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VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

REVITALISATION PROJECT-PHASE II

NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN

CIVIL ENGINEERING TECHNOLOGY

COURSE CODE: CEC 206

YEAR II- SE MESTER IV

THEORY

Version 1: December 2008`

TABLE OF CONTENTS

WEEK 1

1.2 DURABILITY

1.4 SPECIFICATION OF MATERIALS

WEEK 2

WEEK 3

2.0

PRACTICE

2.1

3.1

3.2

3.3

WEEK 4

AND LIMIT STATE DESIGN

PARTIAL FACTORS OF SAFETY

LOADS

ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE

4.2. DESIGN EQUATIONS FOR BENDING

4.3 DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS

WEEK 5

(CONTINUED)

WEEK 6

`

WEEK 7

(CONTINUED)

(CONTINUED)

11.4 STEEL SECTIONS

WEEK 12 12.0

12.4

CONNECTIONS

13.2 CONNECTIONS FAILURE

WEEK 14 14.0 CONNECTIONS FAILURE (CONTINUED)

14.2 DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS

WEEK 15 15.0 DESIGN OF CONNECTIONS `( CONTINUED)

`

15.2 HIGH STRENGTH FRICTION GRIP BOLTS

WEEK- ONE ( 1 )

INTRODUCTION

1.1 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN

Reinforced concrete is a combination of two dissimilar but complementary materials, namely

concrete and steel. Concrete has considerable crushing strength is durable has good tensile

properties, poor resistance to fire (due to rapid loss of strength under high temperature) and very

good both in shear and in compression. Thus, a combination of these materials results in good

tensile and compressive strength durability and good resistance to fire and shear. Concrete on its

own is a composite material of cement, sand, coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stone) and

water. Its good workability allows it to be easily used in many shapes ranging from bulky dam

wall to very thin shell roof.

When a simply supported member is loaded, it bends and the bottom is subjected to tension and

the top to compression. In the case of a cantilever member, the tension is at the top and the

compression at the bottom. Since steel is good in tension, the member is reinforced with steel at

the lower part (tension) while the top part (compression) is taken care of by the concrete. Such a

member is called a reinforced concrete member. In addition, since steel is good both in tension

and compression a member subjected to direct compression can be borne by both concrete and

steel. Typical examples of the former are slabs and beams while that of the latter is column. The

method of combining these materials (concrete and steel) in the most economical way on one

hand and safety on the other hand is referred to as reinforced concrete design.

1.2 Durability

Concrete structures, properly designed and constructed, are long lasting and should require little

maintenance. The durability of the concrete is influenced by

1. the exposure conditions;

2. the cement type;

3. the concrete quality;

4. the cover to the reinforcement;

5. the width of any cracks.

Concrete can be exposed to a wide range of conditions such as the soil, sea water, de-icing salts,

stored chemicals or the atmosphere. The severity of the exposure governs the type of concrete

mix required and the minimum cover to the reinforcing steel. Whatever the

exposure, the concrete mix should be made from impervious and chemically inert aggregates. A

dense, well-compacted concrete with a low water cement ratio is all important and for some

soil conditions it is advisable to use a sulfate resisting cement. Air entrainment is usually

specified where it is necessary to cater for repeated freezing and thawing.

Adequate cover is essential to prevent corrosive agents reaching the reinforcement through

cracks and pervious concrete. The thickness of cover required depends on the severity of the

exposure and the quality of the concrete. The cover is also necessary to protect the reinforcement

against a rapid rise in temperature and subsequent loss of strength during a fire. Part 1.2

of EC2 provides guidance on this and other aspects of fire design. Durability requirements

with related design

A reinforced concrete design must satisfy the following functional objective:

*

Under the worst system of loading, the structure must be safe

*

Under the working load, the deformation of the structure must not impair the appearance,

durability and/or performance of the structure and

*

The structure must be economical, that is, the factor of safety should not be too large to

the extent that the cost of the structure becomes prohibited. With no additional major advantage

except for robustness.

These requirements call for good assessment of the intending loads, right

Choice of materials and sound workmanship. To ensure these, the various

Components forming the reinforced concrete and the concrete itself must pass

various tests as detailed in the controlling code of practice.

The determination of the size of the structural member and the amount of reinforcement required

to enable it withstand the forces or other effects to which it will be subjected is the object of

design or detailed design. Detailed design is, however, only one of the two main parts of

structural design, the other being the primary design. This is the initial planning or arranging of

the members so that the external forces or loads on the structure are transmitted to the foundation

in the most economical manner consistent with the purpose of the structure. This is bone out of

experience, from a study of existing structures and from comparison of alternative designs.

1.4.1 Concrete

The selection of the type of concrete is frequently governed by the strength required, which in

turn depends on the intensity of loading and the form and size of the structural members. For

example, in the lower columns of a multi-storey building a higher strength concrete may be

chosen in preference to greatly increasing the size of the column section with a resultant

loss in clear floor space.

The concrete strength is assessed by measuring the crushing strength of cubes or cylinders of

concrete made from the mix. These arc usually cured, and tested after 28 days according to

standard procedures. Concrete of a given strength is identified by its `class' - a.Class 25/30

concrete has a characteristic cylinder crushing strength (f ck) of 25 Nlmm2 and cube strength of

30 N/mm2'. Table 1.0 shows a list of commonly used classes and also the lowest class

normally appropriate for various types of construction.

Exposure conditions and durability can also affect the choice of the mix design and the class of

concrete. A structure subject to corrosive conditions in a chemical plant, for example, Would

require a denser and higher class of concrete than, say, the interior members of a school or

Office block. Although Class 42.5 Portland cement would be used in most structures, other

cement types can also be used to advantage. Blast-furnace or sulfate-resisting cement may be

used to resist chemical attack, low-heat cements in massive sections to reduce the heat of

hydration, or rapid-hardening cement when a high early strength is required. In some

circumstances it may be useful to replace some of the cement by materials such as Pulverised

Fuel Ash or Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag which have slowly developing cementitious

properties. These will reduce the heat of hydration and may also lead to a smaller pore structure

and increased durability. Generally, natural aggregates found locally are preferred; however,

manufactured lightweight material may be used when self-weight is important, or a special

dense aggregate when radiation shielding is required.

The concrete mix may either be classified as 'designed' or `designated'. A 'designed concrete'

is one where the strength class, cement type, and limits to composition, including watercement ratio and cement content, are specified. With a 'designated concrete' the producer must

provide a material to satisfy the designated strength class and consistence (workability) using

a particular aggregate size. 'Designated concretes' are identified as RC30 (for example) based

on cube strength up to RC50 according to the application involved. `Designed concretes'

are needed in situations where 'designated concretes' cannot be used on the basis of

durability requirements (e.g

Class

fck (N/mm2)

Normal lowest class for use as specified

C16/20

C20/25

C25/30

C28/35

C30/37

16

20

25

28

30

C32/40

C35/45

C40/50

C45/55

C50/60

C55/67

C60/75

C70/85

C80/95

C90/10S

32

35

40

45

50

55

60

70

80

90

Plain concrete

Reinforced concrete

Prestressed concrete/Reinforced concrete

subject to chlorides

Reinforced

concrete

in

fffffffffffofoundations

chloride-induced corrosion). Detailed requirements for mix specification and compliance are

given by BS EN206 `Concrete - Performance, Production, Placing and Compliance Criteria'

and BS8500 `Concrete - Complementary British Standard to BS EN206'

1.2.2 Reinforcing steel

Table 1.2 lists the characteristic design strengths of some of the more common types of

reinforcement currently used in the UK. Grade 500 (500N/mm2 characteristic strength) has

replaced Grade 250 and Grade 460 reinforcing steel throughout Europe. The nominal size

of a bar is the diameter of an equivalent circular area.

Grade 250 bars are hot-rolled mild-steel bars which usually have a smooth surface so that

the bond with the concrete is by adhesion only. This type of bar can be more readily bent, so

they have in the past been used where small radius bends are necessary, such as links in

narrow beams or columns, but plain bars are not now recognised in the European Union and

they are no longer available for general use in the UK.

High-yield bars are manufactured with a ribbed surface or in the form of a twisted square. Square

twisted bars have inferior bond characteristics and have been used in the past, although they are

now obsolete. Deformed bars have a mechanical bond with the concrete, thus enhancing

ultimate bond stress. The bending of high-yield bars through a small radius is liable to cause

tension cracking of the steel, and to avoid this the radius of the bend should not be less than two

times the nominal bar size for small bars (<16 mm) or 31/2 times for larger bars. The

ductility of reinforcing steel is also classified for design purposes. Ribbed high yield bars may be

classified as:

Class A - which is normally associated with small diameter (< 12 mm) cold-worked bars used in

mesh and fabric. This is the lowest ductility category and will include limits on moment

redistribution which can be applied and higher quantities for fire resistance.

Class B - which is most commonly used for reinforcing bars.

Class C - high ductility which may be used in earthquake design or similar situations.

Floor slabs, walls, shells and roads may be reinforced with a welded fabric of reinforcement,

supplied in rolls and having a square or rectangular mesh. This can give large economies in

the detailing of the reinforcement and also in site labour costs of handling and fixing.

Prefabricated reinforcement bar assemblies are also becoming increasingly popular for similar

reasons. Welded fabric mesh made of ribbed wire greater than 6 mm diameter may be of any of

the ductility classes listed above.

Designation

Normal sizes (mm)

(BS4449)

All sizes

Specified characteristic

strength fyk (N/mrr 2)

500

Up to and including 12

500

(BS4449)

Reinforcing bars in a member should either be straight or bent to standard shapes. These

shapes must be fully dimensioned and listed in a schedule of the reinforcement which is used on

site for the bending and fixing of the bars. Standard bar shapes and a method of scheduling

are specified in BS8666.

WEEK 2

2.0 EVOLUTION AND APPLICATION OF CODES OF PRACTICE

BS 8110 has been prepared under the direction of the Civil Engineering and Building structures

standards Committee. Together with BS 8110:

Part 2 it supersedes CP 110: Part 1 : 1972, which is withdrawn.

This code covers the fields of CP 110 and encompasses the structural use of reinforced and

prestressed concrete both cast in situ and precast. Although there are no major changes in

principle from the previous edition, the text has largely been rewritten with alterations in the

order and arrangement of topics. The redrafting and alterations have been made in the light of

experience of the practical convenience in using CP 110 they have also been made to meet the

criticism of engineers preferring the form of CP 114. in this respect sections two to five have

been rewritten with shorter clauses, avoiding as much as possible lengthy paragraphs dealing

with matters that could be broken down into separate sub clauses, to make specific references

easier to identify.

Consideration had been given to including the load factor method which had been introduced

into CP114 in 1957.

The basic approach to design for safety in all codes is the following. A level of loading is

assessed that leads to the worst conditions in the structure which can reasonably be expected to

occur in practice. This is commonly referred to as working or service load stresses. A

substantial margin of strength is required between this working condition and the strength of

structure which the designer aims to provide. This margin is necessary to take account of

uncertainties in the loading, the strength of the materials, the construction process and in, the

current state of knowledge of structural behaviour. It is in the way in which this margin is

provided that the elastic, ultimate load and limit state methods of design differ. The elastic (or

permissible stress) approach aims at ensuring that the working stresses do not exceed a set of

defined permissible stresses which are obtained by reducing the material strengths by a safety

factor and it aims to ensure that the strength of the structure, calculated using the expected actual

materials strengths, is sufficient to support this ultimate loading.

It might appear that these two approaches are, in effect, identical but, in fact, this is only strictly

so for materials that are fully elastic up to failure. Nevertheless, by appropriate choice of

coefficients in the various design equations, the two methods can be made to give very similar

results for most common types of structure. In drafting CP 114: 1957 it was felt that if the two

methods were to be expressly permitted in one document then the strict interpretation of load

factor theory would have to be modified in order to avoid the confusion of having different

design loads and stresses specified for the elastic method with the difference that the plastic

stress strain relations were to be assumed in place of Hookes law. This has led ever since to a

confusion in the minds of designers as to what their calculations were actually predicting.

