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Serbia

Not to be confused with Republika Srpska.


For other uses, see Serbia (disambiguation).

agriculture. The country ranks high in Social Progress


Index (45th)[15] as well as Global Peace Index (46th),[16]
relatively high in Human Development Index (66th).[17]
and an economically moderately free country (77th).[18]

Coordinates: 44N 21E / 44N 21E

Serbia ( i /srbi/, Serbian: / Srbija, IPA:


[sbija]), ocially the Republic of Serbia (Serbian: 1 Geography
/ Republika Srbija), is a sovereign state
situated at the crossroads between Central and Southeast
Europe, covering the southern part of the Pannonian Main article: Geography of Serbia
[14][19][20]
and
Plain and the central Balkans. Serbia is landlocked and Located at the crossroads between Central
borders Hungary to the north; Romania and Bulgaria to
the east; Macedonia to the south; and Croatia, Bosnia,
and Montenegro to the west; it also claims a border with
Albania through the disputed territory of Kosovo. The
capital of Serbia, Belgrade, is one of the largest cities
in Southeast Europe. Serbia numbers around 7 million
residents.[8]
Following the Slavic migrations to the Balkans from the
6th century onwards, Serbs established several states in
the early Middle Ages. The Serbian Kingdom obtained
recognition by Rome and Constantinople in 1217; it
reached its peak in 1346 as a relatively short-lived Serbian
Empire. By the mid-16th century, the entire modernday Serbia was annexed by the Ottomans, at times interrupted by the Habsburg Empire, which started expanding
towards Central Serbia since the end of the 17th century,
while maintaining foothold in northern Serbia. In the
early 19th century, the Serbian Revolution established the
nation-state as the regions rst constitutional monarchy,
which subsequently expanded its territory.[9] Following
disastrous casualties in World War I, and the subsequent
unication of the Habsburg crownland of Vojvodina with
Serbia, the country co-founded Yugoslavia with other
South Slavic peoples, which would exist in various political formations until the Yugoslav Wars of the 1990s,
which had devastating eects for the region. As a result,
Serbia formed a union with Montenegro in 1992, which
broke apart in 2006, when Serbia again became an independent country. In 2008 the parliament of Kosovo, Serbias southern province with an Albanian ethnic majority,
declared independence, with mixed responses from the
international community.

Relief map of Serbia.

Southern Europe, Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula


and the Pannonian Plain. Serbia lies between latitudes
41 and 47 N, and longitudes 18 and 23 E. The country
covers a total of 88,361 km2 (including Kosovo), which
places it at 113th place in the world; with Kosovo excluded, the total area is 77,474 km2 ,[3] which would make
it 117th. Its total border length amounts to 2,027 km (Albania 115 km, Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria
318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Macedonia
221 km, Montenegro 203 km and Romania 476 km).[3]
All of Kosovos border with Albania (115 km), Mace-

Serbia is a member of the UN, CoE, OSCE, PfP, BSEC,


and CEFTA. As a membership candidate,[10] Serbia is
currently negotiating its EU accession.[11][12] The country
is acceding to the WTO[13] and is a militarily neutral state.
Serbia is an upper-middle income economy[14] with dominant service sector, followed by the industrial sector and

donia (159 km) and Montenegro (79 km)[21] are under


control of the Kosovo border police.[22] Serbia treats the
352 km long border between Kosovo and Central Serbia
as an administrative line"; it is under shared control of
Kosovo border police and Serbian police forces, and there
are 11 crossing points.[23]

GEOGRAPHY

the north, the climate is more continental, with cold winters, and hot, humid summers along with well distributed
rainfall patterns. In the south, summers and autumns are
drier, and winters are relatively cold, with heavy inland
snowfall in the mountains.

Dierences in elevation, proximity to the Adriatic Sea


and large river basins, as well as exposure to the winds
account for climate variations.[27] Southern Serbia is subject to Mediterranean inuences.[28] However, the Dinaric Alps and other mountain ranges contribute to the
cooling of most of the warm air masses. Winters are
quite harsh in the Peter plateau, because of the mountains which encircle it.[29] One of the climatic features
of Serbia is Koava, a cold and very squally southeastern
wind which starts in the Carpathian Mountains and follows the Danube northwest through the Iron Gate where
to Belgrade and can
Ancient mountains in the southeast corner of the coun- it gains a jet eect and continues
[30]
spread
as
far
south
as
Ni.
try belong to Rilo-Rhodope Mountain system. Elevation
ranges from the Midor peak of the Balkan Mountains at The average annual air temperature for the period 1961
2,169 metres (7,116 feet) (highest peak in Serbia, exclud- 1990 for the area with an altitude of up to 300 m (984 ft)
ing Kosovo) to the lowest point of just 17 metres (56 feet) is 10.9 C (51.6 F). The areas with an altitude of 300 to
near the Danube river at Prahovo.[25] Including Kosovo 500 m (984 to 1,640 ft) have an average annual temperathe highest point is eravica, Prokletije (2.656 m), the ture of around 10.0 C (50.0 F), and over 1,000 m (3,281
largest lake is the erdap Lake (163 square kilometres ft) of altitude around 6.0 C (42.8 F).[31] The lowest
or 63 square miles) and the longest river passing through recorded temperature in Serbia was 39.5 C (39.1 F)
Serbia the Danube (587.35 kilometres or 364.96 miles). on 13 January 1985, Karajukia Bunari in Peter, and
the highest was 44.9 C or 112.8 F, on 24 July 2007,
recorded in Smederevska Palanka.[32]
The Pannonian Plain covers the northern third of the
country (mainly Vojvodina and Mava) while the easternmost tip of Serbia extends into the Wallachian Plain.
The terrain of central part of the country, with the region of umadija at its heart, consists chiey of hills traversed by the rivers. Mountains dominate the southern
third of Serbia. Dinaric Alps stretch in the west and the
southwest following the ow of the rivers Drina and Ibar.
Carpathian Mountains and Balkan Mountains stretch in
northsouth direction in the eastern Serbia.[24]

1.1

Climate

Serbia is one of few European countries with very high


risk exposure to the natural hazards (earthquakes, storms,
Main article: Climate of Serbia
oods, droughts).[33] It is estimated that potential oods,
The climate of Serbia is under the inuences of the land- particularly in areas of Central Serbia, threaten over
500 larger settlements and an area of 16,000 square
kilometers.[34] The most disastrous were the oods in
May 2014, when 57 people died and a damage of over
a 1.5 billion euro was incited.[35]

1.2 Hydrology
Main articles: List of rivers of Serbia and List of lakes
of Serbia

Yvette storm 2014.

mass of Eurasia and Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean


Sea. With mean January temperatures around 0 C (32
F), and mean July temperatures of 22 C (72 F), it
can be classied into humid subtropical climate.[26] In

Almost all of Serbias rivers drain to the Black Sea, by


way of the Danube river. The Danube, the second largest
European river, passes through Serbia with 588 kilometers (21% of its overall length) and represents the largest
source of fresh water. It is joined by its biggest tributaries, the Great Morava (longest river entirely in Serbia
with 493 km of length), Sava and Tisza rivers.[36] One notable exception is the Pinja which ows into the Aegean.

3
inhabitant.[38] The most common trees are oak, beech,
pines and rs.
Serbia is a country of rich ecosystem and species diversity covering only 1.9% of the whole European territory Serbia is home to 39% of European vascular ora,
51% of European sh fauna, 40% of European reptile
and amphibian fauna, 74% of European bird fauna, 67%
European mammal fauna.[39] Its abundance of mountains
and rivers make it an ideal environment for a variety of
animals, many of which are protected including wolves,
lynx, bears, foxes and stags.
Gates on the river Danube.
Due to conguration of the terrain, natural lakes are
sparse and small; most of them are located in the lowlands of Vojvodina, like the aeolian lake Pali or numerous oxbow lakes along river ows (like Zasavica and
Carska Bara). However, there are numerous articial
lakes, mostly due to hydroelectric dams, the biggest being erdap (Iron Gates) on the Danube with 163 km2
on the Serbian side (a total area of 253 km2 is shared
with Romania) as well as the deepest (with maximum
depth of 92 m); Peruac on the Drina, and Vlasina. The
largest waterfall, Jelovarnik, located in Kopaonik, is 71 m
high.[37] Abundance of relatively unpolluted surface waters and numerous underground natural and mineral water sources of high water quality presents a chance for export and economy improvement; however, more extensive exploitation and production of bottled water began
only recently.

Mountain of Tara in western Serbia is one of the last


regions in Europe where bears can still live in absolute
freedom.[40] Serbia is also home to about 380 species
of bird, including the imperial eagle, the great bustard,
the corn crake and the Madagascar pochard. In Carska
Bara, there are over 300 bird species on just a few square
kilometers.[41] Uvac Gorge is considered one of the last
habitats of the grion vulture in Europe.[42]
There are 377 protected areas of Serbia, encompassing
4,947 square kilometers or 6.4% of the country. The
Spatial plan of the Republic of Serbia states that the total protected area should be increased to 12% by 2021.[39]
Those protected areas include 5 national parks (erdap,
Tara, Kopaonik, Fruka Gora and ar Mountain), 15
nature parks, 15 landscapes of outstanding features, 61
nature reserves, and 281 natural monuments.[37]

Air pollution is a signicant problem in Bor area, due


to work of large copper mining and smelting complex,
and Panevo where oil and petrochemical industry is
based.[43] Some cities suer from water supply problems,
due to mismanagement and low investments in the past,
as well as water pollution (like the pollution of the Ibar
1.3 Environment
River from the Trepa zinc-lead combinate, aecting the
city of Kraljevo, or the presence of natural arsenic in unSee also: List of protected natural resources in Serbia
With 29.1% of its territory covered by forest, Serbia is derground waters in Zrenjanin).
Poor waste management has been identied as one of the
most important environmental problems in Serbia and the
recycling is a edgling activity, with only 15% of its waste
being turned back for reuse.[44] The 1999 NATO bombing caused serious damage to the environment, with several thousand tons of toxic chemicals stored in targeted
factories and reneries released into the soil and water
basins.

2 History
Main article: History of Serbia
The grion vulture is protected species in Serbia.

considered to be a middle-forested country, compared on


a global scale to world forest coverage at 30%, and Eu- 2.1 Prehistory
ropean average of 35%. The total forest area in Serbia is
2,252,000 h (1,194,000 h or 53% are state-owned, and Main article: Prehistoric sites in Serbia
1,058,387 h or 47% are privately owned) or 0.3 ha per Archeological evidence of Paleolithic settlements on

HISTORY

this area, and built several fortications, including their


state capital at Singidunum (present-day Belgrade) and
Naissos (present-day Ni).
The Romans conquered much of the territory in the 2nd
century BC. In 167 BC the Roman province of Illyricum
was established; the remainder was conquered around 75
BC, forming the Roman province of Moesia Superior;
the modern-day Srem region was conquered in 9 BC;
and Baka and Banat in 106 AD after the Dacian wars.
As a result of this, contemporary Serbia extends fully
or partially over several former Roman provinces, including Moesia, Pannonia, Praevalitana, Dalmatia, Dacia
and Macedonia. The chief towns of Upper Moesia (and
wider) were: Singidunum (Belgrade), Viminacium (now
Old Kostolac), Remesiana (now Bela Palanka), Naissos (Ni), and Sirmium (now Sremska Mitrovica), the
latter of which served as a Roman capital during the
Tetrarchy.[51] Seventeen Roman Emperors were born in
the area of modern-day Serbia, second only to contemporary Italy.[52] The most famous of these was Constantine
the Great, the rst Christian Emperor, who issued an
edict ordering religious tolerance throughout the Empire.

Vina culture gure, 40004500 BC.

the territory of present-day Serbia are scarce. A frag- Felix Romuliana built by Emperor Galerius 298 AD, UNESCO
ment of a human jaw, was found in Sievo (Mala Bal- World Heritage Site of Serbia.
anica) and believed to be up to 525,000397,000 years
When the Roman Empire was divided in 395, most
old.[45][46][47]
of Serbia remained under the Eastern Roman Empire,
Approximately around 6,500 years BC, during the
while its western parts were included in the Western RoNeolithic, the Starevo, and Vina cultures existed in or
man Empire. By the early 6th century, Southern Slavs
near modern-day Belgrade and dominated much of the
were present throughout the Byzantine Empire in large
Southeastern Europe, (as well as parts of Central Europe
numbers.[53]
[48][49]
and Asia Minor).
Two important local archeological sites from this era, Lepenski Vir and Vina-Belo Brdo,
still exist near the banks of the Danube.

