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LTE- OFDMA & SCFDMA

LTE- OFDMA & SCFDMA

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Objective

Understand LTE Duplexing

Single Transmitter

FDMA Principle

Multi carrier principle

OFDMA and SC FDMA Principle

Multipath Propagation

Cyclic Prefix

OFDMA and SC FDMA

Transmitter

Receiver

Resource Block

FDMA Principle

Fourier

Transform

spectral power density

amplitude

Time Domain

fs

Ts

1

Ts

time

Advantages:

Simple to implement: there is no

complex filter system required to

detect such pulses and to generate

them.

The pulse has a clearly defined

duration. This is a major advantage

in case of multi-path propagation

environments as it simplifies handling

of inter-symbol interference.

Frequency Domain

Inverse

Fourier

Transform

fs

frequency f/fs

Disadvantage:

It allocates a quite huge spectrum

However the spectral power density

has null points exactly at multiples

of the frequency fs = 1/Ts.

This will be important in OFDM.

OFDMA Principle

Transmits hundreds or even thousands of separately modulated

radio signals using orthogonal subcarriers spread across a

wideband channel

Total transmission bandwidth

15 kHz in LTE: fixed

Orthogonality:

The peak (centre

frequency) of one

subcarrier

intercepts the

nulls of the

neighbouring

subcarriers

OFDM Basics

Data is sent in parallel across the set of subcarriers, each subcarrier only

transports a part of the whole transmission

The throughput is the sum of the data rates of each individual (or used)

subcarriers while the power is distributed to all used subcarriers

FFT ( Fast Fourier Transform) is used to create the orthogonal subcarriers.

The number of subcarriers is determined by the FFT size ( by the bandwidth)

Power

Bandwidth

Frequency

OFDM Signal

OFDM: Nutshell

Frequency-Time Representation

FFT/IFFT

It can be shown that the OFDM signal may be obtained by transforming

L data symbols by the IFFT, where L is the number of subcarriers.

Therefore, OFDM transmitter and receiver are implemented using IFFT

and FFT respectively.

Time-domain

(to be transmitted)

d1

d2

dL

IFFT

FFT

d1

d2

dL

protection against multipath (i.e. ISI), temporal variations (i.e. ICI), and

design cost/complexity.

LTE FFT period is 66.67 usec, corresponding to the 15 KHz subcarrier

separation.

Good performance in frequency selective fading

channels

Low complexity of base-band receiver

Good spectral properties and handling of multiple

bandwidths

Link adaptation

Frequency domain scheduling

Compatibility with advanced receiver and antenna

technologies.

Challenges

1) ISI

Solution: CP

2) Multi-Carrier Modulation

The center frequencies must be spaced so that interference between different

carriers, known as Adjacent Carrier Interference ACI, is minimized; but not too

much spaced as the total bandwidth will be wasted.

Each carrier uses an upper and lower guard band to protect itself from its

adjacent carriers. Nevertheless, there will always be some interference

between the adjacent carriers.

fsubcarrier

fsub-used

f0

f1

f2

fN-2

fN-1

frequency

Power Density

Power Density

called the subcarriers - into a given frequency band.

Frequency (f/fs)

Saved

Bandwidth

Frequency (f/fs)

due to the orthogonal subcarriers !

The price for the optimum subcarrier spacing is the sensitivity of OFDM

to frequency errors.

If the receivers frequency slips some fractions from the subcarriers

center frequencies, then we encounter not only interference between

adjacent carriers, but in principle between all carriers.

This is known as Inter-Carrier Interference (ICI) and sometimes also

referred to as Leakage Effect in the theory of discrete Fourier

transform.

One possible cause that introduces frequency errors is a fast moving

Transmitter or Receiver (Doppler effect).

Subcarrier has no longer its

power density maximum- so

loose of signal energy.

no longer a null point here.

So we get some noise from

the other subcarrier.

I3

I1

I4

I0

f0

f1

f2

f3

f4

Frequency Drift

OFDM Transmitter

f0 f1 f2

b10 ,b11,

Modulation

Mapper

s0

b20 ,b21,

Modulation

Mapper

s1

Serial to

Parallel

Converter

(Bit

Distrib.)

.

.

.

x0 x1

sN-1

t0 t1 xt22

fN-1 freq.

tN-1 time

cos(2fct)

Frequency Domain

Binary

Coded

Data

s1 s2

IFFT

Time

Domain

CP/Guard

Generation

Frequency

Domain Signal:

(Collection of

Sinusoids)

s0

xN-1

I

IQ

Split

D

A

D

A

Low

Pass

Low

Pass

RF

-sin(2fct)

bN-1 0

Modulation

Mapper

sN-1

corresponds to a different subcarrier

Each sub-carrier is modulated

independently by Modulation

Schemes:

BPSK,QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM

OFDM Receiver

tN-1 time

Frequency Domain

AGC

Automatic

Gain Control

s0

s0

s1

s1

.

