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A STUDY ON WORK-LIFE BALANCE AMONG WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN


SERVICE SECTOR OF CHENNAI CITY.

BY
C.JASMINE SHEELA
Roll No: 1415MBA0316
Reg.No: 68514100092

A PROJECT REPORT
Submitted to the

FACULTY OF MANAGEMENT SCIENCES


in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
of
MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION

CENTRE FOR DISTANCE EDUCATION


ANNA UNIVERSITY
CHENNAI 600 025

March -2016

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ANNEXURE II
BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
Certified that the Project report titled A STUDY ON WORK-LIFE BALANCE
AMONG WOMEN EMPLOYEES IN SERVICE SECTOR OF CHENNAI
CITY is the bonafide work of MS. C.JASMINE SHEELA who carried out the
work under my supervision. Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the
work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on
the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or
any other candidate.

Signature of the Student

Signature of the Guide

Name: C Jasmine Sheela

Prof. M Ramani
M.A., M.A, M.Sc., M.B.A., M.Phil., Ph.D.,
Visiting Faculty Dept Of Management
Studies, Anna University,
College of Engineering, Guindy,
Chennai -32

Roll No: 1415MBA0316


Reg.No: 68514100092

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ANNEXURE III

Certificate of Viva-voce-Examination

This is to certify that Ms. C. JASMINE SHEELA


(Roll No.1415MBA0316 ; Register No.68514100092) has been subjected to
Viva-voce-Examination on ........................(Date) at .................(Time) at the Study
centre................................................................................................................................
.................................................................................(Name and Address of the Study
centre).

Internal Examiner

External Examiner

Name :

Name :

Designation:

Designation :

Address :

Address :

Coordinator Study centre

Name

Designation

Address

Date :

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ABSTRACT

Work-life balance of women in Service sectors is gaining the domain place in


highly discussed topics. Familywork conflict and workfamily conflict are more
likely to exert negative influences in the family domain, resulting in lower life
satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Variables such as the size
of family, the age of children, the work hours and the level of social support impact
the experience of Work family conflict and Family work conflict. It is also significant
to note the success level gained by women in career and family inspite of all the stress
they undergo at work place. It is also important to consider the consequences these
variables have on psychological distress and wellbeing of the working women.

This study is based on descriptive research and the primary data has
been collected from 152 women employee as respondents working in Service sector
in Chennai. The main objective of this research is to identify the perception of women
employees towards work-life balance and to find out their benefits and challenges in
work life. The findings of this project gives us an idea about the changes in current
trends in family type, salary and motivational factors and their influences on worklife balance among women employees in service sector.

C. Jasmine Sheela

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I thank ALMIGHTY GOD for his guidance, support and constant presence
throughout the study.
My sincere thanks to my guide Prof. M.Ramani M.A.,M.A.,M.B.A.,M.Phil.,Ph.D.
Visiting Faculty, Department of Management Studies, Anna University, College of
Engineering, Guindy, Chennai-25 for his valuable guidance and wish counsel and
constant encouragement throughout the project.
My thanks are extended to all the participant respondents of this study for extending
their kind cooperation and for making this study possible. Their interest in the topic
and their generosity and openness in providing insights into their work/life balance
strategies made the data collection phase a pleasure.
I thank my family members and all my friends who have extended their support and
helped in many ways throughout this study.

C.JASMINE SHEELA

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CONTENTS

SL. NO.

TOPIC

CHAPTER 1: INTODUCTION OF CONCEPT (Work life Balance)


1.1

Origin of Work- Life balance

1.2

Statement of the problem

1.3

Need for the study

1.4

Objectives of the study

1.5

Scope of the study

1.6

Deliverables of the study

PAGE NO.
1

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE SURVEY


2.1

Review of Literature

2.2

Research Gap

CHAPTER 3: METHODOLGY
3.1

Research Methodology

3.2

Research Design

3.3

Data collection Method

3.4

Sample Method

3.5

Sample Size

3.6

Questionnaire Design

3.7

Statistical Tools Applied

3.8

Method of analysis

CHAPTER 4: DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


4.1

Data Analysis Descriptive Statistics and Inference Analysis

10

vii
SL. NO.
4.2

TOPIC

PAGE NO.

Hypothesis Testig

CHAPTER 5: CONCLUSIONS
5.1

Summary

5.2

Findings

5.3

Determinants which impact the issue of work life balance.

5.4

Practices followed by women Employees to Manage WLB

5.5

Organizational practices addressing work life issues

5.6

Impact of work-life imbalance

5.7

Benefits of work life balance

5.8

Barriers or Challenges to work Life Balance

5.9

Suggestions & Recommendations

5.10

Limitations & Future Scope

5.11

Conclusions

APPENDICES

26

43

Appendix 1 - QUESTIONNAIRE USED FOR THE STUDY

BIBLIOGRAPHY

48

REFERENCES

49

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LIST OF TABLES
TABLE NO

TABLE TITLE

PAGE NO

4.1

Age of Respondents

10

4.2

Educational Qualification of Respondents

12

4.3

Marital Status of Respondents

13

4.4

Industries of respondents working

14

4.5

Working experience of Respondents

15

4.6

Income level of working women

16

4.7

Family type of working women

17

4.8

Reasons for picking up a job by respondents

18

4.9

Balance of work and life by working women

19

4.10

Factors motivating women employees to work

20

4.11

Balance of Work and Life factor for hypothesis test I

21

4.12

Marital status factor for hypothesis test I

21

4.13

Observed frequency table for hypothesis test I

21

4.14

Expected frequency for hypothesis test I

22

4.15

Table for calculation of hypothesis test I

22

4.16

Balance of Work and Life factor for hypothesis test II

23

4.17

Marital status factor for hypothesis test II

23

4.18

Observed frequency table for hypothesis test II

24

4.19

Expected frequency for hypothesis test II

24

4.20

Table for calculation of hypothesis test II

24

5.1

Table for classification of determinants of WLB:

28

organizational and individual factors

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LIST OF CHARTS

TABLE NO

CHART TITLE

PAGE NO

4.1

Age of Respondents

11

4.2

Educational Qualification of Respondents

12

4.3

Marital Status of Respondents

13

4.4

Industries of respondents working

14

4.5

Working experience of Respondents

15

4.6

Income level of working women

16

4.7

Family type of working women

17

4.8

Reasons for picking up a job by respondents

18

4.9

Balance of work and life by working women

19

4.10

Factors motivating women employees to work

20

CHAPTER 1- INTRODUCTION

1.1 ORIGIN OF WORK-LIFE BALANCE :

Work- life balance has emerged as a hot topic in recent years fuelled in part by
changing trends in womens social roles. Whilst labor market participation has
increased for women of all ages, women continue to shoulder the main responsibility
for organizing and undertaking unpaid caring work. In India, it is taken for granted that
economic activities are exclusively the prerogative of males while domestic work, child
bearing and child rearing are the sole occupations of women. Historically, women in
India have not enjoyed a good status in workplace settings whether in managerial or
operative roles. Since times immemorial, women have been burdened with work of all
sorts all through their lives. From reproduction to all household chores and outside,
their role as worker is significant, unique and burdensome. But they are discriminated
and exploited all over.