The limit state method of designs introduced in CP 110 in 1972, develops the logic of load factor

design rather further, instead of allowance for all the uncertainties being compiled together into a

single, global, safety factor, a set of partial safety factors are defined, one for each material and

type of load. The relative values of these reflect an assessment of the relative uncertainty

associated with the various loads and materials strengths. As well as treating uncertainty more

logically, the partial safety factor approach when used for structures subjected simultaneously to

different types of loading (for example, vertical load and wind load) where a critical design

condition arises when one loading is at its maximum value and the other at its minimum value.

The global factor approach automatically increases both the maximum and the minimum load

giving a less critical condition than if only the maximum load is increased.

2.1.1 SLAB

SLAB: A slab is the horizontal member of a reinforced concrete building supporting the various

load above such as partition walls and other dead loads and live loads e.g furniture equipment

and machines

A slab is generally similar to beam except that

A width of 1.0m is assumed as its width maxing the design simpler

The section is mostly rectangular

Shear is generally not considered unless where a concentrated loads or line loads predominate

and the slab exceeds 200mm in thickness and

The design is based on singly reinforced section and when otherwise the section is increased. It

is rare to design slab subjected to compression reinforcement.

Various types includes

Solid Slab (cantilever, singly supported, continuous and two ways)

With no in-fill blocks

Waffle

(b)

(made of clay)

flat slab

without

drop panel

or column

head

With

column

2.1.2 BEAMS

head but no

drop paned

Beams: Are horizontal members of a building frame receiving loads

transmitting same through the columns to the foundations.

With drop

panel and

column

head

from the slab and

T and L-Beams

1.

T- Section the lesser of the actual flange width or the width of the web plus one- fifth of

the distance between zero moments.

L- Section:- The lesser of the actual flange width or the width of the web plus one tenth

of the distance between zero moments

As a simple rule, the distance between the points of zero moments may be taken as 0.7

times the effective span of a continuous beam.

Bf

bf

X X

bw

T-BEAM

bw

L-BEAM

2.1.3 COLUMNS

Column:

Is a vertical load bearing member with the ratio of its lateral dimension less or

equal to 4:1. That is, the greatest lateral dimension is not more than four times its least lateral

dimension. When this is violated, the column is said to be a wall.

h

b

otherwise : column

Braced column: Where the lateral loads are resisted by walls or some other forms of bracing.

Unbraced column: Where the lateral loads are resisted by the bending action of the columns.

2.1.4 Foundations

A building consist of

Super structure

Sub Structure which forms the foundations below ground

The foundations transfer and spread the loads from a structures columns and walls into the

ground.

Various types of foundations include

Strip foundation

Pad foundation

Raft foundation

Pile foundation

WEEK 3

3.1 CONCEPTS OF ELASTIC THEORY, LOAD FACTOR AND LIMIT

STATE DESIGN

..........................................

................................

Limit state design of an engineering structure must ensure that (1) under the worst loadings the

structure is safe, and (2) during normal working conditions the deformation of the

members does not detract from the appearance, durability or performance of the structure.

Despite the difficulty in assessing the precise loading and variations in the strength of the

concrete and steel, these requirements have to be met. Three basic methods using factors of

safety to achieve safe, workable structures have been developed over many years; they are

1. The permissible stress method in which ultimate strengths of the materials are divided by

a factor of safety to provide design stresses which are usually within the elastic range.

2. The load factor method in which the working loads are multiplied by a factor of safety.

3. The limit state method which multiplies the working loads by partial factors of safety and

also divides the materials' ultimate strengths by further partial factors of safety.

The permissible stress method has proved to be a simple and useful method but it does have

some serious inconsistencies and is generally no longer in use. Because it is based on an elastic

stress distribution, it is not really applicable to a semi-plastic material such as concrete,

nor is it suitable when the deformations are not proportional to the load, as in slender

columns. It has also been found to be unsafe when dealing with the stability of structures

subject to overturning forces (see example 3.1)

3.1.2 LOAD FACTOR METHOD

In the load factor method the ultimate strength of the materials should be used in the

calculations. As this method does not apply factors of safety to the material stresses, it cannot

directly take account of the variability of the materials, and also it cannot be used to calculate

the deflections or cracking at working loads. Again, this is a design method that has now

been effectively superseded by modern limit state design methods.

The limit state method of design, now widely adopted across Europe and many other parts of the

world, overcomes many of the disadvantages of the previous two methods. It does so by

applying partial factors of safety, both to the loads and to the material strengths, and the

magnitude of the factors may be varied so that they may be used either with the plastic

conditions in the ultimate state or with the more elastic stress range at working loads. This

flexibility is particularly important if full benefits are to be obtained from development of

improved concrete and steel properties.

The purpose of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that a structure will not become unfit

for its intended use - that is, that it will not reach a limit state. Thus, any way in which a structure

may cease to be fit for use will constitute a limit state and the design aim is to avoid any such

condition being reached during the expected life of the structure.

The two principal types of limit state are the ultimate limit state and the serviceability limit state.

(a) Ultimate limit state

This requires that the structure must be able to withstand, with an adequate factor of safety

against collapse, the loads for which it is designed to ensure the safety of the building occupants

and/or the safety of the structure itself. The possibility of buckling or overturning must also be

taken into account, as must the possibility of accidental damage as caused, for example, by an

internal explosion.

(b) Serviceability limit states

Generally the most important serviceability limit states are:

1. Deflection - the appearance or efficiency of any part of the structure must not be adversely

affected by deflections nor should the comfort of the building users be adversely affected.

2. Cracking - local damage due to cracking and spalling must not affect the appearance,

efficiency or durability of the structure.

3. Durability - this must be considered in terms of the proposed life of the structure and its

conditions of exposure.

Other limit states that may be reached include:

4. Excessive vibration - which may cause discomfort or alarm as well as damage.

5. Fatigue - must be considered if cyclic loading is likely.

6. Fire resistance - this must be considered in terms of resistance to collapse, flame penetration

and heat transfer.

7. Special circumstances - any special requirements of the structure which are not covered by any

of the more common limit states, such as earthquake resistance, must be taken into account.

The relative importance of each limit state will vary according to the nature of the structure. The

usual procedure is to decide which is the crucial limit state for a particular structure and base

the design on this, although durability and fire resistance requirements may well influence initial

member sizing and concrete class selection. Checks must also be made to ensure that all other

relevant limit states are satisfied by the results produced. Except in special cases, such as waterretaining structures, the ultimate limit state is generally critical for reinforced concrete although

subsequent serviceability checks may affect some of the details of the design. Prestressed

concrete design, however, is generally based on serviceability conditions with checks on the

ultimate limit state.

In assessing a particular limit state for a structure it is necessary to consider all the possible

variable parameters such as the loads, material strengths and all constructional tolerances.

3.2

Other possible variations such as constructional tolerances are allowed for by partial factors of

safety applied to the strength of the materials and to the actions. It should theoretically be

possible to derive values for these from a mathematical assessment of the probability of reaching

each limit state. Lack of adequate data, however, makes this unrealistic and, in practice, the

values adopted are based on experience and simplified calculations.

The following factors are considered when selecting a suitable value for 7m:

1.

The strength of the material in an actual member. This strength will differ from that

measured in a carefully prepared test specimen and it is particularly true for concrete

where placing, compaction and curing are so important to the strength. Steel, on the other

hand, is a relatively consistent material requiring a small partial factor of safety.

2. The severity of the limit state being considered. Thus, higher values are taken for

the ultimate limit state than for the serviceability limit state.

Recommended values for are given in table 3.1 The values in the first two columns should be

used when the structure is being designed transient design situations (temporary

Limit state

Persistent and transient

Ultimate

Flexure

Shear

Bond

Serviceability

Accidental

Concrete

Reinforcing and

Prestressing Steel

Concrete

1.50

1.15

1.20

Reinforcing and

Prestressing Steel

1.00

1.50

1.50

1.00

1.15

1.15

1.00

1.20

1.20

1.00

1.00

situations such as may occur during construction). The values in the last two columns should be

used when the structure is being designed for exceptional accidental design situations such as

the effects of fire or explosion.

Partial factors of safety for actions (yf)

Errors and inaccuracies may be due to a number of causes:

1

design assumptions and inaccuracy of calculation;

2.

Possible unusual increases in the magnitude of the actions;

3. Unforeseen stress redistributions;

4. Constructional inaccuracies.

These cannot be ignored, and are taken into account by applying a partial factor of safety (7f) on

the characteristic actions, so that.

Design value of action = characteristic action x partial factor of safety (7f)

The value of this factor should also take into account the importance of the limit state under

consideration and reflects to some extent the accuracy with which different types of actions can

be predicted, and the probability of particular combinations of actions occurring. It should he

noted that design errors and constructional inaccuracies have similar effects and are thus sensibly

grouped together. These factors will account adequately for normal conditions although gross

errors in design or construction obviously cannot be catered for.

Recommended values of partial factors of safety are given in tables 3.2 and 3.3

according to the different categorizations of actions shown in the tables. Actions are categorised

as either permanent (C,;), such as the self-weight of the structure, or variable (Qk), such as

the temporary imposed loading arising from the traffic of people, wind and snow loading, and

the like. Variable actions are also categorised as leading (the predominant variable action on

the structure such as an imposed crowd load - Qk,, 1) and accompanying (secondary variable

action(s) such as the effect of wind loading, Qk, ;, where the subscript `i' indicates the i'th action

).

The terms favourable and unfavourable refer to the effect of the action(s) on the design

situation under consideration. For example, if a beam, continuous over several spans, is to be

designed for the largest sagging bending moment it will have to sustain any action that has the

effect of increasing the bending moment will be considered unfavourable whilst any action that

reduces the bending moment will be considered to be favourable

Table 3.3

Design Situation

Permanent actions

Variable actions

All

1.0

1.0

Example 3.1 shows how the partial safety factors at the ultimate limit state from tables 2.1 and

2.2 are used to design the cross-sectional area of a steel cable supporting permanent and

variable actions.

EXAMPLE 3.1

Simple design of a cable at the ultimate limit state

Determine the cross~-sectional area of steel required for a cable which supports a total

characteristic permanent action of 3.OkN and a characteristic variable action of 2.0 k

The characteristic yield stress of the 500 N/mm2. Carry out the calculation using limit state

design with the following factors of safety

G = 1.35 for the permanent action,

Q = 1.5 for the variable action, and

m = 1.15 for the steel strength.

Design value = G x permanent action + Q x variable action

= 1.35 x 3.0 + 1.5 x 2.0

= 7kN

Design stress = Characteristic yield stress/m

= 500

1.15

= 434N/mm2

Required cross-sectional area

= design value

design stress

= 7.05 x 103

434

=16.2mm2

For convenience, the partial factors of safety in the example are the same as those recommended

in EC2. Probably, in a practical design, higher factors of safety would be preferred for a single

supporting cable, in view of the consequences of a failure.

3.3

LOADS

Load is defined as anything that has the tendency of generating internal stress in a structure

which tends to deform the structure.

Load applied to building falls under the following types

Dead Load: Dead loads are loads due solely to the weight of the structure itself, and can

usually be estimated quite accurately.

Live Load: This are sometimes referred to as imposed loads. Live load of a building is

the sum of all other loads on the structure which may arise from a wide variety of sources

such as: occupants and furniture. This type of load can only be estimated as they vary

from time to time during the normal working condition of the building.

Static and Dynamic Load: Static load are loads that are expected to remain

constant during their life span, where as dynamic loads are loads that varies

significantly over a relative short time, so that the response of the structure to the

loading is affected by resonance.

