1911.
B. Despite the NCAA giving Missouri the official designation of
having the first homecoming, Baylor University claims one of the earliest
homecomings with activities for alumni that included an afternoon football
game along with reunion parties and a parade.
C. The actual origins of the traditional event are unknown, but the
the University of Missouri is the homecoming birthplace as stated by the
NCAA.
D. The first true homecoming may never be known, but what is
known for sure is that most colleges and high schools did not hold
homecoming celebrations in 1918 due to World War I.
E. The University of Illinois also claims to have had an earlier
homecoming celebration than the one in Missouri.
CBEAD
4. William Howard Taft was an unlikely president who served
from 1909 until 1913.
A. The biggest weakness was that he was morbidly obese weighing
in at 335 pounds on his 6 foot 2 frame.
B. His obesity caused him to suffer from health problems like sleep
apnea.
C. Despite his strengths, he had many weaknesses.

D. It also caused him to get stuck in the White House bathtub,


which prompted him to have a tub installed that could fit four fully grown
men.
E. As president, he was knowledgeable about the law and fighting
for the good of the country.
ECABD
5. The Apollo Space Program was one of the most important
scientific programs in the history of the United States.
A. The first Apollo missions was manned, but never left the ground
due to a fire that ended the life of Gus Grissom, Edward White, and Roger
Chaffee.
B. The highlight of the program was Apollo 11, which was the flight
where Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Buzz Aldrin landed on the
moon in the Sea of Tranquility.
C. After several test launches, the seventh mission, called Apollo 7,
resulted in the first manned orbit of the Earth.
D. Even though the mission did not go as planned, Apollo 13
showed the world what NASA was made of as scientists worked together
to bring three astronauts on a heavily damaged orbiter safely back to
Earth.
E. Following the Apollo 1 disaster, NASA scientists had to reevaluate
the safety of the program.
AECBD
From: Bankim PAREKH
Sent: Tuesday, October 13, 2015 5:45 PM
To: 'bankim.parekh98@gmail.com'
Subject: pte paragraph test

Nearly half the pesticides used in India go into protecting cotton,


the most important commercial crop in the country. However, pests have
shown increased immunity to a range of pesticides. Last year there were
heavy crop losses due to leaf-curl, which is caused by the dreaded
whitefly. This nondescript, milky-white fly sucks sap from the cotton
leaves, making them curl and dry up. The fly struck first in Pakistan and
north-western India. Then it turned south.
Whitefly, boll weevils and caterpillars multiplied and destroyed their
crops, despite the constant application of pesticides. The average yield of
cotton fields in Andhra Pradesh fell by more than half in just one year.
Now the farmers are in no position to repay the loans or feed their
families.

According to the Ministry of Agriculture, the crop losses and


destruction in Andhra Pradesh arose from the repeated application of
excessive amounts of chemicals - a practice actively encouraged by
pesticides traders.

Most of the farmers are extremely poor. Attracted by cheap loans


from pesticides traders and the prospect of a quick buck, they borrowed
heavily to raise cotton on small plots of land.
As many as 60,000 small farmers in the region of Andhra Pradesh,
southern India, have taken to farming cotton instead of food crops. Some
20 of them have recently committed suicide by eating lethal doses of
pesticide.
The suicide of Samala Mallaiah in Nagara village grabbed media
headlines. He owned one acre of land, leased two more and grew cotton
on all three. After making a loss in the first year, he leased yet more land
in an attempt to recover. Confronted with falling prices, mounting debts
and pest attacks, he committed harakiri. Cotton has given us shattered
dreams, said one old farmer in Nagara village.
cadb
a. For a lightweight poster or sign, you can use either offset book
stock or cover stock.
b. You'll probably have to take your publication to a commercial
printer, however, since bristol won't feed through most desktop printers or
copy machines.
c. The type of paper you choose for a poster or a sign depends on
how it will be reproduced and how it is going to be used.
d. If you need to create a more durable poster or sign, or create
packaging, bristol stock is your best choice.

eadbc
a. It's rare, but not unheard of, for mail to go astray.
b. And many corporate mail servers have had growing pains, too,
experiencing holdups and the odd deletion.

c. On the whole though, you can assume email will arrive.


d. However during 1997, AOL and Microsoft Network - to name just
the big players - had severe mail outages resulting in the delay, and in
some cases loss, of email.
e. In general Internet email is considerably more reliable than the
postal service.

ca ebfd

a. Time may indicate the importance of the occasion as well as on


what level an interaction between persons is to take place.
b. The same applies for calls after 11:00 P.M.
c. Different parts of the day, for example, are highly significant in
certain contexts.
d. Our realisation that time talks is even reflected in such common
expressions as, "What time does the clock say?"
e. In the United States if you telephone someone very early in the
morning, while he is shaving or having breakfast, the time of the call
usually signals a matter of utmost importance and extreme urgency.
f. A call received during sleeping hours is apt to be taken as a
matter of life and death, hence the rude joke value of these calls among
the young.

a. But modern anthropology stands opposed to the view that


anatomy is destiny.
b. Men are taller, heavier, and stronger than women; hence it is
"natural" that hunting and warfare should be male specialities.

c. Men have higher levels of testosterone; hence they are


"naturally" more aggressive, sexually and otherwise, and are "naturally"
dominant over women.
d. Since differences in the anatomy and physiology of human males
and females are so obvious it is easy to be misled into believing that sexlinked roles and statuses are primarily biological rather than cultural
phenomena.
e. As the underlying demographic, technological, economic, and
ecological conditions to which these sex-linked roles are adapted change,
new cultural definitions of sex-linked roles will emerge.
f. Moreover since women menstruate, become pregnant, and
lactate, they "naturally" are the ones to stay at home to care for and feed
infants and children.
g. Nor are women born with an innate tendency to care for infants
and children and to be sexually and politically subordinate.
h. Rather it has been the case that under a broad but finite set of
cultural and natural conditions certain sex-linked specialities have been
selected for in a large number of cultures.
i. Males are not born with an innate tendency to be hunters or
warriors or to be sexually and politically dominant over women.