.

.

sN-1

reference

(pilot)

Channel Correction

Windowing +

FFT

signal autocorreation

timee

adjust

phase correction

LNA gain

Derotator

signal strength

Demodulator

RF

+ Bandpass

Time Domain

sN-1

Channel

Estimation

sN-1

f0 f1 f2

Bit Mapping

Bit Mapping

.

.

.

channel

response

t0 t1 t2

Frequency Domain

x2

s1 s2

fN-1 freq.

B10 ,B11,

B20 ,B21,

.

.

.

.

.

.

BN-1 0

Bit Mapping

QPSK

Im

11

01

sk

d11

Re

d10

00

10

Bit Distribution

s0

yN-1

y0 y1

Soft Bit

Coded

Data

1) Variable Bandwidth options: 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15 and 20 MHz

Frequency

f

Power

density

2) Subcarrier Spacing (f = 15 KHz)

The Symbol time is

Tsymbol = 1/ f = 66,7s

Frequency

Amplitude

TCP

TSYMBOL

CP

T

SYMBOL

TS

Time

3) The number of Subcarriers Nc

If BW = 20MHz Transmission BW = 20MHz 2MHz = 18 MHz

the number of subcarriers Nc = 18MHz/15KHz = 1200 subcarriers

Channel Bandwidth [MHz]

Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB]

Transmission

Bandwidth [RB]

Channel edge

Resource block

Channel edge

4) FFT (Fast Fourier Transform) size Nfft

For a bandwidth BW = 20 MHz

Nc = 1200 subcarriers not a power of 2

The next power of 2 is 2048 the rest 2048 -1200

848 padded with zeros

5. Sampling rate fs

This parameter indicates what is the sampling frequency:

fs = Nfft x f

Example: for a bandwidth BW = 5 MHz (with 10% guard band)

The number of subcarriers Nc = 4.5 MHz/ 15 KHz = 300

300 is not a power of 2 next power of 2 is 512 Nfft = 512

Fs = 512 x 15 KHz = 7,68 MHz fs = 2 x 3,84 MHz which is the chip rate in

UMTS!!

The sampling rate is a multiple of the chip rate from UMTS/ HSPA. This

was acomplished because the subcarriers spacing is 15 KHz. This

means UMTS and LTE have the same clock timing!

OFDM Recap

Bandwidth

(NCf)

1.4 MHz

3 MHz

5 MHz

Subcarrier

10 MHz

15 MHz

20 MHz

Symbol

duration

Sampling rate,

fS (MHz)

1.92

3.84

7.68

15.36

23.04

30.72

Data

Subcarriers (NC)

72

180

300

600

900

1200

NIFFT

(IFFT Length)

128

320

512

1024

1536

2048

15

25

50

75

100

Number of

Resource Blocks

Symbols/slot

CP length

Normal CP=4.69/5.12sec., Extended CP= 16.67sec

OFDMA Challenges

ICI

(Inter carrier Interference-ICI)

Frequency

(PAPR)

SC FDMA

SC-FDMA

Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple

Access is another variant of OFDMA used to

reduce the PAPR for lower RF hardware

requirements.

SC-FDMA is a new hybrid modulation scheme

that cleverly combines the low PAR of singlecarrier systems with the multipath resistance

and flexible subcarrier frequency allocation

offered by OFDM.

OFDMA

and it is the method selected for EUTRAN in the

uplink direction.

SC-FDMA

dB compared to normal OFDMA.

SC-FDMA transmits data in series employing multiple subcarriers

In the example:

OFDMA: 6 modulation symbols ( 01,10,11,01,10 and 10) are

transmitted per OFDMA symbol, one on each subcarrier

SC-FDMA: 6 modulation symbols are transmitted per SC-FDMA

symbol using all subcarriers. The duration of each modulation

symbol is 1/6th of the modulation symbol in OFDMA

OFDMA

SC-FDMA

Difference in transmission: for SC-FDMA there is an extra block on

the transmission chain: the FFT block

which should spread the input modulation symbols over all the

allocated subcarriers

OFDM

SC-FDMA

From:

TS 36.211.

SC-FDMA Principles

PAPR is the same as that used for the input modulation symbols

This could be achieved by transmitting N

modulation symbols in series at N times the

rate.

One can see that the SC-FDMA symbol which is

having 66.66s is containing N sub-symbols

N = 6 in the example shown

In Time domain only one modulation symbol

is transmitted at a time.

should be multiple of 2,3 and/or 5

This limitation is imposed by the input of the FFT block which is

before the IFFT. This enables efficient implementation of the

FFT.

Note that also the number of Resource Blocks should be

multiple of 2,3 or/and 5

SC-FDMA Principles

The FFT output size is always smaller than the IFFT input size

This is because a typical cells uplink

capacity will be greater than 180kHz

Other UEs will be assigned other groups of

subcarriers to use across the uplink channel

bandwidth.

