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IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Moroccan human resources between educational


system and labor market
ELMORTADA Asmaa1, MOKHLIS Ahmed2, ELFEZAZI Said3 , MOKHLIS Chams Eddoha4
1

Higher School of Technology (Cadi Ayyad University), Safi city, Morocco Asmaa.
2

National School of Applied Sciences (ENSAJ_UCD), El Jadida city, Morocco


Higher School of Technology (UCA), Safi city, Morocco
3

Higher School of Technology (Cadi Ayyad University), Safi city, Morocco


4

National School of Business and Management (ENCG) Morocco

ABSTRACT
Since the independence, the Moroccan education system is the subject of a continuous attention from state and
private authorities, because of his key role in the restructuring of the desired new Morocco. However, increased
economic disruption and demographic development have a profound impact. Therefore, the secession of
experienced mutations recovered, continually questioning the quality of higher education, including its relevance to
the needs of the labor market. The concern of this article is, first, to describe the evolution of the strategies adopted
by the Moroccan university through the past. On the other hand, we will try to highlight the impact of policies on
the global landscape of higher education in the light of the competitive corporate culture, as well as the desired
level of progress.
Keywords:- University, Education system, Employment, Morocco, Human Resources.

1. INTRODUCTION
The university is an institution that acquires a particularly prestigious place among citizens. It does not only present
itself as a major component of the system of higher education where the creation and playback of high culture are
practiced daily, but it crystallizes particular vision of society towards the socio-economic development desired. Heavily
solicited, it is increasing numbers of requests. It is in this context that Morocco is considering, increasingly, education
as a priority by pursuing a dual strategy that focuses, first, on increasing the number of institutions of higher education
to face the increasing demands for university integration, while it works on the other side, on the adequacy of training
required with the needs of the labor market. This context leads us to wonder about the quality of Moroccan university
courses in the presence of frequent political of change in the education system, as it raises concerns against the
recruitment approaches of graduates whose numbers are increasing annually.

2. MOROCCAN UNIVERSITY
2.1. The first structuration
As early as 1958, the government aims to train young people to be able to hold jobs in governmental and public
enterprises. As part of this vision, the Ministry of Education has set, in the first stage, two major goals: generalizing
primary education, and making referrals to the various disciplines of higher education, which was organized in three
faculties, letters, science and law - heirs of the French protectorate system. Medical studies and engineering studies
a side. These decisions were aimed at both reducing income margins, and form a skilled workforce to ensure the esired
growth. They also had the objective of fostering thedeparture of french managers in the public service and the private
sector.
On the other hand, Morocco is committed to encouraging young people to pursue their university studies. Indeed, the
government has implemented the scholarships offers' system, as it provided information about the prospects for
meaningful careers in government and public and parasternal enterprises.
The university has become a safe door to a prestigious job in the public sector. It was also a way of strong social
recognition for the working classes youth.

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Page 1

IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

However, in this first phase, the development of the professional training system is subject to several constraints: those
related to the overall improvement viewpoints quantitatively and qualitatively, those related to the internal structure of
this training, and those related to employment and the state of the national economy. Indeed, the professional training
system was characterized by the instability of its structures for the separation between technical education and
vocational training from the years 1970 (1974: appearance of the Office of professional
training and promotion of labor (OFPPT)).
Therefore, "the system of professional training continues to present many limitations: duality-a fragmentation of
training by training departments, while the employment environment is suffering from an imbalance in teacher ratios
- and shortage of supervisors".
2.2. Reform of the education system
During the eighties, and under the influence of a number of economic difficulties, the Moroccan government has
moved towards liberalization of the economy as a structural adjustment program. This strategy was intended to
reorganize the public sector (privatizing viable companies and make disappear those unprofitable).
Such a policy has subsequently placed the Moroccan State to a new challenge. Indeed, the growing demand for highly
skilled labor led the charge of the education system to the evolution of the training operationalized. This was presented
at the time, to be miraculous solution approaching the Moroccan teaching of his socio-economic environment through
channeling the requests pressure for education, the fight against unemployment, business modernization and ensuring
their competitiveness.
In this context, reform of professional training which began in 1984, focused on the coordination of hierarchies
qualification, increasing numbers of young people hosted by educational institutions, and the adequacy of the training
provided with the needs of the labor market.
A second remarkable roadmap of reforms in the Moroccan education is that enacted in 1999. This is the National
Education and Training Charter. As part of this, it was implemented a change program of the Moroccan education
system through:
2.2.1. Convergence towards the European LMD system
Based on modular curricula, the LMD system (Bachelors Degree -Masters Degree-PhD) was introduced in Morocco
in 2003-2004 with the support of France and in a short time.
Like the European LMD, the semester is validated when the packages are component. The degree is then acquired after
validation of all semesters. However, unlike the European
LMD, Morocco has not adopted the same aspect of the validation system of credits (time equivalents) accumulated
and transferred, but it was oriented towards favoring bridges between training institutions namely between OFPPT
centers and faculties.
2.2.2. The governance reform for university autonomy
Until 2009, the Moroccan university enjoys little autonomy in terms of its own management, and even university
presidents do not have permission to pursue strategies specifically appropriate to their institutions only in a margin
limited maneuver. Therefore, faculties became isolated and unmotivated institutions to achieve the major goals of the
university.
In response to this need, Morocco was following a new strategy, it was about the implementation of the emergency
program enacted in 2009. The main result of this program was the assurance of the autonomy of the university.
Therefore, each university became free to manage the overall grant from the Ministry of Finance offered to it to achieve
its goals contractually determined
2.2.3. The diversification of training through the development of private education
The policy initiated by the Moroccan State, whose goal is the reduction of public deficits has led to a drop in spending
on education. Especially with the increasing annual numbers of graduates (increase of over 30% in 2010 + may proceed
in 9 to 10% per year by 2015), then this policy has affected the quality of teaching in public universities, where the
relay is subsequently assigned to the private sector for the development of employment and private schools. In 2011,
the Ministry of Education received tens of requests for designation "private university"1.