bdeac

A: When this bank was founded in 1695, Scots coinage was in short
supply and of uncertain value, compared with English, Dutch, Flemish or
French coin.
B: In most countries it is only the government, through their central
banks, who are permitted to issue currency.
C: To face growth of trade it was deemed necessary to remedy this
lack of an adequate currency.
D: But in Scotland three banks are still allowed to issue banknotes.
E: The first Scottish bank to do this was the Bank of Scotland.

daebc

A: These markets had become rapidly dominated by powerful


enterprises who were able to act in their own interests, against the
interests of both workers and consumers.
B: Mill was able to see an expanded role for the State in such
legislation to protect us against powerful interests.
C: He was able to argue that the State was the only organ that was
genuinely capable of responding to social needs and social interests,
unlike markets.
D: Markets may be good at encouraging innovation and following
trends, but they were no good at ensuring social equality.
E: There had already been some legislation to prevent such abuses
- such as various Factory Acts to prevent the exploitation of child workers.

In the last decades of the 18th century, the losers seriously


outnumbered the winners. Those who were fortunate enough to occupy
the upper levels of society, celebrated their good fortune by living a
hedonistic life of gambling, parties and alcohol. It was their moral right,
they felt, to exploit the weak and the poor. Few of them thought their
lives should change, even fewer believed it could.
SelectABCDEFGHBut a moral makeover was on the horizon, and one
of the first people to promote it was William Wilberforce, better known for
his efforts in abolishing the slave trade. Writing to a friend, Lord
Muncaster, he stated that 'the universal corruption and profligacy of the
times...taking its rise amongst the rich and luxurious has now ... spread
its destructive poison through the whole body of the people.'
But a moral makeover was on the horizon, and one of the first
people to promote it was William Wilberforce, better known for his efforts
in abolishing the slave trade. Writing to a friend, Lord Muncaster, he
stated that 'the universal corruption and profligacy of the times...taking
its rise amongst the rich and luxurious has now ... spread its destructive
poison through the whole body of the people.'

But the decisive turning point for moral reform was the French
revolution. John Bowlder, a popular moralist of the time, blamed the
destruction of French society on a moral crisis. Edmund Burke, a Whig
statesman agreed. 'When your fountain is choked up and polluted,' he
wrote, 'the stream will not run long or clear.' If the English society did not
reform, ruin would surely follow.
These prophecies roused a little agitation when first published in
1790. But it was the events in 1792-93 which shocked England into
action. Over in France, insurrection had led to war and massacre. The
King and Queen had been tried and executed. France was now regarded
as completely immoral and uncivilized, a country where vice and irreligion
reigned.
Englishmen were deeply afraid that the immorality of France would
invade England. Taking advantage of this, Burke was able to gain
considerable support by insisting that the French did not have the moral
qualifications to be a civilised nation. He pronounced 'Better this island
should be sunk to the bottom of the sea that than... it should not be a
country of religion and morals.'

At first moralists did not look for some tangible end to moral
behaviour. They concerned themselves with the spiritual salvation of the
rich and titled members of society, believing that the moral tone set by
the higher ranks would influence the lower orders. For example, Samuel
Parr, preaching at London's St Paul's Cathedral, said 'If the rich
man...abandons himself to sloth and all the vices which sloth generates,
he corrupts by his example. He permits...his immediate attendants to be,
like him, idle and profligate.'
Sobering though these messages were, the aristocracy of the time
was open to such reforms, not least due to fear. France's attempt to
destroy their nobility did much to encourage the upper classes to examine
and re-evaluate their own behaviour. Added to this was the arrival of
French noble migrs to British shores. As these people were dependant
on the charity of the British aristocracy, it became paramount to amend
morals and suppress all vices in order to uphold the state.
In time, the fervour for improved morals strayed beyond personal
behaviour and towards a new governance. People called for a tightening
of existing laws which had formerly been enforced only laxly. Gambling,
duelling, swearing, prostitution, pornography and adultery laws were
more strictly upheld to the extent that several fashionable ladies were
fined fifty pounds each for gambling in a private residence.

Whether the vices of the rich and titled stopped or were merely
cloaked is open to question. But it is clear that by the turn of the century,
a more circumspect society had emerged. Styles of dress became more
moderate, and the former adornments of swords, buckles and powdered
hair were no longer seen. There was a profusion of moral didactic
literature available. Public hangings ceased and riots became much rarer.
So far, however, circumspection in the upper classes had done little
to improve the lives of those in the lower classes. But that was to change.
Against a backdrop of the moral high ground, faults in the system started
to stand out. One by one, people started to question the morality of those
in authority.
One such person was Thomas Wackley who in 1823 founded a
medical journal called 'the Lancet'. At this time, Medicine was still a
profession reserved for the rich, and access to knowledge was impossible
for the common man. The Lancet shone a bright light on the questionable
practices undertaken in medicine and particularly in surgery, and finally
led to improved standards of care.
Similar developments occurred in the Civil Service. Civil servants
were generally employed as a result of nepotism or acquaintance, and
more often than not took advantage of their power to provide for
themselves at the expense of the public. Charles Trevelyan, an official at
the London Treasury, realised the weaknesses in the system and proposed
that all civil servants were employed as a result of entrance examinations,
thus creating a system which was politically independent and consisted of
people who were genuinely able to do the job.
How though did changes at the top effect the people at the bottom
of the societal hierarchy? Not all reformers concerned themselves which
changes at the authoritative and governmental levels. Others
concentrated on improving the lives and morals of the poor. In the midst
of the industrial revolution, the poorest in society were in dire straits.
Many lived in slums and sanitation was poor. No-one wanted the
responsibility of improvement.
But one woman, Octavia Hill, was willing to step up to the mark.
Hill, despite serious opposition by the men who still dominated English
society, succeeded in opening a number of housing facilities for the poor.
But, recognising the weaknesses of a charity-dependent culture, Hill
enforced high moral standards, strict measures in hygiene and cleanliness
upon her tenants, and, in order to promote a culture of industry, made
them work for any financial handouts.

Could local authorities impose such measures today? Probably not.


