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ANALGESICS (PAIN RELIEF)

Amantadine
o Amantadine was first used as an antiviral medication against
influenza, but its main use now is as a type of pain reliever.

Aspirin
o Aspirin inhibits an enzyme called cyclo-oxygenase that is
involved in the production of inflammatory chemicals called
prostaglandins. Arachidonic acid, a fatty acid that is essential in
the diet of cats and dogs, makes up cell membranes. When the
inflammatory cascade is active, cells begin to convert their
arachidonic acid into prostaglandins. Aspirin puts a stop to this.

Buprenorphine (Buprenex)
o Buprenorphine is considered approximately 30 times stronger
than morphine because morphine is more active at the mu
receptor, so morphine is a much a stronger pain reliever.
Buprenorphine is best used for mild to moderate pain.

Butorphanol Tartrate (Stadol, Torbutrol, Torbugesic)


o Because butorphanol antagonizes the mu receptor, it will fight
against opiates that are mu agonists: morphine, oxymorphone,
meperidine, etc. If butorphanol is used with any other drugs that
have sedating properties, these sedating properties will be more
blatant.

Carprofen (Rimadyl)
o Carprofen is a member of the class of drugs known as NSAIDs
(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), the same class as such
common over-the-counter remedies as Advil (ibuprofen), Orudis
(ketoprofen), and aspirin. The chief use for such drugs in the dog
has been pain relief, usually joint pain or post-surgical pain relief.

Deracoxib (Deramaxx)

Deracoxib is a member of the class of drugs known as NSAIDs,


the same class as such common over-the-counter remedies as
Advil (ibuprofen), Orudis (ketoprofen), and aspirin. The chief use
for such drugs in the dog has been pain relief, usually joint pain
or post-surgical pain relief.

Dexamethasone (Azium, Voren)


o Dexamethasone is a member of the glucocorticoid class of
hormones. This means they are steroids but, unlike the anabolic
steroids that we hear about in sports, these are catabolic
steroids. Instead of building the body up, they are designed to
break down stored resources (fats, sugars and proteins) so that
they may be used as fuels in times of stress.

Etodolac (EtoGesic, Lodine)


o Etodolac is a member of the class of drugs known as NSAIDs
(non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and is used for pain
relief.

Fentanyl (Duragesic Patch)


o The primary use of the fentanyl patch is to provide a continuous
delivery of pain reliever to a patient with on-going pain. These
patches are especially useful after a surgical procedure but are
also helpful in the management of cancer pain, or after injury.

Gabapentin (Neurontin)
o Originally this medication was used for treating partial seizures in
humans but it was found to be useful in treating neuropathic pain
(the burning and tingling sensations that come from damaged
nerves.)

Meloxicam (Metacam)
o Meloxicam is generally given to control arthritis pain in dogs
though it can be given for many other painful conditions. It is
often used an analgesic in conjunction with surgery.

Methocarbamol (Robaxin-V)

o Methocarbamol is a muscle relaxant that exerts its effect by


acting on the central nervous system (the nerves that control the
muscles) rather than on the muscles themselves.

Pain Drugs for Dogs: Be an Informed Pet Owner


o A decade ago, few drugs were available to treat pets in pain at
home. Pups were spayed or neutered at the animal hospital,
stitched up, and sent home without pain medication. And dogs
with painful arthritis limped along without drugs that were safe
and effective for long-term use.

Piroxicam
o The most common target of this medication is transitional cell
carcinoma of the urinary bladder, although it is also used against
mammary adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and
transmissible venereal tumors.

Prednisone/Prednisolone
o Prednisone and prednisolone are members of the glucocorticoid
class of hormones. They break down stored resources (fats,
sugars and proteins) so that they may be used as fuels in times
of stress. We do not use the glucocorticoids for their influences
on glucose and protein metabolism; we use them because they
are the most broad anti-inflammatory medications that we have.

Previcox not for use in Horses


o The drug has different forms approved for horses and dogs.

Tramadol
o Tramadol can be used for pain relief in both dogs and cats. (Most
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are dangerous for feline
use, so this provides a nice choice for cats with chronic pain
issues.)

VCP 421: Medicine Section

ANTIBIOTICS
Amoxicillin

Amoxicillin represents a synthetic improvement upon the original


Penicillin molecule. Amoxicillin is better able to resist damage from
stomach acid so less of an oral dose is wasted. While it is still
susceptible to destruction by Staphylococcal enzymes, it does have a
much broader spectrum against the Gram negative cell wall and is
able to last a bit longer.

Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (Clavamox, Augmentin)

The combination of amoxicillin and clavulanic acid (sodium


clavulanate) is similar as for amoxicillin except that the clavulanate is
able to protect the penicillin structure from destruction by
Staphylococci. This combined medication can be used against
anything amoxicillin could be used for plus Staphlylococcal infections
(usually skin infections).

Azithromycin (Zithromax)

Azithromycin has activity against many bacterial species.

Cefpodoxime Proxetil (Simplicef, Vantin)

Cefpodoxime is able to treat more complicated infections, so it is often


selected for jobs where other antibiotics are expected to fail.

Cephalexin (Keflex)

Cephalexin is a good broad spectrum antibiotic, which means it is


useful in most common and uncomplicated infections. It is especially
useful against staphylococcal infections (most skin infections) and is
commonly used for long (6-8 week courses) against deep skin
infections (pyodermas).

Chloramphenicol (Chloromycetin, CHPC)

Chloramphenicol represents years of antibiotic development. Due to


its pH, it shines above most other antibiotics in terms of ability to
penetrate. Chloramphenicol can easily pass deeply through purulent

material to the organisms hiding within, through cell membranes to


attack parasites living within, and into organs where other antibiotics
cannot go.
Clindamycin Hydrochloride (Clindadrops, Antirobe, Cleosin)

Clindamycin is an antibiotic of the lincosamide class and possesses


similar properties to its sister compound lincomycin. To understand
how these medications work, it is important to understand how cells
make proteins.

Doxycycline (Vibramycin)

The tetracycline antibiotic family provides broad anti-bacterial


protection by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. The body
possesses many barriers through which antibiotics have difficulty
penetrating. Infections behind these barriers can be difficult to treat.
Doxycycline represents a modification of the basic tetracycline
structure to enhance its ability to penetrate such biological barriers
and to increase its duration of action.

Enrofloxacin (Baytril)

This medication may be used in either dogs or cats to combat different


types of infections, especially those involving Pseudomonas.
Enrofloxacin is also active against Staphylococci, and thus is
commonly used for skin infections.

Erythromycin (Ery-tab, Ery-Ped, Eryc)

Today erythromycin has seen some resurgence in popularity. This is


partly because of over use of drugs that had previously eclipsed
erythromycin. Staphylococci developed resistance to the new drugs
leading to a return to older drugs.

Metronidazole (Flagyl)

Metronidazole is an antibiotic especially effective against anaerobic


infections. In addition, it has anti-inflammatory properties in the large
intestine and is an effective anti-diarrhea medication. It's also an
effective antibiotic against certain protozoal infections, especially
Giardia.

Orbifloxacin (Orbax)

Orbifloxacin may be used in dogs and cats to combat different types of


infections, especially those involving Pseudomonas. This medication is
also active against Staphylococci, and thus is commonly used for skin
infections.

Sulfadimethoxine (Albon)

Sulfa drugs may have numerous uses, but in small animals


sulfadimethoxine is used almost exclusively for the treatment of
intestinal parasites known as coccidia. These parasites are singlecelled organisms capable of causing intense diarrheas in their hosts.

Sulfasalazine (Azulfidine)

Sulfasalazine represents an innovative exception in antibiotics used for


colitis. Essentially, a salve is applied to the surface of the inflamed
colon.

Tetracycline (Panmycin, Tetracap, Tetracyn, Sumycin, Tetralan)

The tetracycline antibiotic family provides broad anti-bacterial


protection by inhibiting bacterial protein synthesis. The body
possesses many barriers through which antibiotics have difficulty
penetrating (the nervous system, prostate gland, and eye are some
examples). Infections behind these barriers can be difficult to treat.
Trimethoprim-Sulfa (Bactrim, Tribrissen, Septra, Sulfatrim, Cotrim)
Trimethoprim-sulfa is known by many names as it's a commonly used
antibiotic in both human and veterinary medicine. It's become a
popular choice thanks to its broad spectrum and inexpensive cost.

Tylosin (Tylan)

An antibiotic, tylosin is used for its anti-inflammatory properties in the


large intestine rather than for its ability to fight infection.