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

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IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

3. THE MOROCCAN LANDSCAPE OF CONTEMPORARY HIGHER EDUCATION


3.1. Result LMD structuring implanted
Following the reform policies adopted by the government, including the one initiated in 1999, the Moroccan university
1
SOUALI Mohamed, Le Maroc
structure into account (in particular suited to the Emergence plan launched in late 2005)) "14 universities located in 17
cities and consisting of 74 institutions in over sixty schools leadership training and a hundred private higher
institutions "
However, a study on training and employment in Morocco in 2011, confirms that the established training (as part of the
reform of higher education in the form of LMD system) remains" niches "whose programs usually were adapted
existing qualifications, with limited consultation with professionals.2 On the other hand, the same study predicts the
disappearance, in the short or medium term, of a number of courses of Bachelor and Master Professional due to lack
of students, as fault of actual employability.
3.2. In terms of professional training
Professional training was been distinguished in five levels:
Table1. Levels of professional training in Morocco: 2011 data

The governance of professional training is as follows:

Figure1. Governance of professional training in Morocco

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IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

Despite the efforts of the different Moroccan actors (state, regions, employers, unions, companies, industries, etc.), this
device could be further improved in the absence of a clear definition of its purposes, and dominance of the private
sector which accounts for over 80% of benefits face to those
2

Jean-Christophe Maurin, and Thomas Melonio, "Training and employment in Morocco: Situation and Recommendations" * n.c :
Non provided Data provided by the public sector, including OFPPT whose contribution does not exceed 20%.

3.3. Private higher education


Private higher education has grown rapidly, creating a wide dispersion and high heterogeneity in terms of the number
of training given in terms of quality. For example, in 2010 there were about 200 private upper lifelines.

Figure 2: Changes in the numbers of registered and teachers in private sector from 2007 to 2010

Figure 3: Private Institutions of Higher Education, 2007-2011


3.4. Scientific research

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IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

If it seems obvious that private university cannot invest in quality with a global vision, nor have the necessary
equipment such as a research lab, a large library, etc. The Moroccan state university is no longer in remarkably
distinguished. Indeed, a study carried out says that the deterioration of education in the Arab world is due to the
continuation of a recall strategy of high culture instead to produce it, the modest financing promoting scientific
research with a low awareness of its importance, as well as immigration brain towards more encouraging countries.
Developed countries spend a large part in financing scientific research. The United State, for example, reserves about
35% to funding scientific research, Israel 4.7%, while it does not exceed 0.01% in the entire Arab world.
Therefore, Arabs annually spend $ 535 million to scientific research, while it was amounted to $ 9 billion in Israel in
2008 alone. That is why the contribution of Arab Universities in global development through scientific research does
not exceed 1% (faced to 35% in America, 24% in Japan, 6% in Israel, and 3% in Europe). This is also justified by the
number of researchers in developed countries which is about 5000 researchers per million inhabitants, while that
number is around 318 researchers per million people in the Arab countries. Thus, memories of research presented by
Arab universities do not exceed 0.0003% of all global searches. Yes 0.0003%. Immigration brain constitutes a real
threat to advantage. 31% of immigrants from Arab origins, of which 50% are physicians, 32% are engineers. In
addition 54% of Arab students studying abroad decide not to return to their countries of origin so as to search for a
more democratic and facilitating scientific research environment.
In such environment, Arabic environments together, that does not grant more than 0.01% of its funding for scientific
research remains the reader of this article full freedom to imagine, first, the situation of Moroccan universities alone in
this sterile environment compared to other global research centers. On the other hand, it is to this same reader to
contemplate in efforts to achieve a research made by a Moroccan doctoral student.

