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COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

ELEVATION IN BOILING POINT


Submitted By : Subrat Sarangi
Class : XII
School :

Session :

INDEX
OBJECTIVE
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
CERTIFICATE
INTRODUCTION
LIQUID SOLUTION
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES
VANT HOFF FACTOR
THEORY
GRAPH
PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THE
VANT HOFF FACTOR
APPARATUS REQUIRED
CHEMICAL REQUIRED
PROCEDURE
OBSERVATION TABLE
CALCULATIONS
RESULT
USE OF THIS PROJECT
REFERENCES

OBJECTIVE

TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF ADDITION OF A NON-VOLATILE


SOLUTE (SODIUM CHLORIDE AND SUCROSE) TO A
VOLATILE SOLVENT AND ALSO TO CALCULATE THE VANT
HOFF FACTOR AND THUS TO DEMONSTRATE THAT
ELEVATION IN BOILING POINT DEPENDS UPON THE
RELATIVE NUMBER OF MOLES OF THE SOLUTE AND
SOLVENT, BUT DOESNT DEPEND ON THE NATURE OF THE
SOLUTE.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I WOULD LIKE TO EXPRESS MY GRATITUDE AND SINCERE
THANKS TO MRS __________________________________ FOR HER
ENCOURAGEMENT AND FOR ALL THE FACILITIES THAT SHE
PROVIDED FOR THIS PROJECT. I ALSO EXTEND MY THANKS
TO MS ____________, MY CHEMISTRY TEACHER, WHO HAS
GUIDED AND MOTIVATED ME AT EVERY STAGE OF THIS
PROJECT FOR THE SUCCESSFUL COMPLETION OF THIS
PROJECT. I WOULD ALSO LIKE TO THANK MR _______, WHO
HAS HELPED ME WITH THE EASY ACCESSIBILITY OF
APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS IN THE LAB.

CERTIFICATE
THIS IS TO CERTIFY THAT THIS BONAFIDE PROJECT WORK
ENTITLED AS COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES IN THE SUBJECT
OF CHEMISTRY HAS BEEN DONE BY SUBRAT SARANGI OF
CLASS XII IN THE ACADEMIC YEAR 2016-2017 UNDER MY
SUPERVISION AND SUBMITTED THE REPORT OF THE SAME
FOR AISSCE PRACTICAL EXAMINATION BY CBSE AT
________________________.

INTRODUCTION
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES ARE THOSE PROPERTIES OF
DILUTE SOLUTIONS WHICH DEPEND ENTIRELY ON THE
NUMBER OF MOLES OF SOLUTE CONTAINED IN THE
SOLUTION AND NOT ON THE NATURE OF THE SOLUTE.

IT MEANS THAT TWO SOLUTIONS HAVING DIFFERENT


COMPONENTS BUT SAME MOLE-FRACTION OF SOLUTE CAN
HAVE IDENTICAL COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES.

SOME OF THE COLLIGAVTIVE PROPERTIES ARE MENTIONED


BELOW:
RELATIVE LOWERING OF VAPOUR PRESSURE.
ELEVATION IN BOILING POINT.
DEPRESSION IN FREEZING POINT
OSMOTIC PRESSURE

LIQUID SOLUTIONS

IF THE SOLVENT IS A LIQUID, THEN GASES, LIQUIDS, AND


SOLIDS CAN BE DISSOLVED IN IT.
HERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES :
GAS IN LIQUIDS
1. OXYGEN IN WATER
2. CARBON DIOXIDE IN WATER
LIQUID IN LIQUID
1. ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES ARE BASICALLY
SOLUTIONS OF ETHANOL IN WATER.
SOLID IN LIQUID
1. SUCROSE (TABLE SUGAR) IN WATER

2. SODIUM CHLORID OR ANY OTHER SALT IN


WATER, WHICH FORMS AN ELECTROLYTE.

GAS IN LIQUID

LIQUID IN LIQUID

Cola is a sweetened,

An alcoholic beverage is a

carbonated soft, derived

drink which contains

from drinks that originally

substantial amount of

contained caffeine. Carbon

ethanol, commonly known

Dioxide gas is dissolved in

as alcohol. It essential is

the solution in order to

ethanol dissolved in

ensure the fizz.

water.

Sugar Syrup is a condiment


that is a thick, viscous liquid
consisting primarily of
a solution of sugar in water,
containing a large amount of
dissolved sugars but
showing little tendency to

deposit crystals.