In the traditional era, the women were confined to household work like cooking,
washing, cleaning, taking care of children, etc. They were considered as home makers
and were deprived of the right or opportunity to go outside home. But now the story is
different. Apart from home maker role, they also have a significant role to engage even
outside the home. With the increase in cost of living on one hand and the improved
education and employment opportunities on the other Changes in the social, political
and economic fabric of societies have influenced and continue to influence both the
nature of employment and its relationship to life outside work .

The Services Sector constitutes a large part of the Indian economy both in terms of
employment potential and its contribution to national income. The Sector covers a wide
range of activities from the most sophisticated in the field of Information and
Communication Technology to simple services pursued by the informal sector workers,

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for example, vegetable sellers, hawkers, rickshaw pullers, etc. Among fast growing
developing countries, India is distinctive for the role of the service sector.
The changing economic conditions and social demands have changed the nature of
work throughout the world . The concept of Work life balance is becoming more and
more relevant in an ever dynamic working environment.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM:

There is presence of work life imbalance among female employees working


in service sector in Chennai city.
1.3 NEED FOR THE STUDY:
Work-life balance has always been a concern in the quality of working life and its
relation to broader quality of life. In the present scenario, due to many changes
happening in the work place and family systems, a vast majority of women are finding
it difficult to achieve a desired Work-Life Balance even this has lead to many
unexpected turns like Divorce in married life, suicides, psychological issues, etc. In
comparison with men, women have more responsibilities at home. Though there are
studies on Work- Life Balance, relatively there are fewer studies on work-life balance
of women employees. Therefore there is a need to study how women are balancing their
work and family life in Services sectors.

1.4 OBJECTIVES :
1.4.1 Primary objective:
To find the perception of women employees towards work life balance policies
provided by the organization.
To identify the challenges of women employees in work-life balance.
1.4.2 Secondary objective:
To identify the benefits of work -life balance of Women Employees.
To learn the current practices followed by women employees for work-life
balance.
To suggest some recommendations to women employees and organizations to
balance work-life

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY:


The present study is confined to women employees in Chennai city. Chennai city is one
of the developed cosmopolitan cities in India. Women employees who have
been working in different organizations in Service Sectors like Banking, Insurance,
Advertising, Education, IT, BPO and Health care were considered for the purpose of
the study.

1.6 DELIVERABLES OF THE STUDY:


Work life balance is a person's control over the conditions in their
workplace. It is accomplished when an individual feels dually satisfied about their
personal life and their paid occupation. It mutually benefits the individual, business
and society when a person's personal life is balanced with his or her own job. The
idea of this study on work life balance to the point is: "Work to live. Don't live to
work."

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE :

Number of studies has addressed this issue in different perspectives. Some of


the papers related to this subject are reviewed.

J.Sudha (2014) research has identified the various aspects such as career advancement,
Work Stress, Career aspiration, Work Family Conflict and Family Work Conflict, Child
care in context with Work Life Balance (WLB) and its practices and has revealed the
overview of the various challenges and issues faced by Women employees to achieve
WLB.

Sahana Maiya and Dr.M.M.Bagali (April 2014) have revealed the picture of difficulties
faced in balancing the work demand and the life (family) responsibility as there was
high correlation between the difficulties faced and the balancing act to be performed.
The study also defined certain specific HRM interventions for better work-life balance.

Prof.K.Thriveni Kumari & Dr.V.Rama Devi (2013) addressed the Work life balance as
one of the most challenging issues being faced by the women employees in the 21st
century because of the type of roles they play at home and the spill over of personal life
over work life.

Prof. K.Santhana Lakshmi

(March 2013) have examined that the Educational

institutions should address the Work Life Balance related issues among their staff,
specifically women and take a holistic approach to design and implement the policies to
support the teaching staff to manage their WLB.

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Professor S.Padma and M.Sudhir Reddy (May 2013) article was to find the impact of
family Support on Work life Balance and revealed that Women with the responsibility
of elder parents health need to be given a helping hand to balance their personal and
professional works.
A.Jerina Bee, K.Baskar & V.Vimala (2013)

has reported in their Indian Streams

Research Journal about Familywork conflict (FWC) and workfamily conflict (WFC)
are more likely to exert negative influences in the family domain, resulting in lower life
satisfaction and greater internal conflict within the family. Studies have identified
several variables that influence the level of WFC and FWC.
Satinder Singh (2013) literature identifies its effect on various quality life conditions i.e
Job Satisfaction, Work Stress, Career Growth, Turnover, Absenteeism, Appreciation
and

competitive

environment

in

context with

Work-life

Balance

and

its

practices/policies. In this paper, an endeavor has been made to provide an overview of


various aspects of Work-Life Balance through the review of existing literature.
T.S.Shanthi & Dr.K.Sundar (January 2012) research measures the level of satisfaction
as perceived by the women-respondent employees on the varied determinants of work
life balance, to identify the major factors that influence the work life balance among
various categories of women employees in I.T. Industry and to measure the overall
work life balance of women employees irrespective of cadres.
Prof. Sobia Shujat,Prof.Farooq-E-Azam Cheema & Prof.Faryal (2011)Bhutto study has
analyzed the impact of work life balance on employee job satisfaction in private
banking sector of Karachi. Factors involved are job satisfaction and work life balance
with respect to flexible working conditions, work life balance programs, employee
intention to change/leave job, work pressure/stress and long working hours.
N.Krishna Reddy et al, (2010) concluded that the married women employees indeed
experience Work Family Conflict (WFC) while attempting to balance their work and
family lives. Thus, Organization needs to formulate guidelines for the management of
WFCs since they are related to job satisfaction and performance of the employees.

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Niharika and Supriya (2010) have studied the work based factors and family related
factors that are considered to contribute to work life balance. Work based factors are
flexi time, option to work part time and freedom to work from home and the family
related factors are child care facility and flexibility to take care of emergencies at home.
Rincy V.Mathew and N. Panchanatham (July 2009) identified the significant
differences in the level of WLB issues faced by the various categories of women
entrepreneurs. The study also provides recommendations for human resource
professionals, management consultants, academicians and women entrepreneurs
themselves to deal with the major WLB issues faced by Indian women entrepreneurs.
Carol Emslie and Kate Hunt (January 2009) did a qualitative study of gender and work
life balance among men and women and the ways in which both men and women in
mid-life negotiate the intersections between paid work and other areas of life.
Ms.Lakshmipriya and Ms. Neena.S (April 2008) highlights the various values, attitudes
& beliefs of women regarding job anxiety in their formal work organizations &
particularly balancing their work & personal life.
Gregg Schoenfeld (April 2005) examines the work-life balance achieved by recent
MBA graduates and discusses underlying factors associated with personal perceptions
of balance and imbalance. Work-life balance issues are brought to the forefront as a part
of the annual MBA Alumni Perspective Survey conducted by the Graduate
Management Admission Council (GMAC) in April 2005.

