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Asafetyvalveinletconnectioninahighvelocitysteamlineshouldbelocatedatleast8to10nominalheaderdiameters
downstreamofanybendintheheader,tominimizethepossibilityofacousticallyinducedvibrations.Inaddition,itshould
beatleast8to10nominalheaderdiameterseitherupstreamordownstreamofanydivergingorconvergingTorYfitting.
No other header branch penetration, for any purpose, should be made in the same circumferential cross section
containingthesafetyvalveinletnozzle.
Wheremorethanonesafetyvalveoraservicebranchistobeinstalledinthesameheaderrun,aminimumdistanceof24
in(600mm)or3timesthesumofthenozzleinsideradii,whicheverisgreater,shallbeprovidedbetweenthenozzles.
Wheremorethantwosafetyvalvesarelocatedinthesameheaderrun,thespacingbetweenvalvesshouldbevariedsuch
thatthedistancebetweentwoadjacentvalvesdiffersbyatleastaninletnozzlediameter.

OpenDischarge
Opendischargesafetyvalveinstallationsshouldbeinaccordancewiththefollowingguidelines:
Openvent stack diameters shall be the calculated minimum flow diameter required for discharge venting without
blowback,exceptasrequiredtoaccommodatethemovementofthereliefvalvedischargefromthecoldtohotpositionsuch
thattheoutletpipewillbecenteredintheventstackinthehotposition.

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FIG:Opendischargesafetyvalve.
The vent stack entry diameter shall be maintained throughout the length of the vent stack enlarged entry spools, later
reducedinsizetothecalculatedminimumflowdiameter,arenotacceptable.
Thereliefvalveoutletshallconsistofthematingflangeandafittingboundshortradiuselbow,inordertominimizethe
momentandforcesimposedonthevalvebody.
Ventstacksshouldberouted,wherepossible,toprovideastraightstackofminimumlength.Whereoffsetsorchangesin
directionareunavoidable,itisdesirabletolimitthechangeindirectionto30orlesshowever,itcouldbemore.Thevent
stackshouldterminateaminimumof7ft(2.2m)orhigherabovetherooflevel.

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ClosedDischarge
Closeddischargepipingsystemsarethosepipedcontinuouslyfromthevalvedischargeflangetoaclosedreceiver,suchas
a

FIG:Closeddischargesafetyvalve.
condenserorblowofftank.Thistypeofsystemisrequiredforfeedwaterheatershellsidereliefvalvestoprovideprotection
against the effects of tube rupture, and may be used in other applications. Other than the normal considerations for
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designingpipe,therearenospecificguidelinesforthedesignofclosedsystems.

Drains
Reliefvalveandopenventstackdrainsareimportant,invaryingdegrees,asdiscussedinthefollowing:
Thedischargeelbowandaboveseatbodydrainpointsarethemostcriticalforsafevalveoperation.Thesedrainsshould
becollectedintoacommon,closeddrainagesystemandroutedtoapointwherethedraincansafelyblowtoatmosphere.
This system must be sloped continuously downward and stressanalyzed to ensure that no strain is imposed on the valve
body.
Some relief valves now incorporate a relatively large valve top vent connection that is pressurized when the valve blows.
This connection may be piped into the combined discharge elbow and valve body drain system and continued, at fullvent
pipesize,tothepointofthedraindischarge.
The opendischarge vent stack drip pan drain connection is of the least importance and is only intended to carry away
anyrainfallenteringthestackandtheresidualcondensatefromthestackfollowingasteamblow.

PipingofCentrifugalPumps
The piping of centrifugal pumps, particularly the suction piping, can seriously affect the operating efficiency and life
expectancy of the pump. Poorly designed suction piping can result in the entrainment of air or vapor into the pump and
cause cavitation, which displaces liquid from within the pump casing, results in vibrations, and throws the pump out of
balance.Thecavitationalonecanresultinsevereerosionoftheimpeller.Theoutofbalanceconditionmayresultinaslight
eccentric shaft rotation, which will eventually wear out the pump bearings and seals, requiring a pump shutdown for
overhaul.Whenroutingpipingatpumps,thedesignershouldfollowthemanufacturersrecommendations,theHydraulic
InstituteStandards,andthefollowingguidelines:
Thesuctionanddischargepipingmustbesupportedindependentlyofthepumpsuchthatverylittleloadistransmitted
to the pump casing. The designer may consider the use of expansion joints on either the suction or discharge, or both, as
necessary.However,expansionjointsshouldbeusedonlywhenitisunavoidable.
Thesuctionofanycentrifugalpumpmustbecontinuouslyflooded,andthesuctionpipingshallcontainnoverticalloops
orairpockets.
Whenareductioninpipesizeisrequiredatthepumpsuction,provideaneccentricreducerflatsideup.
Thesuctionsideelbowinthepipingathorizontaldoublesuctionpumpsmaybefittingboundandintheverticalplane
withtheflowfromeitheraboveorbelowthepump.
Whenthesuctionpipingisinthehorizontalplane,provideaminimumofthreetofourdiametersofstraightpipebetween
thepumpsuctionconnectionandthefirstelbowtheeccentricreducernotedabovemaybeincludedinthisstraightsection.
Onlylongradiuselbowsaretobeusedatoradjacenttoanypumpsuctionconnection.