2.3 Middle Ages

2.2

Ancient history

Main article: Serbia in the Middle Ages

Main articles: Illyrians, Triballi, Scordisci, Dalmatia, The Serbs in the Byzantine world lived in the so-called
Pannonia, Moesia, and Roman heritage in Serbia
Slav lands, lands initially out of Byzantine control and
independent.[54] The Vlastimirovi dynasty established
the
During the Iron Age, Thracians, Dacians, and Illyrians the Serbian Principality in the 8th century. In 822,
[55]
Serbs
inhabited
the
greater
part
of
Dalmatia,
and
were encountered by the Ancient Greeks during their ex[56]
pansion into the south of modern Serbia in the 4th century Christianity was adopted as the state religion in c. 870.
BC; the northwesternmost point of Alexander the Great's In the mid-10th century the state had emerged into a tribal
empire being the town of Kale-Krevica.[50] The Greek confederation that stretched to the shores of the Adriatic
[57]
inux was followed shortly after by the Celtic tribe of Sea by the Neretva, the Sava, the Morava, and Skadar.
Scordisci, who settled throughout the area in the 3rd cen- The state disintegrated after the death of the last known
tury BC. The Scordisci formed their own tribal state in Vlastimirid ruler; the Byzantines annexed the region and

2.4

Ottoman and Habsburg rule

held it for a century, until 1040 when the Serbs under the
leadership of what would become the Vojislavljevi dynasty revolted in Duklja, a maritime region.[58] In 1091,
the Vukanovi dynasty established the Serbian Grand
Principality, based in Raka (Rascia).[58] The two-halves
were reunited in 1142.[59]

5
Ottomans in 1453 and the Siege of Belgrade, the Serbian
Despotate fell in 1459 following the siege of the provisional capital of Smederevo. By 1455, central Serbia was
completely conquered by the Ottoman Empire.[62] After
repelling Ottoman attacks for over 70 years, Belgrade nally fell in 1521, opening the way for Ottoman expansion
into Central Europe. Vojvodina, as a part of Habsburg
Empire, resisted Ottoman rule until well into the 16th
century.

2.4 Ottoman and Habsburg rule


Main articles: Ottoman Serbia, Habsburg Serbia (disambiguation), and Great Migrations of the Serbs
After the loss of independence to the Kingdom of

Coronation of Stefan Duan as Emperor of Serbs and Greeks in


1346

In 1166, Stefan Nemanja assumed the throne, marking the beginning of a prospering Serbia, henceforth
under the rule of the Nemanji dynasty.[60] Nemanjas
son Rastko (posth. Saint Sava), gained autocephaly for
the Serbian Church in 1217 and authored the oldest
known constitution, and at the same time Stefan the FirstCrowned established the Serbian Kingdom.[61] Medieval
Serbia reached its peak during the reign of Stefan Duan,
who took advantage of the Byzantine civil war and doubled the size of the state by conquering territories to the
south and east at the expense of Byzantium, reaching as
far as the Peloponnese, also being crowned Emperor of
Serbs and Greeks along the way.

Principality of Serbia, the Habsburg Vojvodina and Ottomanheld south around 1850

Principality of Serbia around 950

The Battle of Kosovo against the rising Ottoman Empire in 1389 marks a turning point and is considered
as a beginning of the fall of the medieval Serbian state.
The magnate families Lazarevi and Brankovi ruled the
suzerain Serbian Despotate afterwards (in the 15th and
16th centuries). After the fall of Constantinople to the

Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, Serbia briey regained sovereignty under Jovan Nenad in the 16th century. Three Habsburg invasions and numerous rebellions
constantly challenged Ottoman rule. One famous incident
was the Banat Uprising in 1595, which was part of the
Long War between the Ottomans and the Habsburgs.[63]
The area of modern Vojvodina endured a century-long
Ottoman occupation before being ceded to the Habsburg
Empire at the end of the 17th century under the Treaty
of Karlowitz.
In all Serb lands south of the rivers Danube and Sava, the
nobility was eliminated and the peasantry was enserfed
to Ottoman masters, while much of the clergy ed or
were conned to the isolated monasteries. Under the
Ottoman system, Serbs, as Christians, were considered

HISTORY

an inferior class of people and subjected to heavy taxes,


and a small portion of the Serbian populace experienced
Islamisation. The Ottomans abolished the Serbian patriarchate (1459), but reestablished it in 1557, providing for
limited continuation of Serbian cultural traditions within
the empire.[64][65]

Great Migrations of the Serbs known as the Great Exodus, refers


mainly to two large migrations of Serbs from the Ottoman Empire
to the Habsburg Monarchy.

Battle of Miar, a high point of Serbian Revolution in 1806, with


a decisive Serbian victory over the Ottomans

As the Great Serb Migrations depopulated most of southern Serbia, the Serbs sought refuge across the Danube
River in Vojvodina to the north and the Military Frontier
in the west, where they were granted rights by the Austrian crown under measures such as the Statuta Wallachorum of 1630. The ecclesiastical center of the Serbs also
moved northwards, to the Metropolitanate of Sremski
Karlovci, as the Patriarchate of Pe was once-again abolished by the Ottomans in 1766.[66] Following several petitions, the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I formally
granted Serbs who wished to leave the right to their autonomous crownland.[67]

1815 with a compromise between Serbian revolutionaries


and Ottoman authorities.[71] Likewise, Serbia was one of
the rst nations in the Balkans to abolish feudalism.[72]
The Convention of Ackerman in 1826, the Treaty of
Adrianople in 1829 and nally, the Hatt-i Sharif, recognized the suzerainty of Serbia. The rst Serbian Constitution was adopted on 15 February 1835.[73][74]

Following the clashes between the Ottoman army and


Serbs in Belgrade in 1862, and under pressure from the
Great Powers, by 1867 the last Turkish soldiers left the
Principality, making the country de facto independent.
By enacting a new constitution without consulting the
In 17171739, Austrian Empire regained the rule in Porte, Serbian diplomats conrmed the de facto indepenCentral Serbia and formed the "Kingdom of Serbia". dence of the country. In 1876, Serbia declared war on the
Apart from Vojvodina and Northern Belgrade which Ottoman Empire, proclaiming its unication with Bosnia.
were absorbed into the Habsburg Empire, Central Serbia was also included into the Austrian territory in 1688
1692 and 17881793.

2.5

Revolution and independence

Main articles: Serbian Revolution, Principality of Serbia,


and Kingdom of Serbia
See also: Serbian Vojvodina and May Overthrow
The Serbian Revolution for independence from the
Ottoman Empire lasted eleven years, from 1804 until
1815.[68] The revolution comprised two separate uprisings which gained autonomy from the Ottoman Empire
that eventually evolved towards full independence (1835
1867).[69][70] During the First Serbian Uprising, led by
Duke Karaore Petrovi, Serbia was independent for almost a decade before the Ottoman army was able to reoccupy the country. Shortly after this, the Second Serbian Uprising began. Led by Milo Obrenovi, it ended in

May Assembly in 1848, Sremski Karlovci, led to foundation of


Serbian Vojvodina

The formal independence of the country was internationally recognized at the Congress of Berlin in 1878,

2.6

Balkan Wars, World War I and the First Yugoslavia

which formally ended the Russo-Turkish War; this treaty,


however, prohibited Serbia from uniting with Bosnia by
placing the latter under Austro-Hungarian occupation,
alongside the occupation of Sanjak of Novi Pazar.[75]
From 1815 to 1903, the Principality of Serbia was ruled
by the House of Obrenovi, save for the rule of Prince
Aleksandar Karaorevi between 1842 and 1858. In
1882, Serbia became a Kingdom, ruled by King Milan
I. The House of Karaorevi, descendants of the revolutionary leader Karaore Petrovi, assumed power in
1903 following the May Overthrow. In the north, the
1848 revolution in Austria led to the establishment of the
autonomous territory of Serbian Vojvodina; by 1849, the
region was transformed into the Voivodeship of Serbia
and Banat of Temeschwar.

2.6

Balkan Wars, World War I and the


First Yugoslavia

Main articles: Balkan Wars, Serbian Campaign of World


War I, and Kingdom of Yugoslavia
In the course of the First Balkan War in 1912, the Balkan
League defeated the Ottoman Empire and captured its
European territories, which enabled territorial expansion
into Raka and Kosovo. The Second Balkan War soon
ensued when Bulgaria turned on its former allies, but was
defeated, resulting in the Treaty of Bucharest. In two
years, Serbia enlarged its territory by 80% and its population by 50%;[76] it also suered high casualties on the
eve of World War I, with around 20,000 dead.[77] AustriaHungary became wary of the rising regional power on its
borders and its potential to become an anchor for unication of all South Slavs, and the relationship between the
two countries became tense.

Nikola Pai, Prime Minister during World War I

Serbia, with its campaign, was a major Balkan Entente


Power[82] which contributed signicantly to the Allied
victory in the Balkans in November 1918, especially by
helping France force Bulgarias capitulation.[83] Serbia
was classied as a minor Entente power.[84]
Serbias casualties accounted for 8% of the total Entente
military deaths; 58% (243,600) soldiers of the Serbian
army perished in the war.[85] The total number of casualties is placed around 700,000,[86] more than 16% of Serbias prewar size,[79] and a majority (57%) of its overall
male population.[87][88][89] As the Austro-Hungarian Empire collapsed, the territory of Syrmia united with Serbia on 24 November 1918, followed by Banat, Baka and
Baranja a day later, thereby bringing the entire Vojvodina into the Serb Kingdom. On 26 November 1918,
the Podgorica Assembly deposed the House of PetroviNjego and united Montenegro with Serbia. On 1 December 1918, Serbian Prince Regent Alexander of Serbia proclaimed the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and
Slovenes under King Peter I of Serbia.

The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria on 28 June 1914 in Sarajevo by Gavrilo Princip,
a member of the Young Bosnia organization, led to
Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia.[78] In defense
of its ally Serbia, Russia mobilized its troops, which resulted in Austria-Hungarys ally Germany declaring war
on Russia. The retaliation by Austria-Hungary against
Serbia activated a series of military alliances that set o
a chain reaction of war declarations across the continent, leading to the outbreak of World War I within a
month.[79] Serbia won the rst major battles of World
War I, including the Battle of Cer and Battle of Kolubara
marking the rst Allied victories against the Central
Powers in World War I.[80]
King Peter was succeeded by his son, Alexander, in AuDespite initial success, it was eventually overpowered gust 1921. Serb centralists and Croat autonomists clashed
by the Central Powers in 1915. Most of its army and in the parliament, and most governments were fragile and
some people retreated into exile to Greece and Corfu, short-lived. Nikola Pai, a conservative prime minister,
where they recovered, regrouped and returned to the headed or dominated most governments until his death.
Macedonian front to lead a nal breakthrough through King Alexander changed the name of the country to Yuenemy lines on 15 September 1918, liberating Serbia and goslavia and changed the internal divisions from the 33
defeating the Austro-Hungarian Empire and Bulgaria.[81] oblasts to nine new banovinas. The eect of Alexanders

HISTORY

dictatorship was to further alienate the non-Serbs from


the idea of unity.[90]

German soldiers escorting people from Kragujevac and its surrounding area to be executed.