Direct Load and Indirect Loads: Direct loads are external loads applied to the

structure such as loads of occupants and furniture, where as Indirect loads are

loads on a structure due to loads due to loads not directly applied such as

expansion and contraction due to variation in temperature.

load assumed to act at a point where as Distributed load is distributed over the

surface of the member per unit length per unit area. If the value of the distributed

load is constant over the length or are in which it acts it is termed as uniformly

distributed load (UDL).

WEEK 4

4.0 Load combinations and patterns for the ultimate limit state

Various combinations of the characteristic values of permanent Gk, variable actions Qk, wind

actions Wk, and their partial factors of safety must be considered for the loading of the

structure. For the ultimate Limit state the following loading combinations are commonly

used.

1. Permanent and variable actions

1.35Gk + I.SQk

2. Permanent and wind actions

1.35Gk + I.5 Wk

Bending of the section will induce a resultant tensile force Fs, in the reinforcing steel, and a

resultant compressive force in the concrete Fcc which acts through the cancroids of the effective

area of concrete in compression, as shown in figure 4.4.

Fig 4.4 singly reinforced rectangular section in bending at the ultimate limit state

For equilibrium, the ultimate design moment, M , must be balanced by the moment of resistance

of the section so that

M = f ccz = Fstz

Where z the lever arm between the resultant forces Fcc and Fst

Fcc

= stress x area of action

= 0.567fck x bs

And

z = d s/2

so that substituting in equation 4.5

M = 0.567fckbs x z

And replacing s from equation 4.6 gives

M = 1.134fckb (d z)z

Rearranging and substituting K = M/bd2fck:

(4.5)

(4.6)

(4.7)

Solving this quadratic equation:

z = d 0.5 +

(0.25 K/1.134)

(4.8)

In equation 4.5

Fst

= 0.87fykAs

Hence

As

M

0.870.87fykz

(4.9)*

Equations 4.8 and 4.9 can be used to design the area of tension reinforcement in a singly

reinforced concrete section to resist an ultimate moment, M.

The lower limit of z= 0.82d in the table occurs when the depth of the neutral axis equals 0.45d.

This is the maximum value allowed by EC2 for a singly reinforced section with concrete class less

than or equal to C50/60 in order to provide a ductile section that will have a gradual tension type

failure.

.............................................................................

Reinforced concrete beam design consists primarily of producing member details which will

adequately resist the ultimate bending moments, shear forces and torsional moments. At the

same time serviceability requirements must be considered to ensure that the member will

behave satisfactorily under working loads. It is difficult to separate these two criteria, hence

the design procedure consists of a series of interrelated steps and checks. These steps are shown in

detail in the flow chart in figure 4.5 but may'be condensed into three basic design stages:

1. preliminary analysis and member sizing;

2. detailed analysis and design of reinforcement;

3. serviceability calculations.

For the serviceability it is normal practice to make use of simple rules which are specified in the

Code of Practice and are quite adequate for most situations. Typical of these are the spaneffective depth ratios to ensure acceptable deflections, and the rules for maximum bar spacings,

maximum bar sizes and minimum quantities of reinforcement, which are to limit cracking.

Design' and detailing of the bending reinforcement must allow for factors such as anchorage

bond between the steel and concrete. The area of the tensile bending reinforcement also

affects the subsequent design of the shear and torsion reinforcement. Arrangement of

reinforcement is constrained both by the requirements of the codes of practice for concrete

structures and by practical considerations such as construction tolerances, clearance between

bars and available bar sizes and lengths.

4.4

The layout and size of members are very often controlled by architectural details, and clearances

for machinery and equipment. The engineer must either check that the beam sizes are

adequate to carry the loading, or alternatively, decide on sizes that are adequate. The

preliminary analysis need only provide the maximum moments and shears in order to

ascertain reasonable dimensions. Beam dimensions required are

1. cover to the reinforcement

2. breadth (b)

3. effective depth (d)

4. overall depth (h)

Adequate concrete cover is required to ensure adequate bond and to protect the

reinforcement from corrosion and damage. The necessary cover depends on the class of

concrete, the exposure of the beam, and the required fire resistance.. This cover may need to

be increased to meet the fire resistance requirements of the Code of Practice.

The strength of a beam is affected considerably more by its depth than its breadth. The

span-depth ratios usually vary between say 14 and 30 but for large spans the ratios can be

greater. A suitable breadth may be one-third to one-half of the depth; but it may be much less

for a deep beam. At other times wide shallow beams are used to conserve headroom. The beam

should not be too narrow; if it is much less than 200 mm wide there may be difficulty in

providing adequate side cover and space for the reinforcing bars.

Suitable dimensions for b and d can be decided by a few trial calculations as follows:

1.

For no compression reinforcement

K = M / bd2fck < Kbal

Where

Kbal = 0.167 for fck < C50

With compression reinforcement it can shown that

M / bd2 fck < 8/ fck

Approximately, if the area of bending reinforcement is not be excessive.

2.

The maximum design shear force VEd, max should not be greater than

VRd, max = 0.18bwd (1 fck /250) fck. To avoid congested shear reinforcement, VEd, max should

preferably be somewhat closer to half (or less) of the maximum allowed.

3.

The span-effective depth ration for spans not exceeding 7m should be within the basic

values given in table 6.10 or figure 6.3. For spans greater than 7m the basic ratios are multiplied

by 7/span.

4.

h = d + cover + t

where t = estimated distance from the outside of the link to the centre of the tension bars (see

figure 4.6). For example, with nominal sized 12 mm links and one layer of 32 mm tension

bars, t= 28, mm approximately. It will, in fact, be slightly larger than this with deformed

bars as they have a larger overall dimension than the nominal bar size.

WEEK 5

5.0 DESIGN OF REIFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS (CONTINUED)

A concrete lintel with an effective span of 4.0 m supports a 230 mm brick wall as shown in

figure 5.0. The loads on the lintel are Gk = 100 kN and Qk = 40 kN. Determine suitable

dimensions for the lintel if class C25/30 concrete is used.

Solution

The beam breadth b will match the wall thickness so that

b = 230 mm

allowing, say, 14kN for the weight of the beam, gives the ultimate load

F

= 1.35 x 114 + 1.5 x 40

= 214kN

Therefore maximum design shear force

VEd, = 107 kN

Assuming a triangular load distribution for the preliminary analysis, we have

M = F x span =( 214 x 4.0)/6

= 143kN m

For such a relatively minor beam the case with no compression steel should be considered.

K= M

< Kbal = 0.167

2

bd fck

Therefore

143 x 106 / 230 x d2 x 25 < 0.167

Rearranging d > 386 mm

Assume a concrete cover of 25 mm to the reinforcement steel. So for 10mm links and, say 32

mm bars

Over beam depth h = d + 25 + 10 + 32/2

= d + 51

Therefore make h = 525 mm as an integer number of brick courses. So that d = 525 51 = 474

mm

Maximum shear resistance is

VRd, max = 0.18bwd (1 fck / 250) fck

0.18 x 230 x 474 x (1 25/250) x 25 x 10-3

= 446kN > VEd, = 107kN

Basic span effective depth = 4000 /479= 8.35 < 20 (for a lightly stressed beam in C25)

concrete table 6.10

A beam size of 230 mm by 525 mm deep would be suitable.

Weight of beam = 0.23 x 0.525 x 4.0 x 25

= 12.1 KN

MOMENT REDISTRIBUTION

A beam section needs reinforcement only in the tensile zone when

K = M < Kbal = 0.167

bd2fck

The singly reinforced section considered is shown in fig below and it is subjected to a sagging

design moment M at the ultimate limit state. The design calculations for the longitudinal steel

can be summarized as follows:

1.

Check that K =

bd2fck

2.

Determine the lever-arm, z, from the curve of figure 7.5 or

from the equation z =

d ( 0.5 + (0.25 K/1.134)

3.

4.

5.

that is

As = M

0.87fykz

Select suitable bar sizes.

Check that the area of steel actually provided is within the limits required by the code,

100 As,mx < 4.0%

bh

and

100 As,mx < 26fctm % and not less than 0.13%

bh

fyk

where fctm = 0.3 x f2/3 for

ck fck < C5

redistribution

Example

The beam section shown in figure 5.2 has characteristic material strengths of fck = 25 N/mm2 for

the concrete and fyk = 500 N/mm2 for the steel. The design moment at the ultimate limit state is

165 kN m which causes sagging of the beam.

Solution

1.

K= M

bd2fck

165 x 106

= 0.12

230 x 4902 x 25

This is less than Kba1 = 0.167 therefore compression steel is not required.

2.

From the lever-arm curve of figure 7.5 Ia = 0.88, therefore lever arm z = Iad = 0.88 x 490

= 431 mm and

3.

As = M

= 165 x 106

= 880mm2

0.87fckz

0.87 x 500 x 431

4.

Provide three H20 bars, area = 943 mm2

5.

100As

bd

= 165 x 106

230 x 490

= 0.84 (>0.13%)

and

100As

= 100 x 943

= 0.75 (<4.0.%)

bh

230 x 550

therefore the steel percentage is within the limit specified by the code.

Example:

A roof beam spans 4.2m and is 450mm x 230mm in cross -section. A parapet wall of 1.5m

height is supported by the beam and also a lean-to roof of 4.0m width. If the ultimate total roof

load is 4.5kN/m2, estimate the load on the beam and design the beam for tension only. Assume

the beam to be simply supported with 20-250 concrete and weight of wall and finishes to be

3.47kN/m2.

Loading:

= 9.0kN/m

Beam own weight 0.23 x 0.45 x 24 x1.4

= 3.48

Beam finishes, say,

= 0.60

Wall and finishes 3.47 x 1.5 x 1.4

= 7.29

Total

=20.37kN/m, say, 20.5kN/m

Figure5.2b: Structure

Design ultimate moment, M = wl2/8 = 45.20kNm.

b = 230mm, h = 450mm, assuming a 20mm diameter bar, d = 450 25 10 10 = 405mm

Mu

= 0.156fcubd2 = 0.156 x 20 x 230 x 4052 = 117.70kNm

Since M < Mu, hence, design beam as singly reinforced.

45.20 10 6

z = 0.928 x 405 = 376mm

and x = (d-z)/0.45 = 64.44mm

la = 0.928

45.20 10 6

Provide 2 - R20mm bars (628mm2)

Provide 2 R12mm bars top as hanger bars.

Exercise:

1: Students to design Tee and Ell beams

Note that for continuous beams carrying slabs, the section at the support is designed as

rectangular while the mid-span section is designed as flanged (tee or ell).

2: Design the beam section shown in figure below has a characteristic material strengths of fck =

30N/mm2 for the concrete and fyk = 600 N/mm2 for the steel. The design moment at the ultimate

limit state is 180 kN m which causes sagging of the beam.

WEEK 6

Reinforced concrete slabs are used in floors, roofs and walls of buildings and as the deck of

bridges. The floor system of a structure can take many forms such as in situ solid slabs, ribbed

slabs or precast units. Slabs may span in one direction or in two directions and they may be

supported on monolithic concrete beams, steel beams, walls or directly by the structure's columns.

Continuous slabs should in principle be designed to withstand the most unfavorable

arrangements of loads, in the same manner as beams.

When a slab is supported on two edges (with the two free ends relatively short) it is referred to as

a one-way slab, i.e., it is transferring its forces in one direction. When a slab is supported

along more than two sides, and transfers the load in two directions, it is referred to as a

two-way slab.

BS 8110: Part 1, 1997, Section 3.5.2.3 recommends that although a slab should be designed

to withstand the most unfavorable arrangements of design loads, a single load case of

maximum design load will suffice provided the following conditions are met:

In one-way spanning slab, the area of each bay exceeds 30.0m2

The ratio of the characteristic imposed load to the characteristic dead load does not

exceed 1.25.