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FIG:Pumpsuctionreducer
Allpumpsuctionlinesmustbedesignedtoaccommodateaconicaltypetemporarystrainer.
A pipe anchor must be provided between any expansion joint or non rigid coupling and the pump nozzle that it is
designedtoprotect.
Whenpumpflangesarecastironflatfaced,thematingflangesmustalsobeflatfacedandthejointmadeupwithfull
facegasketsandcommonsteelbolts(ASTMA307,GradeB),nothighstrengthbolts(ASTMA193,GradeB7).
RefertotheHydraulicInstituteStandardsforarrangementofpumppiping.

VentsandDrains
During the course of physical routing of any system, the designer should provide highpoint vent and lowpoint drain
connectionsforthefollowingpurposes:
Thefillingofthepipingsystemwithwaterforhydrostatictestingandoperationandtheevacuationofentrappedairin
theprocess
Theevacuationofallwaterusedforhydrostatictestingandoperationduringperiodsofstartupandmaintenance.
Highpointventsthatwillbeusedfrequentlyshouldbepipeddowntoanareawheretheycanbeaccessedfromthefloor.
Whentheseventsareleftoutofreach,theytendnottobeused.Systemssubjecttothermalexpansionshouldbereviewedto
ensurethattheycanbeproperlydrainedinboththehotandcoldpositions.

BuriedPipingSystems
Theeconomicsofinstallingpipingsystemshaveprovedthatburyingpipeinlieuofinstallingpipeabovegroundprovidesa
significant cost savings in both bulk footage and pipe supports. All system piping should be evaluated for underground
installationifpossibletodecreasetheTIC.Lowpressureandlowtemperaturesystemssuchasforcomponentcoolingand
demineralized water are good examples of piping that should be buried. Nonmetallic piping materials can be successfully
usedforburiedapplicationsinlieuofmetallicpiping,carbonsteel,orstainlesssteelwhichneedtobecoatedandwrapped
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toprotectagainstgalvaniccorrosion,resultinginanexpensiveinstallation.

PipeRacks
Piperacksarestructuresdesignedandbuiltspecificallytosupportmultiplepipeswhereadequatestructureisnotavailable.
Pipe layout on pipe racks should follow the Pipe Planning Study concepts. Avoid designing one pipe at a time in order to
avoidunnecessaryovercrowdingandfittingsforpipestoenteranddepartfromtherack.Wherepossible,pipesshouldrest
directlyontherackwiththeuseofaninsulation,ifrequired.Steampipingshouldexittherackwithaverticalupandover
to avoid condensate collection points, while water piping should exit the rack with a vertical downandunder to avoid a
highpointairpocketcollectionpoint.

PipeSupports
Pipesupportsrequirestructuralsupport,whichmeansthatpipingshouldbelocatedincloseproximitytosteelorconcrete.
Donotlocatethepipetooclosetothestructure,soastoallowadequatespaceforthepipesupporthardwaretofacilitate
installation. Additionally the pipe insulation needs to be considered for clearances and insulation saddles. The most
preferred location is either resting directly on structural steel for bottom support or using a single rod to the structure
directlyabovethepipe.
However, it is the responsibility of the piping designer to give serious consideration to the means of support during the
pipinglayout,andindoingso,manypipesupportproblemsmaybeeitherminimizedoravoidedaltogether.Forthisreason,
thepipingdesignershouldbefamiliarwiththecommerciallyavailable
pipe support components and their application. Piping should be routed such that the support designer can make use of
the surrounding structure to provide logical points of support, anchors, guides, or restraints, with ample space for the
appropriate hardware. Banks of parallel pipelines at different elevations should be staggered horizontally and spaced
sufficientlyaparttopermitindependentpipesupportsforeachline.Pipingonpiperacksshouldberoutedusingbottom
ofpipe (BOP) elevations. The piping designer should work closely with the structural engineer in the spacing of the pipe
racksupportsandthemethodofintermediatesupporttopreventpipesagging.

