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- Analysis and Design of feedback Control Systems

You are on page 1of 17

Quanser Consulting Inc.

1 Description

The Two Tank Module consists of a pump with a water basin .

The pump pumps water vertically to two quick connect, normally

closed orifices Out1" and Out2". These two orifices have

different diameters. Two tanks mounted on the front plate are

configured such that flow from the first tank flows into the second

tank and outflow from the second tank flows into the main water

basin. The outflows from the two tanks are variable by changing

inserts that screw into the tapped holes. Rubber tubing with

appropriate couplings are supplied such that the pump can pump

into one or both tanks. The selection of outputs from the pump

controls the flow ratio between the two outputs.

This single system can be configured into 3 types of experiments

each with various parameters.

Configuration #1: SISO system. The pump feeds into tank1 and

you design a controller that regulates the level in Tank 1. Tank2 is

not used at all.

Configuration #2: State coupled SISO system. The pump feeds into tank1 which in

turn feeds into tank 2. Design a controller that regulates the levels in tank #2. Try

different orifices in tank #1 and tank #2

Configuration #3: State coupled and input coupled SISO system. The pump feeds into

and into tank 2 using a split flow. Tank1 also feeds into tank 2. Design a controller that

regulates the levels in tank #2.

Configuration #1

Configuration #2

Configuration #3

gamma = 0.36

Out 2

Out 2

Out 2

Out 1

Out 1

Out 1

REGULATE L1

L1

L1

L1

Medium Orifice

Medium Orifice

Small Orifice

L2

L2

L2

REGULATE L2

PUMP

Medium

Water Basin

PUMP

Medium Orifice

REGULATE L2

PUMP

Large Orifice

Coupled Tanks 1

If you would like to perform more complex experiments, you may couple several Two

Tank Modules as shown in Figure 5.

Out 2

Out 1

Out 2

Out 1

L11

L21

d11

d21

L12

PUMP #1

d12

L22

PUMP #2

d23

Coupled Tanks 2

2 Mathematical Models

2.1 Single tank

Consider the single tank system shown n Configuration 1.

The inflow to the tank is:

Fin

Km V p cm 3/sec

where Km is the pump constant and Vp is the voltage applied to the pump.

The outflow velocity is given by the Bernoulli equation for small orifices:

V o

2 g L1 cm/sec

where g is the gravitational acceleration in cm / sec2 and L1 is the height of the water

level in the tank in cm.

The outflow rate is then :

Fout

a1 2 g L1 cm 3/sec where a1 is the outflow orifice diamater

The flow rate through the tank is then given by

Fin Fout

K m Vp a1 2 g L1 cm 3/sec

The change in level is then given by

L1

a1

A1

2 g L1

Km

A1

V p cm/sec

Linearizing about a quiescent point Lo we obtain:

L1

a1

A1

K

g

L m Vp

2 Lo

A1

Coupled Tanks 3

For a given level Lo, we need a constant voltage applied to the pump in order to

maintain the level. That means an integrator is required in the control loop to

compensate for the constant(relatively) disturbance due to the outflow orifice. We write

the final state space eqautions for the single tank control problem as:

L1

1

a1

A1

g

0

2L o

1

L

1

Km

A1 V p

0

L1 .

The quiescent voltage required to maintain the level at Lo is obtained using:

0

K m Vp0 a1 2 g L0

Vp0

a1

2 g L0

Km

Consider Configuration #2 ehere the pump feeds Tank 1 and Tank 1 feeds Tank 2. For

Tank1 #1 the same equations developed above apply.

As for tank #2, the inflow is equal to the outflow from Tank 1:

F2 in

a1 2 g L1 cm 3/sec

and the outflow is:

F2 out

a2 2 g L2 cm 3/sec

So the level in Tank 2 is written as:

L2

a1

2 g L1

a2

2 g L2

A2

A2

which can be linearized about L10 & L20

to obtain:

Coupled Tanks 4

L2

a2

a

g

L2 1

2 L20

A2

A2

g

L1

2 L10

Tank 1 uses the pump voltage as input:

L1

1

a1

A1

g

0

2L10

1

L1

1

Km

A1 V p

0

L2

2

a2

A2

g

0

2L20

1

L2

2

a1

A2

g

2L10 L1

0

We can then design a two loop system to regulate the level in L2.

Note that for quiescent conditions the heights remain constant:

a1

2 g L1

A2

a2

A2

2 g L2

2

L10

a2

a1

L20

That means could technically regulate L2 using L1 alone BUT since the ratio is not

precisely known a closed loop system that feeds back L2 would improve performance.

the quiescent voltage required to maintain the level at L1 is obtained using:

Coupled Tanks 5

0

K m Vp a1 2 g L10

2 g L10

V p

a1

Km

2.3 Two tank system with state and input coupling

Configuration #3 accommodates for the pump flow to split to tank #1 and tank #2.