2.2 RESEARCH GAP :

As seen in review of literature, there are so many studies conducted on Work-life


imbalance in common and among women in general. This study purely focused on
women employees in service sector of Chennai only. And the previous studied have
concentrated in other field like IT but have not given the importance in Service Sector,
so this study has focused on service sector women employees.

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY

3.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY:


Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. It
may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically as
research methodology has many dimensions and research method to constitute a part of
it.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN:


A research design is a plan of the proposed research works, it is the arrangement
of conditions for collections and analysis of data relevant to the research purpose. This
descriptive study proceeds with formulation of objectives and to give direction to what
type of data would be necessary to reveal the characteristic.

3.3 DATA COLLECTION METHOD :


The data collection method used for the analysis of this study are :
Primary Data in this study are collected through Questionnaire method, by
filling questionnaire from women employees.
Secondary Data collected from journals, magazines, books, newspapers, online
resources etc.,

3.4 SAMPLE METHOD :


The method adopted for the sample size of this research is convenient random
sampling technique.

3.5 SAMPLE SIZE:


Sample size taken for the study is 152 women employees from 6 Segments of
Service Sector viz Advertising, Banking and Financial Services, IT & ITES , Hospitals,
Education and Others.

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3.6 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN:
The study was conducted using structured questionnaire, questions belong to
closed ended patterns, these closed ended questions are framed using the following type
such as
Multiple choice
Rating scale

3.7 STATISTICAL TOOLS APPLIED :


The statistical tools applied for the analysis of data are
Tabulation
Bar diagram
Pie-diagram
Chi-square test

3.8 CHI-SQUARE TEST :


The Chi-Square test is one of the simplest and a widely used non-parametric test
in statistical work. It is used to make comparison between theoretical population and
actual date when categories are used.
Formula :
Chi-Square = (O E) 2 / E
O - Observed frequency
E - Expected frequency
Steps for computing Chi Square test
First the expected frequencies E are computed the expected frequency for any data can
be calculated.
E = RT * CT
N
RT = Row total
CT = Coloumn total
N = Number of frequency

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Then find out the difference between observed (o) and expected(E) frequencies .
Difference between (O) and(E) are squared that is the interval estimate (O-E) 2 is
calculated.
Square difference between frequencies (O-E) 2 are divided by respective expected
frequencies.
(O-E) 2/E
The degree of freedom is calculated from the frequencies table by using formula.
Degree of Freedom (D.F) = (C-1)*(R-1).
C = Number of cell frequencies in Columns
R = Number of cell frequencies in Rows.
In case of anyone Chi-Square,
The degree of freedom (D.F) = (N-1)
N = Number of frequencies
Then the calculated value is then compared to the tabulated value of

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CHAPTER 4 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

Two Hundred and ten questionnaire were distributed to different types of


organizations falling under service sector viz Advertising, Banking and Financial
services , Hospitals , IT & ITES and Education and other . After eliminating the invalid
questionnaires , 152 valid questionnaires were used for further analysis.

4.1 DATA ANALYSIS DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND INFERENCE


ANALYSIS :
Table- 4.1
AGE OF RESPONDENTS

S. No

Age in Years

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Below 25 years

40

27

From 25 to 35 years

52

34

35 to 45 years

31

20

Above 45 years

29

19

Total

152

100

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Chart- 4.1 - AGE OF RESPONDENTS

60

50

40

52

40

30

34
27

31
20

20

No.of Respondents

29

Percentage
19

10

0
Below 25
years

From 25 to
35 years

35 to 45
years

above 45
years

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that 27% of respondents belong under the
age of 25, 34 % belong between 25 to 35 years, 20% belong between 35 to 45 years,
19% belong above 45 years of age.

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Table- 4.2
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

S.No

Educational qualification

No.of Respondents

Percentage

Diploma

17

11

UG

62

41

PG

63

42

Others

10

Total

152

100

Chart - 4.2
EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS

70
60
50

42

41

40

No.of Respondents

30

Percentage

20

11

10
0
Diploma

UG

PG

Others

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that 11% of Respondents have
done diploma, 41% have done under graduation, 42% have done Post graduation and
6% of the respondents belong to others.

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Table-4.3
MARITAL STATUS
S.No

Marital status

No.of Respondents

Percentage

Married

76

50

Unmarried

68

44

Divorced

152

100

Total

Chart- 4.3- MARITAL STATUS

80

76
68

70
60
50

No.of Respondents

40

Percentage

30
20
8

10
0
Married

Unmarried

Divorced

Inference:

From the above table, it has been interpreted that


50% of respondents were married
44% of respondents were unmarried
6% of respondent were divorced

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Table-4.4
Industry in which women employees are working
S. No
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Industry
Advertising
Banking or Finance
Education
Travel & Tourism
Hospitality
IT & ITES
Others
Total

No.of Respondents
25
32
27
23
12
17
16
152

Chart - 4.4
Industry in which women respondents are working
Industry of Respondents
11%

16%

11%
8%

21%

15%
18%
Advertising
Travel & Tourism
Others

Banking or Finance
Hospitality

Education
IT & ITES

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that
16% of respondents work in Advertising field.
21% of respondents work in Banking or Finance field.
18% of respondent work in Education field.
16% of respondents work in Travel & tourism field.
8% of respondents work in Hospitality
11% of respondents work in IT & ITES
10% of respondents work in other fields.

Percentage
16
21
18
16
8
11
10
100

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Table- 4. 5
Working Experience of women employees

S.No

Years of Work experience

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Less than a year

26

17

1 year to 5 years

52

34

5 years to 10years

43

28

More than 10years

31

21

152

100

Total

Chart- 4.5
Working Experience of women employees

60
52
50
43
40

30

34
28

26

31

21
20

17

10

0
Less than a year

1 year to 5
years
No.of Respondents

5 years to
10years

More than
10years

Percentage

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that 17 % of Respondents work
experience is less than a year, 34% is between 1year to 5 years, 28% is between 5years
to 10 years and 21% is more than 10 years.

16
Table- 4.6
Income level of working women respondents

S. No

Income Level

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Rs.10,000 - Rs.15,000

52

34

Rs.15,000- Rs.20,000

35

23

Rs.20,000- Rs.25,000

32

21

> Rs.25,000

33

22

Total

152

100

Chart 4.6
Income level of working women respondents
Income level of respondents
60
52
50
40
30
20

35

33

32

34

No.of Respondents
23

Percentage
21

22

10
0
Rs.10,000 - Rs.15,000- Rs.20,000- > Rs.25,000
Rs.15,000 Rs.20,000 Rs.25,000

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that 34 % of Respondents income
level is between Rs.10,000 to Rs.15000, 23% of respondents income is between
Rs.15000 to Rs.20,000, 21% of respondents income is between Rs.20,000 to Rs.25,000
and 22% of respondents income is above Rs.25000

17
Table- 4.7
Family type of women employees
S.No

Family Type

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Joint family

42

27

Nuclear Family

110

73

Total

152

100

Chart -4. 7
Family type of women employees
120
110
100

80

73

Joint family

60

Nuclear Family
42
40
27
20

0
No.of Respondents

Percentage

Inference:

From the above table, it has been interpreted that 27% of Respondents belong to
Joint family type and 73% belong to Nuclear family .