Insulation
The engineering and selection of thermal insulation materials, and the piping designer should be familiar with these
requirements and specifically with the thickness of insulation for any given system. In the location and spacing of piping
systems, there must be clearance space between the insulation of one pipe and any adjacent pipe and/or other possible
interferencesuchasstructuralsteel.Thepipingdesignershouldalsorecognizethatinsomeapplicationsinsulationmaynot
be required for the prevention of heat loss but will be needed for personnel protection, and the spacing and clearances
shouldbeadjustedaccordingly.

HeatTracing
Heat tracing is required when there is concern that the pipe may be damaged due to freezing or that the line needs to
maintainatemperaturehigherthanambient(i.e.,causticpiping).Thedesignermustprovidethespaceandclearancesfor
eitherelectricorsteamheattracinganditsouterinsulationwhenroutingtheprimarysystempipe.

Operability,Maintenance,Safety,andAccessibility

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Operability, maintenance, safety, and accessibility are interdependent, and certainly if any given piping component is
accessible, it is also assumed to be operable and maintainable. However, maintenance may require additional space for
dismantling the component, as noted elsewhere in this chapter. It is the responsibility of the piping designer to design a
pipingarrangementthatsatisfiesallthese(andother)requirementswiththelowesttotalcost,i.e.,resultingintheshortest
piperunsandthefewestfittingsandpipesupports.
Operability, from the standpoint of operating personnel, means being able to perform daily functions in an efficient
manner.Thisisdonewithconsiderationforthefrequencyofoperationandthedegreeofphysicaleffortrequiredtoperform
it.Thedesignercannotmakeeveryvalveandinstrumentideallyaccessible,but
willconcentrateonthoserequiringthemostfrequentoperation.Safetyrelatedequipmentandvalvesthatarerequiredtobe
operated during an emergency or to perform critical system functions must be accessible without exception. To ensure
success, the designer, system engineer, and operating personnel work out the final arrangement. Sometimes input from
construction,startup,andvendorpersonnelisneeded.Formerlyindifficultcases,modelsorevenfullsizemockupshave
been used as design aids. Today the trend is toward virtual reality. Under todays conditions the whole process can be
acceleratedand,whendoneeffectively,accomplishedatlowercostthanformerly.Additionalconsiderationsarediscussed
in other sections of this chapter. In general, an operable valve or instrument is one that can be readily reached when
standingatgradeoronanelevatedfloororplatformprovidedforthatpurpose.Thepositionofthevalvehandwheelshould
besuchthattheforcenecessarytooperateitcanbeappliedwithoutstrainorunduecontortionsorinterferencefromvalves,
lines,orotherequipment.Itisrecognizedthatplantoperatingpersonnelwilloccasionallyhavetoreachforadrainfroma
kneelingpositionoraventvalvefromaladder,buttheseareinfrequentoperationsandassuchcanbetolerated.
Easeofmaintenanceactuallybeginswiththedevelopmentoftheplantarrangementandequipmentlocationsbyproviding
sufficientspacearoundeachpieceofequipmentnotonlyforthemaintenanceofthemachineryalonebutalsoforthepipe
and the maintenance of the related components. These space allocations should include the pull spaces, laydown spaces,
androtorandtuberemovalspacesforthedismantlingofallpiecesofequipment.TheengineeringofthesystemP&IDswill
indicate the need for maintenance facilities in the form of bypasses and block valves that would permit certain pieces of
equipment or components to be worked on while the system is operating, or at least with a minimum of downtime.
However,itisthenuptothedesignertodesignthesefacilitiesintothesystemandtoprovidetheaccessibilitynecessaryto
accomplishthatmaintenance,includingtheprovisionforanyliftinggearsuchascranes,davits,monorails,andhoists.
There are numerous national, state, and local codes and standards relating to safety, the most notable of which is the
OccupationalSafetyandHealthActof1970(OSHA),whichbecamelawonApril28,1971.Severalthousandspecificsafety
and health standards are being enforced under OSHA. These standards have been selected from the key safety standards
developed by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME)
and the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and others, such as the American Water Works Association
(AWWA),theAmericanPetroleumInstitute(API),andtheNationalFireProtectionAssociation(NFPA).
Stairs, platforms, ladders, aisles, meansofegress aisleways, and minimum headroom allowances designed in accordance
withOSHAwillprovideasafeplacetowork.Itistheresponsibilityofthepipingdesignertoplaceequipment,valves,and
other piping components in such positions that they do not create hazards. These hazards could include any piping
componentsthatpresentedthemselvesasheadknockers,kneeknockers,ortrippers.Themostcommoncauseofthese
problems is valve stems, and common sense would say to place a valve in a horizontal run of pipe with the stem vertical,
wherever possible. When this cannot be done, the designer should ascertain that the stem does not project into an access
areaandbecomeahazard.Thedesignershouldmakeeveryefforttokeepsuchprojectionsoutofheightsof4to6ft(1.5
to2m),orspecificallyatfacelevel.Steamsystemvalvesmustnotbeplacedatfacelevelinthehorizontalpositionsincea
packingglandleakmayblowsteamintothefaceofanoperatorifthiswereasuperheatedsteamleak,thevaporwouldnot
bevisible.Thissameprincipleappliestohazardousandtoxicfluids.However,thismaybetoorestrictive,anditisnotmeant
toruleoutanyperfectlysafearrangementofvalvesatfacelevelif
Theyareoutsidethelimitofaplatform.
Theyareapartofamanifoldofvalves,allprojectingaboutthesamedistanceandwithadequateaccessspaceinfrontof
them.
Itisanisolatedvalveguardedbyanadjacentpipeorstructuralsteel.
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Accessibilityhasalreadybeendiscussedatlengthintermsofspaceandthenormalplatformsandstairwaysprovidedinany
plant however, the designer should review the layout and determine if there is a need for any platforms which access a
remotelylocatedvalveorcomponent.