Let o1 be the diameter of outflow #1 (Out1) and o2 be the diameter of outflow #2 (Out2)

which are coming from the pump. Let

If you attach only one connector, the flow is controlled directly by the voltage applied to

the pump. When you attach two connectors as in configuration 3 you then have two

flows coming out. The total flow is still controlled by the pump and the individual flows

are split up in proportion to the areas o1 and o2 as given below:

Fp1

Fp2

ao1

ao1ao2

ao2

ao1ao2

K m Vp

K m Vp cm 3/sec

K m Vp

(1 ) K m Vp cm 3/sec

For configuration #3, we feed Fp1 (Out1) Directly to Tank #2 and Out #2 Directly to

Tank #1.

By combining the state space equations obtained in section 2 with the above two

equations we have:

L1

L2

2

a1

A1

g

2L10

a1

A2

g

2L10

a2

A2

g

0

2L20

1

L1

L2

2

(1 )

Km

A1

Km

Vp

A2

0

0

a1 2 g L10 (1 ) Km V p

Coupled Tanks 6

and

0

a1 2 g L10 a2 2 g L20 K m Vp

which result in:

2

L10

a2

2

a1

( 1)2 L20

and

Vp0

a2

Km

2 g L20

Coupled Tanks 7

Note the configurations for these experiments. You must use the appropriate exit

orifice for each tank and the appropriate feed from the pump. Note that for

configuration #3, Out #1 feeds to Tank #2 and Out #2 feeds to Tank #1

Configuration

a1

L10

a2

L20

Out1

Out2

Control

Tank Level

Medium

15 cm

Medium

N/A

Tank1

N/A

L1

Medium

Compute

Medium

15 cm

Tank1

N/A

L2

Small

Compute

Large

10 cm

Tank2

Tank1

L2

3.1 Configuration #1

The open loop system is:

L1

1

a1

A1

g

0

2L o

1

L

1

Km

A1 V p

0

The controller is obtained by running the m file d_level1.m from MATLAB which

performs LQR design to obtain the feedback gains:

Vp

kp1 (L1 L1c) ki1 ,(L1 L1c) a1

2 g L1c

Km

where L1c is the commanded level to the tank in cm. This is a PI controller that

commands the voltage to the motor based on the error signal and a feedforward term

(in brackets = Vq as calculated in section 2.1) that pre-computes the desired voltage for

the desired level. The feedforward term ensures reduces the windup in the integrator.

The controller is implemented using SIMULINK model q_level1.mdl and run in realtime

using WinCon.

The response is shown in Figure below.

Coupled Tanks 8

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

0

0

10

15

20

25

Tim e

3.1 Configuration #2

The open loop system consists of two systems:

L1

1

a1

A1

g

0

2L o

1

L

1

Km

A1 V p

and second system which is the second tank and whose input is the level of Tank #1:

L2

2

a2

A2

g

0

2L20

1

L2

2

a1

A2

g

2L10 L1

0

Vp

kp1 (L1 L1c) ki1 ,(L1 L1c) a1

2 g L1c

Km

(inner Loop)

The command to that controller is derived from the controller for the second tank. The

second tank controller is also designed using lqr to obtain the feedback gains for the

feedback equation:

Coupled Tanks 9

L1c

kp2 (L2 L2c) ki2 ,(L2 L2c)

a2

2

a1

The controller is obtained by running the m file d_level2.m from MATLAB which

performs LQR design to obtain the feedback gains.

The idea is then to control the level of Tank 1 such that tank 2 tracks the desired

command. From section 2.2 we know that if the outflow orifices are the same, the

steady state condition is that the two levels should be the same. It is good practice

however to limit the command L1c to within the bounds of the tanks so that the water

does not flow out in case you have some kind of instability in the outer loop.

The controller is implemented using SIMULINK model q_level2.mdl and run in realtime

using WinCon.

The response is shown in Figure below.

30

25

20

15

10

-5

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Tim e

3.1 Configuration #3

In this case, the two tank equations cannot be written independently since the input Vp

affects both tanks directly and it is the only control input. The state space equation is:

Coupled Tanks 10

L1

a1

A1

g

2L10

a1

A2

g

2L10

L2

2

a2

A2

g

0

2L20

1

L1

(1 )

L2

2

Km

A1

Km

Vp

A2

0

Note that we introduced an integrator for L2 since we want to regulate L2. We then

design a controller of the form:

Vp

k1 (L1) k2 (L2 L2c) k3 ,(L2 L2c)

a2

Km

2 g L2c

This controller may be implemented as is but note that L1 is free and uncontrolled.