Even so, the legacy of the moral reform of the late 1800s and 1900s lives
on today. Because of it, the British have come to expect a system which is
competent, fair to all and free from corruption. Nowadays everyone has a
right to a home, access to education, and protection at work and in
hospital. This is all down to the men and women who did not just observe
society's ills from a distance, but who dared to take steps to change it.

For many centuries, the question of how our minds work was left to
theologians and philosophers. But at the beginning of the twentieth
century, a new science, experimental psychology emerged, in which the
speculative theories of the past were confirmed or disproved by the
scientific method. At the forefront of this research was J B Watson. His
area of interest was the origin of human emotions. Do we learn them, or
do we have them when we are born? In particular, Watson wanted to
study fear, and was prepared to go to whatever lengths to study his
theory.
Watsons subject was a 9 month old infant, Albert. During the
experiment, Watson presented the child with things which are often
considered frightening a rat, fire, a clown mask. At first, Albert was
unafraid of these things. But then Watson tormented the child with loud,
unexpected noises as he was playing with them. Sure enough, Albert
learnt to associate these things with the unpleasant experience. Even
when the noises were stopped, Albert withdrew his body and puckered his
face when presented once more with the rat and mask.
Such abusive and disturbing experiments would never be permitted
nowadays. The film which Watson made of the experiment makes
discomforting viewing, as the child is interminably and cold-heartedly
tortured by the items which he has been taught to fear. Nonetheless, this
was a landmark work with profound influence. Through it, Watson
confirmed that humans learn fear by association, and as a result they can
un-learn it, a discovery that still impact s the work of behavioural
therapists today.

Ah, the wisdom of age! Its comforting to know, as you reach for
another cup of tea and a digestive, that even though you are not jogging
lithely up and down the streets like those lithe bodies out there, at least
your mind has been honed by your life experiences into a pearl of insight
and erudition, ready to be tapped for knowledge.
But I would think that, wouldnt I? But thankfully, Im not alone in
my view, and nor is it just my generation that agrees with me. There are
in fact a small but growing number of young researchers who are helping
us to prove our case. Recently, some American psychologists set about to
find out whether there is a relationship between wisdom and age by
studying how people of various ages reasoned in questions of social
conflict.
Subjects were invited to comment on stories featuring disputes
between individuals or social groups, including matters of ethnic tension
and immigration. Evaluators listened to their responses and scored them
according to a set of wisdom criteria such factors included preference
for compromise, acknowledgement of others points of view and ways to
manage uncertainty (pinpointing exactly what wisdom is is a decidedly
tricky business, it would appear). The findings were clear, (as of course
you would know already, wouldnt you, being so wise?). The older
participants scored more highly than the younger ones. QED.
Of course theres always someone who wants it to rain on the
parade. Another American theorised more recently that older brains are
slower, and thus more risk-averse and less impulsive. Clearly this is
balderdash, but hell learn, when hes older.

is not enough for companies to bombard us with visual and auditory


advertisements. Its not that potential customers have become immune to
this kind of sensory stimuli. Indeed a catchy jingle or an image that taps
into our personal desires is as effective as ever it was. But nowadays the
average person experiences over a hundred advertisements per day. How
is a company to make an impact when it is basically just one bullet in a
continuous barrage?
A modern solution is find alternative entry to our subconscious
olfactory. This is a far more primal sense than the ones we have come to
depend on, and, if urban legends are true and we do choose our mates
according to their pheromones over any other factor, one that we have
less control of than we think.

Subliminal messaging via visual stimuli has been practised for some
time. In 1957, there were reports that drinks promotions flashed on a
movie screen for a fraction of a second could increase sales by over 50%
by striking viewer at a subconscious level. Such techniques were later
judged by a United Nations study to be a major threat to human rights
and were banned in a number of countries.
Olfactory advertising has an even more powerful effect on our
buying habits. Our sense of smell is directly connected to the limbic
system, our emotional centre. Odours nearly always cause emotional
reactions, and there is no way for humans to avoid them. Marketers can
thus create an atmosphere which effectively encourages customers to
spend longer in stores or gravitate to certain products. Awareness is key.
Only through a greater control over our most basic instincts can we hope
to withstand the marketers newest assaults.

This was the title of a relatively recent article written by Nicholas


Carr and published in the American Magazine The Atlantic. In it, Carr
describes his worrying sense that his mind is not actually going, but is
changing, as if his memory and neural circuitry was being tinkered with.
He describes his inability to focus on a single thread of thought, and puts
this down, not actually to the search engine itself, but to his growing
dependence on ubiquitous online networking and its subsequent effect on
the structure of our brains. Another of his fears is that it impairs memory.
Why remember anything when there is Google can retrieve that
knowledge in an instant?
Im no neurobiologist, but Carr has a point. Our brains are muscles.
Work and stretch parts of it and they will become quick, strong and
versatile. So any relaxation of the memory synapse will be countered by
a strengthening in reading, navigation and problem-solving. As we know,
misinformation and nonsense on the internet is rife, but this need not be
considered a negative. Acknowledgement of this brings about questioning
and debate, where the reader does not simply accept information as fact,
but has both the insight and wherewithal to assess, compare and support
the information he or she finds.

Popular writers such as Steve Biddulph in Australia and Sam Keen in


America, assert that in Western societies young males are left to
themselves to become men by chance.
As part of an ethnographic study of fourteen young and mid-life
Australian mens perceptions of a dominant model of masculinity,
participants were asked when, and how they believe that they became a
man.
The experiences of these males are compared, and related to what
three streams of literature on masculinity: academic discourses, popular
writings and Australian research and commentaries have to say.
The topic of how young males become men is a frequent topic in
popular writings on masculinity, in contrast to academic discourses that
rarely raise the issue.