ANTICONVULSANTS

Diazepam (Valium)
Dose-Indications:

anti-anxiety medication

a muscle relaxant

an appetite stimulant

seizure control drug

anesthetic

Gabapentin (Neurontin)

Originally this medication was used for treating partial seizures in


humans but it was found to be useful in treating neuropathic pain (the
burning and tingling sensations that come from damaged nerves.)

Levetiracetam (Keppra)

As advances are made in seizure control in humans, medications


eventually spill down into veterinary use; levetiracetam is a good
example.

Phenobarbital

In dogs and cats, phenobarbital is probably the first choice for seizure
suppression. It is effective, safe if used responsibly, and is one of the
least expensive medications in all of veterinary practice.

Potassium Bromide (K Brovet)

This medication is generally reserved for dogs who cannot tolerate


phenobarbital for seizures control due to unacceptable side effects or
lack of effectiveness.

ANTIFUNGALS
Fluconazole (Diflucan)

Fluconazole works by inhibiting the fungal enzymes that produce


ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall. Without
adequate ergosterol, the fungal cell becomes weak, leaky, and
ultimately dies.

Griseofulvin (Fulvicin)

This medication is used to treat ringworm, a fungal infection of the


skin involving fungi. While it's possible for a ringworm lesion to be
localized and require only topical therapy, this is not the usual
situation and oral medication is necessary to control the skin disease.

Itraconazole (Sporonox)

Itraconazole works by inhibiting the fungal enzymes that produce


ergosterol, an important component of the fungal cell wall. Without
adequate ergosterol, the fungal cell becomes weak, leaky and
ultimately dies.

Ketoconazole (Nizoral)

This drug fights fungal infections both minor and life threatening, but
because of the way it works it can also be used to treat Cushings
disease (a cortisone imbalance).

Terbinafine (Lamisil)

Terbinafine has activity against other types of fungi but at this time it
is mostly used against ringworm.

ANTIHISTAMINES

Acepromazine (PromAce)

Although acepromazine has several actions that might be useful, it is


mostly used as a tranquilizer.

Chlorpheniramine Maleate (Chlor-Trimeton)

Chlorpheniramine maleate has several important effects and uses.


Most obviously, it's an antihistamine and it's used for acute
inflammatory and allergic conditions such as snake bites, vaccination
reactions, blood transfusion reactions, bee stings and insect bites, and
to manage itchy skin.

Clemastine fumarate (Tavist)

Clemastine fumarate is one of the more effective antihistamines albeit


relatively expensive. Its efficacy makes it a common first choice for
itchy skin. It has found to be helpful in 30% of itchy dogs and 50% of
itchy cats. Other studies have found higher percentages. Clemastine
fumarate is probably the most reliably effective antihistamine for itchy
dogs of all of the antihistamines available.

Cyproheptadine (Periactin)

Cyproheptadine is an antihistamine that in many ways is similar to


other antihistamines with which we are more familiar. Cyproheptadine
also has some other properties of interest. It also antagonizes
serotonin, a neurotransmitter, in the brain. This leads to an increase in
appetite and often is the reason this medication is used.

Diphenhydramine (Benadryl)

Diphenhydramine has several important effects and thus several uses.


Most obviously, diphenhydramine is an antihistamine and it's used for
acute inflammatory and allergic conditions such as snake bites,
vaccination reactions, blood transfusion reactions, bee stings and
insect bites.

Famotidine (Pepcid AC)

More commonly known by its brand name Pepcid AC, this drug can be
helpful in the treatment of Helicobacter infection, inflammatory bowel
disease, canine parvovirus, ingestion of a toxin that could be
ulcerating (overdose of aspirin, for example), any disease involving

protracted vomiting, or chronically in combination with medications


that irritate stomachs.
Hydroxyzine (Atarax)

This drug is an antihistamine used to deal in various ways with itchy


skin. Hydroxyzine is frequently included in antihistamine trials for
allergic skin disease.

Loratadine (Claritin)

Loratadine represents a new generation of antihistamine that does not


cross the blood-brain barrier and does not cause drowsiness. It also is
much longer lasting than some of the classic antihistamines in use.
The size of this tablet and its twice a day dosing schedule make it a
convenient antihistamine for feline use.

Meclizine Hydrochloride (Bonine, Antivert, Meclizine Hydrochloride)

An excellent product for people that can also be used for car-sick pets,
meclizine hydrochloride is generally used for nausea relief due to
motion sickness. It is also used to control the nausea resulting from
vestibular disease, a s

]
BEHAVIORAL MEDICATIONS

Acepromazine (PromAce)

Although acepromazine has several actions that might be useful, it is


mostly used as a tranquilizer.