InterfacingDisciplinesandOrganizations
Piping design requires coordination and cooperation with all interfacing disciplines including civil, electrical,
instrumentation, and construction. Piping arrangements should blend with the layout design of interfacing disciplines.
Pipesthatrequireextensivesupportschemesinlieuofbeingconvenientlylocatednearstructural
support steel should be avoided. Pipes or electrical trays that twist and turn to avoid one another should be uniformly
designedinacoordinateddesigneffortwhichreducescongestionandreducesTIC.Mostpipingdesignsarenotcompleted
byasingledesignerorcompany,whichmakesthecoordinationbetweendesignersanddifferentorganizationscritical.The
bestwaytoaddressthisconcernistoagreetospecificdivisionsofresponsibilityintheplanningphaseoftheproject.

ElectricalTrayandHighTemperaturePipingInterfaces
Hightemperature piping must not be located near electrical trays, wherever possible. This piping should cross over trays,
not under them. The radiant heat could have an adverse effect on the cables. Electrical equipment maintenance space
shouldbeidentifiedandaccountedforinallpipingpassingnearthisequipment.

SPECIFICSYSTEMCONSIDERATIONS
The power industry, through its many years of experience, has found that piping arrangements and layout can influence
thefunctionalityofapipingsystem.Thissectionwillpresentspecificsystemguidelinesandconsiderationsthatwillenable
thepipingdesignertominimizethatinfluence.