We can rewrite the feedback component as:

Vp

k1 L1

k2

k1

(L2 L2c)

k3

k2

,(L2 L2c)

Vp

kp1 L1 L1c

kp2 (L2 L2c) ki2 ,(L2 L2c)

L1c

proportional inner loop to control L1 to track L1c. This way we can limit L1c not to exceed

the tank dimensions. We can also add on a quiescent feedforward term for L1c derived

from (see section 2.3)

2

L10

a2

2

a1

( 1)2 L20

resulting in :

Coupled Tanks 11

L1c

a2

a1

( 1)2 L2c

and

Vp

kp1 L1 L1c

a2

Km

2 g L2c

25

20

15

10

-5

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Tim e

Coupled Tanks 12

From

To

Cable

Function

Level sensors

S1 & S2 on UPM2405

6 pin mini Din

Measure V1 &V2

via S1 &S2

MultiQ

Analog inputs 0,1,2,3

5 pin Din

4 x RCA

V1 to A/D #0

V2 to A/D #1

MultiQ D/A # 0

RCA

5 Pin Din Mono

Signal to amplifier

To Load

Motor Connector

6 pin Din /

4 pin Din

Gain = 5 ( green marker)

Power to pump

Using this wiring S1 senses V1 from Tank 1 and S2 senses V2 from Tank 2

5.1 Calibration

To calibrate:

Wire the system as described and power up the amplifier.

Run WinCon - load project cal_tank.wcp -this displays the voltages from the two

senors. With no water in the tanks adjust the offset potentiometers obtain 0.0 volts.

Click stop when you are done and close WinCon.

Run WinCon - load project tank_cal.wcp - this displays the voltages from the two

sensors. Plug the outflow of tank 1 with your finger or use the supplied screw . Fill

Tank1 up to 25 cm. Adjust the gain potentiometer for tank1 to obtain anywhere

between 4.0 to 4.2 volts on the position sensor. Click stop when you are done and

close WinCon. Release the water out of the tank. The measurement should be zero.

Repeat for Tank 2.

Click stop when you are done and close WinCon.

MAKE SURE THE TUBE FROM OUT 1 IS INSERTED INTO THE TANK1. Do not use

Coupled Tanks 13

a tube to OUT 2.

Start WinCon, load q_level1.wcl and run it . The tank should fill up to 15 cm and

maintain its level. Be ready to stop the controller if the water level rises above 25

cm! Check wiring and calibration if the system does not perform as expected.

6 Software

File

Software

needed

Function

Output /Input

filenames

( I = input file,

O = Output file)

I/O

d_level1.m

MATLAB

Workspace

I

O

q_level1.mdl

SIMULIN

K

WinCon

Controller diagram

Implement controller

q_level1.wcl

q_level1.wcp

WinCon

Run controller

q_level1.wcl

d_level1.m

MATLAB

Workspace

I

O

q_level1.mdl

SIMULIN

K

WinCon

Controller diagram

Implement controller

q_level1.wcl

q_level1.wcp

WinCon

Run controller

q_level1.wcl

d_level1.m

MATLAB

Workspace

I

O

q_level1.mdl

SIMULIN

K

WinCon

Controller diagram

Implement controller

q_level1.wcl

q_level1.wcp

WinCon

Run controller

q_level1.wcl

tank_cal.wcp

WinCon

tank_cal.wcp

WinCon

Calibrate for 25 cm

level

Coupled Tanks 14

7 System parameters

Name

Symbol

Value

Units

Flow constant

Km

4.6

(cm3/sec)/Volt

Maximum Voltage

Vmax

22

Volts

Maximum flow

Fmax

100

cm3/sec

Out1 Orifice

diameter

o1

.635

cm

Out2 Orifice

diameter

o2

.4763

cm

Lmax

30

cm

4.445

cm

15.5179

cm2

cm/volt

30

cm

4.445

cm

15.5179

cm2

cm/volt

Pump

Tank1

Height

Inside Diameter

Cross section

area

A1

Sensor sensitivity

Tank2

Height

Lmax

Inside Diameter

Cross section

area

A2

Sensor sensitivity

Small

d1

0.3175

cm

Medium (Typical)

d1 & d2

0.47625

cm

Large

d2

0.555625

cm

Coupled Tanks 15

Small

a1

0.0791729767

cm

Medium (Typical)

a 1 & a2

0.17813919765

cm

Large

a2

0.24246724125

cm

Pressure Range

0-1

PSI

0 - 30

cm

6.25 *

cm / Volt

Sensors

Sensitivity

Ks

Calibration nominal. You may need to recalibrate when you receive the system.

Configurations

Configuration

a1

L10

a2

L20

Out1

Out2

Control

Output

Medium

15 cm

Medium

N/A

Tank1

N/A

L1

Medium

Compute

Medium

15 cm

Tank1

N/A

L2

Small

Compute

Large

10 cm

Tank2

Tank1

L2

Coupled Tanks 16

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