No two UEs will be assigned the same

180KHz block to use simultaneously.

As not all sub-carriers are used by the

mobile station, many of them are set to zero

in the diagram

Note that if the output size of the FFT is equal

to the size of the IFFT input then the overall

effect is null since the two operations (FFT and

IFFT are complementary)

FFT

Subcarriers

allocated for one

UE

Subcarriers

allocated to

other users or

set to zero

.

.

.

IFFT

SC-FDMA Principles

Adjusting the data rate in SC-FDMA

If the data rate increases more bandwidth is needed to transmit more modulation

symbols (when data rate is doubled the resource allocation in the frequency domain

is also doubled). The individual transmission is now shorter in time but wider in

the frequency domain.

For double data rate the amount of inputs in transmitter doubles and the subsymbol duration (Time) is halved. Note that the SC-FDMA is still 67 s

rate

SC-FDMA

subsymbol

duration

Halved SC-FDMA

sub-symbol

duration

Doubled

bandwidth

Initial

bandwidth

SC-FDMA

symbol 67s

SC-FDMA

symbol 67s

In the example 6 modulation symbols are sent initially and 12 modulations for double data rate

SC-FDMA: Multiplexing

Smallest uplink bandwidth, 12 subcarriers: 180 kHz (same for OFDMA in downlink)

Largest uplink bandwidth: 20 MHz (same for OFDMA in downlink)

for one user (same for OFDMA in downlink)

Receiver

User 1

User 1

User 2

User 2

Bandwidth Distribution

Carrier

Number of

Bandwidth

SubCarriers

(MHz)

1.4

72

198

330

10

660

15

990

20

1320

Interspersed Among Resource

Elements

[source: 3GPP TR 25.814]

The Usage of RE

One subframe (1ms)

12 subcarriers

Frequency

Resource elements

reserved for

reference symbols

Control Channel

Region (1-3 OFDM symbols)

Data

Region

Time

Duplexing FDD/TDD

FDD

..

..

TDD

..

Single frequency

band

Downlink

..

Uplink

subframe 1 msec

Type 1

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

0

1 2 3 4 5 6

7 OFDM symbols (short CP)

radio frame 10 ms

UpPTS

GP

DwPTS

UpPTS

Slot

GP

UL/DL

carrier

DwPTS

subframe 0 subframe 1 subframe 2 subframe 3 subframe 4 subframe 5 subframe 6 subframe 7 subframe 8 subframe 9

half frame

half frame

time

radio frame 10 ms

UpPTS

Slot

GP

UL/DL

carrier

DwPTS

subframe 0 subframe 1 subframe 2 subframe 3 subframe 4 subframe 5 subframe 6 subframe 7 subframe 8 subframe 9

half frame

half frame

time

Downlink Slot

Uplink Slot

Uplink or Downlink

Special Slot

Special Subframe

DwPTS (Downlink Pilot Timeslot Channel)

Can contain synchronization, PDSCH and PDCCH.

The DwPTS is used for downlink synchronization.

Primary synchronization signal transmitted in the first OFDM symbol of the

DwPTS.

Secondary synchronization signal transmitted in the last OFDM symbol of

subframe 0 (immediately preceding to the DwPTS).

Resources not used for synchronization signals can be used for data,

reference signals and control signaling.

Used by eNB to determine the received power level and the received

timing from the UE.

Resources not used for reference signals(sounding and/or demodulation

reference signals) can be used for random access.

No PUCCH is transmitted in UpPTS.

GP (Guard Period)

The guard period between DwPTS and UpPTS determines the maximum cell

size.

Configuration1 DL:UL=2:2 (or 3:2)

Configuration2 DL:UL=3:1 (or 4:1)

Uplinkdownlink

configuration

Downlink-to-Uplink

Switch-point

periodicity

5 ms

5 ms

5 ms

10 ms

10 ms

10 ms

5 ms

Downlink

Subframe number

Special

Uplink

Plain OFDM

on OFDM

time

time

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

1

.

.

.

2

.

.

.

3

.

.

.

...

2

.

.

.

2

.

.

.

2

.

.

.

...

1

.

.

.

1

.

.

.

1

.

.

.

...

...

...

.

.

.

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

...

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

subcarrier

.

.

.

...

subcarrier

.

.

.

time

...

subcarrier

subcarrier

.

.

.

Orthogonal Frequency

Multiple Access

OFDMA

time

...

.

.

.

Multiple Access

OFDMA

...

...

.

.

.

.

.

.

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

UE 1

UE 2

UE 3

common info

(may be addressed via HL)

Summary

Understand LTE Duplexing

Single Transmitter

FDMA Principle

Multi carrier principle

OFDMA and SC FDMA Principle

Multipath Propagation

Cyclic Prefix

OFDMA and SC FDMA

Transmitter

Receiver

Resource Block

HAPPY LEARNING

MobileComm Professionals, Inc.

www.mcpsinc.com

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