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Table- 4. 8
Reasons for picking up a job by working women
S. No

Reasons for working

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Independent

36

23

Career

23

15

Use of education

26

17

Overcome boredom

11

For Dependents

24

16

Financial requirement

32

21

Total

152

100

Chart -4.8
Reasons for picking up a job by working women
Reasons for working of respondents

21%

24%

16%

15%
7%

Independent
Use of education
For Dependants

17%

Career
Overcome boredrom
Financial requirement

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that 23% of Respondents go to
work to be independent, 15% for career growth, 17% for use of education, 8% to
overcome boredom, 16 % to take care of dependents and 21% to meet their financial
requirements.

19
Table- 4.9
Balance of work and life by working women
S. No

Balance of work and Life

Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

No. of Respondents
25

Total

Percentage
16

34

22

16

11

36

24

41

27

152

100

Chart - 4.9
Balance of work and life by working women

27

Strongly Disagree

24

Disagree

11

Neutral

Percentage
No.of Respondents
22

Agree
16

Strongly agree
0

20

40

60

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that 16% of Respondents strongly
agree that they balance their work and life, 22% agree, 11% say neutral, 24% Disagree
and 27% Strongly disagree.

20
Table- 4.10
Factors motivating women employee to work
S.
No
1

Factors Motivating employee to work


Personal satisfaction

No. of
Respondents
38

Percentage
25

Financial Independence

44

29

Support from family

59

39

Constructive Utilization of time

11

Total

152

100

Chart 4.10
Factors motivating women employee to work

Factors motivating employee to work

7%

25%

Personal satisfaction
Financial Independence

39%

Support from family


29%

Constructive Utilization of
time

Inference:
From the above table, it has been interpreted that personal satisfaction, 29 % by
financial independence, 39 % by support from family, and 7% by constructive
utilization of time motivates 25% of Respondents.

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4.2. HYPOTHESIS TESTING :
4.2.1. HYPOTHESIS TEST NO: 1
CHI-SQUARE TEST
Aim :
To test the significant relationship between work-life balance and marital status of the
respondents.
Hypothesis of the study :
Null Hypotheses (H0) : There is no significant relationship between work-life balance
and marital status of the women employees in service sector.
Alternative Hypotheses (H1) : There is a significant relationship between work-life
balance and marital status of the women employees in service sector
Table 4.11: Balance of work and life by working women
S. No

Balance of work and Life

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

97

64%

Strongly Disagree

55

36%

Total

152

100%

Table 4.12: MARITAL STATUS


S. No

Marital status

No. of Respondents

Percentage

Married

89

58%

Unmarried

63

42%

Total

152

100%

Table 4.13: OBSERVED FREQUENCY


Work-life balance

Marital status
Married

Unmarried

Total

Strongly Agree

54

43

99

Strongly Disagree

35

20

55

Total

89

63

152

22
Table 4.14 : EXPECTED FREQUENCY

Work-life balance

Marital status
Married

Unmarried

Total

Strongly Agree

60

40

100

Strongly Disagree

40

12

52

Total

100

52

152

Table 4.15 : Calculation of the value


Observed
frequency (O)
54
35
43
20
TOTAL

Expected
Frequency (E)
60
40
40
12
152

(O E)

(O E)2

(O E)2/ E

-6
-5
3
8

36
25
9
64

0.6
0.625
0.225
5.33
6.78

FORMULA:
Chi -square (x^ 2) = (O-E) ^ 2
E
WHERE,
O = Observed frequency.
E = Expected frequency.
E = Row total X Colum total
Grand total
DEGREE OF FREEDOM
= (R-1) X (C-1)
= (2-1) X (2-1)
= 1x1
DF = 1
Tabulated value at degree of freedom at 5% of significant level = 3. 5
Calculated value of chi- square = 6.78
Here, Calculated value > tabulated value (i.e.) calculated value is higher than tabulated
value.

23
So, H1 is accepted and HO is rejected.

Hence, there is a significant relationship between work-life balance and marital


status of the working women .

4.2.2 HYPOTHESIS TEST NO: 2

Aim :
To test the significant relationship between work life balance and marital status of the
respondents.

Hypothesis of the study


Null Hypotheses (H0) : The work-life balance is not influenced by family type

Alternative Hypotheses (H1) : The work life balance is influenced by family type

Table 4.16: Balance of work and life by working women


S.No

Balance of work and Life

No.of Respondents

Percentage

Strongly Agree

97

64%

Strongly Disagree

55

36%

Total

152

100%

Table 4.17: Family type of working women employees


S.No

Family Type

No.of Respondents

Percentage

Joint family

42

27%

Nuclear Family

110

73%

Total

152

100%

24
Table 4.18 : OBSERVED FREQUENCY

Work-life balance

Family type
Joint family

Nuclear family

Total

Strongly Agree

34

62

96

Strongly Disagree

25

31

56

Total

59

93

152

Table 4.19 : EXPECTED FREQUENCY

Work-life balance

Family type
Joint family

Nuclear family

Total

Strongly Agree

30

60

90

Strongly Disagree

23

39

62

Total

53

99

152

Table 4.20 :

Observed
frequency
(O)
34

Expected
Frequency
(E)
30

25

(O E)

(O E)2

(O E)2/ E

16

0.533

23

0.086

62

60

0.033

31

39

-8

64

1.641

TOTAL

152

2.293

25
FORMULA:
Chi -square (x^ 2) = (O-E) ^ 2
E
WHERE,
O = Observed frequency.
E = Expected frequency.
E = Row total X Colum total
Grand total

DEGREE OF FREEDOM
= (R-1) X (C-1)
= (2-1) X (2-1)
= 1x1
DF = 1

Tabulated value at degree of freedom at 5% of significant level = 3. 5


Calculated value of chi- square = 2.293

Here,
Calculated value < tabulated value (i.e.) calculated value is higher than
tabulated value.

So, H0 is accepted and H1 is rejected.

Hence, there is no significant relationship between work-life balance and family


type of the working women in current trend.

26

Chapter 5 CONCLUSIONS

5.1 SUMMARY :

The findings of this survey reinforce the perceived importance of balance


between both work and personal aspects of ones life to enable greater success to be
achieved in every area of life including professional matters. With increasing working
population and changes in perceived company commitment and loyalty, Work and
Personal Life balance is a real issue for employers and employees alike. Employers can
benefit from these policies too as they can help to develop a more committed and
productive workforce. The findings are based on analysis of primary data as well as
review of literature. The primary data is collected through structured questioner
addressed to women employees. These findings based on a survey of females
employees in service sector of Chennai City reveals some interesting facts about worklife balance of the respondents .

The finding of the undertaken research adheres to the following 8 questions :

1. What are the Reasons / Need for female employees to take up the jobs ?
2. Is there imbalance between personal and work life ?
3. What are the determinants of Work Life Balance ?
4. What are the practices followed by women employees to manage professional and
personal life ?
5. What are the organizational practices addressing work life issues of employees ?
6. What is the impact of Work Life Imbalance ?
7. What are the benefits of Work Life Balance ?
8. What are the barriers or challenges to Work Life Balance ?