The moments in slabs spanning in two directions can also be determined using tabulated

coefficients. Slabs which are not rectangular in plan or which support an irregular loading

arrangement may be analysed by techniques such as the yield line method or the Hilleborg

strip method.

Concrete slabs are defined as members where the breadth is not less than 5 times the overall

depth and behave primarily as flexural members with the design similar to that for beams,

although in general it is somewhat simpler because:

I . the breadth of the slab is already fixed and a breadth Of 1m is used in the calculations;

2. the shear stresses are usually low in a slab except when there are heavy concentrated loads;

and

3. compression reinforcement is seldom required.

Span-effective depth ratios

Excessive deflections of slabs will cause damage to the ceiling, floor finishes or other

architectural finishes. To avoid this, limits are set on the span-depth ratio. These limits are

exactly the same as those for beams. As a slab is usually a slender member, the restrictions

on the span--depth ratio become more important and this can often control the depth of slab

required. In terms of the span-effective depth ratio, the depth of slab is given by

minimum effective depth = Span/ basic ratio x correction factors.

The correction factors account for slab type and support conditions as well as cases of spans

greater than 7 metres and for flat slabs greater than 8.5 metres. The basic ratio may also be

corrected to account for grades of steel other than Grade 500 and for when more

reinforcement is provided than that required for design at the ultimate limit state.

6.1

Reinforcement details

To resist cracking of the concrete, codes of practice specify details such as the minimum area of

reinforcement required in a section and limits to the maximum and minimum spacing of bars.

Some of these rules are as follows.

(a) Minimum areas of reinforcement

minimum area = 0.26fctmbtd/fyk > 0.0013btd

in both directions, where b is the mean width of the tensile zone of section. The minimum

reinforcement provision for crack control, as specified in the code of practice may also have to

be considered where the slab depth exceeds 200 mm. Secondary transverse reinforcement should

not be less than 20 per cent of the minimum main reinforcement requirement in one way slabs.

(b) Maximum areas of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement

maximum area = 0.04Ac

where A, is the gross cross-sectional area. This limit applies to sections away from areas of bar

lapping

(c) Maximum spacing of bars

For slabs not exceeding 200 mm thickness, bar spacing should not exceed three times the

overall depth of slab or 400 mm whichever is the lesser for main reinforcement, and 3.5h or

450 mm for secondary reinforcement. In areas of concentrated load or maximum moment,

these values are reduced to 2h 250 mm and 3h 400mm respectively.

(d) Curtailment and anchorage of reinforcement

At a simply supported end, at least half the span reinforcement should be anchored and at

unsupported edge U bars with leg length at least 2h should be provided, anchored by top and

bottom transverse bars.

The slabs are designed as if they consist of a series of beams of 1 m breadth. The main steel

is in the direction of the span and secondary or distribution steel is required in the transverse

direction. The main steel should form the outer layer of reinforcement to give it the maximum

lever arm.

The calculations for bending, reinforcement follow a similar procedure to that Used in beam

design. The lever arm curve is used to determine the lever arm (z) and the area of tension

reinforcement is then given by

As = M

0.87fykz

For solid slabs spanning one-way the simplified rules for curtailing bars as shown in figure 8.2

may be used provided that the loads are uniformly distributed. With a continuous slab it is also

necessary that the spans are approximately equal. These simplified rules are not given in EC2 but

are recommended on the basis of proven satisfactory performance established in previous codes

of practice.

8.4.1 Single-span solid slabs

The basic span-effective depth ratio for this type of slab is 20:1 on the basis that it is `lightly

stressed' and that grade 500 steel is used in the design. For a start -point in design a value

above this can usually be estimated (unless the slab is known to be heavily loaded) and

subsequently checked once the main tension reinforcement has been designed.

The effective span of the slab may be taken as the clear distance between the face of the supports

plus a distance at both ends taken as the lesser of (a) the

distance from the face of the support to its centreline and (b) one-half of the overall depth of the

slab

Continuous slab

Figure 6.0

Simplified rules for curtailment of bars in slab spanning in one direction

Design Procedure:

Before deriving the formulae, two terms have to be fully understood, namely:

Bending Moment, which is the moment produced by the external forces (applied loads) of

the structure.

Compressive stress MR

C, compressive

diagram

a stress

Under equilibrium conditions, T = C, and similarly, appliedT, tensile stress

bending moment, BM = Internal moment of resistance, MR

BM

Assess the dead load and imposed load and also obtain the design load by applying the

appropriate safety factors.

Calculate the imposed bending moment.

Estimate the effective depth, d, from: d = 0.5( ).

Calculate area of steel from: As =

0.95

2

0.55+(477 )

2.0

Example:

Given a simply supported slab spanning 3.5m and 0.15m thickness, design for the slab, and

given that finishes are 1.8kN/m2, imposed load is 2.5kN/m2 and partition is say, 2kN/m2. Design

the slab if fcu = 25N/mm2 and fy = 410N/mm2.

Solution:

Load estimation:

Self-weight of slab

0.15m x 24kN/m3

= 3.6kN/m2

Finishes

= 1.8kN/m2

Partitions

= 2.0kN/m2

Characteristic Dead load, gk

= 7.4kN/m2

Ultimate Design load (n) = 1.4gk + 1.6qk = 1.4 x 7.4 + 1.6 x 2.5 = 10.36 + 4 = 14.36kN/m2

Mid-span ultimate bending moment, Mu = wl2/8 = 14.36 x 3.52/8 = 22kNm.

Assuming diameter 10mm bar, d = 150 25(concrete cover) - 2 (half diameter of bar) = 125mm.

= 0.5 + (0.25 0.056/0.9)

= 0.94.

Z = lad = 0.94 x 125 = 117.5mm

22 10 6

Ast = 0.94

= 0.94 410 117.5 = 486mm2/m

Provide Y10 @ 150mm c/c (523mm2/m)

Provide Y10 @ 300mm c/c (261mm2) for distribution reinforcement.

Checking for deflection:

Basic span/Depth = 20 maximum.

Mu/bd2 = 22 x 106/1000 x 1252 = 1.41N/mm2

fs = 2 x fy x Ast required/3 x Ast provided = 2 x 410 x 486/3 x 523 254N/mm2

(477 )

Modification factor = 0.55 +

2.0

120(0.9+

Redesign the slab using h = 175mm.

Cracking:

3d = 3 x 131 = 393mm

Clear distance between bars is 150 (0.5 x 10 x 2) = 140mm

393mm> 140mm Cracking is okay.

Practical/Exercise

Given a simply supported slab spanning 4.5m and 0.15m thickness, design for the slab, and

given that finishes are 1.8kN/m2, imposed load is 2.5kN/m2 and partition is say, 2kN/m2. Design

the slab if fcu = 30N/mm2 and fy = 460N/mm2.

EXAMPLE

Design of a simply supported slab

The slab shown in figure below is to be designed to carry a variable load of 3.0 kN/m2 plus floor

finishes and ceiling loads of 1.0 kN/m`. The characteristic material strengths are fck= 25 N/mm`

and fyk =500n/mm2 Basic span--effective depth ratio = 19 for a lightly stressed slab from for

class C25/30 concrete and p= 0.5%.

For simplicity, take the effective span to be 4.5 m between centre lines of supports.

Solutions

(1) First design solution

Try a basic span-depth ratio of 27 (approx. 40% above value from figure 6.3)

Minimum effective depth

=

span

=

27 x correction factors (c.f.)

= 4500

= 167

27 x c.f.

c.f

As high yield steel is being used and the span is less than 7m the correction factors can be taken

as unity. Try an effective depth of 170mm, for a class XC 1 exposure the over = 25 mm.

Allowing, say, 5mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:

Overall depth of slab = 170 + 25 + 5 = 200mm

Slab loading

Self-weight of slab = 200 x 25 x 10-3 = 5.0kN/m2

total permanent load = 1.0 + 5.0 = 6.0kN/m2

for a 1m width of slab:

ultimate load = (1.35gk + 1.5qk) 4.5

= (1.35 x 6.0 + 1.5 x 3.0) 4.5 = 56.7kN

M = 56.7 x 4.5/8 = 31.9kN m

Bending reinforcement

M =

31.9 x 106__

bd2fck

100 x 1702 x 25

from the lever-arm curve of figure 4.5, la = 0.96. Therefore adopt upper limit of

0.95 and lever-arm z = lad = 0.95 x 170 = 161mm:

As = M =

0.87fykz

31.9 x 106__

0.87 x 500 x 161

1 = 100As,req =

100 x 455 = 0.268% (> 0.13% minimum requirement)

bd

1000 x 170

shear

at the face of the support

shear VEd = 55.5 2.25 0.5 x 0.3

2

2.25

1 =

= 25.9kN

1000 x 170

VRd,c = vEd,cbd where vRd,c from table 8.2 = 0.55 (note: no concrete strength)

Adjustment since 1 < 0.4%). Thus:

vRd,c = 0.55 x 1000 x 170 = 93.5kN

End anchorage (figure 7.26)

From the table of anchorage lengths in the Appendix the tension anchorage length = 40

= 0 x 10 = 400 mm.

Distribution steel

Provide minimum = 0.0013bd = 0.0013 x 1000 x 170 = 221 mm2/m

Provide H10 at 300 mm centres (262 mm2/m)

WEEK 7

7.1 DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS (continued)

7.2 Design of simply supported slab

(2) Alternative design Solution

The second part of this example illustrates how a smaller depth of a slab is adequate adequate

provided it is reinforced with steel in excess of that required for bending thus working at a lower

stress in service. Try a thickness of slab, h=170mm and d=140mm:

Self- weight of slab = 0.17 x 25 = 25 = 4.25kN/m2

Total permanent load = 1.0 + 4.25 = 5.25 kN/m2

Ultimate load = (1.35gk + 1.5qk)

Bending reinforcement

M = 52.1 x 4.5 = 29.3 knm

8

M =

31.9 x 106__

bd2fck

100 x 170 x 25

from the lever-arm curve of figure 4.5, la = 0.945 Therefore lever-arm z = lad = 0.945 x

140 = 132mm:

As = M =

0.87fykz

0.87 x 500 x 132

= 100As = 100 x 510 = 0.364%

bd

1000 x 140

from figure 6.3 this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio of 24.0

Actual

Span

Eff. depth

= 45000

140

32.1

Limiting

Span

= basic ratio x As,prov

Eff. depth

As,req

Hence:

As,prov = 785 = 1.54

As,req

510

Upper limit to correction factor (UK National Annex) = 1.5.

Hence allowable span = 24 x 1.5 = 36 which is greater than that provided

effective depth

Therefore d = 140 mm is adequate.

7.3 Continuous solid slab spanning in one direction

For a continuous slab, bottom reinforcement is required within the span and top reinforcement

over the supports. The effective span is the distance between the centreline of the supports and

the basic span-effective depth ratio of an interior span is 30.0 for `lightly stressed' where grade

500 steel and class C30/35 concrete are used. The corresponding limit for an end span is 26.0.

EXAMPLE

Design of a continuous solid slab

The four-span slab shown in figure 7.0 supports a variable load of 3.0 kNlm2 plus floor finishes

and a ceiling load of 1.0 kN/m2 . The characteristic material strengths are

Fck = 25 N/mm2 and fyk, = 500 N/mm2

Solution:

Estimate of slab depth

As the end span is more critical than the interior spans, try a basic span-effective depth ratio 30

per cent above the end-span limit of 26.0 (i.e. 33.0):

Minimum effective depth= span /33 x correction factor =4500/33 x c.f =136/c.f.