King Alexander I of Yugoslavia

Alexander was assassinated in Marseille, during an ofcial visit in 1934 by Vlado Chernozemski, member of
the IMRO. Alexander was succeeded by his eleven-yearold son Peter II and a regency council was headed by
his cousin, Prince Paul. In August 1939 the Cvetkovi
Maek Agreement established an autonomous Banate of
Croatia as a solution to Croatian concerns.

the Serbian State Guard. Draginac and Loznica massacre of 2,950 villagers in Western Serbia in 1941 was
the rst large execution of civilians in occupied Serbia by
Germans, with Kragujevac massacre and Novi Sad Raid
of Jews and Serbs by Hungarian fascists being the most
notorious, with over 3,000 victims in each case.[91][92][93]
After one year of occupation, around 16,000 Serbian
Jews were murdered in the area, or around 90% of its
pre-war Jewish population. Many concentration camps
were established across the area. Banjica concentration
camp was the largest concentration camp, with primary
victims being Serbian Jews, Roma, and Serb political
prisoners.[94]

The Axis puppet state of the Independent State of Croatia committed large-scale persecution and genocide of
Serbs, Jews, and Roma.[95] The estimate of the United
States Holocaust Memorial Museum indicates that between 320,000 and 340,000 ethnic Serb residents of
Croatia, Bosnia and northern Serbia were murdered during the Ustae genocide campaign;[96] the same gures
are supported by the Jewish Virtual Library.[97] Ocial
Yugoslav sources used to estimate more than 700,000
2.7 World War II and the Second Yu- victims, mostly Serbs.[98] The Jasenovac memorial so
goslavia
far lists 82,085 names killed at the this concentration
camp alone,[99] out of around 100,000 estimated vicMain articles: World War II in Yugoslavia and Socialist tims (75% of whom were of Serbian origin).[100] Out of
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
roughly 1 million casualties in all of Yugoslavia up until
See also: Invasion of Yugoslavia, Axis occupation of Ser- 1944,[101][102] around 250,000 were citizens of Serbia of
bia, and World War II persecution of Serbs
dierent ethnicities.[103]
In 1941, in spite of Yugoslav attempts to remain neutral
in the war, the Axis powers invaded Yugoslavia. The ter- The Republic of Uice was a short-lived liberated terriritory of modern Serbia was divided between Hungary, tory established by the Partisans and the rst liberated
Bulgaria, Independent State of Croatia and Italy (greater territory in World War II Europe, organized as a military
Albania and Montenegro), while the remaining part of mini-state that existed in the autumn of 1941 in the west
Serbia was placed under German Military administration, of occupied Serbia. By late 1944, the Belgrade Oenthe
with Serbian puppet governments led by Milan Aimovi sive swung in favour of the partisans in the civil war;[104]
partisans
subsequently
gained
control
of
Yugoslavia.
and Milan Nedi. The occupied territory was the scene
of a civil war between royalist Chetniks commanded by Following the Belgrade Oensive, the Syrmian Front was
Draa Mihailovi and communist partisans commanded the last major military action of World War II in Serbia.
by Josip Broz Tito. Against these forces were arrayed The victory of the Communist Partisans resulted in the
Axis auxiliary units of the Serbian Volunteer Corps and abolition of the monarchy and a subsequent constitu-

2.8

Breakup of Yugoslavia and political transition

2.8 Breakup of Yugoslavia and political


transition
Main articles: Breakup of Yugoslavia, Yugoslav Wars,
Kosovo War, and Republic of Serbia (19922006)
In 1989, Slobodan Miloevi rose to power in Serbia.

President of Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Josip Broz


Tito with Elizabeth II, Belgrade, 1972.

tional referendum. A one-party state was soon established in Yugoslavia by the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, between 60,000 and 70,000 people were killed
in Serbia during the communist takeover.[105] All opposition was suppressed and people deemed to be promoting opposition to socialism or promoting separatism
were imprisoned or executed for sedition. Serbia became
a constituent republic within the SFRY known as the
Socialist Republic of Serbia, and had a republic-branch of
the federal communist party, the League of Communists
of Serbia. Serbias most powerful and inuential politician in Tito-era Yugoslavia was Aleksandar Rankovi,
one of the big four Yugoslav leaders, alongside Tito,
Edvard Kardelj, and Milovan ilas.[106] Rankovi was
later removed from the oce because of the disagreements regarding Kosovos nomenklatura and the unity
of Serbia.[106] Rankovi's dismissal was highly unpopular amongst Serbs.[107] Pro-decentralization reformers
in Yugoslavia succeeded in the late 1960s in attaining
substantial decentralization of powers, creating substantial autonomy in Kosovo and Vojvodina, and recognizing a Yugoslav Muslim nationality.[107] As a result of
these reforms, there was a massive overhaul of Kosovos
nomenklatura and police, that shifted from being Serbdominated to ethnic Albanian-dominated through ring
Serbs on a large scale.[107] Further concessions were made
to the ethnic Albanians of Kosovo in response to unrest, including the creation of the University of Pristina
as an Albanian language institution.[107] These changes
created widespread fear amongst Serbs of being treated
as second-class citizens.[108]

Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and territories of Serb breakaway


states (Republika Srpska and Republika Srpska Krajina) during
the Yugoslav wars (199195).

Miloevi promised a reduction of powers for the autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina, where
his allies subsequently took over power, during the Antibureaucratic revolution.[109] This ignited tensions with the
communist leadership of the other republics, and awoke
nationalism across the country that eventually resulted
in the Breakup of Yugoslavia, with Slovenia, Croatia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo declaring independence.[110] Serbia and Montenegro remained
together as the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY).
Fueled by ethnic tensions, the Yugoslav Wars erupted,
with the most severe conicts taking place in Croatia and
Bosnia, where ethnic Serb populations opposed independence from Yugoslavia. The FRY remained outside the
conicts, but provided logistic, military and nancial support to Serb forces in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. In response, the UN imposed sanctions against the
Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in May 1992,[111] which
led to political isolation and the collapse of the economy.
Multiparty democracy was introduced in Serbia in 1990,
ocially dismantling the one-party system. Critics of
Miloevi claimed that the government continued to be
authoritarian despite constitutional changes, as Miloevi
maintained strong political inuence over the state media
and security apparatus.[112][113] When the ruling Socialist
Party of Serbia refused to accept its defeat in municipal elections in 1996, Serbians engaged in large protests
against the government.
Between 1998 and 1999, peace was broken again, when
the situation in Kosovo worsened with continued clashes
between Yugoslav security forces and the Albanian
guerilla Kosovo Liberation Army. The confrontations
led to the short Kosovo War, which ended in withdrawal

10

3 POLITICS
March 2012, following a delay in December 2011.[10][120]
Following a positive recommendation of the European
Commission and European Council in June 2013, negotiations to join the EU commenced in January 2014.[121]

3 Politics
Main article: Politics of Serbia
See also: List of political parties in Serbia
Serbia is a parliamentary republic, with the government

Burned and destroyed Serbian houses in Prizren during the 2004


unrest in Kosovo.

of Serbian forces from Kosovo and the establishment of


UN administration of the province.[114] After presidential
elections in September 2000, opposition parties accused
Miloevi of electoral fraud. A campaign of civil resistance followed, led by the Democratic Opposition of
Serbia (DOS), a broad coalition of anti-Miloevi parties. This culminated on 5 October when half a million people from all over the country congregated in Belgrade, compelling Miloevi to concede defeat.[115] The
fall of Miloevi ended Yugoslavias international isolation. Miloevi was sent to the International Criminal
Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. The DOS announced
that FR Yugoslavia would seek to join the European
Union. In 2003, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was
renamed Serbia and Montenegro; the EU opened negotiations with the country for the Stabilization and Association Agreement. Serbias political climate remained
tense and in 2003, the prime minister Zoran ini was
assassinated as result of a plot originating from circles of
organized crime and former security ocials.
On 21 May 2006, Montenegro held a referendum to determine whether to end its union with Serbia. The results showed 55.4% of voters in favor of independence,
which was just above the 55% required by the referendum. On 5 June 2006, the National Assembly of Serbia
declared Serbia to be the legal successor to the former
state union.[116] The province of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008.
Serbia immediately condemned the declaration and continues to deny any statehood to Kosovo. The declaration has sparked varied responses from the international
community, some welcoming it, while others condemned
the unilateral move.[117] Status neutral talks between Serbia and Kosovo-Albanian authorities are held in Brussels,
mediated by the EU.

House of the National Assembly of Serbia , Belgrade.

divided into legislative, executive and judiciary branches.


Serbia had one of the rst modern constitutions in Europe, the 1835 Constitution (known as Sretenje Constitution), which was at the time considered among the
most progressive and liberal constitutions in the world.
Since then it has adopted 10 dierent constitutions.[122]
The current constitution was adopted on 8 November
2006 in the aftermath of Montenegro independence referendum which by consequence renewed the independence of Serbia itself.[123] The Constitutional Court rules
on matters regarding the Constitution.
The President of the Republic (Predsednik Republike) is
the head of state, is elected by popular vote to a ve-year
term and is limited by the Constitution to a maximum of
two terms. In addition to being the commander in chief
of the armed forces, the president has the procedural duty
of appointing the prime minister with the consent of the
parliament, and has some inuence on foreign policy.[124]
Tomislav Nikoli is the current president following the
2012 presidential election.[125] Seat of the presidency is
Novi Dvor.

The Government (Vlada) is composed of the prime minister and cabinet ministers. The Government is responsible for proposing legislation and a budget, executing the
laws, and guiding the foreign and internal policies. The
is Aleksandar Vui of the Serbian
In April 2008 Serbia was invited to join the Intensied current prime minister
[126]
Progressive
Party.
Dialogue programme with NATO despite the diplomatic
rift with the alliance over Kosovo.[118] Serbia ocially The National Assembly (Narodna skuptina) is a
applied for membership in the European Union on 22 unicameral legislative body. The National Assembly has
December 2009,[119] and received candidate status on 1 the power to enact laws, approve the budget, schedule

3.2

Military

11

2015 Western Balkans Summit, Vienna

Serbian government headquarters, Belgrade.

by signing of the Stabilisation and Association Agreement


on 29 April 2008 and ocially applied for membership
[135]
It represidential elections, select and dismiss the Prime Min- in the European Union on 22 December 2009.
ceived
a
full
candidate
status
on
1
March
2012
and
started
ister and other ministers, declare war, and ratify inter[11][136]
national treaties and agreements.[127] It is composed of accession talks on 21 January 2014.
250 proportionally elected members who serve four-year The province of Kosovo declared independence from
terms. The largest political parties in Serbia are the Serbia on 17 February 2008, which sparked varied recentre-right Serbian Progressive Party, leftist Socialist sponses from the international community, some welParty of Serbia and centre-left Democratic Party.[128]
coming it, while others condemn the unilateral move.[117]
from states which
Serbia has a three-tiered judicial system, made up of the Serbia has recalled its ambassadors
[137]
have
recognized
Kosovo,
in
protest.
Supreme Court of Cassation as the court of the last resort, Courts of Appeal as the appellate instance, and Basic and High courts as the general jurisdictions at rst instance. Courts of special jurisdictions are the Administrative Court, commercial courts (including the Commercial Court of Appeal at second instance) and mis- 3.2 Military
demeanour courts (including High Misdemeanor Court
at second instance).[129] The judiciary is overseen by the Main articles: Serbian Armed Forces and Military
Ministry of Justice. Serbia has a typical civil law legal history of Serbia
system.
Law enforcement is the responsibility of the Serbian Police, which is subordinate to the Ministry of the Interior.
Serbian Police elds 26,527 uniformed ocers.[130] National security and counterintelligence are the responsibility of the Security Information Agency (BIA).[131]

3.1

Foreign relations

Main article: Foreign relations of Serbia


See also: Accession of Serbia to the European Union and
Political status of Kosovo
Serbia has established diplomatic relations with 188 UN
member states, the Holy See, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and the European Union.[132] Foreign relations are conducted through the Ministry of Foreign
Aairs. Serbia has a network of 65 embassies and 23
consulates internationally.[133] There are 65 foreign embassies, 5 consulates and 4 liaison oces in Serbia.[134]

The Serbian Armed Forces are subordinate to the


Ministry of Defence, and are composed of the Army and
the Air Force. Although a landlocked country, Serbia operates a River Flotilla which patrols on the Danube, Sava,
and Tisza rivers. The Serbian Chief of the General Sta
reports to the Defence Minister. The Chief of Sta is
appointed by the President, who is the Commander-inchief.[124] As of 2012, Serbia defence budget amounts
to $612 million or an estimated 1.6% of the countrys
GDP.[138]

Serbian foreign policy is focused on achieving the strateA Serbian Army on


gic goal of becoming a member state of the European exercise, multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels,
Union (EU). Serbia started the process of joining the EU Germany, May 17, 2014.

