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June 6, 2016

Humberto Gonzlez-Corona
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DISCLAIMER: All research was done by the author himself with no assistance from individuals, government or
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In mathematics there are concepts which are considered to be four-letter words. One of them is
finding real values to the square root of a negative number. The current accepted values for
1 are the imaginary roots i . Mathematicians abbreviate some steps condensing the
notation to a more compact way of interpreting the roots, but by the same token, it is rather
difficult to perceive concisely expressed notation in a different manner. Expanding the
compacted notation will yield an insight into broadening its usage to other areas of mathematics.

In this paper, standard notation used to solve for a positive number under the radical square will
be expanded into equivalent negative forms for the development of broader applicability to
equations containing negative numbers under the radical square.
First, we need to clarify a squaring process which has always been used in mathematics and
science but its notation has been overlooked. In standard notation squaring the number ( a )
yields a . The positive and negative terms are split up individually, then squared. This is

incorrect. The correct answer is

a . This process helps us explain our new concept.

Expand the roots of equation

( 1 ) 2=0
into alternate equivalents and solve the equation.

0 , then the typical equation. There is no need to declare as non-real. For this is

what we are setting out to prove in this paper. Equation (1) yields roots
= ,
with equivalents
2= .
Which can be further subdivided into
1a =+
1b = ,
2a = ,
2b =+ .

Observe that 1 2

because 1 goes from positive to negative, and 2 goes from

negative to positive. A radical square always renders two sets of roots pointing in opposite
directions, 180 degrees, such as 1 and 2 .
When solving the original equation, the signs outside of the parenthesis are not included in the
squaring of the root. This new approach requires factoring a negative sign out through the radical
square or multiplying a negative sign through the radical sign. we can use the new hypothesis to
show that factoring the negative sign out of the radical square is possible without affecting the
integrity of the original answers.
Here roots will be written with our innovative notation. Equivalent expressions of the roots are
1a =+ =+ ( + + ) ,
1b = =+ ( + ) .
Solving equation (1) with 1a ,

+ ( + + ) =0

( ( + ) ] =0.

+ =0.
Now solving (1) with 1b ,

+ ( + ) =0

( (+ ) ] =0.

+ =0

Both roots check. So far there is nothing new in these computations. The non-zero root
1a =+ is equivalent to + + . The validity of an equivalent notation should yield the

same answer as the original notation. With this approach a positive sign under the radical square

is replaced by multiplying two negative signs,

1a =+
Factoring a negative sign out of the radical square reverses the polarity of the sign in front of the
radical. Then, we have
1a =( ) .
Signs under the radical play a passive role in the computation of the roots. Thus, the negative
sign outside of the parenthesis is part of the original plus sign under the radical, therefore it shall
not be included in the squaring computation.
Solving equation (1) with 1a

( ) =0



+ =0.
The equivalent root checks. The same results can be achieved replacing 1b =

with its

equivalent notation
Solving equation (1) with 1b ,

1b =

( + ) =0
( () ] =0

( )=0

+ =0.
Both equivalent notations for the roots check without affecting the standard notation. This new
approach will be used to prove that the imaginary value i is a real number.
Prove by hypothesis that

=( + )

Let 0
Using standard notation, the typical equation

( 2 ) 2+ =0
contains inverse roots

These results can be subdivided into

+ 1= ;

+ 1 a=+ =( + ) ,
+ 1 b==( + + ) ,
2= ;
+ 2 a=( + )=+ ( + ) ,
+ 2 b=( )=+ ( + + ) .

Solving the original equation with + 1 a=( + ) ,


( + ) + =0

( + )


Now, solving with + 1 b=( + + ) ,


( + + ) + =0


Both roots + 1 a and + 1 b are solutions to the equation. Roots

to their original equation. But, with our new approach

2 a2 b are no solutions

2 is a solution. Solving equation (2)

2= 2 = ;

( ) +=0
( ) ( ) +=0
+=0 .

It checks.
The notation above is consistent for positive and negative numbers under the radical squares.
These results guarantee that a negative sign can be factored out of a radical square without
violating any mathematical rules.
Second Proof

A simpler way of proving that the imaginary i is 1 , is by using the expression under the
radical square in the Theory of Special Relativity formula, 1 c 2 . Setting this equation equal
to zero, we can set up two equivalent formulas and simultaneously compute their values and
solve for the dreaded i.