As high yield steel is being used and the span is less than 7m the correction factor can be taken

as unity. Try an effective depth of 140 mm. For a class XC -1 exposure the cover = 25

mm. Allowing, say, 5 mm as half the bar diameter of the reinforcing bar:

Slab loading

Self-weight of slab = 170 x 25 10-3 = 4.25kN/m2

Total permanent load = 1.0 + 4.25 = 5.25 kN/m2

For a 1m width of slab

Ultimate load, F = (1.25gk + 1.5qk) 4.5

= (1.35 x 5.25 + 1.5 x 3.0) 4.5 = 52.14 kN

Using the coefficients of table 8.1 assuming the end support is pinned, the moment at the middle

of the end span is give by

M = 0.086Fl = 0.086 x 52.14 x 4.5 = 20.18kNm

Bending reinforcement

M =

20.18 x 106__

bd2fck

100 x 1402 x 25

from the lever-arm curve of figure 4.5, la = 0.945 Therefore lever-arm z = lad =

0.945 x 140 = 132mm:

As = M =

0.87fykz

0.87 x 500 x 133

= 349mm2/m

Provide H10 bars at 200mm centres, As = 393 mm2/m.

Check span-effective depth ratio

100As,req = 100 x 349 = 0.249

bd

1000 x 140

= 0.0013 x 1000 x 140

= 182 mm2/m

Provide H10 at 400 mm centres top and bottom, whether there is main reinforcement

(196mm2/m)

7.4

When a slab is supported on all four of its sides it effectively spans in both directions, and it is

sometimes more economical to design the slab on this basis. The amount of bending in each

direction will depend on the ratio of the two spans and the conditions of restraint, in each

support.

If the slab is square and the restraint are similar along the four sides then the load will span

equally in both directions. If the slab is rectangular then more than one -hall'of the load will

be carried in the stiffer, shorter direction and less in the longer direction. If one span is much

longer than the other, a large proportion of the load will be carried in the short direction and

the slab may as well be designed as Spanning in only one direction.

Moments in each direction of' span are generally calculated using tabulated

coefficients. Areas of reinforcement to resist the moments are determined Independently for each

direction . The Slab is reinforcd with bars in both directions parallel to the spans with the

steel for the shorter span placed furthest from the neutral axis to give it the greater effective

depth.

The span-effective depth ratios are based on the shorter span and the percentage of'

reinforcement in that direction.

With a uniformly distributed load the loads on the Supporting beams may generally

be appropriated as shown in fig. below:

A slab simply supported on its four Side's will deflect about both axes under load and the

corners will tend to lift and curl up from the supports, causing torsional moments.

When no provision has been made to prevent this lifting or to resist the torsion then

moment coefficients of table 8.4 may be used and the maximum moments are given by

Msx = asynl2x in direction of span lx

and

Msy = asynl2x in direction of span ly

Where

Msx and Msy are the moments at mid-span on strips of unit width with spans lx and ly respectively.

n = (1.35gk + 1.5qk), that is the total ultimate load per unit area

lx = the length of the shortage side

asx and asy are the moment coefficients from table 8.4

the area of reinforcement in direction lx and ly respectively are

Asx =

and

A sy =

Msx

0.87fykz

Msx

per metre width

0.87fykz

The slab should be reinforced uniformly across the full width, in each direction.

The effective depth d used in calculating Asy should be less than that for Asx because of the

different depths of the two layers of reinforcement.

Table 7.0 Bending-moment coefficients for slabs spanning in two directions at right angles,

simply supported on four sides

l y/!x

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.75

2.0

Asx

Asy

0.062

0.062

0.074

0.061

0.084

0.059

0.093

0.055

0.099

0.051

0.104

0.046

0.113

0.037

0.118

0.029

Established practice suggests that at least 40 per cent of the mid-span reinforcement should

extend to the supports and the remaining 60 per cent should extend to within 0. 11xor 0.11y of

the appropriate support.

It should be noted that the above method is not specially mentioned in EC2; however, as the

method was deemed acceptable in BS8110, its continued use should be an acceptable

method of analysing this type of slab.

WEEK 8

8.0 DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE SLABS (continued)

8.1 DESIGN OF SIMPLY SUPPORTED SLAB SPANNING IN TWO

DIECTIONS

EXAMPLE

Design the reinforcement for a simply supported slab

The slab is 220 mm thick and spans in two directions. The effective span in each direction is

4.5m and 6.3m and the slab supports a variable load of 10 kN/m2. The characteristic material

strengths are fck = 25 N/mm 2 and fyk~ = 500 N / m m2

Figure 3.7

Simply supported slab spanning in two directions

Solution:

ly /lx = 6.3/4.5 = 1.4

From table 7.0, asx = 0.099 and asy = 0.051.

Self-weight of slab = 220 x 25 x 10-3 = 5.5 kN/m2

Ultimate load = 1.35gk + 1.5qk

= 1.35 x 5.5 + 1.5 x 10.0 = 22.43kN/m2

Bending short span

With class XC-1 exposure conditions take d = 185 mm.

= 45.0k kN/m

Msx

45.0 x 106

0.87fyk

1000 x 1852 x 25

= 0.053

Lever-arm z = 0.95 x 185 = 176 mm

and

As = Msx =

31.9 x 106__

0.87fykz

0.87 x 500 x 176

= 588mm2/m

Provide H12 at 175mm centres, As = 646 mm2/m.

span-effective depth ratio

1 =

bd

1000 x 185

from figure 6.3 this corresponds to a basic span-effective depth ratio of 28.0

actual

Span

Eff. Depth

185

= 4500 = 24.3

Msx = asynl2x

= 0.051 x 22.43 x 4.52

= 23.16kNm

Since the reinforcement for this span will have a reduced effective depth, take

z = 176 12 = 164 mm. therefore

As = Msx =

23.16 x 106__

0.87fykz

0.87 x 500 x 164

= 325 mm2/m

Provide H10 at 200 mm centres, As = 393 mm2/m

100As, = 100 x 393 = 0.24

bd

1000 x 164

EXERCISE

(1) -The slab is 180 mm thick and spans in two directions. The effective span in each direction is

4.5m and 6.3m and the slab supports a variable load of 8 kN/m2. The characteristic material

strengths are fck = 25 N/mm 2 and fyk~ = 400 N / m m2.

Design the reinforcement for a simply supported slab

(2)-Solve at least two problems on continuous solid slab spanning in one direction.

The columns in a structure carry the loads from the beams and slabs down to the foundations,

and therefore they are primarily compression members, although they may also have to resist

bending forces due to the continuity of the structure.

Design of columns is governed by the ultimate limit state; deflections and cracking during

service conditions are not usually a problem, but nevertheless correct detailing of the

reinforcement and adequate cover are important. Example of column end support details is

shown in the figure below

8.3

Column Classifications:

a. Short or Slender: A column is said to be short when the effective length is not more

than 15 times its least lateral dimensions for braced columns or 10times for unbraced columns;

otherwise, the column is said to be slender. Slender columns, in addition to any axial load and

moments, are subjected to moments due to their slenderness. These are usually added to the

imposed moments on the column and slenderness should be checked on both axes. A column that

is slender in x-axis may necessarily not be slender in the y-axis and vice versa.

Effective length of a column is defined as 10, where 10 is the actual length of the column and

is a function of the end restraints of the column and whether or not the column is braced.

Clause 3.8.1.5 of the Standard defines braced columns as those laterally supported by wall,

buttressing etc. designed to resist all lateral forces in that plane. It should otherwise be

considered as unbraced.

Clause 2.5 of B.S. 8110: Part 2: 1985, discussed the analytical method of calculating the

effective height of columns as follows:

Framed structures and braced, columns, effective height is calculated from the lesser of:

10 = 10(0.7 + 0.05(012)) < 10 and

10 = 10(0.85 +0.05 min) < 10

Unbraced columns, the lesser of:

10 = 10(1.0 + 0.15(011 + 012 ) and

10 = 10(2.0 +0.3 min)

Where:

011 = ratio of the sum of the column stiffnesses to the sum of the beam stiffnesses at the lower

end of a column.

012 = ratio of the sum of column stiff nesses to the sum of the beam stiffness at the upper end of

a column.

min = lesser of 011 and 012.

In addition, Clause 2.5.4 of Part 2:B.S. 8110, discusses the rigorous analysis method of

calculating column relative stiffnesses.

(b)

Axial, Uniaxial and Biaxial: In terms of load disposition, a column can be categorized as

Axially loaded, Uniaxially loaded and Biaxially loaded. Inexperienced designers design most

columns as axially loaded columns in buildings are axially loaded.

As axially loaded column is subjected to a concentric axial load. That is, moments in both x and

y axes are practically insignificant. The total load is then supported by the compressive action of

both the concrete and steel counterpart of the column, e.g. a truly central column.

A uniaxially loaded column is subjected to an axial load and a moment in one direction (x- or y

axis). The moments in the other direction is assumed to be practically insignificant e.g. most side

columns, but not all.

A biaxially loaded column is subjected to an axial load and moments in the two axes. A typical

example is a corner column. In fact, all corner columns are biaxially loaded while side columns

can be biaxially or uniaxially loaded.

8.3

a)

Axially Loaded Columns: The axial force in a column at the ultimate limit state may be

calculated, in the absence of any other rigorous analysis like shear from beam calculation, on the

assumption that beams and slabs transmitting force into it are simply supported. The design

procedures for axially loaded column include:

(i)

Estimating the total axial load at the ultimate limit state.

(ii)

Choosing a trial size using Table 8.0 as guides.

Table 8.0

(i)

Load, N, in kN.

Size (h x b) in mm.

N 500

225 x 225

300 x 225

300 x 300

450 x 225

450 x 225

450 x 450

> 2100

Choose appropriately

N-0.35feubh

(ii)

0.7fy 0.35fcu

However, if the engineer is very sure that the column cannot be subjected to

any eccentric loading or moment, then Asc can be

Calculated from: Asc = N 0.40fcubh

0.8fy 0.40fcu

`

When Asc returns negative value, minimum steel of 0.4%bh must be provided. This should,

however, not be less than 4-12mm diameter bars for rectangular columns or 6 12mm diameter

bars fro round columns.

Providing links, which should be a minimum of of the size of the largest compression bar at a

spacing of not more than 12times, the size of the smallest compression bar. It is usual to adopt

10mm bars as links at a spacing of 200mm for 225 by 225mm columns. It is also advisable not to

use less than 4No. 16mm diameter bars for any column except the column load is purely nominal

in which case 4No. 12mm diameter bars can be considered.

Example: A braced group floor column supports two suspended floors and a light roof. The area

of the floor supported by cross beams transmitting to the column is 4.0 x 6.0m. Take like load as

3.00kN/m2. Design the column if its effective height is 2.85m and design to 20-250 concrete.

Solution: The first step is to calculate the total load supported by this column. From the question

the following loads are obvious: (i) the roof load (ii) the 2No. floor loads (iii) the beam loads

(roof, 2 floors), (iv) the load of columns above and (v) column own load.

Slab, say 150mm, own load

=

3.60kN/m2

Finishing, say,

=

1.20

Partition allowance, say,

=

1.50

Total dead load, gk =

6.30kN/m2

Live load, qk,

=

3.00kN/m2

Therefore, F = 6.30 x 1.4 + 3.00 x 1.6

= 13.62kN/m per m run.

Assume beam own load as 5.00kN/m run and roof load as 2.25kN/m2. Take the self-weight of

the column as 10.00kN/length.

Loading:

Slab load

13.62 x 4.0 x 6.0 x 2 = 654.00kN

Roof load

2.25 x 4.0 x 6.0

= 54.00

Beams 2(4.0 +6.0) x 50

= 100.00

Column own 3 x 10.00

= 30.00

Total

= 838.00kN

From table 8.1, approximate size is 300 by 300m. However, to fit into 225mm wall, a 450 x

225mm size can be adopted.

Checking for slenderness: 2850/225 = 12.667 < 15.00 OK.