12

4 DEMOGRAPHICS

Serbian
Mig-29 , Serbian Air Force and Air Defence
Traditionally relying on a large number of conscripts, Serbian Armed Forces went through a period of downsizing,
restructuring and professionalisation. Conscription was
abolished on 1 January 2011.[139] Serbian Armed Forces
have 28,000 active troops,[140] supplemented by the active reserve which numbers 20,000 members and passive reserve with about 170,000.[141][142]
Serbia participates in the NATO Individual Partnership
Action Plan program,[143] but has shown no intention
of joining NATO in the near future, due to signicant popular rejection, largely derived from the NATO
bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999.[144] It is an observer
member of the Collective Securities Treaty Organization
(CSTO)[145] The country also signed the Stability Pact for Districts of Serbia
South Eastern Europe. The Serbian Armed Forces take
part in several multinational peacekeeping missions, including deployments in Lebanon, Cyprus, Ivory Coast, regional authority. Following the Kosovo War, UN
peacekeepers entered Kosovo, as per UNSC Resolution
and Liberia.[146]
1244. In 2008, Kosovo declared independence.[152] The
Serbia is a large producer and exporter of military equip- government of Serbia did not recognize the declaration,
ment in the region. Defence exports totaled around $250 considering it illegal and illegitimate.[153]
million in 2011.[138] Serbia exports across the world, notably to the Middle East, Africa, Southeast Asia, and
North America.[147] The defence industry has seen signicant growth over the years and it continues to grow 4 Demographics
on a yearly basis.[148][149]
Main articles: Demographics of Serbia and Demographic
history of Serbia

3.3

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Serbia


Serbia is a unitary state[150] composed of
municipalities/cities, districts, and two autonomous
provinces. In Serbia, excluding Kosovo, there are 138
municipalities (optine) and 23 cities (gradovi), which
form the basic units of local self-government.[151] Apart
from municipalities, there are 24 districts (okruzi),
with the City of Belgrade constituting an additional
district. Except for Belgrade, which has an elected
local government, districts are regional centers of state
authority, but have no powers of their own; they present
purely administrative divisions.[151]

As of 2011 census, Serbia (excluding Kosovo) has a total


population of 7,186,862 and the overall population density is medium as it stands at 92.8 inhabitants per square
kilometer.[154] The census was not conducted in Kosovo
which held its own census that numbered their total population at 1,739,825,[155] excluding Serb-inhabited North
Kosovo, as Serbs from that area (about 50,000) boycotted
the census.

Serbia has been enduring a demographic crisis since the


beginning of the 1990s, with a death rate that has continuously exceeded its birth rate, and a total fertility
rate of 1.44 children per mother, one of the lowest in
the world.[156] Serbia subsequently has one of the oldest
Serbia has two autonomous provinces, Vojvodina in the populations in the world, with the average age of 42.2
north, and Kosovo and Metohija in the south,[151] while years,[157] and its population is shrinking at one of the
the remaining area, "Central Serbia", never had its own fastest rates in the world.[158] A fth of all households

4.1

Religion

13
which has six ocial languages.[171]
The majority of the population, or 59.7%, reside in urban
areas and some 16.1% in Belgrade alone. Belgrade is the
only city with more than a million inhabitants and there
are four more with over 100,000 inhabitants.[172]

4.1 Religion
Main articles: Religion in Serbia and Serbian Orthodox
Church
The Constitution of Serbia denes it as a secular state

Ethnic map of Serbia, 2011 census.

consist of only one person, and just one-fourth of four


and more persons.[159] Average Life expectancy in Serbia at birth is 74.2 years.[160]
During the 1990s, Serbia used to have the largest refugee
population in Europe.[161] Refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Serbia formed between 7% and
7.5% of its population about half a million refugees
sought refuge in the country following the series of
Yugoslav wars, mainly from Croatia (and to a lesser extent from Bosnia and Herzegovina) and the IDPs from Saint Sava Cathedral, one of the largest Eastern Orthodox
Kosovo.[162] Meanwhile, it is estimated that 300,000 peo- churches in the world, dedicated to the nations patron saint.
ple left Serbia during the 1990s, 20% of which had a
higher education.[163][164]
with guaranteed religious freedom. Orthodox Christians
Serbs with 5,988,150 are the largest ethnic group in with 6,079,396 comprise 84.5% of countrys population.
Serbia, representing 83% of the total population (ex- The Serbian Orthodox Church is the largest and tradicluding Kosovo).
With a population of 253,899, tional church of the country, adherents of which are overHungarians are the largest ethnic minority in Ser- whelmingly Serbs. Other Orthodox Christian communibia, concentrated predominately in northern Vojvod- ties in Serbia include Montenegrins, Romanians, Vlachs,
ina and representing 3.5% of the countrys popula- Macedonians and Bulgarians.
tion (13% in Vojvodina). Romani population stands
at 147,604 according to the 2011 census but unocial Roman Catholics number 356,957 in Serbia, or roughly
estimates place their actual number between 400,000 6% of the population, mostly in Vojvodina (especially its
and 500,000.[165] Bosniaks with 145,278 are concen- northern part) which is home to minority ethnic groups
Croats, Bunjevci, as well as to some
trated in Raka (Sandak), in the southwest. Other such as Hungarians, [173]
Slovaks
and
Czechs.
minority groups include Croats, Slovaks, Albanians,
Montenegrins, Vlachs, Romanians, Macedonians and Protestantism accounts for about 1% of the countrys
Bulgarians. Chinese, estimated at about 15,000, are population, chiey among Slovaks in Vojvodina as well
the only signicant immigrant minority.[166][167] Vojvod- as among Reformed Hungarians. Greek Catholic Church
ina has a multi-ethnic and multi-cultural identity;[168][169] is adhered by around 25,000 citizens (0.37% of the popthere are more than 26 ethnic groups in the province,[170] ulation), mostly Rusyns in Vojvodina.[174]

14

5 ECONOMY

Muslims, with 222,282 or 3% of the population, form the 5 Economy


third largest religious group. Islam has a strong historic
following in the southern regions of Serbia, primarily in Main article: Economy of Serbia
southern Raka. Bosniaks are the largest Islamic commuSerbia has an emerging market economy in uppernity in Serbia; estimates are that some third of countrys
Roma people are Muslim.
There are only 578 Jews by faith in Serbia.[175] Atheists
numbered 80,053 or 1.1% of population and additional
4,070 declared as agnostics.[175]

4.2

Language

Main articles: Languages of Serbia and Serbian language


The ocial language is Serbian, a standardized form of
The Fiat 500L North American (primarily US) version, rear are
assembled at the FAS plant in Kragujevac

middle income range.[179] According to the IMF, Serbian


nominal GDP in 2015 is ocially estimated at $36.56
billion or $5,102 per capita while purchasing power parity GDP was $97.27 billion or $13,577 per capita.[5] The
economy is dominated by services which accounts for
60.3% of GDP, followed by industry with 31.8% of GDP,
and agriculture at 7.9% of GDP.[180] The ocial currency of Serbia is Serbian dinar (ISO code: RSD), and
the central bank is National Bank of Serbia. The Belgrade
Stock Exchange is the only stock exchange in the country,
with market capitalization of $8.65 billion (as of August
2014) and BELEX15 as the main index representing the
15 most liquid stocks.[181]
The economy has been aected by the global economic
crisis. After eight years of strong economic growth (avCountries where Serbian is an ocial (blue) and where it is recerage of 4.45% per year), Serbia entered the recession
ognized as a minority language (light blue).
in 2009 with negative growth of 3% and again in 2012
with 1.5%.[182] As the government was ghting eects
years: from preSerbo-Croatian, native to 88% of the population.[175] Ser- of crisis the public debt has doubled in 4[183][184]
crisis
level
of
29.2%
to
63.8%
of
GDP.
bian is the only European language with active digraphia,
using both Cyrillic and Latin alphabets. Serbian Cyril- Active labor force in 2014 stood at 1.703 million, of
lic is the countrys ocial alphabet.[176] It was devised whom 59.6% are employed in services sector, 23.9%
in 1814 by Serbian philologist Vuk Karadi, who cre- are employed in the agriculture and 16.5% are employed
ated the alphabet on phonemic principles. A survey from in industry.[180] The average monthly net salary in June
2014 showed that 47% of the Serbian population favour 2014 was 44,883 dinars (US$528,50).[185] The unemthe Latin alphabet, 36% favour the Cyrillic one and 17% ployment remains an acute problem, with rate of 17.9%
as of 2015.[180]
have no preference.[177]
Recognized minority languages are: Hungarian, Slovak,
Albanian, Romanian, Bulgarian and Rusyn, as well as
other standard forms of Serbo-Croatian: Bosnian and
Croatian.

Since 2000, Serbia has attracted over $25 billion in


foreign direct investment (FDI).[186] Blue-chip corporations making investments in Serbia include: FIAT,
Siemens, Bosch, Philip Morris, Michelin, Coca-Cola,
[187]
In the energy sector, Russian
All these languages are in ocial use in municipalities or Carlsberg and others.
Gazprom
and
Lukoil have made large
energy
giants,
cities where the ethnic minority exceeds 15% of the total
[188]
investments.
[178]
population.
In Vojvodina, the provincial administration uses, besides Serbian, ve other languages (Hungar- List of the largest Serbian companies by revenue and employees in 2013 (excluding banks) :
ian, Slovak, Croatian, Romanian and Rusyn).

5.2

Industry

NIS headquarters in Novi Sad

100 Serbian dinar banknote featuring Nikola Tesla

15
5,056,000 ha of agricultural land (0.7 ha per capita),
out of which 3,294,000 ha is arable land (0.45 ha per
capita).[201] In 2013, Serbia exported agricultural and
food products worth $2.8 billion, and the export-import
ratio was 180%.[202] Agricultural exports constitute onefth of all Serbias sales on the world market. Serbia is one of the largest provider of frozen fruit to
the EU (largest to the French market, and 2nd largest
to the German market).[203] Agricultural production is
most prominent in Vojvodina on the fertile Pannonian Plain. Other agricultural regions include Mava,
Pomoravlje, Tamnava, Rasina, and Jablanica.[204] In the
structure of the agricultural production 70% is from the
crop eld production, and 30% is from the livestock
production.[204] Serbia is worlds second largest producer
of plums (582,485 tons; second to China), second largest
of raspberries (89,602 tons, second to Poland), it is also
signicant producer of maize (6.48 million tons, ranked
32nd in the world) and wheat (2.07 million tons, ranked
35th in the world).[37][205] Other important agricultural
products are: sunower, sugar beet, soybean, potato, apple, pork meat, beef, poultry and dairy.
There are 56,000 ha of vineyards in Serbia, producing
about 230 million litres of wine annually.[37][201] Most
famous viticulture regions are located in Vojvodina and
umadija.

Serbia has an unfavorable trade balance: imports exceed


exports by 28.9%. Serbias exports, however, recorded
a steady growth in last couple of years reaching $14.61 5.2 Industry
billion in 2013.[199] The country has free trade agreements with the EFTA and CEFTA, a preferential trade See also: Automotive industry in Serbia
regime with the European Union, a Generalized System The industry is the economy sector which was hardest
of Preferences with the United States, and individual free
trade agreements with Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and
Turkey.[200]

5.1

Agriculture

Main article: Agriculture in Serbia


Serbia has very favourable natural conditions (land

New Belgrade, main nancial district in Serbia and region

Around 60% territory of Serbia is arable land; sown elds in


Vojvodina province

hit by the UN sanctions and trade embargo and NATO


bombing during the 1990s and transition to market economy during the 2000s.[206] The industrial output saw dramatic downsizing: in 2013 it is expected to be only a half
of that of 1989.[207] Main industrial sectors include: automotive, mining, non-ferrous metals, food-processing,
electronics, pharmaceuticals, clothes.