_____________________________________

A The paper draws from examples from current gerontological


research to illuminate the usefulness of such a Foucauldian approach for
researching social gerontology.
B his broad theory has attempted to understand how aging is
socially constructed by discourses used by professions and disciplines in
order to control and regulate the experiences of older people and to
legitimise powerful narratives afforded to age by such groups.
C In particular, the paper locates concepts of archaeology,
genealogy and technologies of self and highlights the importance and
creative impact these have for social gerontology in the USA, UK and
Australasia.
D Gerontology too as a discipline and praxis provides the space
for the construction and dissemination of knowledge formation.
E To address this, the paper introduces some of the
methodological tools from the scholarship of Michel Foucault.
F There has been a rise in recent years of a theoretical current
entitled Foucauldian gerontology.

There has been a rise in recent years of a theoretical current


entitled Foucauldian gerontology. This broad theory has attempted to
understand how aging is socially constructed by discourses used by
professions and disciplines in order to control and regulate the
experiences of older people and to legitimise powerful narratives afforded
to age by such groups. Gerontology too as a discipline and praxis provides
the space for the construction and dissemination of knowledge formation.
To address this, the paper introduces some of the methodological tools
from the scholarship of Michel Foucault. In particular, the paper locates
concepts of archaeology, genealogy and technologies of self and highlights
the importance and creative impact these have for social gerontology in
the USA, UK and Australasia. The paper draws from examples from
current gerontological research to illuminate the usefulness of such a
Foucauldian approach for researching social gerontology
____________________________

Some critics believe distance education's inability to reproduce a


critical dialogue among students and between students and instructor can
be addressed through the use of two-way communication technologies
such as text-based, asynchronous (i.e., not in real time) computer
conferencing. Appropriately-designed computer conferencing, it is argued,
will facilitate interaction among students and between the instructor and
students thus making distance education more appropriate for the higherlevel cognitive goals of college and university education. At the same
time, using this technology will retain the flexibility of time and placeindependence that is characteristic of distance education.
B The results of this study suggest that some of the claims about
the potential of this technology to transform conventional and distance
education may be overstated. The emergence of a dynamic and
interactive educational process that facilitates critical thinking was shown
to be contingent on a variety of factors. The results suggest, however,
that with the appropriate course design, instructor interventions, content,
and students, computer conferencing can be used for these purposes and
should be given serious consideration by distance educators as a way of
facilitating interaction and critical thinking in distance education.
C Despite the growth in the size and acceptance of distance
education, there have been persistent criticisms of this form of education
because it often fails to provide for interaction among students and
between students and instructors. Without this, it is suggested, distance
education can only be an inferior imitation of the best face-to-face
education because learners are unable to clarify and challenge
assumptions and to construct meaning through dialogue.

D The literature on educational computer conferencing is replete


with references to its potential to create a new paradigm of education
characterized by interactive group knowledge-building and critical
thinking, but there are few empirical studies that have substantiated this
view. Little is known about how and why learners participate and what
factors may affect their participation. Similarly there has been little
empirical study of the quality of computer conferencing interaction.
E This case study of a university-level course delivered by
computer conferencing was designed to address these issues. It was
guided by two purposes: 1) to determine whether the quantitative and
qualitative dimensions of participation in this online course were
consistent with key aspects of the new paradigm of networked learning as
articulated in the literature, that is, if students were actively participating,
building on each others contributions and thinking critically about the
discussion topics; and 2) to determine what factors affected student
participation and critical thinking.

Despite the growth in the size and acceptance of distance


education, there have been persistent criticisms of this form of education
because it often fails to provide for interaction among students and
between students and instructors. Without this, it is suggested, distance
education can only be an inferior imitation of the best face-to-face
education because learners are unable to clarify and challenge
assumptions and to construct meaning through dialogue.
Some critics believe distance education's inability to reproduce a
critical dialogue among students and between students and instructor can
be addressed through the use of two-way communication technologies
such as text-based, asynchronous (i.e., not in real time) computer
conferencing. Appropriately-designed computer conferencing, it is argued,
will facilitate interaction among students and between the instructor and
students thus making distance education more appropriate for the higherlevel cognitive goals of college and university education. At the same
time, using this technology will retain the flexibility of time and placeindependence that is characteristic of distance education.
The literature on educational computer conferencing is replete with
references to its potential to create a new paradigm of education
characterized by interactive group knowledge-building and critical
thinking, but there are few empirical studies that have substantiated this
view. Little is known about how and why learners participate and what
factors may affect their participation. Similarly there has been little
empirical study of the quality of computer conferencing interaction.

This case study of a university-level course delivered by computer


conferencing was designed to address these issues. It was guided by two
purposes: 1) to determine whether the quantitative and qualitative
dimensions of participation in this online course were consistent with key
aspects of the new paradigm of networked learning as articulated in the
literature, that is, if students were actively participating, building on each
others contributions and thinking critically about the discussion topics;
and 2) to determine what factors affected student participation and
critical thinking.
The results of this study suggest that some of the claims about the
potential of this technology to transform conventional and distance
education may be overstated. The emergence of a dynamic and
interactive educational process that facilitates critical thinking was shown
to be contingent on a variety of factors. The results suggest, however,
that with the appropriate course design, instructor interventions, content,
and students, computer conferencing can be used for these purposes and
should be given serious consideration by distance educators as a way of
facilitating interaction and critical thinking in distance education.
___________________________________

The results demonstrate that, for a majority of students, a


community of practice was identified with according to criteria suggested
by Wenger (1998) for this to happen, such as mutual engagement, shared
repertoire and joint enterprise. Students were able to differentiate key
features of webworlds that assisted or hindered their ability to learn.
Records stored in the collaborative workspace enabled the tutors to
identify not only key aspects of the learning process but also to assess the
quality and quantity of each student's individual work and contribution to
the group work. Finally, students reported their own sense of improved
learning and enthusiasm for the task although this may be due to the
'halo effect'. In addition, several typical problems facing teachers in
higher education are also addressed such as decreasing levels of
attendance, assessing group work and identifying the authorship of work
submitted collectively.