27
5.2 FINDINGS :
Most of the employees do agree in balancing their work and life in service sector,
in Chennai city.
Marital status of employees highly influence their work-life balance as 50% of
respondents were married mostly and 44% of respondents were unmarried and rest
6% of respondents were divorced.
Past financial experiences ,Present financial requirements ,future financial
requirements ,use of educational qualification ,overcome boredom at home ,career
orientation ,taking care of dependents, independence are the reasons being
identified for taking up the job.
Practices followed by majority of female employees to manage professional and
personal life are Time Management ,Use of personal vehicle for commuting ,Proper
planning well in advance , participating in social networking .
The current trend of working in Banking or Finance field has slightly increased as
compared to IT, advertising, Education and other fields of service sector due to the
increase in pay and other facilities. Major percentage of respondents are working in
Banking or Finance field.
It is also found that, in recent years family type either joint or nuclear doesnt affect
the work life balance of women employees, 73% of respondents belong to Nuclear
family and 27% belong to Joint family.

28
5.3 FOLLOWING DETERMINANTS HAVE BEEN IDENTIFIED WHICH
IMPACT THE ISSUE OF WORK LIFE BALANCE.
Table 5.1
Classification of Determinants of Work Life Balance
Organizational factors

Individual Factors
1.

Age of an employee / Life Stage Of

1.

Present annual income of employee

2.

Tenure in the present organization

3.

Department in which an employee is

2.

Marital Status

working

3.

No Of Members of family

4.

Type of Family

5.

No Of Dependents

6.

Educational Qualification

7.

Mobility from native place.

4.

Type of organization

5.

Nature of Job

6.

No of years of previous experience

7.

Level of hierarchy in the

Employee

8.

Attitude and values of employee

organization

9.

Psychological factors

8.

Term Of Contract

10.

Support from family members

9.

Situational factors

11.

Energy Levels of employee

10.

Support from employer and

12.

Self High Expectations

management
11.

Support from colleagues

12.

Policies of organization

13.

Technology and its use

14.

Long Working Hours

29
5.4 PRACTICES FOLLOWED BY WOMEN EMPLOYEES TO MANAGE
PROFESSIONAL AND PERSONAL LIFE :

1. Time Management : Majority of female employees agree with the statement that
they do all the basic preparation of next day on previous night .

2. Use of personal vehicle for commuting : Majority of the female employees prefer
to use their personal vehicle for commuting from their residence to their work places as
against organization transport .This helps them to do small domestic work like
purchasing grocery , vegetables or any other on their way home. This saves their time .

3. Proper planning well in advance : All the female employees agree with the
statement that try to start 10 to 15 minutes before the stipulated time so that I reach on
time comfortably.

4. Seeking support of parents and in-laws in case of emergency at workplace.

5. Using Crche facility for KIDS : Majority of married female employees prefer to
keep my kids in crches rather than keeping with my in-laws

6. Seeking support from seniors : Majority of female employees agree that they
seek support of their seniors when the their personnel attention to family is required .

7. Networking with the community members : All the female employees agree that
they network with the members of the community who can help me in alternative
arrangements.

30
5.5 ORGANIZATIONAL PRACTICES ADDRESSING WORK LIFE ISSUES
OF EMPLOYEES :

The range of Work Life Balance initiatives by the organizations available can be
grouped into 4 main areas:

1. Leave provisions (such as parental and family leave) : Facilities like Carriers
Leaves , Opportunity for leave if Care arrangements for children or other dependents
breakdown, Study / training leave, Career Breaks, Cultural / religious leave,
Bereavement leave, Pooling of leave entitlements are offered by many organizations to
the female employees to manage the work life issues . Maternity and Parenting policies
like Unpaid maternity / paternity and adoption leave, Paid maternity leave, Paid
paternity leave, Paid adoption leave, Opportunity to return to the same job after
maternity / paternity and adoption leave, Safety at work during pregnancy (e.g.
changing the work of pregnant women to avoid long periods of standing or lifting
heavy objects ), Pre-natal leave ( e.g. time for pregnant women or their partners to
attend medical appointments during working hours , either using additional leave or
sick leave ), Staggered return to work after pregnancy ( employees being able to
negotiate a temporary reduction in hours of work when they return to work ) etc. are
adopted by many organizations to address the issues of work life balance .

2. Flexible hours provisions : Flexible work arrangements like job sharing, flexible
start and finish times , Telecommuting, Cap on overtime, Opportunity to negotiate parttime work for full time employees, Time Off in lieu and roistered days off are offered
by many organizations .

3. Additional work provisions : Telephone for personal use , Counseling services for
employees, Referral services for employees personal needs, Health programs, Parenting
or family support programs, Exercise facilities, Relocation or placement assistance,
Equal access to promotion , training and development are some of the other provisions
by the organizations to support the work life issues of female employees in service
sector .

31
5.6 IMPACT OF WORK LIFE IMBALANCE :

It can be tempting to rack up hours at work, especially if you're trying to earn a


promotion or manage an ever-increasing workload. Sometimes overtime may even be
required. If you're spending most of your time working , though, your home life will
take a hit. Consider the consequences of poor work-life balance :

1. Fatigue or Low Energy Levels : When you're tired, your ability to work
productively and think clearly may suffer which could take a toll on your
professional reputation or lead to dangerous or costly mistakes. At the same time when
employees feel fatigue due to tiresome work at professional front , when they return
home they are left with no energy to interact with family members .

2. More pressure on household work : Due to excessive pressure at home front


female employees complaint getting late very frequently to job .

3. Unable to spend quality time with friends and loved ones. - If you're working too
much, you may miss important family events or milestones. This can leave you feeling
left out and may harm relationships with your loved ones. It's also difficult to nurture
friendships if you're always working.

4. Increased expectations. If you regularly work extra hours, you may be given more
responsibility. This may lead to only more concerns and challenges.

The various roles we occupy as parents, partners and employees or employers


bring with them different obligations which need to be reconciled. Balancing work,
family and lifestyle commitments is often difficult and sometimes the different
demands can be overwhelming and incompatible. The consequences include increases
in juvenile crime, more drug abuse, a reduction in care of the community and in
community participation and less willingness to take responsibility for care of elderly
relatives and for the disadvantaged. While steps to redress these concerns transcend

32
work and employment, it is nevertheless argued that the demands of work contribute to
a reduced participation in non-work activities resulting in an imbalance.

The result of work life imbalance at the workplace can be that employees:
are less productive
are absent more often, or for longer
disguise the real reasons for their absence
have lower levels of morale
are more stressed
are more likely to leave a workplace unsupportive of work-life balance issues

5.7 BENEFITS OF WORK LIFE BALANCE :

Work-life balance is an essential part of Corporate Social Responsibility.


Corporations are increasingly recognizing that an inadequate work-life balance can
have detrimental impacts on staff performance, satisfaction and retention. When
employers target good work-life balance, they can see that reducing stress and
frustration resulting from poor work-life balance can be beneficial to both parties.