Automotive industry (with FIAT as a forebearer) is dominated by cluster located in Kragujevac and its vicinity,
and climate) for varied agricultural production. It has and contributes to export with about $2 billion.[208] Ser-

16

5 ECONOMY

bias mining industry is comparatively strong: Serbia is


the 18th largest producer of coal (7th in the Europe)
extracted from large deposits in Kolubara and Kostolac
basins; it is also worlds 23rd largest (3rd in Europe)
producer of copper which is extracted by RTB Bor,
a large domestic copper mining company; signicant
gold extraction is developed around Majdanpek. Serbia notably manufactures intel smartphones named Tesla
smartphones.[209]
Food industry is well known both regionally and internationally and is one of the strong points of the
economy.[210] Some of the international brand-names established production in Serbia: PepsiCo and Nestl in
food-processing sector; Coca-Cola (Belgrade), Heineken
(Novi Sad) and Carlsberg (Baka Palanka) in beverage
industry; Nordzucker in sugar industry.[203] Clothing and
textile industry has seen a surge in recent years with
signicant greenfeild investments by foreign companies:
Benneton in Ni, Geox in Vranje, Calzedonia in Sombor, Falke in Leskovac and others.Serbias electronics industry had its peak in the 1980s and the industry today
is only a third of what it was back then, but has witnessed a something of revival in last decade with investments of companies such as Siemens (wind turbines) in
Subotica, Panasonic (lighting devices) in Svilajnac, and
Gorenje (electrical home appliances) in Valjevo.[211] The
pharmaceutical industry in Serbia comprises 20 manufacturers of generic drugs, of which Hemofarm in Vrac and
Galenika in Belgrade, account for 80% of production volume. Domestic production meets over 60% of the local
demand.[212]

5.3

Energy

Main article: Energy in Serbia


Energy sector is one of the largest and most important
sectors to the countrys economy. Serbia is net exporter
of electricity and importer of key fuels (such as oil and
gas).
Serbia has abundance of one natural fuel (coal) and relatively signicant but not sucient of the others (oil and
gas). Serbias proven reserves of 5.5 billion tons of coal
lignite are 5th largest in the world (second in Europe, after Germany).[213][214] Coal is found in two large deposits:
Kolubara (4 billion tons of reserves) and Kostolac (1.5
billion tons).[213] Despite being small on a world scale,
Serbias oil and gas resources (77.4 million tons of oil
equivalent and 48.1 billion cubic meters, respectively)
have a certain regional importance since they are largest
in the region of former Yugoslavia as well as the Balkans
(excluding Romania).[215] Almost 90% of the discovered
oil and gas are to be found in Banat and those oil and gas
elds are by size among the largest in the Pannonian basin
but the average on a European scale.[216]

Iron Gate I Hydroelectric Power Station, the largest dam on the


Danube river and one of the largest hydro power plants in Europe

36.06 billion kilowatt-hours (KWh), while the nal electricity consumption amounted to 35.5 billion kilowatthours (KWh).[217] Most of the electricity produced comes
from thermal-power plants (72.7% of all electricity)
and to a lesser degree from hydroelectric-power plants
(27.3%).[218] There are 6 lignite-operated thermal-power
plants with an installed power of 3,936 MW; largest of
which are 1,502 MW-Nikola Tesla 1 and 1,160 MWNikola Tesla 2, both in Obrenovac.[219] Total installed
power of 9 hydroelectric-power plants is 2,831 MW,
largest of which is erdap 1 with capacity of 1,026
MW.[220] In addition to this, there are mazute and gasoperated thermal-power plants with an installed power of
353 MW.[221] The entire production of electricity is concentrated in Elektroprivreda Srbije (EPS), public electricutility power company.
The current oil production in Serbia amounts to over 1.1
million tons of oil equivalent[222] and satises some 43%
of countrys needs while the rest is imported.[223] National petrol company, Naftna Industrija Srbije (NIS),
was acquired in 2008 by Gazprom Neft. The company
has completed $700 million modernisation of oil-renery
in Panevo (capacity of 4.8 million tons) and is currently
in the midst of converting oil renery in Novi Sad into
lubricants-only renery. It also operates network of 334
lling stations in Serbia (74% of domestic market) and
additional 36 stations in Bosnia and Herzegovina, 31 in
Bulgaria, and 28 in Romania.[224][225] There are 155 kilometers of crude oil pipelines connecting Panevo and
Novi Sad reneries as a part of trans-national Adria oil
pipeline.[226]

Serbia is heavily dependent on foreign sources of natural gas, with only 17% coming from domestic production
(totalling 491 million cubic meters in 2012) and the rest
is imported, mainly from Russia (via gas pipelines that
run through Ukraine and Hungary).[223] Srbijagas, public gas company, operates the natural gas transportation
system which comprise 3,177 kilometers of trunk and regional natural gas pipelines and a 450 million cubic meter
The production of electricity in 2012 in Serbia was underground gas storage facility at Banatski Dvor.[227]

5.4

5.4

Transport

Transport

Main article: Transport in Serbia


Serbia has a strategic transportation location since countrys backbone, Morava valley, represents by far the easiest route of land travel from continental Europe to Asia
Minor and the Near East.
Serbian road network carries the bulk of trac in the
country. Total length of roads is 40,845 km, of which
1,372 km are class 1a-state roads (i.e. major national
roads, including some 675 km of motorways); 4,153 km
are class 1b-state roads"; 11,540 km are class 2-state
roads (regional roads) and 23,780 km are municipal
roads (local roads).[228][229] The road network, except
for the most of class 1a roads, are of comparatively lower
quality to the Western European standards because of
lack of nancial resources for their maintenance in the
last 20 years.

17
70 kilometers on the A4 (east of Ni to the Bulgarian
border).[230] Work on the construction of the remaining
part of A2 (52 km-long sections Belgrade-Obrenovac and
aak-Poega) is set to commence in 2016 and be completed by 2018 and 2019, respectively.[230] Coach transport is very extensive: almost every place in the country is
connected by bus, from largest cities to the villages; in addition there are international routes (mainly to countries
of Western Europe with large Serb diaspora). Routes,
both domestic and international, are served by more than
100 bus companies, biggest of which are Lasta and NiEkspres. As of 2011, there are 1,677,510 registered passenger cars or 1 passenger car per 4.3 inhabitants.[37]

Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport is the busiest airport on the


Western Balkans

15.03.2014

Serbia has 3,819 kilometers of rail tracks, of which


1,279 are electried and 283 kilometers are double-track
railroad.[37] The major rail hub is Belgrade (and to a
lesser degree Ni), while the most important railroads
include: Belgrade-Bar (Montenegro), Belgrade-idZagreb (Croatia)/Belgrade-Ni-Soa (Bulgaria) (part of
Pan-European Corridor X), Belgrade-Subotica-Budapest
(Hungary) and Ni-Thessaloniki (Greece). Although still
a major mode of freight transportation, railroads face increasing problems with the maintenance of the infrastructure and lowering speeds. All rail services are operated
by public rail company, Serbian Railways.[231] There are
only two cities in Serbia (excluding Kosovo) served by
international airports with regular passenger trac: Belgrade and Ni. Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport served 4.77
million passengers in 2015, and is a hub of agship carrier Air Serbia.[232]

Serbia has a developed inland water transport since


there are 1,716 kilometers of navigable inland waterways
Serbian motorway and expressway network:
(1,043 km of navigable rivers and 673 km of navigable
nished
canals), which are almost all located in northern third of
under construction (2015)
the country.[37] The most important inland waterway is
planned
the Danube (part of Pan-European Corridor VII). Other
navigable rivers include Sava, Tisza, Begej and Timi
There are currently 241 kilometers of motorways (auto- River, all of which connect Serbia with Northern and
putevi) under construction which are all due to be com- Western Europe through the RhineMainDanube Canal
pleted by 2017: two sections 40 km-long of the A1 mo- and North Sea route, to Eastern Europe via the Tisza,
torway (from south of Leskovac to Bujanovac), 102 km- Begej and Danube Black Sea routes, and to Southern Eulong segment of A2 (between Obrenovac and aak), and rope via the Sava river. More than 2.1 million tons of

18

5 ECONOMY

cargo were transported on Serbian rivers and canals in


2011 while the largest river ports are: Belgrade, Novi
Sad, Panevo, Smederevo, Prahovo and abac.[37][233]

5.5

Telecommunications

Main article: Telecommunications in Serbia


Fixed telephone lines connect 89% of households in Serbia, and with about 9.8 million users the number of
cellphones surpasses the total population of Serbia by
35%. The largest cellphone provider is Telekom Srbija with 5.65 million subscribers, followed by Telenor
with 3.1 million users and Vip mobile with just over
1 million.[234] Computers are in 59.9% of households
and 55.8% have an internet connection (43.4% have a
broadband connection).[235] Some 58% of households
have cable TV, which is one of the highest rates in
Europe.[236] Digital television transition has been completed in 2015.[237]

5.6

Petrovaradin fortress during the Exit festival

Devils Town is a rare natural phenomenon, near


Kursumlija.

Tourism

Main article: Tourism in Serbia


Serbia is not a mass-tourism destination but nevertheless
has a diverse range of touristic products.[238] In 2014, total of almost 2.2 million tourists were recorded in accommodations, of which just over 1 million were foreign.[239]
Foreign exchange earnings from tourism were estimated
at $1.14 billion.[240]
Tourism is mainly focused on the mountains and spas
of the country, which are mostly visited by domestic
tourists, as well as Belgrade which is preferred choice of
foreign tourists.[241] The most famous mountain resorts
are Kopaonik, Stara Planina, and Zlatibor. There are
also many spas in Serbia, the biggest of which is Vrnjaka
Banja, Soko Banja, and Banja Koviljaa. City-break and
conference tourism is developed in Belgrade (which was
visited by 517,401 foreign tourists in 2013, more than
a half of all international visits to the country) and to a
lesser degree Novi Sad.[242] Other touristic products that
Serbia oer are natural wonders like avolja varo,[243]
Christian pilgrimage to the many Orthodox monasteries
across the country[244] and the river cruising along the
Danube. There are several internationally popular music
festivals held in Serbia, such as EXIT (with 2530,000
foreign visitors coming from 60 dierent countries) and
the Gua trumpet festival.[245]

Kopaonik, the major ski resort and a national park

Belgrade Fortress.

19
Mokra Gora , narrow-gauge heritage railway.

Education and science

Main article: Education in Serbia


According to 2011 census, literacy in Serbia stands at
98% of population while computer literacy is at 49%
(complete computer literacy is at 34.2%).[246] Same census showed the following levels of education: 16.2% of
inhabitants have higher education (10.6% have bachelors or masters degrees, 5.6% have an associate degree),
49% have a secondary education, 20.7% have an elementary education, and 13.7% have not completed elemenMilutin Milankovi , mathematician, astronomer, climatologist
tary education.[247]
and geophysicist incorporated by NASA in their edition of "On
Education in Serbia is regulated by the Ministry of Education and Science. Education starts in either preschools
or elementary schools. Children enroll in elementary
schools at the age of seven. Compulsory education consists of eight grades of elementary school. Students have
the opportunity to attend gymnasiums and vocational
schools for another four years, or to enroll in vocational
training for 2 to 3 years. Following the completion of
gymnasiums or vocational schools, students have the opportunity to attend university.[248] Elementary and secondary education are also available in languages of recognised minorities in Serbia, where classes are held in
Hungarian, Slovak, Albanian, Romanian, Rusyn, Bulgarian as well as Bosnian and Croatian languages.

Library of Serbia, Belgrade and Matica Srpska in Novi


Sad
There are 17 universities in Serbia (eight public
universities with a total number of 85 faculties and
nine private universities with 51 faculties).[250] In
2010/2011 academic year, 181,362 students attended
17 universities (148,248 at public universities and some
33,114 at private universities) while 47,169 attended 81
higher schools.[37] Public universities in Serbia are:
the University of Belgrade (oldest, founded in 1808,
and largest university with 89,827 undergraduates and
graduates[251] ), University of Novi Sad (founded in
1960 and with student body of 47,826[252] ), University
of Ni (founded in 1965; 27,000 students), University
of Kragujevac (founded in 1976; 14,000 students),
University of Pritina Kos. Mitrovica, Public University of Novi Pazar as well as two specialist universities

the Shoulders of Giants" and ranked among the top fteen minds
of all time in the eld of earth sciences.[249]

University of Arts and University of Defence. Largest


private universities include Megatrend University and
Singidunum University, both in Belgrade, and Educons
University in Novi Sad. Public universities tend to be
of a better quality and therefore more renowned than
private ones. Th University of Belgrade (placed in
301400 bracket on 2013 Shanghai Ranking of World
Universities, being best-placed university in Southeast
Europe after those in Athens and Thessaloniki) and
University of Novi Sad are generally considered as the
best institutions of higher learning in the country.[253]
Serbia spent 0.64% of GDP on scientic research in
2012, which is one of the lowest R&D budgets in
Europe.[254] Serbia has a long history of excellence in
maths and computer sciences which has created a strong
pool of engineering talent, although economic sanctions during the 1990s and chronic underinvestment in
research forced many scientic professionals to leave
the country.[255] Nevertheless, there are several areas in
which Serbia stillNational
excels such as growing information
technology sector, which includes software development
as well as outsourcing. It generated $200 million in exports in 2011, both from international investors and a signicant number of dynamic homegrown enterprises.[256]
In 2005 the global technology giant, Microsoft, founded
the Microsoft Development Center, only its fourth such
centre in the world. Among the scientic institutes operating in Serbia, the largest are the Mihajlo Pupin Institute and Vina Nuclear Institute, both in Belgrade.
The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts is a learned
society promoting science and arts from its inception
in 1841.[257] With a strong science and technological
ecosystem, Serbia has produced a number of renowned
scientists that have greatly contributed to the eld of science and technology.
Nikola Tesla, electrical engineer and inventor, best

20

7 CULTURE
known for his contributions to the design of the
modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply
system including the AC induction motor.[258] The
tesla is the SI derived unit of magnetic ux density
and was named after Tesla.[259]

Mihajlo Pupin discovered a means of greatly extending the range of long-distance telephone communication by placing loading coils of wire (known
as Pupin coils) at predetermined intervals along the
transmitting wire (known as pupinization).[260]
Milutin Milankovi is known for his theory of ice
ages, suggesting a relationship between the Earths Studenica monastery, founded in 1196, UNESCO World Heritage
long-term climate changes and periodic changes in Site
its orbit, now known as Milankovitch cycles.
Mihailo Petrovi is known for having contributed
signicantly to dierential equations and phenomenology, as well as inventing one of the rst prototypes of an analog computer.

the most valuable cultural monuments left from Serbia in


the Middle Ages.

