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You are on page 1of 11

June 6, 2016

Humberto Gonzlez-Corona

This work is protected under the Creative Commons, Attribution-NonCommercial-Noderivatives; CC BY-NC-ND.

The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms.

AttributionYou must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were

made. You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you

or your use.

NonCommercial You may not use the material for commercial purposes.

NoDerivatives If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you may not distribute the modified

material.

No additional restrictions You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict

others from doing anything the license permits.

DISCLAIMER: All research was done by the author himself with no assistance from individuals, government or

private entities. Assistance means financial, physical or otherwise. Results, conclusions and interpretations of results

are only the authors own opinion. This manuscript, shall not be interpreted, in whole or in part to be a warranty to

performing physical experiments based on, or derived from the authors opinion to attain outcomes consistent with

the authors opinions.

In mathematics there are concepts which are considered to be four-letter words. One of them is

finding real values to the square root of a negative number. The current accepted values for

1 are the imaginary roots i . Mathematicians abbreviate some steps condensing the

notation to a more compact way of interpreting the roots, but by the same token, it is rather

difficult to perceive concisely expressed notation in a different manner. Expanding the

compacted notation will yield an insight into broadening its usage to other areas of mathematics.

In this paper, standard notation used to solve for a positive number under the radical square will

be expanded into equivalent negative forms for the development of broader applicability to

equations containing negative numbers under the radical square.

First, we need to clarify a squaring process which has always been used in mathematics and

2

science but its notation has been overlooked. In standard notation squaring the number ( a )

2

yields a . The positive and negative terms are split up individually, then squared. This is

( 1 ) 2=0

into alternate equivalents and solve the equation.

Let

0 , then the typical equation. There is no need to declare as non-real. For this is

what we are setting out to prove in this paper. Equation (1) yields roots

= ,

with equivalents

1=

and

2=

2= .

Which can be further subdivided into

1a =+

1b = ,

and

2a = ,

2b =+ .

Observe that 1 2

negative to positive. A radical square always renders two sets of roots pointing in opposite

directions, 180 degrees, such as 1 and 2 .

When solving the original equation, the signs outside of the parenthesis are not included in the

squaring of the root. This new approach requires factoring a negative sign out through the radical

square or multiplying a negative sign through the radical sign. we can use the new hypothesis to

show that factoring the negative sign out of the radical square is possible without affecting the

integrity of the original answers.

Here roots will be written with our innovative notation. Equivalent expressions of the roots are

1a =+ =+ ( + + ) ,

1b = =+ ( + ) .

Solving equation (1) with 1a ,

2

+ ( + + ) =0

+

( ( + ) ] =0.

+

+ =0.

Now solving (1) with 1b ,

2

+ ( + ) =0

+

( (+ ) ] =0.

+

+ =0

Both roots check. So far there is nothing new in these computations. The non-zero root

1a =+ is equivalent to + + . The validity of an equivalent notation should yield the

same answer as the original notation. With this approach a positive sign under the radical square

is replaced by multiplying two negative signs,

.

1a =+

Factoring a negative sign out of the radical square reverses the polarity of the sign in front of the

radical. Then, we have

1a =( ) .

Signs under the radical play a passive role in the computation of the roots. Thus, the negative

sign outside of the parenthesis is part of the original plus sign under the radical, therefore it shall

not be included in the squaring computation.

Solving equation (1) with 1a

2

( ) =0

+()

()=0

+ =0.

The equivalent root checks. The same results can be achieved replacing 1b =

with its

equivalent notation

Solving equation (1) with 1b ,

1b =

2

( + ) =0

+

( () ] =0

( )=0

+ =0.

Both equivalent notations for the roots check without affecting the standard notation. This new

approach will be used to prove that the imaginary value i is a real number.

Prove by hypothesis that

=( + )

Let 0

Using standard notation, the typical equation

( 2 ) 2+ =0

contains inverse roots

=

+ 1= ;

+ 1 a=+ =( + ) ,

+ 1 b==( + + ) ,

and

2= ;

+ 2 a=( + )=+ ( + ) ,

+ 2 b=( )=+ ( + + ) .

2

( + ) + =0

( + )

+=0

2

( + + ) + =0

+=0

+=0

to their original equation. But, with our new approach

with

2 a2 b are no solutions

2

2= 2 = ;

( ) +=0

( ) ( ) +=0

+=0 .

It checks.

The notation above is consistent for positive and negative numbers under the radical squares.

These results guarantee that a negative sign can be factored out of a radical square without

violating any mathematical rules.

Second Proof

A simpler way of proving that the imaginary i is 1 , is by using the expression under the

v2

radical square in the Theory of Special Relativity formula, 1 c 2 . Setting this equation equal

to zero, we can set up two equivalent formulas and simultaneously compute their values and

solve for the dreaded i.

