Jung’s Heart: The Red Book in Perspective

David M. McDowell, MD

Stephen Martin

Sonu Shamdasani

The Jung Family

Finally Published
• Started in 1913 • Published in October 2009 • 9 1/2 pounds • Surprisingly brisk seller

Black books 2-5 (11/13-4/14) Handwritten draft (1914-15) Typed draft (1915) Corrected draft (1915-20) Caligraphic Volume (191530, 1959) Cary Bayne’s transcription (1924-25) Yale Manuscript Copy Edited Liber Primus (late 1950s)

Carl Jung
• Founder of Psychoanalysis • Physician • Respectable Family Man • World renowned psychiatrist

Carl Jung
• • • • • • • • Agent 488 Flying Saucers Personality Tests Eastern Philosophy proponent Integral to the founding of AA Womanizer Guru Media darling

Who is Carl Jung?

Family Background--Father
• Grandfather, Carl Gustav Jung was a respected physician • Grandfather was a Grandmaster of the Freemasons • Rumored (likely not true) to be the illegitimate son of Goethe • Carl’s Father was a clergyman

Family Background--Mother (Preiswerk)
• A long established Basil family • Contained many clergy • Grandfather was an early advocate of Zionism, with a strong interest in the occult • Until her marriage, Emilie was obligated to stand behind her father as he wrote his sermons (to block the devil)

Other Childhood influences
• Mother had a breakdown when Carl was three years old • Father lost his faith, but lacking other professional skills, continued on with his profession • The atmosphere at home was “unbreathable”

• The combination of medicine, theology, occultism influenced him for his entire life • Only child until 9 • Solitary and introspective (an outcast)

• He was an unpopular, aloof child • While he was bright, he was suspect. • Famous incident of the accusation of plagiarism

Fantasy Life

• Am I the boy on the stone, or am I the stone itself that the boy is sitting on?

Another recurrent dream involved a castle

• Isolated • Found comfort in books and thinkers • Influenced by (among others) Heraclitis, Kant, Shopenhauer, and Goethe

Personality #1
• Dutiful • “The child of his parents” • The outward person who went to school, and coped with life

Personality #2
• Older • Remote from the mundane world • Close to nature, dreams, and to God • Direct access to the mind of God (unlike his father

Crucial Dream
• He is walking in a dense fog at night. He is holding a small flickering flame which he is protecting against the elements, and is being followed by a dark and dangerous character. • “When I awoke” he says, “I realized at once that the figure was a spectre of the Brocken,” my own shadow of the swirling mists, brought into being by the little light I was carrying. I knew too, that this little light was my consciousness, the only light I have. My own understanding is the sole treasure I possess, and the greatest.

Death of his father
• Age 54 • Jung was 21 • “He died in time for you” His mother commented Darkly

Jung the traditional man

• He married Emma Rauchenbach

Jung the traditional man

• They lived in a handsome house

Jung the Family Man

• Had five children

Jung the Family Man

Choice of Psychiatry
• After dipping into Kraft-Ebbings Textbook of Psychiatry • “In a flash of illumination” “Alone the two currents of my interest could flow together and in a united stream dig their own bed. Here was the empirical field common to biological and spiritual facts, which I had everywhere sought and nowhere found. Here at last was the place where the collision of nature and spirit became reality.

Apprenticeships and early work
• • • • The Burgholzli Mental Hospital Eugen Bleuler Word association In The Psychology of Dementia Praecox (1907) he argues that although Schizophrenia is associated with a biological toxin, it can be understood as an inversion of the libido and psyche into the world of myth creation and fantasy.