Serbia has four cultural monuments inscribed in the list


of UNESCO World Heritage: the early medieval capital Stari Ras and the 13th-century monastery Sopoani;
the 12th-century Studenica monastery; the Roman complex of GamzigradFelix Romuliana; and nally the en7 Culture
dangered Medieval Monuments in Kosovo (the monasteries of Visoki Deani, Our Lady of Ljevi, Graanica
Main articles: Serbian culture and Cultural Heritage of
and Patriarchate of Pe).
Serbia
For centuries straddling the boundaries between East and There are two literary monuments on UNESCOs
Memory of the World Programme: the 12th-century
Miroslav Gospel, and scientist Nikola Tesla's valuable
archive. The slava (patron saint veneration) is inscribed
on UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists. The
Ministry of Culture and Information is tasked with preserving the nations cultural heritage and overseeing its
development. Further activities supporting development
of culture are undertaken at local government level.

7.1 Art

Traditional dress from central Serbia

West, the territory of Serbia had been divided among the


Eastern and Western halves of the Roman Empire; then
between Byzantium and the Kingdom of Hungary; and
in the Early modern period between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg Empire. These overlapping inuences have resulted in cultural varieties throughout Serbia; its north leans to the prole of Central Europe, while
the south is characteristic of the wider Balkans and even
the Mediterranean. The Byzantine inuence on Serbia
was profound, rstly through the introduction of Eastern
Christianity (Orthodoxy) in the Early Middle Ages. The
Serbian Orthodox Church has had an enduring status in
Serbia, with the many Serbian monasteries constituting

Main article: Serbian art


Traces of Roman and early Byzantine Empire architectural heritage are found in many royal cities and palaces
in Serbia, like Sirmium, Felix Romuliana and Justiniana
Prima.
Serbian monasteries, with their fresco and icon paintings, are the pinnacle of Serbian medieval art. At the beginning, they were under the inuence of Byzantine Art
which was particularly felt after the fall of Constantinople in 1204, when many Byzantine artists ed to Serbia. The most noted of these monasteries is Studenica
(built around 1190). It was a model for later monasteries, like the Mileeva, Sopoani, ia, Graanica and
Visoki Deani. The most famous Serbian medieval fresco
is the Mironosnice na Grobu (or the White Angel) from
the Mileeva monastery.[262] In the end of 14th and the
15th centuries, autochotonous architectural style known
as Morava style evolved in area around Morava Valley.

7.2

Literature

21
felin and Jakov Orfelin.[264]
Serbian painting showed the inuence of Biedermeier,
Neoclassicism and Romanticism during the 19th century.
The most important Serbian painters of the rst half of
the 20th century were Paja Jovanovi and Uro Predi of
Realism, Cubist Sava umanovi, Milena Pavlovi-Barili
and Nadeda Petrovi of Impressionism, Expressionist
Milan Konjovi. Noted painters of the second half of
20th century include Marko elebonovi, Petar Lubarda,
Milo Milunovi, and Vladimir Velikovi.[265]
Anastas Jovanovi was one of the earliest photographes in
the world, while Marina Abramovi is one of the world
leading performance artists. Pirot carpet is known as one
of the most important traditional handicrafts in Serbia.
There are around 100 art museums in Serbia, of which
the most prominent is the National Museum, founded
in 1844; it houses one of the largest art collections in
the Balkans with more than 400,000 exhibits, over 5,600
paintings and 8,400 drawings and prints, including many
foreign masterpiece collections. Other art museums of
note are Museum of Contemporary Art in Belgrade and
Museum of Vojvodina in Novi Sad.

The White Angel frescoe was sent in the rst satellite broadcast
signal from Europe to USA, as a symbol of peace.[261]

7.2 Literature
Main article: Serbian literature
The beginning of Serbian literacy dates back to the ac-

A characteristic of this style was the wealthy decoration


of the frontal church walls. Examples of this include
Manasija, Ravanica and Kaleni monasteries. Country is
dotted with many well-preserved medieval fortications
and castles such as Smederevo Fortress (largest lowland
fortress in Europe), Golubac, Magli, and Ram.

Miroslavs Gospel, UNESCO's Memory of the World Register,[266]


1186

Kosovo Maiden, based on Serbian epic poetry, which was praised


by Goethe, Grimm, Andersen and Spitteler[263]

During the time of Ottoman occupation, Serbian art was


virtually non-existent, with the exception of several Serbian artists who lived in the lands ruled by the Habsburg
Monarchy. Traditional Serbian art showed some Baroque
inuences at the end of the 18th century as shown in the
works of Nikola Nekovi, Teodor Kraun, Zaharije Or-

tivity of the brothers Cyril and Methodius in the Balkans.


Monuments of Serbian literacy from the early 11th century can be found, written in Glagolitic. Starting in the
12th century, books were written in Cyrillic. From this
epoch, the oldest Serbian Cyrillic book editorial are the
Miroslav Gospels. The Miroslav Gospels are considered
to be the oldest book of Serbian medieval history.
Notable medieval authors include Saint Sava, Nun Jemija, Stefan Lazarevi, Constantine of Kostenets and
others.[267] Baroque trends in Serbian literature emerged
in the late 17th century. Notable Baroque-inuenced
authors were Gavril Stefanovi Venclovi, Jovan Raji, Zaharije Orfelin, Andrija Zmajevi and others.[268]

22
Dositej Obradovi was the most prominent gure of the
Age of Enlightenment, while the most notable Classicist
writer was Jovan Sterija Popovi, although his works also
contained elements of Romanticism.[269] In the era of
national revival, in the rst half of the 19th century,
Vuk Stefanovi Karadi collected Serbian folk literature, and reformed the Serbian language and spelling,[270]
paving the way for Serbian Romanticism. The rst half
of the 19th century was dominated by Romanticism, with
Branko Radievi, ura Jaki, Jovan Jovanovi Zmaj
and Laza Kosti being the most notable representatives,
while the second half of the century was marked by
Realist writers such as Milovan Glii, Laza Lazarevi,
Simo Matavulj, Stevan Sremac, Vojislav Ili, Branislav
Nui, Radoje Domanovi and Borisav Stankovi.

7 CULTURE
were 10,989 books and brochures published.[37] The
book publishing market is dominated by several major
publishers such as Laguna and Vulkan (both of which operate their own bookstore chains) and the industrys centerpiece event, annual Belgrade Book Fair, is the most
visited cultural event in Serbia with 158,128 visitors in
2013.[276] The highlight of the literary scene is awarding
of NIN Prize, given every January since 1954 for the best
newly published novel in Serbian language (during times
of Yugoslavia, in Serbo-Croatian language).[277]

7.3 Music
Main article: Music of Serbia
Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanovi Mokran-

Ivo Andri, Serbian writer and the 1961 winner of the Nobel
Prize in Literature signing books at the Belgrade Book Fair
Stevan Stojanovi Mokranjac

The 20th century was dominated by the prose writers


Milo Crnjanski, Isidora Sekuli, Ivo Andri (who was
awarded Nobel Prize in Literature in 1961), Branko
opi, Miodrag Bulatovi, Mea Selimovi, Borislav
Peki, Danilo Ki, Dobrica osi, Aleksandar Tima,
Dragoslav Mihailovi, Milorad Pavi and ohers.[271][272]
There were also many valuable poetic achievements,
as seen by the writings of Milan Raki, Jovan Dui,
Vladislav Petkovi Dis, Rastko Petrovi, Stanislav
Vinaver, Duan Mati, Desanka Maksimovi, Branko
Miljkovi, Vasko Popa, Oskar Davio, Miodrag Pavlovi,
Stevan Raikovi, and others.[273] Most notable contemporary authors include David Albahari, Svetislav Basara,
Goran Petrovi, Vladimir Arsenijevi, Zoran ivkovi
and others.

jac is considered the founder of modern Serbian


music.[278][279] The Serbian composers of the rst generation Petar Konjovi, Stevan Hristi, and Miloje Milojevi maintained the national expression and modernized the romanticism into the direction of impressionism. Other famous classical Serbian composers include
Isidor Baji, Stanislav Biniki and Josif Marinkovi.[280]
There are three opera houses in Serbia: Opera of the
National Theatre and Madlenianum Opera, both in Belgrade, and Opera of the Serbian National Theatre in Novi
Sad. Four symphonic orchestra operate in the country: Belgrade Philharmonic Orchestra, Ni Symphony
Orchestra, Symphonic Orchestra of Radio Television of
Serbia, and Novi Sad Philharmonic Orchestra. The Choir
of Radio Television of Serbia is a leading vocal ensemble in the country.[281] The BEMUS is one of the most
prominent classical music festivals in the South East Europe.

There are 551 public libraries in Serbia (excluding


Kosovo), the biggest of which are two national libraries:
National Library of Serbia in Belgrade with funds of
about 5 million volumes, and Matica Srpska (oldest Serbian cultural institution, founded in 1826) in Novi Sad Traditional Serbian music includes various kinds of
with nearly 3.5 million volumes.[274][275] In 2010, there bagpipes, utes, horns, trumpets, lutes, psalteries, drums

7.3

Music

23

Serbia won Eurovision Song Contest 2007

and Marija erifovi managed to win the 2007 Eurovision


Song Contest with the song "Molitva", and Serbia was the
host of the 2008 edition of the contest. Most popular pop
singers include likes of Zdravko oli, Vlado Georgiev,
Nataa Bekvalac among others.

Filip Vinji sings to the gusle

and cymbals. The kolo is the traditional collective folk


dance, which has a number of varieties throughout the
regions. The most popular are those from Uice and
Morava region. Sung epic poetry has been an integral
part of Serbian and Balkan music for centuries. In the
highlands of Serbia these long poems are typically accompanied on a one-string ddle called the gusle, and
concern themselves with themes from history and mythology. There are records of gusle being played at the court
of the 13th-century King Stefan Nemanji.[282]
The Serbian rock which was during the 1960s, 1970s and
1980s part of former Yugoslav rock scene, used to be well
developed, featuring various rock genres, and was well
covered in the media, which included numerous magazines, radio and TV shows. During the 1990s and 2000s
popularity of rock music declined in Serbia, and although
several major mainstream acts managed to sustain their
popularity, an underground and independent music scene
developed. The most notable Serbian rock acts include
Bajaga i Instruktori, ore Balaevi, Disciplina Kime,
Ekatarina Velika, Elektrini Orgazam, Galija, Idoli,
Kerber, Korni Grupa, Partibrejkers, Pekinka Patka, Pop
Maina, Rambo Amadeus, Riblja orba, Smak, arlo
Akrobata, Van Gogh, YU Grupa, and others.

Turbo-folk music is subgenre that has developed in Serbia in the late 1980s and the beginning of the 1990s and
has since enjoyed an immense popularity. It is a blend
of folk music with pop and/or dance elements and can
be seen as a result of the urbanization of folk music. In
recent period turbo-folk featured even more pop music
elements, and some of the performers were labeled as
pop-folk. The most famous among them are Ceca (often
considered to be the biggest music star of Serbia), Jelena
Karleua, Aca Lukas, Seka Aleksi, Dragana Mirkovi,
Dara Bubamara, Indira Radi and Lepa Brena, arguably
the most prominent performer of former Yugoslavia.
Balkan Brass, or truba (trumpet) is a popular genre,
especially in Central and Southern Serbia where Balkan
Brass originated. The music has its tradition from the
First Serbian Uprising. The trumpet was used as a military instrument to wake and gather soldiers and announce
battles, the trumpet took on the role of entertainment during downtime, as soldiers used it to transpose popular folk
songs. When the war ended and the soldiers returned to
the rural life, the music entered civilian life and eventually
became a music style, accompanying births, baptisms,
weddings, and funerals. There are two main varieties of
this genre, one from Western Serbia and the other from
Southern Serbia. The best known Serbian Brass musician
is Boban Markovi, also one of the biggest names in the
world of modern brass band bandleaders.