B Students studying software engineering were assigned group


tasks involving web-based learning environments ('webworlds') and a
collaborative workspace. The aim was to encourage students to identify
themselves in a community of practice, which might develop as students
acquired proficiency in the use of readily available tools and an
opportunity to share the experience of learning. An instructional design
approach was used to encourage this, according to criteria suggested by
Wenger (1998) such as mutual engagement, shared repertoire and joint
enterprise This paper focuses on the role of the teacher in identifying
examples of learning, and assessing its process and outcomes.
C The methodology of the study consisted of identifying
appropriate tasks within the existing curriculum and the software to
support those tasks, creating an effective instructional design that would
support students' collaborative learning, providing opportunities for
dialogue, monitoring learning patterns and gathering additional evidence
from students' self-reporting of their experiences. Software used included
CASE tools (Engstrom, 1997, and Cumberbatch, 1999) and simulations.
D Another tool used was students' self-reporting of their
experiences using an evaluation essay written as part of each assignment
and the answers to an examination question that was framed in such a
way as to elicit responses about learning. The question asked students to
"explain how on-line tools assist, or not, the development of collaborative
software engineering".
E About one hundred students took part in the main part of the
study. The results, in the form of interactive events, stored designs,
communications and learning paths, and students' comments are
analysed using approaches based on grounded analysis using both
qualitative and quantitative techniques.
F In conclusion, the paper will argue that, given appropriate tasks
and support, webworlds and collaborative learning will enhance the
student experience individually and collectively and provide tutors with
new tools for both teaching and assessment. The concept of a community
of practice can be usefully applied to new virtual learning environments as
a guide to their design and evaluation.

G A variety of tools were used to analyse patterns of working and


interaction that might throw some light on learning processes. The
collaborative workspace (BSCW, 1997) generated daily lists of events that
enabled the tutor and other students to respond as appropriate. For
example, the storage of a new or edited computer program design might
be simply noted or a pertinent question asked to 'seed' a discussion about
improving it. Subsequent analysis of both the stored designs and
communication about them enabled patterns of production and interaction
that were given the name 'learning paths' to be identified and which it is
claimed gave the tutor insight into students' learning patterns that
approximates to that available during small tutorial sessions. Suggestions
are made for how these patterns might be formalised and incorporated
into the instructional design lifecycle.
Students studying software engineering were assigned group tasks
involving web-based learning environments ('webworlds') and a
collaborative workspace. The aim was to encourage students to identify
themselves in a community of practice, which might develop as students
acquired proficiency in the use of readily available tools and an
opportunity to share the experience of learning. An instructional design
approach was used to encourage this, according to criteria suggested by
Wenger (1998) such as mutual engagement, shared repertoire and joint
enterprise This paper focuses on the role of the teacher in identifying
examples of learning, and assessing its process and outcomes.
The methodology of the study consisted of identifying appropriate
tasks within the existing curriculum and the software to support those
tasks, creating an effective instructional design that would support
students' collaborative learning, providing opportunities for dialogue,
monitoring learning patterns and gathering additional evidence from
students' self-reporting of their experiences. Software used included CASE
tools (Engstrom, 1997, and Cumberbatch, 1999) and simulations.
A variety of tools were used to analyse patterns of working and
interaction that might throw some light on learning processes. The
collaborative workspace (BSCW, 1997) generated daily lists of events that
enabled the tutor and other students to respond as appropriate. For
example, the storage of a new or edited computer program design might
be simply noted or a pertinent question asked to 'seed' a discussion about
improving it. Subsequent analysis of both the stored designs and
communication about them enabled patterns of production and interaction
that were given the name 'learning paths' to be identified and which it is
claimed gave the tutor insight into students' learning patterns that
approximates to that available during small tutorial sessions. Suggestions
are made for how these patterns might be formalised and incorporated
into the instructional design lifecycle.

Another tool used was students' self-reporting of their experiences


using an evaluation essay written as part of each assignment and the
answers to an examination question that was framed in such a way as to
elicit responses about learning. The question asked students to "explain
how on-line tools assist, or not, the development of collaborative software
engineering".
About one hundred students took part in the main part of the study.
The results, in the form of interactive events, stored designs,
communications and learning paths, and students' comments are
analysed using approaches based on grounded analysis using both
qualitative and quantitative techniques.
The results demonstrate that, for a majority of students, a
community of practice was identified with according to criteria suggested
by Wenger (1998) for this to happen, such as mutual engagement, shared
repertoire and joint enterprise. Students were able to differentiate key
features of webworlds that assisted or hindered their ability to learn.
Records stored in the collaborative workspace enabled the tutors to
identify not only key aspects of the learning process but also to assess the
quality and quantity of each student's individual work and contribution to
the group work. Finally, students reported their own sense of improved
learning and enthusiasm for the task although this may be due to the
'halo effect'. In addition, several typical problems facing teachers in
higher education are also addressed such as decreasing levels of
attendance, assessing group work and identifying the authorship of work
submitted collectively.
In conclusion, the paper will argue that, given appropriate tasks and
support, webworlds and collaborative learning will enhance the student
experience individually and collectively and provide tutors with new tools
for both teaching and assessment. The concept of a community of
practice can be usefully applied to new virtual learning environments as a
guide to their design and evaluation.
______________________________________________
Minhwa is a traditional Korean art form.
___ 2__(Q) These are insights that would never have been publicly
promulgated through the media of the dominant culture.

___4__(R) Minhwa is basically, therefore, the raw, insightful and


passionate real people (magpies)attacking the established and respected
hacks (tigers) in power who control things through connections, quid pro
quo arrangements and whatever other forms of shadiness they can think
of to try to seem relevant and important.
_1____ (S) Minhwa has represented the experiences and desires of
the common people, revealing insights only the people could know about
life and society.
___5__ (T) Therefore the tigers arent really tigers in Minhwa, they
are buffoons just as the aristocracy and power-brokers were, or have
been, overwhelmingly, buffoons.
___3__(U) Because it is from the relatively powerless common
people, there is often sarcasm and humor in Minhwa, and perhaps some
secret social symbolism and criticism, as with magpies mocking vicious
and powerful tigers who suddenly look stupid and ridiculous.