Furthermore the adoption of work-life balance policies and practices can improve an
organizations ability to respond to customers demands for increased access to services
and deal with changes in a way that can be satisfactory to both employers and
employees.

Helping individuals and families achieve a balance between their work, family and
lifestyle commitments by introducing work-life balance policies (i.e. policies that help
people meet the needs of their work life and personal life) can provide benefits for both
employees and employers.

33
5.7.1 BENEFITS TO THE INDIVIDUAL :

Recognized benefits of work-life balance policies for employees include:


1. Improved work-life balance a reduction in the impact of work on home and family
life .
2. Reduced stress levels .
3. Control over time management in meeting work-life commitments .
4. Autonomy to make decisions regarding work-life balance.
5. Increased focus, motivation and job satisfaction knowing that family and work
commitments are being met.
6.Increased job security from the knowledge that an organization understands and
supports workers with family responsibilities.
7.Decreased Health Care Costs and Stress-Related Illnesses : With increasing company
focus on the high cost of health care, work/life programs are becoming an intelligent
choice to help lower the number of health care claims.

5.7.2 BENEFITS TO THE ORGANIZATION

The benefits of work-life balance policies are not restricted to the employees
using the policies, but also to the employer providing them.
Recognized benefits for introducing work-life balance policies for employers include:

1. Reduced Staff Turnover Rates & increased Employee Retention :The cost of
employee turnover and accompanying loss of valuable company knowledge can be
significant. Work/life programs offer a solution to retention woes. The highest
performers are the most likely to consider their ability to balance work and personal
responsibilities in a decision to stay with the company.

2. Lower recruitment and training costs, associated with reduced turnover :


Getting and keeping the right staff can be achieved through good work life balance
policies. Finding and keeping good staff can be difficult especially in a tight labor

34
market. Employers who can offer work-life balance and flexible work options are likely
to have the competitive edge, gain access to a wider recruitment pool, and are more
likely to hold onto existing staff. As a result of the flexible working arrangements and
other work-life initiatives, many companies have increased retention of graduates and
women returning from parental leave.

3. Becoming a good employer or an employer of choice :


Being an employer of choice can give you the competitive edge for attracting talent.
Employees who are positive about their workplace help to foster a positive attitude in
the wider community. Increasingly businesses are adopting practices that make a
positive difference for the environment and society. Staff are a vital business resource,
so it makes sound business sense to develop and protect this resource. Work/life
initiatives create positive employer branding, promote being an employer of choice,
foster organizational citizenship, and support diversity initiatives.

4. Increased return on investment in training as employees stay longer : Good


WLB initiatives by organization improves the retention rate .5. Reduced absenteeism :
Research has documented that work/life programs can reduce absenteeism .

6. Reduced use of sick leave : Good WLB initiatives from the organization promotes
the health of the employees in turn reduced use of sick leave .
7. Reductions in workers stress levels : WLB policies and its use reduces the level of
stress among the employees of the organization.

8. Improved morale or satisfaction : Poor work-life balance can lead to stress and
absenteeism, and low output. Helping employees achieve work-life balance is integral
to their general health and wellbeing, increasing their work satisfaction and motivation.
They are likely to be more committed, more flexible and more responsive to the
business and customers needs. Research indicates that company commitment to
work/life initiatives is closely aligned with employee motivation and productivity .

35
9. Greater staff loyalty and commitment : Good work life balance policies in the
organizations wins the loyalty and commitment from the employees .

10. Improved productivity : Getting and keeping the right staff and getting the best
from them will help to increase productivity. Costs associated with recruitment,
training and absenteeism will reduce and employees will be more engaged motivated
and committed.

11. Better teamwork and communication : Good work life balance policies
encourages teamwork and good communication

5.8 BARRIERS OR CHALLENGES TO WORK LIFE BALANCE :

1. Time Consuming : Implementing a WLB strategy takes time . Timescales for


a. implementation need to be realistic.

2. Lack of Team Work : Introducing, operating and implementing work-life balance


requires collaborative working and is very much an holistic process .

3. Lack of communication : Communication about work/life programs is essential.


Although an organization may offer a rich menu of work/life benefits, the desired
effectyielding positive business resultsis unlikely to occur if employees do not
know about the programs or understand them.

4. Only paper work no implementation : Many organizations have the policies only
on paper .There is very less concern for the implementation of the policies .

5. Support of management : Work-place initiatives of any sort are likely to fail if


they do not have the full support of all levels of management. Supporting and
training managers in the application of WLB is imperative. Early engagements with
Senior Managers results in a higher level of commitment

36
6.

Early Awareness : Early awareness raising sessions for managers on the work-life
concept could have helped alleviate initial concern.

7. Delays in decision making: Over dependence on working groups delaying decision


making .

8. Difference in interpretations : Informal flexible working practices can lead to


different interpretations leading to inconsistency of approach . Performance
Management has to be dealt with in the appropriate way and not through WLB.

9. Isolated Vs. bundled WLB practices : There is something of a puzzle about why
family-friendly policies and practices do not appear to improve work-life balance to
the extent we might expect. Isolated family-friendly practices will have little impact
but that a comprehensive bundle of practices are associated with superior ratings of
corporate performance . While their focus is on corporate performance, there may
be similar implications for their impact on employees. One interpretation of the
presence of a bundle of practices is that they have become embedded in the
organizational culture whereas isolated practices operate on the margin. This would
reinforce the importance of considering organizational culture/climate as a key unit
of analysis as much as the specific practices.

5.9 SUGGESTIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.

Work-life balance has always been a concern of those interested in the quality of
working life and its relation to broader quality of life. People achieve success when they
have the flexibility to meet the demands of their professional lives and accomplish
personal goals outside their offices . Whenever you focus too much on one at the
expense of the other then you risk putting your entire system in distress for an employee
, balancing a challenging career with life outside work is a complex task . Work life and
personal life are the two sides of the same coin. Maintaining a reasonable balance
between both is very important .

37
The suggestions made in this chapter pertaining it WLB issues are divided in three parts :
1. Suggestions to the women employees
2. Suggestions to the organizations

5.9.1 SUGGESTIONS TO THE WOMEN EMPLOYEES :

As long as you're working, juggling the demands of career and personal life will
probably be an ongoing challenge. Use following strategies to help you find the worklife balance that's best suits for you .
1.Time Management : Rather than thinking of the number of hours of work, think of
the effective time spend at work. Many people spend a long time at work yet don't seem
to accomplish their high impact activities. Track your activities and the amount of time
you spend on them. Watch out for some common traps. Some of these include the
constant use of email or blackberries.

2. Drop activities that sap your time or energy : Many people waste their time on
activities or people that add no value -- for example, spending too much time at work
with a colleague who is constantly venting and gossiping. Take stock of activities that
aren't really enhancing your career or personal life and minimizing the time you spend
on them.
3. A little relaxation goes a long way : Don't get overwhelmed by assuming that you
need to make big changes to bring more balance to your life. Setting realistic goals, like
trying to leave the office earlier one night per week. Slowly build more activities into
your schedule that are important to you . Maybe you can start by spending an hour a
week on your hobby or planning a weekend getaway with your family once a year .
Even during a hectic day, you can take 10 or 15 minutes to do something that will
recharge your batteries. Take a bath, read a trashy novel, go for a walk, or listen to
music. You have to make a little time for the things that ignite your joy. As happiness
has direct relation to productivity one must need to think of the things which make them
happy.