Most popular music festival are Gua Trumpet Festival


with over 300,000 annual visitors and EXIT in Novi Sad
(The best European festival in 2007 by UK Festival
Awards and Yourope the European Association of the
40 largest festivals in Europe) with 200,000 visitors in
Pop music has mainstream popularity. eljko Joksimovi 2013.[283][284] Other festivals include Niville Jazz Festiwon second place at the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest val in Ni and Gitarijada rock festival in Zajear.

24

7.4

7 CULTURE

Theatre and cinema

Main article: Cinema of Serbia


Serbia has a well-established theatrical tradition with

National Theatre in Belgrade.

tickets for domestic lms.[289][290] Modern PFI Studios


located in imanovci is nowadays Serbias only lm studio complex; it consists of 9 state-of-the-art sound stages
and attracts mainly international productions, primarily
American and West European.[291] The Yugoslav Film
Archive used to be former Yugoslavias and now is Serbia
national lm archive with over 95 thousand lm prints,
it is among ve largest lm archives in the world.[292]
Serbian cinema dates back to 1896 with the release of
the oldest movie in the Balkans, The Life and Deeds of
the Immortal Vod Karaore, a biography about Serbian
revolutionary leader, Karaore.[293][294]

Serbian lm director Emir Kusturica who twice won the Palme


d'Or at Cannes Film Festival

Joakim Vuji considered the founder of modern Serbian


theater.[285] Serbia has 38 professional theatres, the most
important of which are National Theatre in Belgrade,
Serbian National Theatre in Novi Sad, National Theatre
in Subotica, National Theatre in Ni and Knjaevskosrpski teatar in Kragujevac (the oldest theatre in Serbia,
established in 1835). The Belgrade International Theatre
Festival BITEF, founded in 1967, is one of the oldest
theater festivals in the world, and it has become one of
the ve biggest European festivals.[286] Sterijino pozorje
is, on the other hand, festival showcasing national drama
plays. The most important Serbian playwrighters were
Jovan Sterija Popovi and Branislav Nui, while today
renowned names are Duan Kovaevi and Biljana Srbljanovi.[287]

The most famous Serbian lmmaker is Emir Kusturica who won two Golden Palms for Best Feature
Film at the Cannes Film Festival, for When Father
Was Away on Business in 1985 and then again for
Underground in 1995.[295] Other renowned directors
include Goran Paskaljevi, Duan Makavejev, Goran
Markovi, Sran Dragojevi and Srdan Golubovi among
others. Steve Tesich, Serbian-American screenwriter,
won the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay in
1979 for the movie Breaking Away.

7.5 Media
Main articles: Media of Serbia and Media freedom in
Serbia
The freedom of the press and the freedom of speech are
guaranteed by the constitution of Serbia.[296] Serbia is
ranked 54th out of 180 countries in the 2014 Press Freedom Index report compiled by Reporters Without Borders.[297] Both reports noted that media outlets and journalists continue to face partisan and government pressure
over editorial policies. Also, the media are now more
heavily dependent on advertising contracts and government subsidies to survive nancially.[298]

The Serbian cinema is one of the most dynamic smaller


European cinematographies. Serbias lm industry is
heavily subsidised by the government, mainly through
grants approved by the Film Centre of Serbia. In 2011,
there were 17 domestic feature lms produced.[288] There
are 20 operating cinemas in the country, of which 10 are
multiplexes, with total attendance exceeding 2.6 million According to AGB Nielsen Research in 2009, Serbs on
and comparatively high percentage of 32.3% of total sold average watch ve hours of television per day, making

7.6

Cuisine

25
Novi Sad and Narodne novine from Ni), one daily on
Hungarian language (Magyar Szo published in Subotica),
and a free newspaper of 24 sata, distributed only in Belgrade and Novi Sad.
There are 1,262 magazines published in the country.[37]
Those include weekly news magazines NIN and Vreme,
popular science magazine of Politikin Zabavnik, womens
Lepota & Zdravlje, auto magazine SAT revija, IT magazine Svet kompjutera. In addition, there is a wide selection
of Serbian editions of international magazines, such as
Cosmopolitan, Elle, Grazia, Mens Health, National Geographic, Le Monde diplomatique, Playboy, Hello! and
others.
There are two main news agencies, Beta and Fonet.
As of 2014, the most visited websites in Serbian (mainly
on the .rs domain) are the Serbian version of Google followed by online editions of printed daily Blic, news webportal of B92 broadcaster, news portal of printed daily
Kurir and classieds KupujemProdajem.[304]

7.6 Cuisine
Avala telecommunication tower, the tallest tower in the Balkan
region

Main article: Serbian cuisine


Serbian cuisine is largely heterogeneous, sharing charac-

it the highest average in Europe.[299] There are seven


nationwide free-to-air television channels, with public
broadcaster Radio Television of Serbia (RTS) operating
three (RTS1, RTS2 and RTS3) and remaining four are
private broadcasters: Prva, B92, Pink and Happy TV.
Viewing shares for these channels in 2012 were as follows: 23.5% for RTS1, 19.6% for Pink, 16.1% for Prva,
8.1% for B92, 3.6% for RTS2, and 2.8% for Happy
TV.[300] There are 28 regional television stations and 74
local television stations.[37] Besides terrestrial channels
there are a dozen Serbian television channels available
only on cable or satellite.
There are 220 radio stations in Serbia.[37] Out of these, six
are radio stations with national coverage, including two
of public broadcaster Radio Television of Serbia (Radio
Belgrade 1 and Radio Belgrade 2/Radio Belgrade 3), and
four private ones (Radio S1, Radio S2, Radio Play, and
Radio Hit FM). Also, there are 49 regional stations and
162 local stations.[301]

Serbian Christmas meal

teristics of the Balkans (especially former Yugoslavia),


the Mediterranean (Greek in particular), Turkish, and
Central European (especially Austrian and Hungarian)
cuisines. Food is very important in Serbian social life,
particularly during religious holidays such as Christmas,
[305]
[37]
There are 340 newspapers published in Serbia. Some Easter and feast days i.e. slava.
14 daily newspapers are published in the country out Staples of the Serbian diet include bread, meat, fruits,
of which 10 are nationwide dailies. Dailies Politika vegetables, and dairy products. Bread is the basis of all
and Danas are Serbias papers of record, former be- Serbian meals, and it plays an important role in Serbian
ing the oldest newspaper in the Balkans, founded in cuisine and can be found in religious rituals. A tradi1904.[302] Highest circulation newspapers are tabloids tional Serbian welcome is to oer bread and salt to guests.
Veernje Novosti, Blic, Kurir, and Alo!, all with more than Meat is widely consumed, as is sh. Serbian special100,000 copies sold.[303] There are two sport newspapers ties include evapii (caseless sausages made of minced
(Sportski urnal and Sport), one business daily Privredni meat, which is always grilled and seasoned), pljeskavica,
pregled, two regional newspapers (Dnevnik published in sarma, kajmak (a dairy product similar to clotted cream),

26

7 CULTURE

gibanica (cheese and kajmak pie), ajvar (a roasted red Football Association of Serbia, and more recently the
pepper spread), proja (cornbread), and kaamak (corn- likes of Nemanja Vidi, Dejan Stankovi and Branislav
our porridge).[306]
Ivanovi the elite clubs of Europe, developing the naas one of the worlds biggest exporters
Serbians claim their country as the birthplace of rakia tions reputation
[309]
of
footballers.
The Serbia national football team lacks
(rakija), a highly alcoholic drink primarily distilled from
relative
success
although
it qualied for three of the last
fruit. Rakia in various forms is found throughout the
four
FIFA
World
Cups.
Serbia national youth football
Balkans, notably in Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovenia, Montene2013
U-19
European Championship and
teams
have
won
gro, Hungary and Turkey. Slivovitz (ljivovica), a plum
2015 U-20 World Cup. The two main football clubs in
brandy, is a type of rakia which is considered the national
Serbia are Red Star (winner of the 1991 European Cup)
drink of Serbia.[307]
and Partizan (nalist of the 1966 European Cup), both
from Belgrade. The rivalry between the two clubs is
known as the "Eternal Derby", and is often cited as one
7.7 Sports
of the most exciting sports rivalries in the world.[310]
Main article: Sport in Serbia
Sports play an important role in Serbian society, and the

The Serbia mens national water polo team is the second most
successful national team in history of the sport.

Serbia is one of the traditional powerhouses of world basketball, as Serbia mens national basketball team have
won two World Championships (in 1998 and 2002), three
European Championships (1995, 1997, and 2001, respectively) and silver medal at 1996 Olympics as well.
A total of 22 Serbian players have played in the NBA
in last two decades, including Predrag Peja Stojakovi
(three-time NBA All-Star) and Vlade Divac (2001 NBA
Novak Djokovic won twelve Grand Slam singles titles and is cur- All-Star and FIBA Hall of Famer). The renowned Serrently ranked world No. 1 by the ATP.
bian coaching school produced many of the most successful European basketball coaches of all times, such as
country has a strong sporting history. The most popular
eljko Obradovi, who won a record 8 Euroleague titles
sports in Serbia are football, basketball, tennis, volleyball, as a coach. KK Partizan was the 1992 European chamwater polo and handball.
pion.
Professional sports in Serbia are organized by sporting Recent success of Serbian tennis players has led to an imfederations and leagues (in case of team sports). One mense growth in the popularity of tennis in Serbia. Novak
of particularities of Serbian professional sports is exis- okovi, eleven-time Grand Slam champion, nished in
tence of many multi-sports clubs (called sports soci- 2011, 2012, 2014 and 2015 as No. 1 in the world and
eties), biggest and most successful of which are Red Star, is also currently No. 1 in the ATP Rankings.[311] Ana
Partizan, and Beograd in Belgrade, Vojvodina in Novi Ivanovic (champion of 2008 French Open) and Jelena
Sad, Radniki in Kragujevac, Spartak in Subotica.
Jankovi were both ranked No. 1 in the WTA Rankings.
Football is the most popular sport in Serbia, and
the Football Association of Serbia with 146,845 registered players, is the largest sporting association in
the country.[308] Dragan Daji was ocially recognized as the best Serbian player of all times by the

There were two No. 1 ranked-tennis double players as


well: Nenad Zimonji (three-time mens double and fourtime mixed double Grand Slam champion) and Slobodan
ivojinovi. The Serbia mens tennis national team won
the 2010 Davis Cup while Serbia womens tennis national

27
team reached the nal at 2012 Fed Cup.[312]
Serbia is one of the leading volleyball countries in the
world. Its mens national team won the gold medal at
2000 Olympics, and has won the European Championship twice. The womens national volleyball team won
the European Championship in 2011.
The Serbia mens national water polo team is the second most successful national team after Hungary, having
won three World Championships (2005, 2009 and 2015),
and ve European Championships in 2001, 2003, 2006,
2012, and 2014 respectively.[313] VK Partizan has won a
joint-record seven European champion titles.
Other noted Serbian athletes include: swimmers Milorad
avi (2009 World champion on 50 meters buttery
and silver medalist on 100 meters buttery as well as
2008 Olympic silver medalist on 100 meters buttery in historic race with American swimmer Michael
Phelps) and Naa Higl (2009 World champion in 200
meters breaststroke the rst Serbian woman to become a world champion in swimming); track and eld
athletes Emir Bekri (hurdler; bronze medalist at the
2013 World Championships) and Ivana panovi (longjumper; bronze medalist at the 2013 World Championships); shooter Jasna ekari (1988 Olympic gold
medalist and competed at seven Olympic Games) and
taekwondoist Milica Mandi (2012 Olympic gold medalist).

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Public holidays

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national and other holidays in the Republic of Serbia.
1

If any of the non-religious holidays falls on a Sunday,


then it extends to the next working day.