Alprazolam (Xanax)

Alprazolam, like its more famous cousin Valium, is a benzodiazepine

tranquilizer. Alprazolam lasts longer than Valium.


Amitriptyline (Elavil)

This antidepressant has been helpful for animals with obsessive


grooming, inappropriate urination, and separation anxiety.

Buspirone Hydrochloride (Buspar)

In veterinary medicine, buspirone has been especially helpful in the


treatment of phobias (such as fear of thunder, people in uniform, etc.)
and in the treatment of urine marking in cats.

Clomipramine (Clomicalm, Anafranil)

Anxiety is not a problem exclusive to humans. Many pets have anxiety


about separation from their owner, aggressive pets with whom they
share their home, and other issues. The medications used to help
animals with these issues are the same medications that humans use.
Clomipramine is the first to achieve FDA approval for use in dogs as
well as humans.

Diazepam (Valium)

There are many uses for this medication since it is effective as an antianxiety medication, a muscle relaxant, an appetite stimulant, and a
seizure control drug. The injectable form of diazepam is often used in
anesthetic protocols.

Fluoxetine (Reconcile, Prozac)

Fluoxetine is used in veterinary medicine for animals with anxiety,


compulsive behavior, and other behavior issues. In 2007 a version of
fluoxetine specifically labeled for animal use became available.

L-Deprenyl Hydrochloride (Anipryl, Eldepryl, Carbex)

There are two uses for L-Deprenyl (also known as selegiline


hydrochloride) in dogs: the treatment of Cushings disease, an adrenal
hormone imbalance, and the treatment of senile mental deterioration.

Phenobarbital

In dogs and cats, phenobarbital is probably the first choice for seizure
suppression. It is effective, safe if used responsibly, and is one of the
least expensive medications in all of veterinary practice.

Last modified: Tuesday, 24 April 2012

CHEMOTHERAPY
Azathioprine (Imuran)

Immune mediated diseases are conditions where the immune system


becomes inappropriately active and damages the body. Azathioprine is
a common medication used in the treatment of immune mediated
disease. It is a drug to respect and use wisely.

Chlorambucil (Leukeran)

A drug used most commonly for chemotherapy to treat cancer,


chlorambucil is also used to treat some immune mediated diseases
such as pemphigus, feline infectious peritonitous, or inflammatory
bowel disease.

Cisplatin

The treatment of cancer is scary and the word chemotherapy conjures


up unpleasant images. But what are the facts of these powerful
medications? Cisplatinum is an important weapon against cancer.

Cyclophosphamide (Cytoxan)

Because of its ability to kill rapidly dividing, cyclophosphamide has


been used most successfully in treating cancer and immune mediated
disease.

Doxorubicin (Adriamycin, Rubex)

Doxorubicin is a type of anti-cancer drug called an anthracycline


glycoside. It works by impairing DNA synthesis, a crucial feature of cell
division, and thus is able to target rapidly dividing cells. Doxorubicin is
a very serious anti-cancer medication with definite potential to do

great harm as well as great good.


L-Asparaginase (Elspar)

The battle against cancer must exploit biological differences between


cancer cells and normal cells. Asparagine is an especially important
amino acid for lymphatic cancer cells and asparaginase is able to
destroy it in a way that hurts cancer cells only. L-Asparaginase is a
helpful chemotherapy agent, especially in the treatment of lymphatic
cancers.

Lomustine

Lomustine is a member of the nitrosourea class of chemotherapy


agents that act by binding DNA to other DNA strands or to protein in
such a way that the DNA double helix strand cannot replicate. In
addition to essentially tying DNA up, lomustine generates a by-product
that prevents normal DNA function.

Vincristine (Oncovin, Vincasar)

Vincristine is chiefly used as one drug in multi-drug combination


protocols against lymphoid and round cell tumors.

Last modified: Tuesday, 24 April 2012, 10:12 AM

IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE
Azathioprine (Imuran)

Immune mediated diseases are conditions where the immune system


becomes inappropriately active and damages the body. Azathioprine is
a common medication used in the treatment of immune mediated
disease. It is a drug to respect and use wisely.