While over one million people starved to death in Ireland from 1845
1850, boatloads of grain regularly arrived from Ireland, through the
port of Liverpool, to feed the citizens of England.
_1____ (Q) The Irish people had been colonized by the English and
most Irish worked for various wealthy (mostly English) landlords.
_3____ (R) Thus, the tenant farmers who were dependent on the
potato starved while the wealthy landowners reaped tremendous profits
from the Irish grain they exported.
_2____ (S) These landlords never even considered stopping the
transport of food from Ireland to England so that the Irish themselves
might be saved while the potato crop was decimated by a fungus.
_5____ (T) Yet, a famine is when there is no food there was an
overabundance of foodthe Irish just werent allowed to eat it.
_4____ (U) This was free market capitalism at its most
transparently inhumane, but it has come down to us through history
whitewashed as the potato famine.

Why do animals grieve and why do we see grief in different species


of animals?

_5____(Q) Whatever its value, grief is the price of commitment,


that wellspring of both happiness and sorrow.

__1___(R) It's been suggested that grief reactions may allow for
the reshuffling of status relationships, the filling of a reproductive vacancy
left by the deceased, or for fostering continuity of the group.

__4___(S) Whatever the reasons, it's likely that grief evolved to


serve different functions in different species.

___2__(T) Some further theorize that perhaps mourning


strengthens social bonds among the survivors who band together to pay
their last respects.

__3___(U) This may enhance group cohesion at a time when it's


likely to be weakened.

__4___(Q) The Summer of Love boasted music festivals, poetry


readings, speeches, and even theater.
__1___(R) Thousands of people answered the call, gathering in
Golden Gate Park to promote peace, happiness, and love.
___5__(S) For the most part, the Summer of Love proved
successful in its ability to spread the counterculture message, but by the
fall of 1967, increased incidents of crime and drug abuse by hippies
gathered in Haight-Ashbury signaled a change in the movement.
__3___(T) The Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco
quickly became the gathering place and home for many displaced youth
who came to celebrate the counterculture event.
__2___(U) During the spring, more disillusioned youth traveled to
San Francisco upon hearing a declaration that the summer of 1967 would
be the Summer of Love.

Bubble wrap was originally designed to be used as wallpaper.

__5___ (Q) However, this wallpaper idea didnt sell too well.

___2__ (R) The two were not, however, trying to make a product to
be used as packaging material.

__1___ (S) It was invented by two engineers: Al Fielding and Swiss


inventor Marc Chavannes, in Hawthorne, N.J. in 1957.

___4__ (T) They started out by sealing two shower curtains


together in such a way that it would capture air bubbles which would
make the textured appearance for their wallpaper.

__3___ (U) Rather, they were trying to create a textured wallpaper.

The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e developed in the city of Edo (now


Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1615-1868).

__2___ (Q) Thus, with their political power effectively removed, the
merchant class turned to art and culture as arenas in which they could
participate on an equal basis with the elite upper classes (warriors,
farmers, and artisans).

__5___ (R) Although the cultural status of Ukiyo-e was initially


considered "low" art, by and for the non-elite classes, its artistic and
technical caliber is consistently remarkable.

__3___ (S) It was, indeed, the collaboration among the merchants,


artists, publishers, and townspeople of Edo that gave Ukiyo-e its unique
voice.

____1_ (T) The social hierarchy of the day, officially established by


shogun rulers, placed the merchants, the wealthiest segment of the
population, at the lower end of the scale.

_4____ (U) In turn, Ukiyo-e provided these groups with a means of


attaining cultural status outside the sanctioned realms of shogunate,
temple, and court.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?
v=2z1rOZMPTlo&list=PLOjxOIOtmBvHqgqd4-5F_eRtFPuv0TbD5
https://drive.google.com/folderview?
id=0BzZQKPUH3G7aN2RXVUhpSzZTWHM&usp=sharing

COLLOCATIONS(http://englishcollocation.blogspot.in/2015/03/wh
at-is-collocation.html)
Claim to, fun of, put forward, population growth, crucial to, runs in
families, brain function, significant number, fact of life, distinct types,
strictly speaking, considerable skill, the essentials of life, in harmony with,
admit to + -ing, there's no getting away from, serve the purpose,
regarded as, public performance, covered with, mistaken for, described
as, respond to, known as,

have
have
have
have
have
have
have
have
have
have

have a bath
a drink
a good time
a haircut
a holiday
a problem
a relationship
a rest
lunch
sympathy

take
take a break
take a chance
take a look
take a rest
take a seat
take a taxi
take an exam
take notes
take someone's place
take someone's
temperature
pay
pay a fine
pay attention
pay by credit card
pay cash
pay interest
pay someone a
compliment
pay someone a visit
pay the bill
pay the price
pay your respects

come
come
come
come
come
come
come

come
come close
complete with
direct
early
first
into view
last
late

do

make
make a
do business
difference
do nothing
make a mess
do someone a favour
make a mistake
do the cooking
make a noise
do the housework
make an effort
do the shopping
make furniture
do the washing up
make money
do your best
make progress
do your hair
make room
do your homework
make trouble
break
catch
break a habit
catch a ball
break a leg
catch a bus
break a promise
catch a chill
break a record
catch a cold
break a window
catch a thief
break someone's heart catch fire
break the ice
catch sight of
break the law
catch someone's
break the news to
attention
someone
catch someone's eye
break the rules
catch the flu
save
keep
save electricity
keep a diary
save energy
save money
keep a promise
save one's strength
keep a secret
save someone a seat
keep an appointment
save someone's life
keep calm
save something to a
keep control
disk
keep in touch
save space
keep quiet
save time
keep someone's place
save yourself the
keep the change
trouble
go
get
go abroad
get a job
go astray
get a shock
go bad
get angry
go bald
get divorced
go bankrupt
get drunk
go blind
get frightened
go crazy
get home
go dark
get lost

come
come
come
come
come
come
come
come
come
come
come
come

on time
prepared
right back
second
to a compromise
to a decision
to an agreement
to an end
to a standstill
to terms with
to a total of
under attack

go
go
go
go
go
go
go
go
go
go
go
go

deaf
fishing
mad
missing
on foot
online
out of business
overseas
quiet
sailing
to war
yellow

get
get
get
get
get
get
get
get
get
get
get
get

married
nowhere
permission
pregnant
ready
started
the impression
the message
the sack
upset
wet
worried