See also
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International rankings of Serbia
Outline of Serbia
Timeline of Serbian history

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35

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Jza84, Nergaal, Jimmy Slade, Gr8opinionater, ImageRemovalBot, Gradac, Athenean, Dobermannp, Martarius, Sfan00 IMG, ClueBot,
Dvl007, Justindavila, Zackellison, PipepBot, Mustafa Mustamann, Kotniski, AustSerbModa, Tucker001, Boki13, Plastikspork, EoGuy,
Brandonlfc, Giovanni47, Jgrift711, Hansi667, Nnemo, Czarko, Artene50, UstashkiDom, Zoki101, Franamax, AlasdairGreen27, Benjamin Lefvre, Belgradenet, Skpperd, Ivani100, Vizantin, Imperium Europeum, Clisteinman, Niceguyedc, Parkwells, Slntssssn, Muscatp, MarkTurver1990, Neverquick, Detroiterbot, Buttery6822, No such user, Thgoiter, Pumpmeup, Bagworm, Alexbot, MisterNo900,
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EmausBot, Dekidxb, John of Reading, Dolescum, Mzilikazi1939, WikitanvirBot, Kutchkutch, Filipdr, Dewritech, Mesgul82, Peaceray,
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Omnisome, WikiNameBaks, Frietjes, Balkanoid, Kasirbot, Aleksa Milievi, DymlaBuchye, Pensionero, Widr, Dukisuzuki, Mare96,
Anupmehra, Trishke, Helpful Pixie Bot, Sceptic1954, Brianlayman, Milstan, BG19bot, Tex with X Ray Spex, Soundwaweserb, Makedonija,
SavoRastko, Sematz, Vagobot, Stainlessboy, Nochoje, George Ponderevo, BRS123, Cyberpower678, HIDECCHI001, StevenJ81, Eddy-

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Vadim, Frze, Pardalote12, GKFX, Vukajlija54, Yeroskipou3, Albatalab, MoravaiDrina, FindoutNicosia, Gorthian, Butrintifan89, Knightserbia, 123BRS, JamisterH, K2qh243, The Almightey Drill, Nicola.Manini, DPL bot, Kduckworth, Ernio48, Slushy9, Zedshort, Dejanxd,
, Wrath X, Peacemaker67, Germanpost, Snowpedia100, Findblogging, Bigmac7495, Durangowatcher, Shredder2012, BattyBot,
ZikaJeKonj, Tfc, Sajmonara, 6789qwr, Nado158, Cyberbot II, 998623 op, ChrisGualtieri, Ceco31, Danielcasgir, Merianni, Khazar2,
NoPainNoXP, 23 editor, Alexispao, Backij, Ibicdlcod, BuzyBody, BrightStarSky, Dexbot, 12text12, Ottomanist, Alburzador, Hmainsbot1, Spirit of Eagle, CrnoBelo, Mogism, Konstantin duka, Cerabot~enwiki, Nemanja1a2a, , Nemambrata, Hannover95,
HullIntegrity, Lkaloshi, Norazoey, Pincrete, , SomeFreakOnTheInternet, CsDix, Ruby Murray, , Frenchmalawi,
Howicus, OutstandingMars, Samotny Wdrowiec, Milicevic01, The Anonybot, Jakec, Abrahamic Faiths, Soredo, Clinton127, EvergreenFir, MilanKovacevic, Backendgaming, ElHef, LouisAragon, Lukaxn, Stevetauber, Ardiman1, Bokisanisa, Portlannd, Qed237, Quenhitran, Kind Tennis Fan, Averruncus, ProKro, Andreas11213, Ali Zifan, ThecentreCZ, Anastan, Albatalad, Palestine4peace, Tafuyugi,
Elooas, Monkbot, Filedelinkerbot, TheBoulderite, Ryopus, Hjalnobel, Mondolkiri1, AmbElmer, Septate, Monopoly31121993, Lamzhiliang, Clarkme1990, Oobrenovic, Akifumii, Peter238, Amortias, Wikiformcode, Erw245447, RachelSenhurst, AleksaPFC, Zakoni, Devierno, EstoniaStronk, Nikola.Kocic15, Lets keep it neutral, Unocha.visual, ChamithN, Peterthlee, Kajokarali, Dr.mikan, Lugina K.O,
, Receptikuvaronline, DangerousJXD, KalyEV., Leftcry, Shqpsh, Burhas, Babazaneti, Stepheniman, BobNesh, Tanper, IndexAccount, BalkanAlliance, Loodack, MOGSF, Majvojakaunt, GentAlbania, Laura nikolli, Oranges Juicy, Anonimno142628, Last edited
by:, Pisa-shqiptari, Korektor73, ShpetimRacaj, Aidhalili1, Mr.kstou, Hasanybuahbuahbusbuy, Romdwolf, Cipekrepi, TheBloodyAlboz05,
Outrgrav, George is PC, Eimukas22, Belson 303, Simba222, PetarM, Innite0694, Cyborg the Wikipedian, Filluk, KasparBot, Gugi2001,
Aelimian21, Bers123, Tschuy, BoleynSRB, Binggo666, LobsterCan, MutatedMan, The Quixotic Potato, Trasat88, Davide Denti (OBC),
Jmirons, Retention7, HyettsTheGamer2, Vujovic.m, Makolli86, Sorabino and Anonymous: 1361

12.2

Images

File:100RSD_front.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d1/100RSD_front.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?


File:1The_Serbian_National_Folk_Dance_Ensemble_Kolo.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/02/
1The_Serbian_National_Folk_Dance_Ensemble_Kolo.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Laslovarga
File:2012_Geneva_Motor_Show_-_Fiat_500L.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3b/2012_Geneva_
Motor_Show_-_Fiat_500L.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: Flickr: 2012 Geneva Motor Show - Fiat 500L Original artist: NRMA
Motoring and Services
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2C_15_May_2014.jpg License: Public domain Contributors: [1] Original artist: NASA Worldvew
File:Archangel_Gabriel_Outside_Jesus{}_Tomb_after_Resurrection.png Source:
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Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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Contributors: Own work Original artist: Christos Vittoratos
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File:Carte_du_Conseil_de_l'Europe.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Carte_du_Conseil_de_l%
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and_Eastern_Europe_around_950_AD.png License: Public domain Contributors: Transferred from en.wikipedia to Commons. Original
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Rokerismoravee
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File:Districts_of_Serbia.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Districts_of_Serbia.png License: Public
domain Contributors:
Disricts_of_Serbia_by_population_density.svg Original artist: Disricts_of_Serbia_by_population_density.svg: Gajmar at ru.wikipedia

38

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TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

File:Djavolja_varos_3.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Djavolja_varos_3.jpg License: CC-BY-SA3.0 Contributors: Transferred from sr.wikipedia to Commons. Original artist: Geologicharka at Serbian Wikipedia
File:Downtown_Vista_with_Ruins_of_Serb_House_Destroyed_in_2004_Pogrom_-_Prizren_-_Kosovo.jpg
Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/81/Downtown_Vista_with_Ruins_of_Serb_House_Destroyed_in_2004_Pogrom_
-_Prizren_-_Kosovo.jpg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: Own work Original artist: Adam Jones, Ph.D.
File:ESC_2007_Serbia_-_Marija_Serifovic_-_Molitva.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/15/ESC_
2007_Serbia_-_Marija_Serifovic_-_Molitva.jpg License: Nagi BY SA Contributors: http://nagi.ee/photos/sAgApO/824684/in-set/17031/
Original artist: Indrek Galetin
File:Emir_Kusturica_at_Guadalajara_film_festival_2009.jpg Source:
https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/
da/Emir_Kusturica_at_Guadalajara_film_festival_2009.jpg License: CC BY 2.0 Contributors: http://www.flickr.com/photos/
guadalajaracinemafest/3378281760/ Original artist: Festival Internacional de Cine en Guadalajara
File:Europe_(orthographic_projection).svg
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%28orthographic_projection%29.svg License: CC BY-SA 3.0 Contributors: This vector image was created with Inkscape. Original artist: Ssolbergj
File:Filip_Visnjic_guslar.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/6d/Filip_Visnjic_guslar.jpg License: CCBY-SA-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
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Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Algeria.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/77/Flag_of_Algeria.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: SVG implementation of the 63-145 Algerian law "on Characteristics of the Algerian national emblem" ("Caractristiques du
Drapeau Algrien", in English). Original artist: This graphic was originaly drawn by User:SKopp.
File:Flag_of_Armenia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2f/Flag_of_Armenia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Azerbaijan.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/dd/Flag_of_Azerbaijan.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: http://www.elibrary.az/docs/remz/pdf/remz_bayraq.pdf and http://www.meclis.gov.az/?/az/topcontent/21 Original
artist: SKopp and others
File:Flag_of_Belarus.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/85/Flag_of_Belarus.svg License: Public domain
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File:Flag_of_Bosnia_and_Herzegovina.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/bf/Flag_of_Bosnia_and_
Herzegovina.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: Kseferovic
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n=000005&g= as: Original artist: SKopp
File:Flag_of_Egypt.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/fe/Flag_of_Egypt.svg License: CC0 Contributors:
From the Open Clip Art website. Original artist: Open Clip Art
File:Flag_of_Georgia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/0f/Flag_of_Georgia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work based on File:Brdzanebuleba 31.pdf Original artist: User:SKopp
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Contributors: own code Original artist: (of code) cs:User:-xfi- (talk)
File:Flag_of_Iceland.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Flag_of_Iceland.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Islandic National Flag Original artist: var Arnfjr Bjarmason, Zscout370 and others
File:Flag_of_Israel.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d4/Flag_of_Israel.svg License: Public domain Contributors: http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/History/Modern%20History/Israel%20at%2050/The%20Flag%20and%20the%20Emblem Original artist: The Provisional Council of State Proclamation of the Flag of the State of Israel of 25 Tishrei 5709 (28 October 1948) provides
the ocial specication for the design of the Israeli ag.
File:Flag_of_Jordan.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c0/Flag_of_Jordan.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Kosovo.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1f/Flag_of_Kosovo.svg License: CC-BY-SA-3.0
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File:Flag_of_La_Francophonie.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Flag_of_La_Francophonie.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Based on Image:Francophonie 1987.png. Original artist: Denelson83
File:Flag_of_Lebanon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/59/Flag_of_Lebanon.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: Traced based on the CIA World Factbook with some modication done to the colours based on
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File:Flag_of_Macedonia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f8/Flag_of_Macedonia.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: User:SKopp, rewritten by User:Gabbe
File:Flag_of_Mauritania.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Flag_of_Mauritania.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Moldova.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Flag_of_Moldova.svg License: Public domain Contributors: vector coat of arms image traced by User:Nameneko from Image:Moldova gerb large.png. Construction sheet can
be found at http://flagspot.net/flags/md.html#const Original artist: Nameneko and others

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File:Flag_of_Monaco.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Flag_of_Monaco.svg License: Public domain


Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Montenegro.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/64/Flag_of_Montenegro.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: B1mbo, Froztbyte
File:Flag_of_Morocco.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2c/Flag_of_Morocco.svg License:
domain Contributors: Flag of the Kingdom of Morocco

Public

<a data-x-rel='nofollow' class='external text' href='http://81.192.52.100/BO/AR/1915/BO_135_ar.PDF'>Moroccan royal decree (17


November 1915), BO-135-ar page 6</a>
Original artist: Denelson83, Zscout370
File:Flag_of_Norway.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d9/Flag_of_Norway.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: Own work Original artist: Dbenbenn
File:Flag_of_Palestine.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/00/Flag_of_Palestine.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work. Based on Law No. 5 for the year 2006 amending some provisions of Law No. 22 for the year 2005 on the
Sanctity of the Palestinian Flag Original artist: Orionist, previous versions by Makaristos, Mysid, etc.
File:Flag_of_Romania.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/73/Flag_of_Romania.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Own work Original artist: AdiJapan
File:Flag_of_Russia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/f3/Flag_of_Russia.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Serbia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/ff/Flag_of_Serbia.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: From http://www.parlament.gov.rs/content/cir/o_skupstini/simboli/simboli.asp. Original artist: sodipodi.com
File:Flag_of_Switzerland.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f3/Flag_of_Switzerland.svg License: Public
domain Contributors: PDF Colors Construction sheet Original artist: User:Marc Mongenet
Credits:
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File:Flag_of_Tunisia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/ce/Flag_of_Tunisia.svg License: Public domain
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File:Flag_of_Turkey.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/b/b4/Flag_of_Turkey.svg License: Public domain
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File:Serbmigra.jpg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Serbmigra.jpg License: PD-US Contributors:
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File:Zindan_kapija_(2).JPG Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1b/Zindan_kapija_%282%29.JPG License:


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