Chlorambucil (Leukeran)

A drug used most commonly for chemotherapy to treat cancer,


chlorambucil is also used to treat some immune mediated diseases
such as pemphigus, feline infectious peritonitous, or inflammatory

bowel disease.
Cyclosporine

Cyclosporine, sometimes referred to as cyclosporin A, is an


immunosuppressive agent. Unlike other medications of immune
suppression that act by killing cells of the immune system,
cyclosporine acts by interfering with helper T-lymphocyte interleukin
production.

Dexamethasone (Azium, Voren)

Dexamethasone is a member of the glucocorticoid class of hormones.


This means they are steroids but, unlike the anabolic steroids that we
hear about in sports, these are catabolic steroids. Instead of building
the body up, they are designed to break down stored resources (fats,
sugars and proteins) so that they may be used as fuels in times of
stress.

Prednisone/Prednisolone

Prednisone and prednisolone are members of the glucocorticoid class


of hormones. They break down stored resources (fats, sugars and
proteins) so that they may be used as fuels in times of stress. We do
not use the glucocorticoids for their influences on glucose and protein
metabolism; we use them because they are the most broad antiinflammatory medications that we have.

Last modified: Tuesday, 24 April 2012, 10:14 AM

GENERAL DRUGS
Heartworm Information Center

Heartworm is a parasite that most dog owners and many cat owners
have to be concerned about. The more you know, the better protected
your pet can become. We have put together an information center to
take you through the parasite's biology, the preventive medications,
diagnosis, and treatment.

Allopurinol (Zyloprim)

There is one reason to use allopurinol: to reduce uric acid in the blood
stream.

Atenolol (Tenormin)

Atenolol is a beta blocker and has been designed to block the heart's
beta-one receptors while leaving the beta-two receptors of other
tissues alone.

Bethanechol Chloride (Urecholine, Myocholine)

Bethanechol chloride works to strengthen the detrusor muscles


contraction. If the lower sphincter is too tight from an upper motor
neuron injury, this medication will help the bladder to contract harder
to overcome it. If the bladder is flabby, this medication will help it
regain some shape and strength so that it can empty in a controlled
fashion rather than just leaking.

Budesonide (Entocort EC, Entocord)

How nice it would be to have a corticosteroid that could be applied to


the site of the inflammation but not be absorbed into the body
systemically! This is the idea behind budesonide.

Chronic Steroid Use

There has never been a class of drug that has more application in
disease treatment than the glucocorticoid class. Indeed, this group is
rivaled only by antibiotics in lives saved. But side effects from the
glucocorticoid group are numerous and can be classified into those
seen with short-term use and those seen in long-term use.

Cisapride (Propulsid)

One of the stomach's most important functions is to grind the food we


eat into a fine slurry that will pass through the intestines freely. A
strong rhythm of contraction is necessary to effect this and this
rhythm creates the stomach's motility. Cisapride is thus an excellent
alternative to those patients who have unacceptable side effects with
metoclopramide.

Colchicine (Colchicinum, Artex, Colchily, Cholchicquim, etc.)

Colchicine is used in scarring diseases such as hepatic cirrhosis and in


abnormal protein depositions such as amyloidosis.

Compounding Pharmacies

Sometimes the medication that your pet needs was designed for
people and does not come in a form convienient for a cat or dog. A
compounding pharmacy has the ability to reformulate the medication
so that your pet may actually be willing to take it!

Diphenoxylate Hydrochloride (Lomotil, Lonox, Lomanate)

Despite its inability to produce recreational euphoria, diphenoxylate


hydrochloride is actually a member of the opiate class of drugs. One
beneficial effect is an increase in general muscle tone of the small
intestine. Increasing tonus means more absorption of water and
nutrients and less diarrhea.

Dirlotapide (Slentrol)

The weight loss medication dirlotapide works not by preventing fat


absorption into the body but by fooling the brain into feeling satisfied
with a smaller meal.

EPA and FDA Flea Products

Created by dermatologists, this flea product comparison chart allows


side-by-side analysis.

Erythropoietin

Erythropoietin is the hormone responsible for inducing red blood cell


production by the bodys bone marrow. Erythropoietin is primarily
produced by the kidney when a drop in blood oxygen is perceived,
though 1% to 15% of the total erythropoietin produced comes from the
liver. A dose of erythropoietin lasts about a day but its effect is seen
approximately 5 days later when the red cell proliferation it has
induced is mature enough for release into circulation.