Moving the entire equation to the opposite side we obtain its equivalent form.


We have

( 3 ) 1 v 2 = v 2 1.
c c
Computing the square root on both sides


Computing for v < c on the left the results will be positive. And on the right the results will be
imaginary but the absolute value

will be the same.

= i
Solving for i we get
1=i .

For v =0 we get

For v =c

we get

0= 0.

For v > c we get


There is no other answer.
Simplifying equation (3)
v2 v2
1 2 = 2 1,
c c




we get the original equation itself. The Theory of Special Relativity is directly related to the
Reflection Method approach.

Third Proof
A third method for factoring a negative sign out of the radial square is resequencing standard
notation when solving equation 2). To set a pattern, we will solve for equation 1) first.

The observation here is that moving the

to the opposite side will reacquire the negative

( )=0

1 a =0.
This implies that we can compute the radical square of two terms on the same side of the
equation without violating any mathematical rules,
2 =0

Factoring out the negative sign, we obtain


identical to 1a). The reverse approach can be applied to

2 +=0
by getting the square root of each term on the left before moving over to the opposite side
of the equation.
2 +( )=0
The three proofs produce identical results.
We can use our new rules in solving logarithms to corroborate our claims that a negative sign can
be factor out of the radical square. We only need to see the behavior of expression which does
not have real solutions using standard notation.
Factoring a negative sign out of a radical square, and inverting its polarities is a true and valid
mathematical operation. The square root of a negative number is always a real value aiming at
180 degrees from the square root of its positive counterpart. They are a reflection of each other.
Therefore, the imaginary number i does not exist. It is actually the number 1 .
The discovery of the real value of the square root of a negative one will play a significant role in
our technological society. Every aspect dealing with electronics, computing, transportation,
telecommunications, space exploration, medical devices, aerospace engineering, mathematics
and science in general will be affected. The discovery of 1= 1 could be considered a
second Industrial Revolution.
This document can also be downloaded from the link below

Information on where to download, for free, the rest of my manuscripts will be posted on July 4,
2016 at my fundraising campaign site at Please
support this life-changing project and pledge. I truly appreciate your support. Thank you.

I am a mathematics enthusiast. In my spare time, I do research in mathematics. By trial and
error, I have found answers to mathematical mysteries that are considered to be four-letter words
in science. One of them is a 3-letter formula describing High Temperature Superconductivity
(HTS). For purposes of credibility that I truly do have a simple 3-letter formula describing HTS,
I will publish free of charge eight manuscripts changing the status quo in mathematics and
physics. The titles and tentative sequence of releases are
1) The Imaginary Number i is Real. Using only basic algebra, I prove three different ways that
the square root of negative one is not i. It is actually a real number. Therefore, imaginary
numbers do not exist.
2) General Logarithms. I prove that log(-x)=log(x) without using the absolute symbol notation
including the solution to the negative base of a logarithm. I also solve and explain the meaning of
1=0. Its proof is included in The Reflection Method manuscript.
3) The Reflection Method. I introduce a new mathematical approach which explains nonsense or unbalanced answers such as 1=0 and 1=2. These unbalanced answers are more
prevalent on the unit circle and in sinusoidal waves.
4) Complex Equations. I show how to apply the new i-value in homogeneous linear secondorder equations without turning them into complex equations, for complex equations do not
exist. I introduce a new formula to find two distinct equations with identical roots aiming in
opposite directions. One equation has the imaginary roots, and the other one has real roots.
5) The Zero Concept. This manuscript is about pure mathematics. This concept explains the
origin of the structure of homogeneous linear second-order equations, and higher order, having
symbolic coefficients. One basic structure has the potential to become an infinite number of
unique equations.
6) Period and Frequency. I introduce an approach to find values for the period t in equations
such as ay+ by +cy = 0 and ay+by +cy = e2t. And explain the relationships between periods
and roots.
7) Relativity is Relative. I discovered an alternate way, The Principle of Motion, to explain
Special Relativity and General Relativity, where the speed of light is not a limiting factor. The

Principle of Motion proves that The Fundamental Energy Density of the Universe is 1 or 1 Joule
(J). And explains why subatomic particles disappear.
8) Perpetual Motion. Its just that, Perpetual Motion. After the release of the manuscript The
Imaginary Number i is Real, you should be able to figure out Perpetual Motion both
mathematically and graphically.