Asc =

450(225)=

0.7(250) 0.35(20)

= 769mm2

Steel % = (804 x 103)/(450 x 225) = 0.79%, rather low,

provide 6R16mm bars and the steel per cent will be 1.19%

Provide 6-Rmm bars (126mm2)

Provide R10mm @ 200mm c/c.as links.

Mbal = 0.167fckbd2

= 0.167 x 30 x 2800 x 5202 x 10-6 = 3793 kNm (> 482)

As = MEd

0.87fykz

From the lever-arm curve, figure 4.5, la = 0.95. Therefore

As =

482 x 106

=

2243 mm2

0.87 x 500 x (0.95 x 520)

Provide twelve H16 bars at 225 mm centers, As = 2412mm2. Therefore

100As, = 100 x 2412 = 0.165 (> 0.15 see table 6.8)

bd

2800 x 520

that is, the minimum steel area requirement is satisfied.

Maximum bar size

fs = fyk (Gk + 0.3Qk)

1.15(1.3 Gk + 1.5 Qk)

500 (1000 + 0.3 x 350)

= 256 N/mm2

1.15(1.35 x 1000 + 1.5 x 350)

1 can be taken as the average of the steel ratio in both directions

= As =

2412

= 0.0017 (= 0.17% < 2%)

bd

2800 x 520

=

therefore the shear resistance of the concrete, vRd c is given by:

vRd c = vRd cud = 0.40 x 8134 x 520 x 10-3 = 1691 kN (>vEd = 626 kN)

Maximum shear force

At the critical section for shear, 1.0 d from the column face:

Design shear vEd = 239 x 2.8 x 0.68

= 455kN

As before, vRd c = 0.40 N/mm2

:. vRd c = vRd cbd

= 0.40 x 2800 x 520 x 10-3 = 582kN (>vEd = 455 kN)

7.

Instead of assuming a footing weight of 150 KN at the start of this example it is possible to allow

for the weight of the footing by using a net safe bearing pressure net = 200 h x unit weight of

concrete

= 200 0.6 x 25 = 185.0kN/m2

Therefore

Required base area = 1.0 x column load = 1000 + 350

net

185.0

= 7.30m2

WEEK 9

9.0 Foundations

INTRODUCTION

A building is generally composed of a superstructure above the ground and a substructure which

forms the foundations below qround. The foundations transfer and spread the loads from a

structure's columns and walls into the ground. The safe bearing capacity of the soil must not be

exceeded otherwise excessive settlement may occur, resulting in damage to the building and its

service facilities, such as the water or gas mains. Foundation failure can also affect the

overall stability of a structure so that it is liable to slide, to lift vertically or even

overturn.

The earth under the foundations is the most variable of all the materials that are considered in

the design and construction of an engineering structure. Under one small building the soil

may vary from a soft clay to a dense rock. Also the nature and properties of the soil will

change with the seasons and the weather. For example Keuper Marl, a relatively common

soil, is hard like rock when dry but when wet it can change into an almost liquid state.

It is important to have an engineering survey made of the soil under a proposed structure so that

variations in the strata and the soil properties can be determined. Drill holes or trial pits

should be sunk, in situ tests such as the penetration test performed and samples of the soil taken

to be tested in the laboratory. From the information gained it is possible to recommend safe

bearing pressures and, if necessary, calculate possible settlements of the structure.

Geotechnical design is in accordance with BS EN 1997: Eurocode 7. This code classifies design

situations into three types: (i) category 1- small and simple structures (ii) category 2conventional with no difficult ground or complicated loading conditions and (iii) category 3 all other types of structures where there may be a high risk of geotechnical failure. The

expectation is that structural engineers will be responsible for the design of category 1

structures, geotechnical engineers for category 3 and either type of engineer could be

responsible for category 2.

The load transfer from the superstructure to the bearing soil is obtained through the use of

appropriate foundation works. Foundations are horizontal or vertical members supporting

the entire structure and transmitting all the loads to the soil below. They are substructures

supporting the super-structures of columns, beams, slabs, walls and roofs.

Generally, foundations can be classified as either shallow or deep. The choice between

shallow or deep foundations can be effected after thorough examination of the following

elements:

The magnitude of the transmitted loads from the super-structure.

Soil nature in terms of its bearing capacity and other properties.

The economic aspects of the elements of the foundation work and

Types of foundations in their order of complexity include:

Shallow foundations:

o Strip foundation

o Wide strip foundation

o Pad foundation

o Strap foundation

o Raft foundation (slab, slab and beam and cellular).

Deep foundations:

o Pile foundation

o Diaphragm walls

o Displacement foundations

Strip foundation

Strip footings are used under walls or under a line of closely spaced columns. Even where it is

possible to have individual bases, it is often simpler and more economical to excavate and

construct the form work for a continuous base.

Pad foundation

The footing for a single column may be made square in plan, but where there is a large moment

acting about one axis it may be more economical to have a rectangular base. They are generally

used to support columns and piers or heavy machinery in a factory.

Combined footings: Where two columns are close together it is sometimes necessary or

convenient to combine their footings to form a continuous base. The dimensions of the footing

should be chosen so that the resultant load passes through the centroid of the base. The shape of

the footing may be rectangular or Trapezoidal. Latter if there is large variation in the loads

carried by two columns.

Raft foundation

This consists of continuous reinforced concrete slab under the whole building, taking all the

downward loads and distributing them over an area large enough to avoid overstressing the soil

beyond its bearing capacity. Where settlement is a problem.

flat stab

Pile foundation

They are used where the will conditions are poor and it is uneconomical or not possible to

provide adequate spread foundation. The pile must extend down to firm soil.

The magnitude of the transmitted loads from the super structure.

Soil nature

The economic aspects of the elements of the foundation work.

Problem concerning foundation construction.

Consolidation of cohesive oil

Lateral bulging of cohesive soil

Elimination of water in the soil

drying out tree roots

pumping out from boreholes etc

Mining activities

Erosion of soil

9.3

The design procedure of the foundation for a structure comprises three stages:

o Determine from inspection of the site, the nature of the ground and having selected the

stratum upon which to impose the load, to decide the safe bearing pressure.

o Select the type of foundation and the suitability of one or more types may have to be

compared.

o Design the selected foundation to transfer and distribute the loads from the structure to

the ground.

Wall footing

Solid Raft

Solid Raft with thickening at edge

Fig. Box used for soil with very low bearing cap

The principal steps in the design calculations are as follows:

Calculate the plan size of the footing using the permissible bearing pressure and the critical

loading arrangement for the serviceable limit state.

Calculate the bearing pressures associated with the critical loading arrangement at the ultimate

limit state.

Assume a suitable value for the thickness (h) and effective depth (d). Check that the shear force

at the column face is less than 0.5v1cdud = 0.5v1(ck/1.5)ud where u is the perimeter of the

column and v1 is the strength reduction factor = 0.6(1-ck/250).

Carry out a preliminary check for punching shear to ensure that the footing thickness gives a

punching shear stress which is within the likely range of acceptable performance.

Determine the reinforcement required to resist bending

Make a final check for the punching shear

Check the shear force at the critical sections.

Where applicable, both foundations and the structure should be checked for overall stability at

the ultimate limit state.

Reinforcement to resist bending in the bottom of the base should extend at least a full tension

anchorage length beyond the critical section of the bending.

For the serviceability limit state, obtain the unfactored axial load (1.0Gk + 1.0Qk).

Obtain the required base area using

For the ultimate design load, obtain the column axial load using (1.4Gk + 1.6Qk)

Obtain the effective depth, d, where d = total depth concrete cover 0.5(bar size).

Check for shear stress (vc), where vc =

Check for punching shear: critical perimeter = (column perimeter + 8 x 1.5d)

Area within perimeter = (column width + 3 x d2)

Punching shear force, V = Design pressure x (Base area Area within perimeter).

Punching shear stress, v =

where P = design pressure; b = width of pad; l = length to face of column.

Obtain K-value using the formula as previously used and the lever arm factor (la).

WEEK 10

10.1 Pad footing design examples

Example:

A 225mm by 450mm column supports an ultimate load including its own weight of 504kN. The

psoil bearing capacity is estimated to be in the region of 105kN/m2. Design a simple pad footing

using a grade 25 concrete and high yield steel, fy = 410N/mm2.

Solution:

Assume a base thickness of 400mm and d = 400 50 10 = 340mm (assume 20mm diameter

bars will be used).

= 504 x 1.1/1.46 x 150 = 2.532m2.

Areq

Net Pressure fnet =

504 1.1

1.6 1.6

- 0.4(24)1.4kN/m2 = 203.123kN/m2

Critical perimeter (punching shear) taken as 1.5h from column faces.

Pcrit

= 2(450 + 225) + 3()400 = 5120mm

Area

= (450 + 3 x 400)(225 + 3 x 400) (4 )(1.5 x 400)2

= 2,042,223mm2 or 2.042m2.

Load causing punching is the total load outside the critical perimeter.

V = fnet ( Base area Area within critical perimeter)

vpunching = V/Perimeter x d = 105.218 x 103/5120 x 340N/mm2 = 0.06N/mm2

The base is safe against punching shear.

Computation for steel area:

Span = 575mm

Moment, M = 0.5 x 0.5752 x 203.123kNm = 33.579kNm.

K = 0.012;

la = 0.95

Ast = 268mm2

Provide Y12mm @ 175mm c/c (646mm2).

EXAMPLE

Design of a pad footing

The footing (figure 10.6) is required to resist characteristic axial loads of 1000kN permanent and

350kN variable from a 400mm square column.

The safe bearing pressure on the soil is 200kN/m2 and the characteristic material strengths are ck

= 30N/mm2 and yk = 500N/mm2.

Assume a footing weight of 150kN so that the total permanent load is 1150kN and base the

design on the Prescriptive Method.

Solution

1.

Required base area = 1500

= 7.5m2

200

Provide a base 2.8m square = 7.8m2

2.

For the ultimate limit state

From table 10.1 it is apparent load combination I will give the largest set of actions for this

simple structure. Hence, using the partial safety factors for load combination 1:

Column design axial load, NEd = 1.35Gk + 1.5Qk

= 1.35 x 1000 + 1.5 x 350 = 1875kN

Earth pressure = 1875 = 239kN/m2

2.82

3.

Assume a 600mm thick footing and with the footing constructed on a blinding layer of

concrete the minimum cover is taken as 50mm. therefore take mean effective depth = d 520mm.

At the column face

=

0.5ud 0.6 1 - ck

ck

250

1.5

=

250

30

1.5

x 10-3

4.

Punching shear

The critical section for checking punching shear is at a distance 2d as shown in figure 10.5

Critical perimeter

Area within perimeter

=

=

=

=

=

column perimeter + 4d

4 x 400 + 4 x 520 = 8134mm

(400+ 4d)2 (4- ) (2.0d)2

(400 + 2080)2 (4 - ) 10402

5.22 x 106mm2

Therefore

Punching shear force VEd = 239 (2.82 5.22) = 626kN

Punching shear stress vEd

= VEd

Perimeter x d

= 626 x 103

8134 x 520

= 0.15N/mm2

This ultimate shear stress is not excessive, (see table 8.2) therefore h = 600mm will be a suitable

estimate.

5.

Bending reinforcement see figure 10.7(a)

At the column face which is the critical section

MEd = (239 x 2.8 x 1.2) x 1.2

2

=

482kN

Mbal = 0.167fckbd2

= 0.167 x 30 x 2800 x 5202 x 10-6 = 3793 kNm (> 482)

As = MEd

0.87fykz

From the lever-arm curve, figure 4.5, la = 0.95. Therefore

As = 482 x 106

= 2243 mm2

0.87 x 500 x (0.95 x 520)

Provide twelve H16 bars at 225 mm centers, As = 2412mm2. Therefore

100As, = 100 x 2412 = 0.165 (> 0.15 see table 6.8)

bd

2800 x 520

that is, the minimum steel area requirement is satisfied.