2

v

=0

c2

Moving the entire equation to the opposite side we obtain its equivalent form.

0=

v2

1

2

c

We have

0=0

2

( 3 ) 1 v 2 = v 2 1.

c c

Computing the square root on both sides

v2

v2

=

1.

2

2

c

c

Computing for v < c on the left the results will be positive. And on the right the results will be

imaginary but the absolute value

= i

Solving for i we get

1=i .

For v =0 we get

1=i

directly.

For v =c

we get

0= 0.

7

i=

i=1.

Therefore

1=1.

There is no other answer.

Simplifying equation (3)

v2 v2

1 2 = 2 1,

c c

2=2

1=

v2

,

c2

v2

,

c2

we get the original equation itself. The Theory of Special Relativity is directly related to the

Reflection Method approach.

Third Proof

A third method for factoring a negative sign out of the radial square is resequencing standard

notation when solving equation 2). To set a pattern, we will solve for equation 1) first.

2

=0

=

The observation here is that moving the

sign;

( )=0

8

1 a =0.

This implies that we can compute the radical square of two terms on the same side of the

equation without violating any mathematical rules,

2 =0

=0,

2 +=0

by getting the square root of each term on the left before moving over to the opposite side

of the equation.

2 +( )=0

=

The three proofs produce identical results.

We can use our new rules in solving logarithms to corroborate our claims that a negative sign can

be factor out of the radical square. We only need to see the behavior of expression which does

not have real solutions using standard notation.

Factoring a negative sign out of a radical square, and inverting its polarities is a true and valid

mathematical operation. The square root of a negative number is always a real value aiming at

180 degrees from the square root of its positive counterpart. They are a reflection of each other.

Therefore, the imaginary number i does not exist. It is actually the number 1 .

The discovery of the real value of the square root of a negative one will play a significant role in

our technological society. Every aspect dealing with electronics, computing, transportation,

telecommunications, space exploration, medical devices, aerospace engineering, mathematics

and science in general will be affected. The discovery of 1= 1 could be considered a

second Industrial Revolution.

This document can also be downloaded from the link below

http://pdfsr.com/pdf/imaginarynumber.pdf

9

Information on where to download, for free, the rest of my manuscripts will be posted on July 4,

2016 at my fundraising campaign site at www.crowdfunder.co.uk/superconductor. Please

support this life-changing project and pledge. I truly appreciate your support. Thank you.

WHO AM I?

I am a mathematics enthusiast. In my spare time, I do research in mathematics. By trial and

error, I have found answers to mathematical mysteries that are considered to be four-letter words

in science. One of them is a 3-letter formula describing High Temperature Superconductivity

(HTS). For purposes of credibility that I truly do have a simple 3-letter formula describing HTS,

I will publish free of charge eight manuscripts changing the status quo in mathematics and

physics. The titles and tentative sequence of releases are

1) The Imaginary Number i is Real. Using only basic algebra, I prove three different ways that

the square root of negative one is not i. It is actually a real number. Therefore, imaginary

numbers do not exist.

2) General Logarithms. I prove that log(-x)=log(x) without using the absolute symbol notation

including the solution to the negative base of a logarithm. I also solve and explain the meaning of

1=0. Its proof is included in The Reflection Method manuscript.

3) The Reflection Method. I introduce a new mathematical approach which explains nonsense or unbalanced answers such as 1=0 and 1=2. These unbalanced answers are more

prevalent on the unit circle and in sinusoidal waves.

4) Complex Equations. I show how to apply the new i-value in homogeneous linear secondorder equations without turning them into complex equations, for complex equations do not

exist. I introduce a new formula to find two distinct equations with identical roots aiming in

opposite directions. One equation has the imaginary roots, and the other one has real roots.

5) The Zero Concept. This manuscript is about pure mathematics. This concept explains the

origin of the structure of homogeneous linear second-order equations, and higher order, having

symbolic coefficients. One basic structure has the potential to become an infinite number of

unique equations.

6) Period and Frequency. I introduce an approach to find values for the period t in equations

such as ay+ by +cy = 0 and ay+by +cy = e2t. And explain the relationships between periods

and roots.

7) Relativity is Relative. I discovered an alternate way, The Principle of Motion, to explain

Special Relativity and General Relativity, where the speed of light is not a limiting factor. The

10

Principle of Motion proves that The Fundamental Energy Density of the Universe is 1 or 1 Joule

(J). And explains why subatomic particles disappear.

8) Perpetual Motion. Its just that, Perpetual Motion. After the release of the manuscript The

Imaginary Number i is Real, you should be able to figure out Perpetual Motion both

mathematically and graphically.

11

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