4. FALLEN BACK ON THE JOB MARKET


4.1. In terms of university higher education
For 20 years, officials have been unable to form an obstacle to the achievement of 'the prediction' made. In other words,
the experts of the World Bank (1995 report) confirmed within the framework of the strategy and visions adopted at that
time Moroccan graduates may continue to risk serious difficulties integrating work related to the devaluation of the
university. "This category of labor will face a longer duration of job search. Some may accept precarious or temporary
jobs (jobs waiting or small day jobs). Others might fade out of employment. "3
3

BUNEL Matthew and Magali LENOIR, "The Social Network Moroccan graduates: a guarantee for employment but not for salary"

Today in 2014, the situation will be much more increased. If further studies should normally protect effectively against
unemployment and precarious, as in France, for example:

Figure 4: Unemployment rate in France 20104

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IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

The situation in Morocco is reversed. In general, unemployment is particularly active with a high school level, and is
characterized by a relatively large time:

Figure 5: Unemployment Rate (Annual) by level of education in Morocco from 1999 to 2010 (in%)
4.2. In terms of professional training
Unlike the integration of school graduates, recipients of professional training are subject to detailed monitoring. Indeed,
the monitoring policy adopted since 2006 continues to be successful, the following figure shows an example:
4

Results of the Generation 2007 survey

Figure 6: Evolution of the employment rate and insertion in Morocco from 2000 to 2008

5. CONCLUSION
According to laureates vocational training in Morocco, their unemployment is mainly due to the rarity of available
positions (66.6%), followed by the insufficiency of the proposed salary, poor working conditions, lack of required
experience, non-matching training needs with retained positions found, or the lack of methodology for job search.
Speaking of graduate education, in addition to the factors already mentioned (those related to vocational training), poor
orientation of graduates to fill the seats where instead of being based on a vision of developing well-calculated, then it
comes the lack of coordination with different components like the recruitment policies adopted by developed countries
(Japan, Germany ...).
In terms of recapitulation, the University-Business relationship must be challenged in a serious perfectible measur e.
Particular that "available data on unemployment in Morocco should be read very carefully. Indeed, the unemployment

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IPASJ International Journal of Management (IIJM)


A Publisher for Research Motivation........

Volume 4, Issue 6, June 2016

Web Site: http://www.ipasj.org/IIJM/IIJM.htm


Email: editoriijm@ipasj.org
ISSN 2321-645X

rate is particularly little meaning in an economy where the informal sector is important, where domestic labor is still
widespread and where inactivity of working age, whether chosen or imposed, is still very common."

REFERENCES
[1]. Jean-Christophe Maurin, and Thomas Melonio, "Training and employment in Morocco: Situation and
Recommendations" (September 2011) on, http://www.afd.fr/webdav/site/afd/shared/PUBLICATION / RESEARCH
/ Scientific / Documents-to-work / 116- document-travail.pdf, accessed 23/05/2014 at 10:40 (Jean-Christophe
Maurin is a member of the Education and Training Division, then queThomas Melonio is a member of the
Research Department, AFD (French Development Agency)).
[2]. BUNEL Matthew and Magali LENOIR, "The Social Network Moroccan graduates: a guarantee for employment
but not salary" on http://www.aed.auf.org/IMG/pdf/M.Lenoir.pdf, accessed 23/05/2014 at 10:42.
[3]. Souali Mohamed, "Morocco" on http://books.openedition.org/ifpo/767?lang=fr, consulted le23 / 05/2014 to 10: 39.
[4]. Tunisian Labour Organisation at the National School of Engineers in Tunisia (Ott-ENIT), "Level of education and
[5]. funding in the Arab world" on https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?v =451482208315298, accessed 05/23/2014
at 19:08

AUTHORS
Asmaa ELMORTADA is a member of the Research Team in Industrial Engineering at Cadi
Ayyad University, her research focuses on human resources management within industrial
enterprises. Asmaa ELMORTADA is the
corresponding author.
Ahmed MOKHLIS is a professor researcher at the Higher School of Technology of Safi
(EST_UCA) and a member of the research team at the National School of Applied Sciences of El
jadida (ENSAJ_UCD). Prof.Mokhliss research
interests in the area of measuring the performance of industrial processes, and industrial indicators.

Said ELFEZAZI is a professor in the Department of Instrumental Techniques and Quality Control
at the Higher School of Technology. He is currently responsible for the Research Team in Industrial
Engineering at Cadi Ayyad University. Prof. Elfezazis research interests in the performance of
industrial processes, project management, industrial indicators, and logistics.
Chams Eddoha MOKHLIS is an assistant professor at the National School of Commerce and Management (ENCG).
She received her PhD in management sciences from the Management School of the University of Strasbourg in 2014.
She is currently a researcher at the Laboratory of Management, Innovation and Economy. Her research focuses on
absorption of knowledge and human resource management.

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