Maximum bar size

fs = fyk (Gk + 0.3Qk)

1.15(1.3 Gk + 1.5 Qk)

500 (1000 + 0.3 x 350)

= 256 N/mm2

1.15(1.35 x 1000 + 1.5 x 350)

1 can be taken as the average of the steel ratio in both directions

= As =

2412

= 0.0017 (= 0.17% < 2%)

bd

2800 x 520

=

therefore the shear resistance of the concrete, vRd c is given by:

vRd c = vRd cud = 0.40 x 8134 x 520 x 10-3 = 1691 kN (>vEd = 626 kN)

Maximum shear force see figure 10.7 (b)

At the critical section for shear, 1.0 d from the column face:

Design shear vEd = 239 x 2.8 x 0.68

= 455kN

As before, vRd c = 0.40 N/mm2

:. vRd c = vRd cbd

7.

Instead of assuming a footing weight of 150 kN at the start of this example it is possible to allow

for the weight of the footing by using a net safe bearing pressure net = 200 h x unit weight of

concrete

= 200 0.6 x 25 = 185.0kN/m2

Therefore

Required base area = 1.0 x column load = 1000 + 350 = 7.30m2

net

185.0

Exercise

The footing is required to resist a characteristic axial load of 1028kN dead and 420kN imposed

from a 500mm square column with 25mm dowels. The safe bearing pressure on the soil is

200kN/m2, Depth of bearing stratum = 1.8m.

Determine (using load combinations due to BS 8110) the following:

i. The base (plan size of the footing).

ii. Thickness, hf of the base in order to develop the critical serviceability and ultimate limit

state.

iii. The required reinforcement to resist bending moment.

(3m x 3m, hf = 950mm, R20mm@140mm c/c)

WEEK 11

Introduction

11.0 Steel structures

Steel frame buildings consist of a skeletal framework which carries all the loads to which the

building is subjected. The sections through three common types of buildings are :

(1) Single-storey lattice roof building;

(2) Single-storey rigid portal; and

(3) Medium-rise braced multi-storey building.

These three types cover many of the uses of steel frame buildings such as factories, warehouses,

offices, flats, schools, etc.

The building frame is made up of separate elements-the beams, columns, trusses and bracing.

These must be joined together and the building attached to the foundations. .

Various methods for analysis and design have been developed over the years.The single storey structure in and the multi-storey building are designed by the simple design method,

while the rigid portal in is designed by the continuous design method. All design is in

accordance with the new limit state design code BS 5950: Part1.

As mentioned above, steel buildings are composed of distinct elements:

(1) Beams and girders-members carrying lateral loads in bending and shear;

(2) Ties-members carrying axial loads in tension

(3) Struts, columns or stanchions-members carrying axial loads in compression. These members

are often subjected to bending as well as compression;

(4) Trusses and lattice girders-framed members carrying lateral loads.Theseare composed of

struts and ties;

(5) Purlins-beam members carrying roof sheeting;

(6) Sheeting rails-beam members supporting wall cladding;

(7) Bracing-diagonal struts and ties that, with columns and roof trusses,form vertical and

horizontal trusses to resist wind loads and stabilize thebuilding.

Joints connect members together such as the joints in trusses, joints between floor beams and

columns or other floor beams. Bases transmit the loads from the columns to the foundations.

Steel design may be based on three design theories:

(1) Elastic design;

(2) Plastic design; and (3) Limit state design.

Elastic design is the traditional method. Steel is almost perfectly elastic up to the yield point and

elastic theory is a very good method on which to base design. Structures are analysed by elastic

theory and sections are sized so that the permissible stresses are not exceeded. Design is in

accordance with BS 449:

Plastic theory developed to take account of behavior past the yield point is based on finding the

load that causes the structure to collapse. Then the working load is the collapse load divided by a

load factor. This too is permitted under BS 449

Finally, limit state design has been developed to take of all account conditions

that can make the structure become unfit for use. The design is based on the actual behaviour of

materials and structures in use and is in accordance with BS 5950: The Structural Use oJ

Steelwork in Building; Part 1 1L~Code of Practice for Design in Simple and Continuous

Construction: Hot Rolled Sections.

11.4.1 Rolled and formed sections

Hot-rolled sections are produced in steel mills from steel billets by passing them through a series

of rolls. The main sections are shown on Figure 2.3 and their principal properties and uses are

discussed briefly below:

Universal beams. These are very efficient sections for resisting bending moment about themajor axis.

Universal columns. These are sections produced primarily to resist axial load with a high

radius of gyration about the minor axis to prevent buckling in that plane.

Channels. These are used for beams, bracing members, truss members and in compound

members.

Equal and unequal angles. These are used for bracing members, truss members and for purlins

and sheeting rails.

Structural tees. The sections shown are produced by cutting a universal beam or column into

two parts. Tees are used for truss members, ties and light beams.

Circular, square and rectangular hollow sections. These are produced from flat plate. The

circular section is made first and then this is converted to the square or rectangular shape. These

sections make very efficient compression members, and are used in a wide range of

applications as members in lattice girders, in building frames, for purlins, sheeting rails, etc.

Note that the range in serial sizes is given for the members shown in Figure 11 A number of

different members are produced in each serial size by varying the flange, web, leg or wall

thicknesses.

Compound section are formed by the following means (Figure 11.1)

WEEK 12

12.0 Steel sections (continued)

`

cover plates, as showrn in Figure (a);

(2) Combining two separate rolled sections, as in the case of the crane girder

in Figure (b). The two members carry loads from separate directions

(3) Connecting two members together to form a strong combined member.

Examples are the laced and battened members shown in Figures (c) and(d)

Built-up sections are made by welding plates together to form I, H or box members which are

termed plate girders, built-up columns box girders or columns, respectively. These members are

used where heavy loads have to be carried and in the case of plate and box girders where long

spans may be

Built-up sections

12.1

Cold-rolled sections

Thin steel plates can be formed into a wide range of sections by cold rolling. The most important

uses for cold-rolled sections in steel structures are for p.trlins and sheeting raia. Three common

sections-the zed, sigma and lipped channel-are shown in Figure 2.6. Reference should be

made to the manufacturer's literalure for the full range of sizes available and the section

12.4 Connections

4.7 Welded, Riveted and Bolted Connections

In this section, we shall consider how individual members are connected together to form

complete structures.

Research has shown that the second largest cause of structural failures (30%) is defective

detail design of the joints between members. (The largest of course being collapse during

construction). Therefore the need for sound connection design cannot be toyed with.

4.17: Welded Connections: welds which are roughly triangular in cross-section are known as

fillet welds. Structural welding should only be carried out by qualified welders. It is the

most economic method of joining steel components in the fabrication shop, but should

only be used with caution on construction sites.

Most structural welding is now done by the electric-arc method, where a welding rod or

electrode is fused to the parent metal by means of the heat generated by the high current

electricity.

There are two basic types of weld fillet welds (figure 14.1) and butt welds (figure

14.2). from the design point of view, butt welds are easily dealt with. A weld which

passes through the whole thickness of the parent metal is a full-penetration butt weld,

and provided the correct electrodes are used, it can simply be assumed that the weld is at

least as strong as the parent metal.

The fillet welds are specified in terms of leg length. This is the dimension shown the

diagram in figure 14.3

Leg

length

quote

Throat

from

the0

45

docum

ent or

the

summ

ary offor fillet welds

Figure 14.3: Key dimensions

an

interes

ting

point.

You

can

positio

Also shown above is the throat size and this is the dimension that determines the strength

of the weld.

Throat size = leg length x cos450

= 0.7 x leg length

Because of the importance of the throat size, a finished weld should always be convex in shape.

The design strength of a fillet weld in grade 43 steel is 215N/mm2. This figure already includes.

WEEK 13

13.0 CONNECTIONS (CONTINUED)

13.1 Bolted Connections

The figure (14.4) shows the equivalent connection by bolts of the fillet welded

connection. Bolts are preferable on the site. There are several types of bolted connections

There are two basic types of bolts and they each use a different basic principle to support

the load:

Ordinary bolts These depend for their strength on contact between the bolt shank and the

sides of the holes in the plates to be fixed.

Friction grip bolts. These are tensioned so that they clamp the plates together. Friction

develops between adjacent faces. This produces a very rigid connection and is therefore

better for fixing members subjected to load reversal, such as wind bracing.

Bolt in tension

CONTACT

Bolts are generally fitted into holes which are 2mm bigger than the bolt diameter. This

allows a certain amount of adjustment when the steel is erected, and fabrication

tolerances can thus be accommodated.

13.4: Riveted Connections: these were once popular in connecting structures but are now rarely

used. Examples include the Empire State Building in New York, railway bridges. They

are still widely used in the aircraft industry for fixing the aluminium alloy skin to the

wings and fuselage, as they are essentially resistant to vibration

RIVETING

A rivet or bolt may be considered simply as a peg inserted in holes drilled in two or more

thickness of steel in order to prevent relative movement. For example, the two steel plates in Fig.

13.1 tend to slide over each other, but could be prevented from doing so by a suitable steel pin

inserted in the holes in each plate, as shown. In order to prevent the steel pin from slipping out of

holes, bolts with heads and nuts are used or rivet heads are formed, and these produce an

effective connection (Fig. 13.2).

The rivet heads (or bolt heads and nuts) do, in fact, strengthen the connection by pressing the two

thicknesses of plate together, but this strength cannot be determined easily, and so the rivet or

bolt strength is calculated on the assumption that its shank (shown shaded) only is used in

building up its strength.

Single Shear

If the loads W in Fig. 13.2 are large enough, the rivet or bolt could fail, as in Fig. 13.3, in shear,

i.e. breaking by the sliding of its fibres along line A-A. This type of rivet or bolt failure is known

as failure in single shear. The area of steel rivet resisting this failure is the circular area of the

rivet shank, shown hatched in Fig. 13.3, i.e.

The permissible shear stress for bolts of strength grade 4.6 and mild steel rivets in single shear is

given in BS449 as follows:

1

Black bolts

Hand-driven rivets

80 N/mm2

Power-driven rivets

Close tolerance and

Turned bolts

100 N/mm2

Black bolts are manufactured from rolled steel bars and, owing to the difficulties in rolling round

black bars to the exact required diameter, it is customary to drill the holes in the plates, etc., 2mm

greater in diameter than the specified diameter of the bolt.

Close tolerance and turned bolts are made from rolled steel bars which are greater in diameter

than the required size of the bolt. These bolts give a better fit in the holes than black bolts and are

therefore allowed higher stresses. Power-driven rivets are usually driven by a special machine.

The rivets and the rivet heads are formed more accurately than is possible in the case of handdriven rivets and they are therefore permitted to higher stress. The holes are drilled 2mm larger

in diameter than the specified sizes of the rivets.

Since rivets are driven while hot and, therefore, their material fills the hole completely, it is

necessary to distinguish between the nominal and the gross diameter of the rivets. The nominal

diameter refers to the specified size of the rivet shank, i.e. the diameter of the rivet when it is

cold, whilst the gross diameter is 2mm larger than the specified (i.e. nominal) diameter of the

rivet. BS449 allows the strength of a rivet to be estimated on its gross diameter.

For example, the safe load in single shear (safe stress x area) of a 16mm diameter power-driven

rivet is

100 x 0.7854 x 182 = 25.4kN

For bolts, the gross diameter is, of course, equal to the nominal diameter. Therefore the safe load

in single shear, or single shear value (s.s.v) of a 16mm diameter black bolt of strength grade 4.6,

is

80 x 0.7854 x 162 = 16kN

Double Shear

In the type of connection shown, for example, in Fig. 13.4 (a double cover butt joint), the rivets

or bolts on one side of the joint would have to shear across two planes, as shown. This is known

as failure in double shear

`

or, simply,

2 x s.s.v. = 2 x 16 = 32kN

WEEK 14

14.1Bearing

The two main ways in which the rivet or bolt itself may fail have been discussed. This type of

failure assumes, however, fairly thick steel plates capable of generating sufficient stress to shear

the rivet.