SOLID IN LIQUID

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES

COLLIGATIVE PROPERTIES ARE THE PROPERTIES OF A


SOLUTIONS WHICH DEPEND ONLY ON THE NUMBER OF
PARTICLES LIKE IONS OR MOLECULES OF THE SOLUTE IN
DEFINITE AMOUNT OF THE SOLVENT BUT NOT ON THE
NATURE OF THE SOLUTE. THESE ARE AS FOLLOWS :

1. RELATIVE LOWERING OF VAPOUR PRESSURE

WHEN A NON VOLATILE SOLUTE IS ADDED IN A VOLATILE


SOLVENT , THE VAPOUR PRESSURE OF SOLUTION
BECOMES LESS THAN THE VAPOUR PRESSURE OF PURE
SOLVENT. IT IS DUE TO INCREASE IN DENSITY WHCH
DECREASES RATE OF EVAPORATION.

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IF

= VAPOUR PRESSURE OF PURE SOLVENT

= VAPOUR PRESSURE OF SOLVENT IN SOLUTION


THE LOWERING OF VAPOUR PRESSURE

)
THE RELATIVE LOWERING OF VAPOUR PRESSURE IS
DEFINED AS THE RATIO BETWEEN LOWERING OF VAPOUR
PRESUURE AND THE VAPOUR PRESSURE OF PURE
SOLVENT.

WHEN A SOLUTION IS PREPARED BY MIXING THE NON


VOLATILE SOLUTE B AND SOLVENT A :

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HERE,

IS THE MOLE FRACTION OF SOLUTE.

AS

HERE,

= NUMBER OF MOLES OF THE SOLUTE


= NUMBER OF MOLES OF THE SOLVENT

2. ELEVATION IN BOILING POINT


BOILING POINT IS THE TEMPERATURE OF A LIQUID AT
WHICH ITS VAPOUR PRESSURE BECOMES EQUAL TO
THE ATMOSTPHERIC PRESSURE.

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ELEVATION IN BOILING POINT IS ALSO TERMED AS


EBULLIOSCOPY.

IT IS THE INCREASE IN BOILING POINT OF A SOLVENT


DUE TO THE ADDITION OF NON VOLATILE SOLUTE IN
IT. IT IS DENOTED BY
NOW

HENCE

HERE,

= WEIGHT OF SOLUTE
= WEIGHT OF SOLVENT
= MOLAL ELEVATION CONSTANT

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3. DEPRESSION IN FREEZING POINT


IT IS THE DECREASE IN FREEZING POINT OF A
SOLVENT DUE TO THE ADDITION OF NON VOLATILE
SOLUTE.

THIS IS ALSO TERMED AS CRYOSCOPY.

IT IS DENOTED BY
NOW

HENCE

HERE,

= WEIGHT OF SOLUTE
= WEIGHT OF SOLVENT
= MOLAL DEPRESSION CONSTANT

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4. OSMOTIC PRESSURE
OSMOTIC PRESSURE IS THE EQUILIBRIUM
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE OF THE COLUMN SET UP AS
A RESULT OF OSMOSIS.

IT IS DENOTE BY
VANT HOFF EQUATION OF OSMOTIC PRESSURE

HERE ,

= OSMOTIC PRESSURE
= CONCENTRATION OF SOLUTION IN MOL/L
= SOLUTION CONSTANT

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VANT HOFF FACTOR


CERTAIN SOLUTION WHICH UNDERGO DISSOCIATION OR
ASSOCIATION IN SOLUTION ARE FOUND TO SHOW
ABNORMAL MOLECULAR MASS. DUE TO THIS, THE
COLLIGATIVE PROPERTY BECOME ABNORMAL WHICH CAN
BE EXPLAINED BY VANT HOFF FACTOR.

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FOR SOLUTES SHOWING ASSOCIATION VANT HOFF


FACTOR IS LESS THAN 1.

FOR SOLUTES SHOWING DISSOCIATION VANT HOFF IS


GREATER THAN 1.

FOR SOLUTES SHOWING NEITHER DISSOCIATION NOR


ASSOCIATION VANT HOFF FACTOR IS 1.

DEGREE OF DISSOCIATION

DEGREE OF ASSOCIATION

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THEORY
THE BOILING POINT ELEVATION IS A COLLIGATIVE
PROPERTY, WHICH MEANS THAT IT IS DEPENDENT ON THE
PRESENCE OF DISSOLVED PARTICLES AND THEIR NUMBER,
BUT NOT THEIR IDENTITY.

IT IS AN EFFECT OF THE DILUTION OF THE SOLVENT IN THE


PRESENCE OF A SOLUTE.