38
4. Set your priorities : Work life balance cant be achieved without effective priority
setting . Many people spend long hours at work without knowing the effective time they
spend actually working . Set you priorities and arrange your time at the office according
to that .

5. Social Networking : It is recommended that women should integrate themselves into


various social network and high levels of social support, as this will greatly improve
their mental health outcomes.

6. Learn to say no : Whether it's a co-worker asking you to spearhead an extra project
or your child's teacher asking you to manage the class play, remember that it's OK to
respectfully say no. When you quit doing the things you do only out of guilt or a false
sense of obligation, you'll make more room in your life for the activities that are
meaningful to you and bring you joy.

7. Leave work at work : With the technology to connect to anyone at any time from
virtually anywhere, there may be no boundary between work and home - unless you
create it. Make a conscious decision to separate work time from personal time. When
you're with your family, for instance, turn off your cell phone and put away your laptop
computer .

8. Manage your time : Organize household tasks efficiently, such as running errands in
batches or doing a load of laundry every day, rather than saving it all for your day off.
Put family events on a weekly family calendar and keep a daily to-do list. Do what
needs to be done and let the rest go. Limit time-consuming misunderstandings by
communicating clearly and listening carefully. Take notes if necessary.

9. Bolster your support system : At work, join forces with co-workers who can cover
for you and vice versa when family conflicts arise. At home, enlist trusted friends
and loved ones to pitch in with child care or household responsibilities when you need
to work overtime or travel.

39
10. Nurture yourself : Eat healthy foods, include physical activity in your daily routine
and get enough sleep. Set aside time each day for an activity that you enjoy, such as
practicing yoga or reading. Better yet, discover activities you can do with your partner,
family or friends such as hiking, dancing or taking cooking classes

11. Seek help of Counselors : Everyone needs help from time to time. If your life feels
too chaotic to manage and you're spinning your wheels worrying about it, talk with a
professional such as a counselor or other mental health professional. If your
employer offers an employee assistance program (EAP), take advantage of available
services.

12.. Don't over book :This may seem unusual to people who try to crowbar as much as
possible into every workday. The problem is: Things rarely go according to a
prearranged agenda. That means a lot of time falling through the cracks chasing down
appointments, unreturned phone calls and other items that simply aren't going to
happen. Don't try to plan on doing too many things.. Assume that only 50% of the
things you plan on doing today will actually get done. If you don't, you'll just waste
valuable time trying to find out why things didn't happen.

13. Use of technology : Although personal habits and practices can do wonders for
time management, don't overlook technology as yet another weapon to make the most
effective use of your workday Sticky notes are one of the worst things in the world.
You should live by your database. That way, nothing is ever forgotten .

14. Organize : Bringing your time into line isn't just a matter of scheduling. The
mechanics of how you operate can be every bit as important. That means organizing
most every element to allow as smooth a workflow as possible. Everything in your
business should be set up using logical systems so anyone needing anything can find it
when they need it. Eliminating clutter and the chaos it causes will give you a gift time
of many hours every year.

40
15. Use the facilities available for WLB in organizations : WLB initiatives give
employees flexibility and help ensure that dependents are cared for whilst employees
are at work. Both work-to-family conflict and family-to-work conflict can be reduced
when employees use WLB initiatives but not all employees make use of the initiatives
that are available to them even when those initiatives would be helpful. Remember,
striking a healthy work-life balance isn't a one-shot deal. Creating work-life balance is a
continuous process as your family, interests and work life change. Periodically examine
your priorities and make changes, if necessary to make sure you're keeping on
track.
5.9.2 SUGGESTIONS TO THE ORGANIZATION :
1. Integration : Integrating work life balance issues into the organizations
management development program is advisable if not essential One size does not fit
all, the process of introducing, operating and implementing work life balance has to suit
the organization. Collaborative approach between management and Trade Unions
assists with the process of introducing new initiatives. Embed the WLB agenda into the
HR strategy.
2. Offer Flexibility :

Work Life Balance initiatives can assist employers and

employees to be productive and healthy in their work and community lives.


Organizations can give employees greater flexibility in how they work .
3. Childcare Centers at workplaces : A further recommendation is to establish
nurseries and child activity centers at workplaces, which would offer timetables adapted
to workers needs, along with high-quality services and competitive prices. it is
envisaged that such services would offer an important source of assistance to working
parents.
4. Women-friendly workplace : Organizations need to develop policies that create a
women-friendly workplace environment. Removing core hours and implementing selfroistering demonstrating trust. Assisting managers to manage remote workers by
agreeing targets and deadlines . Promoting core team meetings where time off is
negotiated and agreed between all staff .

41
5. Parental Leave : As regards parental leave, it is proposed to increase the duration of
leave from the 13 weeks to which working mothers or fathers are currently entitled to
13 months each. Another suggestion is to pay beneficiaries parental leave benefits equal
to unemployment benefits, since at present parental leave is granted without pay and
this acts as a disincentive to those entitled to such arrangements.
6. Training Programs : Employers need to establish training programs for women,
such as mentorships, career guidance and leadership development. Train Managers
and staff in the use of WLB policies
7. Promote awareness : Promote awareness initiatives that highlight the value of
female employees . Early buy in by senior management to the strategic benefits of
work-life balance is essential, as is a willingness to take risks by senior members of the
organization .
8. Women participation in strategy making : Elicit input from women employees
regarding policies, promotion and performance review processes. Involve staff at all
levels of discussions and encourage ownership. Organizations need to ensure that
policies are sustainable. The involvement of staff is the key to the success of any policy.
A good place to start is to find out what problems staff have with their current working
arrangements and ask what options would help staff balance work and home lives.
9. Commitment during hiring : Organizations should have a true commitment to hire
and promote women and include women in the annual business strategy. Avoid as far
possible the long hours of work for employees : Long hours are not just potentially
damaging to the individual employee but also to the company itself. Companies need to
understand that long hours may lead to lower motivation, morale, turnover and
productivity of employees and reputation in the labor market. There has long been a
recognition that happy employees are more productive and less likely to leave.
However, the reality is that there is often an assumption amongst some employers that
simply getting staff to work longer hours will increase their work output

42

5.10 LIMITATIONS & FUTURE SCOPE :


The undertaken research is only related to work life balance issues of women
employees employed in service sector only . It excludes the women who are employees
in other sectors viz Manufacturing or agricultural sector . It excludes the male
employed population .The survey excludes the unemployed and the self-employed, so
the level of imbalance in the population as a whole may vary . The study is with
reference to Women employees in Chennai City only .There is future scope for doing a
research on wider basis viz for whole state of Tamilnadu or India or on international
basis .

Future research must focus on a wider sample in order to get more generalized results.
Moreover, it must be directed at understanding individual differences so that employee
specific initiatives to improve work life balance could be initiated by organizations. The
size of the sample used to determine the dimensions of the scale was small. As a result,
the stability of the results is uncertain.