Consider Fig. 13.5(a). The heavy load of 120kN taken by the 25mm steel plates would certainly

shear the 12mm diameter rivet (single shear).

Now consider the opposite type of case, as in Fig 13.5 (b), there a thick steel rivet (24mm

diameter) is seen connecting two very thin steel plates.

The steel plates in this case are much more likely to be torn by the rivet than the rivet to be

sheared by the weaker steel plates.

This type is known as failure in bearing (or tearing), and note should again be taken of the area

which is effective in resisting this type of stress (Fig. 13.6). The area of contact of the rivet with

the plate on one side of it is actually semi-cylindrical, but since the bearing stress is not uniform,

it is assumed that the area of contact is the thickness of plate times diameter of rivet. This area is

shown shaded in section A-A of Fig. 13.6.

-For bearing purposes as for shear, the gross diameter of the rivet can be taken as the nominal

diameter plus 2mm.

When two plates of the same thickness are being connected, then of course either plate could

tear, and the area resisting bearing would be the thickness of one plate times diameter of rivet

(Fig. 13.7).

Where plates of different thicknesses are used, then the thinner of the two plates would tear first,

so the area resisting bearing or tearing would be the thickness of thinner plate times the diameter

of rivet (Fig. 13.8). Where three thicknesses are concerned, as in Fig. 13.9, the two 15mm plates

are acting together and the 25mm plate would tear before the two 15mm plates, so the area

resisting tearing would be 25 x 18 = 450mm2

The permissible stress in bearing for bolts of strength grade 4.6 and mild steel rivets is given in

BS449 as follows:

Black bolts

Hand-driven rivets

Power-driven rivets

Close tolerance and

Turned bolts

250 N/mm2

300 N/mm2

Criterion Value

It will be seen that rivets or bolts may be designed on the basis of a) their strength in shear, or b)

their

strength in bearing.

In actual design, the lesser of these two values will, of course, have to be used. This is called the

criterion value Example

A compound bracket is connected to the 13mm thick web of a stanchion by six 16mm diameter

close tolerance bolts of strength grade 4.6. The bracket carries a reaction of 150kN from a beam.

Is the connection strong enough in terms of the bolts?

Solution There are three thicknesses the web, the angle and the cover plate but the bolts are in

single shear because the angle and the cover plate act as one.

S.S.V. of one 16mm diameter bolt is

100 x 0.7854 x 162 = 100 x 201 = 20.1kN

Bearing value of the bolt in 13mm plate is

300 x 16 x 13 = 300 x 208 = 62.4kN

Criterion value = shear value = 20.1kN

Safe load = 6 x 20.1 = 120.6kN

This is less than the applied load (reaction). Therefore, either the number of the 16mm diameter

bolts should be increased or larger diameter bolts will have to be used.

In practice the bolts in this type of connection would be also investigated for direct tension since,

according to clause 34.a. of BS449: 2:1969, the reaction must be assumed to be applied at least

100mm from line A-A (Fig. 13.12), thus creating an eccentricity of loading

WEEK 15

.

In designing butt and other similar types of connections, it should always be born in mind that

not only can failure occur through an insufficient number of rivets or bolts being provided, but

that the member itself may fail in tension.

Consider, for example, Fig. 13.13 noting, in particular, the lay-out of the rivets in what is called a

leading rivet arrangement.

One possible chance of failure is that the plate being connected would fail by tearing across face

A-A or B-B under a heavy load. Therefore, no matter how many rivets are employed, the safe

strength in tension across this and other faces could never be exceeded.

The strength of the rivets must be approximately equal to the strength of the member in tension

for the connection to be considered economical.

Example 13.4

A 150mm x 18mm steel plate used as a tension member in a structural frame has to be connected

using double cover butt connection with two 12mm cover plates and 20mm diameter powerdriven rivets.

Design a suitable connection assuming that the permissible stress in tension for the steel plate is

155Nmm2.

Solution: However the rivets are arranged, the section will be weakened by having at least one

rivet hole so the net cross-sectional area of the plate is

(150 22) x 18 = 2304mm2

and the safe load carried by the plate must not exceed

155 x 2304 = 357kN

The rivets will be in double shear.

D.S.V. of one 20mm diameter rivet is

2 x 100 x 380 = 76kN

Bearing value of that rivet in 18mm plate is 300 x 22 x 18 = 118.8kN

Criterion value = 76kN

Therefore, number of rivets required on each side of joint is

Total load

=

357

= 4.7, say 5 rivets

Value of one rivet

76

The arrangement of the rivets is shown in Fig. 13.14.

Check the strength of the plate:

At section B-B, the plate is weakened by two rivet holes, but, in the event of tearing of the plate

across B-B, the connection would not fail until the rivet market x also had failed.

Thus the strength across B-B is

155 x (150 2 x 22) x 18 + 76

= 155 x 1908 + 76 = 371.7kN

And the strength at C-C is

155 x 1908 + 3 x 76 = 523.7kN

Since in this case the rivets x, y and z have to be considered.

155 x (150 -2 x 22) x 24 = 394kN

Therefore the above connection would carry 357kN.

15.1 Efficiency

It is sometimes useful to check the efficiency of the connection. This is given by

Efficiency =

Original value of the undrilled plate

357 000______x 100 = 85.3%

155 x 150 x 18

Increasing the number of rivets above that which is required may, in some cases, actually

weaken the connection.

Consider the connection in Example 13.4. Had six rivets been used as in Fig. 13.5, instead of the

required five, the value of the plate at section A-A would now be

155 x (150 - 2 x 22) x 18 = 296kN

As against 357kN for the leading rivet arrangement.

The rivets and bolts, discussed so far , relied on their shear and bearing strength to produce an

effective connection capable of transmitting a load from one member to another, e.g. from beam

to column.

The performance of High Strength Friction Grip (HSFG) bolts is based on the principle that the

transfer of the load may be effected by means of friction between the contact surfaces

(interfaces) of the two members. To produce the necessary friction a sufficiently high clamping

force must be developed, and this is achieved by tightening the bolts to a predetermined tension.

In this way the bolts are subjected to a direct (axial) tensile force and do not rely on their shear

and bearing strength.

HSFG bolts and their use are specified in BS4395 and BS4604, respectively, and further details

may be obtained from manufacturers literature.

Considering connections subject only to shear between the friction faces, the safe load may be

determined from the following:

Slip factor_

x number of effective interfaces

Load factor

x proof load of one bolt

x number of bolts

The slip factor is really the coefficient of friction between the surfaces and may be taken as 0.45

for surfaces complying with the appropriate specification.

The load factor for structure covered by BS449 is usually at least 1.4, although, in cases where

wind forces are considered, it may be reduced to 1.2.

Effective interface is the common contact surface, i.e. a single shear connection has one effective

interface and a double shear connection has two.

Proof load is the minimum shank tension depending on the size of the bolt (See Table 13.1).

Example

Consider the connection in Example 13. Assume that the six bolts are 16mm diameter HSFG

bolts (general grade). Is the connection strong enough now?

Solution

Safe load 0.45

1.4

It must be pointed out again that here as in the case of Example 13.3, the bolt would also be

subject to tension caused by the eccentricity of loading. This tension reduces the effective

clamping action of the bolts and therefore, the safe load would have to be suitably decreased.

WELDING

Welding for structural purposes is governed by the requirements of BS5135 metal-arc welding of

carbon and carbon-manganese steels and the design of welds is covered by clause 54 of BS449.

The two types of weld used are butt welds and fillet welds.

1.

Butt welds These require the edges of the plates to be prepared by beveling or gouging as

shown in Fig. 13.16. This preparation and the need for careful alignment when welding make the

butt weld generally the more expensive of the tow.

For the purpose of strength calculations, butt welds are treated as the parent metal, i.e. the

allowable stresses for the weld are the same as those for the connected plates.

2.

Fillet welds No special preparations are needed and the strength of the weld is calculated

on the throat thickness (see Fig. 13.16).

The allowable stress depends on the grade of the steel of the connected parts and is 115N/mm2

for grade 43 steel and 160N/mm2 for grade 50 steel.

The size of the weld is specified by the minimum led length of the weld, e.g. the strength of a

8mm fillet weld for grade 43 steel is

8 x 0.7 x 115 = 644N/mm

Leg

length

quote

from

Throat

the

docu

0

45

ment

or

the

sum

mary

Figure 15.0 Key dimensions for fillet welds

of an

inter

estin

i.e. each millimeter length of this weld is capablegof carrying a load of 644N.

When deciding on the size of a weld it is well to point

consider that the amount of weld metal

increases faster than the strength of the weld, e.g.. compare

6mm and 8mm welds:

You

can

increase in strength 33%

positi

increase in weld metal 78%

on

the

Example

text

A tension member in a framework consists of an box

80mm x 10mm flat and is subject to a direct

force of 110Kn. Design a suitable fillet weld connection

anyw using a gusset plat, as shown in Fig.

13.17.

here

in the

Solution Welding along the along the two edges of

the flat requires a minimum length of weld of

docu

80mm on each side (Cl. 54.f. BS449), i.e. minimum

length of weld is 160mm.

ment.

Use 6mm weld

Use

110 000

the

Required length =

= 228mm Text

6 x 0.7 x 115

Box

Tool

The weld should be returned continuously arounds the

tab corner for a distance not less than 2 x weld

size to comply with clause 54.e. of BS449 and antoallowance of one weld size should be made at

the open end of the weld.

chan

The overall length of the welds should be

ge

1/2x228+ x6+return end

the

SUMMARY

form

Rivets and Bolts

attin

g of

the

pull

quote

text

box.]

D.S.V of one rivet or bolt = 2Aq

B.V of one rivet or bolt in a plate of thickness t mm = dtb

A is the area of cross-section of the rivet shank or bolt shank.

For rivets, A may be taken as the area of a circle 2 mm greater in diameter than the specified

(nominal) diameter.

For bolts, A is the area calculated from the nominal diameter.

d is the diameter of the rivet or bolt.

For rivets, d = nominal diameter plus 2mm

For bolts, d = permissible shear stress

q = permissible shear stress

q = permissible bearing stress

In certain problems, the strength of the plate in tension may have to be investigated. The

permissible tension stress for grade 43 steel is 155N/mm2

When deducting the areas of rivet or bolt holes to determine the strength of a plat, the diameter

of the hole is taken as 2mm greater than the nominal diameter of the rivet or bolt.

HSFG bolts rely on their tensile strength to induce friction between the connected parts.

EXERCISE

(Note: permissible tension stress for Grade 43 steel = 155N/mm2)

the size of each plat in a simple lap joint is 100mm x 12mm and there are six

20mm diameter turned bolts in a single line. Calculated the safe load in

tension.

In a double cover butt connection, the joined plate is 125mm x 12mm and the

over plates are 125mm x 8mm. There are two 20mm diameter power-driven

rivets each side of the joint (four rivets in all). Calculate the maximum safe

tension for the plates.

A simple lap joint with five 24mm diameter hand-driven rivets is shown in

Fig. below. Calculate the maximum safe pull, W.

Fig. 13.20 gives two different bolted connections (a) and (b). In each case, the

safe load W.

Fig.15.7 shows a joint in a tension member. Determined the safe load W.

(Calculations are required for the strength of the middle plate at sections A-A

and B-B; the strength of the cover plate at C-C, and the strengths of the rivets

in shear and bearing.)

Fig 15.7

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