Fenbendazole (Panacur)

Fenbendazole (often abbreviated "FBZ") is used in both large and


small animals. In dogs, it is useful against roundworms, hookworms,
and the more difficult to treat whipworms.

Flea Product Comparison

Confused about flea protection? This FAQ compares the three popular
topspot flea control products to assist you in determining which is right
for your situation.

Interferon (Roferon, Intron A, Alferon N)

Interferons are generally produced in the body in response to viral


infections and have antiviral activity as well as immunostimulating
properties.

Lactulose

Lactulose is primarily used as a stool softener or in the treatment of


liver patients.

Maropitant Citrate (Cerenia)

Maropitant citrate is a strong anti-nausea medication for dogs.

Mirtazapine (Remeron)

The side effects make mirtazapine a desirable medication for animals.


It has strong anti-nausea properties and acts as a strong appetite
stimulant.

Omeprazole (Prilosec, GastroGard)

Omeprazole represents a different tact from other antacids: proton


pump inhibition. The quantity of acid ultimately amounts to the
quantity of protons. The proton pump is central to secreting acid into
the stomach and with this pump inhibited, stomach acid production is
halted.

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu)

To assist in the treatment of canine parvovirus infection, oseltamivir is


given orally twice a day for 5 days. The medication should be obtained

as soon as the parvo diagnosis is confirmed. Usually an oral


suspension is compounded or the human product is given. This
medication is not approved for use in small animals.
Pentoxifylline (Trental)

Pentoxifylline is used to enhance healing in chronic ulcerative


conditions such as dermatomyositis of collies and shelties and has
been helpful in treating allergic reactions caused by physical contact
with the allergen (i.e., contact allergic dermatitis). Ear margin
vasculitis (blood vessel inflammation) can also be treated with
pentoxifylline.

Pimobendan (Vetmedin)

Pimobendan is the first drug of a new class of heart medications called


inodilators. When used with other cardiac medications, pimobendan
can be effective for dogs with congestive heart failure related to either
dilated cardiomyopathy oasaar degenerative mitral valve disease.

Polysulfated Glycosaminoglycan (Adequan)

In treating arthritis, injections are given twice a week for 4 weeks for a
maximum of eight injections. Injections are given intramuscularly.
Dogs, cats, and horses are the usual patients. There is another use for
this medication and that is in the treatment of feline lower urinary
tract disease.

Ponazuril

Ponazuril represents a new approach to treatment for coccidia, which


can cause potentially life-threatening diarrhea.

Pyrantel Pamoate (Strongid T, Nemex)

Pyrantel pamoate is effective against numerous parasitic worms, such


as roundworms, hookworms, and stomach worms. When a new puppy
or kitten is adopted and has been said to have been dewormed, the
chances are it is this product that was used.

Ranitidine (Zantac)

Ranitidine is useful in any situation where stomach irritation is an issue


and ulceration is a concern. It is often used in the treatment of

Helicobacter infection, inflammatory bowel disease, canine parvovirus,


ingestion of a toxin that could be ulcerating (over dose of aspirin, for
example), any disease involving protracted vomiting, or chronically in
combination with medications which may have stomach irritating
properties.
S-Adenosylmethionine (SAMe, Denosyl, Zentonil)

In veterinary medicine, this product is chiefly used in liver disease.

Silymarin (Milk Thistle)

Silymarin has been traditionally used in the treatment of liver disease


and, while it has recently been advocated for use in pets, all scientific
information available concerns human use. Silymarin is regularly used
for an assortment of liver diseases including cirrhosis and viral
hepatitis in humans.

Spinosad (Comfortis)

Spinosad is an ultra-fast flea killing tablet that lasts an entire month. It


is safe for dogs but not for cats.

Subcutaneous Fluids

Lots of animals require extra fluids, either temporarily or indefinitely,


to insure that they receive adequate hydration. The technique is
simple, but sometimes daunting to the beginner. Here is a pictured
guide to assist with the learning experience of giving subcutaneous
fluids to your pet at home.

Ursodiol (Actigall)

Ursodeoxycholic acid is one of the bile acids produced by the Chinese


black bear and it has been used in the treatment of liver disease for
centuries. Nowadays, it is produced in the laboratory rather than
extracted from bear gall bladders.

Last modified: Tuesday, 24 April 2012, 10:26 AM


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