Miscellaneous collocations

Time
bang on time
dead on time
early 12th century
free time
from dawn till dusk
great deal of time
late 20th century
make time for
next few days
past few weeks
right on time
run out of time
save time
spare time
spend some time
take your time
tell someone the time
time goes by
time passes
waste time

Business English
annual turnover
bear in mind
break off negotiations
cease trading
chair a meeting
close a deal
close a meeting
come to the point
dismiss an offer
draw a conclusion
draw your attention to
launch a new product
lay off staff
go bankrupt
go into partnership
make a loss
make a profit
market forces
sales figures
take on staff

Classifiers

a ball of string
a bar of chocolate
a bottle of water
a bunch of carrots
a cube of sugar
a pack of cards
a pad of paper

Entirely =different, separate, dependant


Wildly =inaccurate, exaggerated, inappropriate, unrealistic
Downright= wrong, dishonest, hostile, rude, disgrace, immoral
Mildly= surprised, amused, irritated, offensive
loosely= based, structured, connected, related
Vaguely= familiar, aware, remember, worded, threatening do well/badly
do someone a favour
do some shopping
do up (undo)
do homework, housework, office work, work
do a task
make a phone call
make a success of
make progress
make a noise/sound
make a mistake
make pizza
make dinner
make promises, offers, suggestions
make a speech
make s.o do something
make a paper plane
have something in common with...
have breakfast
have a snack
have a coffee
have a rest / a sleep / a nap
have a chat
have a meeting
have a party
have s.t done
have an injection
have an operation
go cycling/swimming
go for a walk
go by car
go abroad
go to work/school
go home
go to bed
keep a promise
keep your cash in a safe
keep doing something...
keep kit
keep in touch
keep a promise

Some more ADVERB COLLOCATIONS:Highly= probable, (un)likely, successful, competitive,


recommended, effective, controversial
Utterly/Absolutely = ridiculous, impossible, wrong, disgusting,
devastating, pointless, appalled, worthless, senseless, hopeless
unbelievably / ridiculously / incredibly = cheap, expensive, big, small,
long, short, early, late
bitterly =disappointed, resent, regret, complain, cry, weep
deeply = ashamed, concerned, moved, shocked, touched, affected, hurt,
regret
strongly =oppose, influence, believe, deny, recommend, condemn, argue,
object, support, suggest, correlate

ADVERB COLLOCATIONS:
Absurdly - low, high, easy, difficult
Widely - believed, spoken, used, distributed, known, renowned
Thoroughly - convinced, enjoyable, agree, satisfying
Fully - understand, comprehend, informed, automated, equipped
Totally and Completely - unaware, unprepared, unexpected, out of
control, wrong
Patently - true, false, obvious, clear

COLLOCATIONS END

Collocations starting with the verb do


Do me a favour
Do the cooking
Do the housework
Do the shopping
Do the washing up
Do your best
Do your hair
Collocations with the verb have
Have a good time
Have a bath
Have a drink
Have a haircut
Have a holiday
Have a problem
Have a relationship
Have lunch
Have sympathy
Collocations with the verb break
Break the law
Break a leg
Break a promise
Break a record
Break someone's heart
Break the ice
Break the news to someone
Break the rules
Collocations with the verb take
Take a break
Take a chance
Take a look
Take a rest
Take a seat
Take a taxi
Take an exam
Take notes
Take someone's place
Collocations with the verb make
Make a difference
Make a mess
Make a mistake
Make a noise
Make an effort
Make money
Make progress
Make room
Make trouble

Collocations with the verb catch


Catch the bus
Catch a ball
Catch a cold
Catch a thief
Catch fire
Catch sight of
Catch someone's attention
Catch someone's eye
Catch the flu
Collocations with the verb pay
Pay respect
Pay a fine
Pay attention
Pay by credit card
Pay cash
Pay interest
Pay someone a visit
Pay the bill
Pay the price
Collocations with the verb keep
Keep the change
Keep a promise
Keep a secret
Keep an appointment
Keep calm
Keep in touch
Keep quiet
Keep someone's place
Collocations with the verb save
Save yourself the trouble
Save electricity
Save energy
Save money
Save someone a seat
Save someone's life
Save something to a disk
Save time
Collocations with the verb go
Go bald
Go abroad
Go astray
Go bad
Go bankrupt
Go blind
Go crazy
Go fishing

Go mad
Go missing
Go online
Go out of business
Go overseas
Go quiet
Go sailing
Go to war
Collocations with the verb come
Come under attack
Come close
Come direct
Come early
Come first
Come into view
Come last
Come late
Come on time
Come prepared
Come right back
Come to a decision
Come to an agreement
Come to an end
Come to a standstill
Come to terms with
Come to a total of
Collocations with the verb get
Get the sack
Get a life
Get a job
Get a shock
Get angry
Get divorced
Get drunk
Get frightened
Get home
Get lost
Get married
Get permission
Get ready
Get started
Get the impression
Get upset
Get wet
Get worried
Collocations related to time
Bang on time

Dead on time
Free time
From dawn till dusk
Great deal of time
Early/late 15th century
Make time for
Next few days
Past few weeks
Right on time
Run out of time
Time goes by
Time passes
Waste time
Collocations related to business English
Annual turnover
Keep in mind
Break off negotiations
Close a deal
Close a meeting
Come to the point
Dismiss an offer
Draw a conclusion
Draw your attention to
Launch a new product
Go bankrupt
Go into partnership
Make a profit/loss
English collocations with the word BIG
The word big is often used in collocations with a happening or event, for
example:
a big accomplishment
a big decision
a big disappointment
a big failure
a big improvement
a big mistake
a big surprise
English collocations with the word GREAT

The word great is often used in collocations with feelings or qualities.