5.11 CONCLUSIONS :

The results of this research indicate that a large proportion of people lack
awareness of worklife balance issues and the laws governing them. The respondents
answers show that both the state and employers are in a position to enhance worklife
balance by providing benefits and proper information in this regard. The researcher
recommend that the proposals to be put forth for debate and intervention by organized
groups, especially by the social partners, for the creation of a targeted policy aiming to
strengthen worklife balance.

There was a time when the boundaries between work and home were fairly clear.
Today, however, work is likely to invade personal life and maintaining work-life
balance is no simple task. Still, work-life balance isn't out of reach. Start by evaluating
your relationship to work. Then apply specific strategies as mentioned above to help
you strike a healthier balance.

43
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 - QUESTIONNAIRE USED FOR THE STUDY

Work-Life balance among Working Women


Dear employees,
I am Jasmine Sheela C; doing MBA (HRM) final year in Anna
University, Centre for Distance education. As a part of curriculum we have to submit
a project. A study on Work -life balance among Women employees in Service
Sector of Chennai city is my project title and to enhance the value of my project I
would kindly request you fill this questionnaire given to you.
QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Name of the employee: ________________
2. Age:
a) Below 25 years [ ]

b) from 25 to 35 years [ ]

c) 35-45 years [ ]

d) above 45 years [ ]

3. Sex:
a) Male

[ ]

b) Female

[ ]

4. Educational Qualification:
a) Diploma [ ] b) Undergraduate [ ] c) Postgraduate [ ] d) others [ ]
5. Marital Status:
a) Married [ ]

b) Unmarried [ ]

c) Divorced [ ]

6. What industry does your company belong to:


a) Advertising [ ]

d) Travel & tourism [ ]

b) Banking or Finance service [ ]

e) Hospitality industry [ ]

c) Education [ ]

f) IT & ITES(BPO) [ ]

g) Others [ ]
7. Your work experience:
a) < 1 year [ ]

b) 1year-5years [ ]

c) 5 years -10 years [ ]

d) >10 years [ ]

8. Your income level:


a) 10,000 -15,000 [ ]

b) 15,000-20,000 [ ]

c) 20,000-25,000 [ ]

d) > 25,000 [ ]

44
9. Family Type :
a) Joint family [ ]

b) Nuclear family [ ]

10. For which of the following reason you have picked up the job:
Reasons

Tick any one

To be independent.
Career orientation
Use of educational qualification
To overcome boredom at home.
To take care of dependents.
To meet your past, present and
future financial requirements.
11. I work for long hours or overtime and even on holidays.
Always

Most of the time

About half the time

Once in a while

Never

12. I do balance my work and personal life ?


Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly Disagree

13. Does your organization take any of the following initiatives to manage worklife balance of its employees?
Initiatives taken by
Organization
i. Provide flexible Work
timings
ii. Provide leaves to manage
work life
iii. Provide job share option
iv. Allow work from home
v. Provide child care
provision or assistance
vi. Provide health care
benefits and social policy
for its employees

Strongly
agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

45
14. Does the following factors at work place cause any challenges to your work-life
balance?
Factors

Strongly
agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

i. Long working
hours
ii. Lack of team work
iii. Lack of
communication
iv. Time consuming
formalities in work
v. Work on holidays
vi. Travelling distance
from home to work
vii. Negative attitude of
supervisors
viii. Relationship with
peers
ix. Disapproval of
leaves for urgent
personal work.
15. Do you feel any of the following problems due to work pressure ?

Problems
i.

Physical health

ii.

Emotional

iii.

Psychological or
Depression
Negative impact on
marital relation
Lack of parental
responsibility
Unable to spend quality
time with family and
friends.
Unable to do household
work.

iv.
v.
vi.

vii.

To a great
extent

To some
extent

Not at all

46
16. Rank the following from1- 6 ( 1 being the highest priority and 6 being the
least) according to your importance in balancing work life:

Factors

Rank

More Flexible hours


Work from home
Time off during school holidays
Time off during emergencies & events
Support from family members
Support from supervisor/colleagues
17. Do you agree with the following benefits of work life balance policies for
employees provided by your organization:
Benefits
i.

Reduced stress levels

ii.
iii.

Control over time


management
Increased focus

iv.

Increased job security

v.

Reduction in the impact of


work on home and family life
Decreased health care cost.

vi.

Strongly
Agree

Agree

18.Tick the factor that motivate you to work:

Personal Satisfaction

Financial Independence [ ]

Support from Family

Constructive Utilization of Time [ ]

Any other : Specify :

[ ]

[ ]

------------------------

Neutral

Disagree

Strongly
Disagree

47
19. Do you follow any of the following practices to manage professional and
personal life.
Practices
i.

Time Management

ii.

Use of personal vehicle for


commuting
Advance and proper
planning
Participating in social
networking

iii.
iv.

To great
extent

To some extent

Not at all

20. List out other practices apart from above, that you follow to balance work and
family.

21. Your suggestion on what could Organizations do to help you balance your
work and family life?

22. FEEDBACK:

Thank you for completing the survey!!!

48

BIBLIOGRAPHY

I.BOOKS :
a)

A.N.Agarwal ,"Indian Economy -Problems Of Development & Planning" ,34th


Edition , New Age International Publishers .

b)

Aditya Khanna (2005) ,Why Indian Firms are struggling with gender Diversity,
HRM Review , ICFAI Universtiy , September 2005.

c)

C.R.Kothari ,"Research Methodology-Methods and Techniques",2nd Edition ,


New Age International Publishers

d)

Jennifer Smith , Dianne Gardner (2007) , Factors Affecting Employee Use Of


Work Life Balance Initiatives , New Zealand Journal Of Psychology , March
2007 .

e)

Naresh Malhotra, "Marketing Research-An Applied Orientation" , 4th Edition ,


PHI Publication

II. JOURNAL :
a)

Hema Subramaniam (2008) , Work Life Balance ,The Hindu , Sunday, Jan 20,
2008IANS (2007 ) , Wednesday, 07 March 2007 .

b)

TNN ( 2009) , Julia's work life balance , Times Of India , Sep 21, 2009 Ujvala ,
Swati Smita (2004 ) , Tracing a Timeline for Work and Family Research in
India , Economic and Political Weekly , April 24 , 2004

c)

V.P.Michael , "Research Methodology in Management" , 5th Edition , Himalaya


Publication .

d)

Vikas Shrotiya ( 2009) , Balancing See Saw of Work and Life , ICFAI journal
of HRM Review , June 2009 ,Page:42-45

III. WEBSITE LINKS :


a)

http://www.indianmba.com/Occasional_Papers/OP183/op183.html

b)

www.citehr.com

c)

www.wikipedia.com

d)

http://humanresources.about.com/od/ glossary/g/balance.html

e)

http://www.siliconindia.com/shownews/Indian_women_overtake_men_in_emplo
yment-nid-35225-cid-TNI.htm

49
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Personal and work life of women Employees with reference to Bank sector
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50
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