IT IS A PHENOMENON THAT HAPPENS FOR ALL SOLUTES IN


ALL SOLUTIONS, EVEN IN IDEAL SOLUTIONS, AND DOES NOT
DEPEND ON ANY SPECIFIC SOLUTE - SOLVENT
INTERACTIONS.

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A LIQUID BOILS AT THE TEMPERATURE WHEN ITS VAPOR


PRESSURE EQUALS THE SURROUNDING PRESSURE.

A NON-VOLATILE SOLUTE HAS ZERO VAPOR PRESSURE , SO


THE VAPOR PRESSURE OF THE SOLUTION IS LESS THAN THE
VAPOR PRESSURE OF THE SOLVENT.

THUS, A HIGHER TEMPERATURE IS NEEDED FOR THE VAPOR


PRESSURE TO REACH THE SURROUNDING PRESSURE, AND
THE BOILING POINT IS ELEVATED.

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GRAPH

ELEVATION IN BOILING POINT DUE TO ADDITION


OF A NON VOLATILE SOLUTE IN THE SOLVENT

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PHYSICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF
VANT HOFF FACTOR
WHEN SOLUTE PARTICLES ASSOCIATE IN
SOLUTION, VANT HOFF FACTOR IS LESS THAN 1.
FOR EXAMPLE, BENZOIC ACID FORMS DIMERS IN
BENZENE, SO THAT THE NUMBER OF SOLUTE
PARTICLES IS HALF THE NUMBER OF ACID
MOLECULES.

WHEN SOLUTE PARTICLES DISSOCIATE IN


SOLUTION, VANT HOFF FACTOR IS GREATER THAN 1.
FOR EXAMPLE, SODIUM CHLORIDE IN
WATER, POTASSIUM CHLORIDE IN WATER, MAGNESIUM
CHLORIDE IN WATER.

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WHEN SOLUTE PARTICLES NEITHER DISSOCIATE NOR


ASSOCIATE IN SOLUTION, VANT HOFF FACTOR
EQUALS 1. FOR EXAMPLE, GLUCOSE IN WATER.

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APPARATUS AND CHEMICALS


REQUIRED
APPARTUS REQUIRED
BUNSEN BURNER
TRIPOD STAND
WIRE MESH
250ML FLASK
GLASS STIRRER
THERMOMETER
TAP WATER

CHEMICALS REQUIRED
SODIUM CHLORIDE
SUCROSE

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PROCEDURE
1. THE APPARTUS WAS SET UP USING A 250 ML BEAKER
CONTAING 200 ML OF THE EXPERIMENTAL SOLUTION.

2. THE BEAKER WAS PUT ON A TRIPOD STAND WITH A WIRE


MESH AND A BUNSEN BURNER WAS USED TO HEAT THE
SOLUTION

3. A CELESTIAL THERMOMETER CALIBRATED UP TO 110 C WAS


IMMERSED IN THE SOLUTION IN THE BEAKER WITH THE HELP
OF A CLAMP STAND.

4. THE INITIAL TEMPERATURE TAKEN BEFORE STARTING THE


EXPERIMENT WAS CONSIDERED AS THE ROOM
TEMPERATURE.

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5. AT FIRST, THE BOILING POINT OF TAP WATER WAS FOUND.


THIS TEMPERATURE WAS TAKEN AS THE STANDARD BOILING
POINT OF THE SOLUTION.

6. NOW, THREE DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF NACL


WAS PREPARED AND 250ML OF EACH WAS BOILED ONE
BY ONE IN THE BEAKER.

7. READINGS OF THE TEMPERATURE WERE TAKEN AFTER


EVERY 20 SECONDS. AFTER 90 SECONDS, THE
READINGS WERE TAKEN AFTER EVERY 10SECONDS.

8. SAME PROCEDURE WAS FOLLOWED FOR SUCROSE.

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OBSERVATION TABLE

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CALCULATIONS

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RESULT

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USE OF THIS PROJECT

MANY MATERIALS CANNOT BE VAPORIZED FOR


DIRECT DETERMINATION OF THE VAPOR DENSITY
WITHOUT DECOMPOSITION.

IN SUCH CASES THE MATERIAL IS DISSOLVED IN


SUITABLE SOLVENT, AND THE ELEVATION OF THE
BOILING POINT FURNISHES A RAPID AND
CONVENIENT METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE
MOLECULAR WEIGHT.

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REFERNCES

NCERT CLASS 12
WIKIPEDIA.COM
PRACTICAL CHEMISTRY BY N.K. VERMA
GOOGLE.COM
AGLASEM.COM

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