Great + feelings
great admiration
great anger
great enjoyment
great excitement
great fun
great happiness
great joy
Great + qualities
in great detail
great power
great pride
great sensitivity
great skill
great strength
great understanding
great wisdom
great wealth
English collocations with the word LARGE
The word large is often used in collocations involving numbers and
measurements.
a large amount
a large collection
a large number (of)
a large population
a large proportion
a large quantity
a large scale
English collocations with the word STRONG
The word strong is often used in collocations with facts and opinions:
Strong + facts/opinions
strong argument
strong emphasis
strong evidence
a strong contrast
a strong commitment
strong criticism
strong denial
a strong feeling
a strong opinion (about something)
strong resistance
Strong + senses
a strong smell
a strong taste
English collocations with the word DEEP

The word deep is used for some strong feelings:


deep depression
deep devotion
It is also used in these expressions:
in deep thought
in deep trouble
in a deep sleep (when the person wont wake up easily)
English collocations with the word HEAVY
Heavy is used for some weather conditions
heavy rain
heavy snow
heavy fog
The word heavy is also used for people with bad habits:
a heavy drinker
a heavy smoker
a heavy drug user
Theres also the expression a heavy sleeper thats not someone who
sleeps a lot; instead, its a person who doesnt wake up easily when
sleeping.
The word heavy is also used in collocations with two unpleasant things:
TRAFFIC and TAXES!
heavy traffic
heavy taxes
ADVERB COLLOCATIONS: Absurdly - low, high, easy, difficult
Widely - believed, spoken, used, distributed, known, renowned
Thoroughly - convinced, enjoyable, agree, satisfying
Fully - understand, comprehend, informed, automated, equipped
Totally and Completely - unaware, unprepared, unexpected, out of
control, wrong
Patently - true, false, obvious, clear
Some more ADVERB COLLOCATIONS:- Highly= probable, (un)likely,
successful, competitive, recommended, effective, controversial
Utterly/Absolutely = ridiculous, impossible, wrong, disgusting,
devastating, pointless, appalled, worthless, senseless, hopeless
unbelievably / ridiculously / incredibly = cheap, expensive, big, small,
long, short, early, late
bitterly =disappointed, resent, regret, complain, cry, weep
deeply = ashamed, concerned, moved, shocked, touched, affected, hurt,
regret
strongly =oppose, influence, believe, deny, recommend, condemn, argue,
object, support, suggest, correlate

Some collocations which i have collected Entirely =different,


separate, dependant
Wildly =inaccurate, exaggerated, inappropriate, unrealistic
Downright= wrong, dishonest, hostile, rude, disgrace, immoral
Mildly= surprised, amused, irritated, offensive
loosely= based, structured, connected, related
Vaguely= familiar, aware, remember, worded, threatening do well/badly
do someone a favour
do some shopping
do up (undo)
do homework, housework, office work, work
do a task
make a phone call
make a success of
make progress
make a noise/sound
make a mistake
make pizza
make dinner
make promises, offers, suggestions
make a speech
make s.o do something
make a paper plane
have something in common with...
have breakfast
have a snack
have a coffee
have a rest / a sleep / a nap
have a chat
have a meeting
have a party
have s.t done
have an injection
have an operation
go cycling/swimming
go for a walk
go by car
go abroad
go to work/school
go home
go to bed
keep a promise
keep your cash in a safe
keep doing something...
keep kit
keep in touch
keep a promise

Collocation is a particular combination of words that co-occur more


often than would be expected by chance. For example, we use Strong Tea
instead of Powerful Tea. Collocation is very much important for the
reading and listening sections of PTE Academic. Here is a practice of
collocation. Please write your answer in the comments.
Clues: 1- 4: fact, threat, reality, theory
1 The authorities said the chemicals didn't pose a ................. to life.
2 We have to take into account the ........................ of the situation.
3 I know that what you say is true in ............... , but will it work in
practice?
4 Sadly, it seems that crime is just a .................. of life these days.
Clues: 5-8: distinct, precise, distinguished, isolated
5 Dr. Cho's team reports that they have successfully . the gene that
causes the disease.
6 English essayist Joseph Addison famously wrote, "Man is
from all other creatures by the faculty of laughter."
7 He was with his language, choosing his words carefully.
8 While there are two types of camels, both are quite ....
Clues: 9-12: saying, telling, talking, speaking
9 Mr. Harris is not an employee here, strictly , but we do hire him
quite often on a freelance basis.
10 I keep ........................ them my answer is no!
11 Maria was . she might go to UCLA next semester.
12 Our professor is quite strict and there's definitely no .. during
his classes.

Addition Component I POS I Component II POS II


Addition
1 abstract adj concept n
2 academic adj achievement n
3 academic adj career n
4 (in) academic adj circles n
5 academic adj community n
6 academic adj debate n
7 academic adj discipline n
8 academic adj discourse n
9 academic adj institution n
10 academic adj journal n
11 academic adj life n
12 academic adj performance n
13 academic adj research n
14 academic adj skills n
15 academic adj study n
16 academic adj success n
17 academic adj work n
18 academic adj world n
19 academic adj writing n
20 academic adj year n
21 accept v responsibility n
22 acceptable adj behaviour n
23 accurate adj assessment n
24 accurate adj description n
25 accurate adj information n
26 accurate adj measurement n
27 accurate adj picture n
28 accurate adj record n
29 achieve (a) v goal n
30 achieve (an) v objective n
31 achieve (an) v outcome n
32 acquire v knowledge n
33 active adj involvement n
34 active adj participant n
35 active adj participation n
36 active adj role n
37 (be) actively adv involved vpp
38 acutely adv aware adj
39 add v information n
40 additional adj cost n
41 additional adj information n
42 additional adj problem n
43 additional adj resources n
44 additional adj support n
45 address (an) v issue n

46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57

administrative adj practices n


adopt (a) v procedure n
adopt (an) v approach n
advanced adj economy n
advanced adj technology n
adverse adj effect n
adverse adj reaction n
adversely adv affect v
affect (the) v outcome n
affect (the) v development n (of)
allocate v resources n
allow v access n (to)

Links :http://www.better-english.com/strongcoll.htm
https://www.dropbox.com/s/47s8d6qz4fq7wb1/AcademicCollocation
List.pdf?dl=0
http://pearsonpte.com/wpcontent/uploads/2014/07/AcademicCollocationList.pdf