MainSteamandHotandColdReheat
In any power plant, be it a baseloaded electric power generation station or an industrial facility power plant, the main
steam system is the backbone of the installation since it ties together the two most important and most costly pieces of
equipment, the steam generator and the turbine, and is also usually the first system designed, giving it the preference in
spaceallocationandrouting.Therecommendationsofthefollowingreferencesshouldbeincorporatedinthedesignofthe
mainsteamandreheatsteampipingsystems.
1. ANSI/ASME TDP11985, Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for
ElectricPowerGeneration(Fossil),AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork.
2. ANSI/ASME TDP21985, Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for
ElectricPowerGeneration(Nuclear),AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork.
Adherencetothefollowingguidelineswillensurethatthesystemperformsitsintendedfunction:
All piping in this service should be sloped down a minimum of in/ft (10 mm/m), in the direction of flow. Extensive
evaluationanddesignarerequiredforlinesthatdonotslopeinthedirectionofflowtoensurethatcondensateiscollected
anddrainedadequately.
The final design of the main steam and hot reheat lines should be reviewed, with consideration for thermal growth, to
determine the location of any necessary lowpoint drains and to ensure that the system can be completely drained in both
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thehotandcoldconditions.Whentheselinesaresplitintomorethanonebranchintotheturbine,eachbranchshouldbe
reviewedforlowpoints.Provideadrainconnectionineachbranchascloseaspossibletotheturbinestopvalve.Alldrain
linesandlargevalvedrainportsshouldhaveaninsidediameterofnotlessthan1in(25mm),topreventplugging.Main
steam piping drains should not be piped together with any other drains from the boiler. In addition, this review should
ensurethatnocondensatecancollectinanyundrainedportionofthesystemduringshutdown.
Provideadrainpotatthelowpointofeachcoldreheatline,whichshouldbefabricatedfromNPS6(DN150)orlarger
pipeandbenolongerthanrequiredtoinstallthelevelsensingdevices.EachpotshouldbeprovidedwithaminimumNPS
2(DN50)drainlineandafullsized,fullportedautomaticpoweroperateddrainvalve.Eachdrainpotshouldbeprovided
withaminimumoftwolevelsensingdevices.
Steamlinesthatarefittedwithrestrictingdevicessuchasorificesorflownozzlesshouldbeadequatelydrainedupstream
ofthedevice.
Valves in all steam services should be installed with the valve stem in the vertical upright position to prevent the
entrapment of fluid in the bonnet. Where this is not practical, the stem may be positioned between the vertical and
horizontalpositions,butinnocasebelowhorizontal.
Mainsteamsafetyreliefvalvesshouldbefittingboundtothemainsteamheaders.
Sufficient space should be provided around any steam line to allow for insulation, pipe supports and anchors, thermal
growth,machinewelding,andmaintenancerepairsandreplacements.

TurbineExtractionSteam
Moststeamturbinesareprovidedwithoneormorelowtointermediatepressuresteamextractionpointseitherforboiler
feedwater heating or for industrial process service and heating. These systems are extremely critical, particularly from the
standpointofwaterdamage,andmustbedesignedinaccordancewiththefollowingstandardsandguidelines:
ANSI/ASMETDP11985,RecommendedPracticesforthePreventionofWaterDamagetoSteamTurbinesUsedforElectric
PowerGeneration(Fossil),AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork(Ref.1).
ANSI/ASME TDP21985, Recommended Practices for the Prevention of Water Damage to Steam Turbines Used for
ElectricPowerGeneration(Nuclear),AmericanSocietyofMechanicalEngineers,NewYork(Ref.2).
Theroutingshouldbeasshortandasdirectaspossiblewithconsiderationforthermalgrowthandpipingflexibility.
Extraction steam piping should be sloped down a minimum of in/ft (10 mm/m), in the direction of flow. Extensive
evaluationanddesignarerequiredforlinesthatdonotslopeinthedirectionofflowtoensurethatcondensateiscollected
anddrainedadequately.
Bleedertripvalvesmustbelocatedasclosetotheturbineextractionpointaspossible,whileatthesametimekeepingthe
totalvolumeofthesystemwithintheturbinemanufacturersrecommendations.
When extraction steam piping is routed through the condenser neck, an expansion joint must be provided in each line
andlocatedattheturbinenozzle.Thebleedertripvalvesintheselinesmustbelocatedjustoutsidethecondenserneck.
A drain should be located at the low point in the extraction pipe between the turbine and block valve and routed
separatelytothecondenser.Apoweroperateddrainvalveshouldbeinstalledinthislinethatopensautomaticallyuponthe
closureoftheblockvalveintheextractionpipe.
Thereshouldbenobypassesaroundtheextractionlineshutoffornonreturnvalves.

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Unavoidableverticalloopswhichcreatelowpointsinthepipingdownstreamofthebleedertripvalvesmustbeprovided
withcontinuouslydraineddrippots.
Provideaminimumoffivediametersofstraightpipedownstreamofallbleedertripvalves.
Providemaintenanceaccesstoallbleedertripvalvesincludinganymiscellaneousplatforms,ifneeded.

Condensate
Thecondensatecollectionsystemfromthecondenserhotwellpresentsauniquesetofparameterssincewearedealingwith
water at slightly elevated temperatures and at a vacuum pressure. These conditions make the condensate pump suction
pipingsusceptibletoflashingandcavitation.Thefollowingguidelinesapplytothedesignofcondensatepumpsuctionand
dischargepiping:
Where two or more condensate pumps are used, the individual runs to each pump must be similar, and if a suction
manifoldorheaderisused,theindividualpumpsuctionlinesfromthatmanifoldorheadermustbesimilar.
When the manifold or header is larger than the pump suction size, the manifold or header should be made up of full
sizedteesandeccentricreducers,flatsideup.

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