Relationship with Freud
• • • • Freud was 50, Jung 32 when they met Intellectually infatuated with one another “Let me enjoy your friendship not as one between equals, but as that of father and son” First president of the International Psychoanalytic Association and Chief Editor of the first Psychoanalytic journal , the Jahrbuch

Break with Freud
• Break with Freud • Inevitable, but deeply painful (for both) • Based upon (at least on the surface) the growing independence of Jung’s thoughts, and Freud’s intolerance of dissent • The “Gesture of Kreuzlingen” was the final spark that lit the powder-keg

1913 the “annus horribilus”

• Break with Freud

1913 the “annus horribilus”
• Deep conflict with Emma over the role of Antonia Wolff “Tony”

1913 the “annus horribilus”

Tensions which would lead to World War I

In October [1913], while I was alone on a journey, I was suddenly seized by an overpowering vision: I saw a monstrous flood covering all the northern and lowlying lands between the North Sea and the Alps. When it came up to Switzerland I saw that the mountains grew higher and higher to protect our country. I realized that a frightful catastrophe was in progress. I saw the mighty yellow waves, the floating rubble of civilization, and the drowned bodies of uncounted thousands. Then the whole sea turned to blood. This vision last about one hour. I was perplexed and nauseated, and ashamed of my weakness.

The Crisis
• • • • The edge of madness He played in his garden like a child Head voices in his head Held conversations with imaginary figures • Believed his house to be filled with the spirits of the dead

Methods to deal with his psychological State
• Like Osysseus, Heracles, and Orpheus… • Jung embraced the darkness • He explored, and embraced the characters he found within his imagination

• “When I parted from Freud, I knew that I was plunging into the unknow. Beyond Freud, after all, I knew nothing; but I had taken the steps into darkness. When that happens, and then such dream comes, one feels it is an act of grace. • “It all began then; the later details are only supplements and clarifications of the material that burst forth from the unconscious, and at first swamped me. It was the prima materia for a lifetime’s work.”

The Red Book
• • • • • • Jounal Journey Heroic Tale Myth Dialogue Illustrated

The Red Book--highlights
• Travels to the land of the dead • Falls in love with a woman who later turns out to be his sister • Gets squeezed by a giant serpent • Eats the liver of a small child • Is criticized by the devil as being hateful

The Red Book

• Liber Primus • Liber Secundus • Scrutinies

Liber Primus
• It begins with Isaiah • The voice changes over time--and includes the protagonist and his soul. • The soul--his soul-takes him on a journey

• The Desert • Descent into Hell in the Future “climb down into your depths” • The spliting of the spirit • The murder of the hero • The conception of God

Mysterium. Encounter
• Elijah (the first old man) • His daughter Salome • Encounters with Peter with the triple Key--The Pope, Buddha, and a many armed bloody goddess • The black worm, serpent, snake etc. make appearances

Liber Primus
“The Mystery showed me in images what I should afterward live. I did not possess any of those boons that the mystery showed me, for I still had to earn all of them.”

Liber Secundus
• The second, and bulk of the action of the Red Book, comprising an elaborate mythical and fraught journey.

Liber Secundus
• Begins with an encounter with “The Red One” • He then encounters a woman “She is beautiful. A deep purity rests in her look.” • After that he encounters “One of the lowly” • After that an Anchorite (Ammonius)

Liber Secundus
• The remains of earlier temples. • Incantations • The opening of the egg • Hell is introduced

Nox Secunda
• Many dialogues • “I accepted the chaos, and on the following night, my soul approached me” • Followed by nox tertia and nox quarta • Elijah and other characters appear

The Magician
• Is first encountered in a small house in the forest. • He is old, but content • He is wise. • His name is Philemon

• The wise protector, and adviser • Roots in greek mythology • Goethe • Winged

• Begins with an amusing dialogue between the author and himself. • Philemon continues to give advice, and make observations. • Elijah returns

Through all of these journeys there is struggle, and acceptance, and reemergence. It is a journey through life.

• The Blue Shade appears • “I find you in the garden, beloved. The sins of the world have conferred beauty upon your countenance”

“I worked on this book for 16 years. My acquaintance with alchemy in 1930 took me away from it. The beginning of the end came in 1928 when Wilhelm sent me the text of “The Golden Flower”…To the superficial observer, it will appear like madness…It would also have developed into one, had I not been able to absorb the overpowering force of the original experiences…I knew nothing but to write them down in a “precious” and to paint the images that emerged through reliving it all…”

The Red Book as Jung’s Heart
• The germ of many of his contributions. • He in many ways became Philemon, and all the characters • A living embodiment of the adventures of the Red Book. • A towering character, and individual, who made one of the most lasting contributions of the twentieth century.