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EUROPE & RUSSIA

GLOBAL STUDIES

Name:

Comparing Economic Systems


After World War II, a state of hostility developed between the United States and the Soviet Union. One major
reason for this tension was the clash between communism (the economic system of the Soviet Union) and
capitalism (the economic system of the United States). Both wished to promote their economic system in
occupied areas across the globe.

Capitalism
Definition
An economic system in which people can own
their own business and property. Competition
between private businesses is promoted. The
government supports a free market system,
meaning that people have choices as far as what
they spend money on.

Communism
Definition
An economic system in which the government
has complete control over the economy. The
government controls the means of production
and businesses. People are allowed few choices
as everyone is forced to shares goods and
services equally.

1. Explain one major difference between the two systems.

2. What might be one advantage of communism?

3. What is a major disadvantage of a communist system?

4. What is the biggest advantage of capitalism?

5. Describe one disadvantage of a capitalist system.

6. Why do you think both the US and Soviet Union wanted to promote their system for other countries?

Students of History - http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Students-Of-History

warm up:
comparing economic
systems

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
The Cold War was basically a

competition between two very


different ways of organizing
government.
west believed in democracy
east believed in

communism

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
Cold War
Following World War II, Soviet forces occupied much

of Eastern and Central Europe and East Germany.


Yalta Conference
a meeting of Englands Winston Churchill, Soviet

Joseph Stalin, and President Franklin D. Roosevelt


agreed to four zones of occupation in Germany to

be run by their three countries and France.

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
Division of Germany
After the war, Germany was divided by

the Allies
West Germany: controlled by U.S.,

G.B. & France


East Germany: controlled by Soviet

Union
City of Berlin was also divided
West Berlin: controlled by U.S., G.B. &

France
East Berlin: controlled by Soviet Union

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
Warsaw Pact
was a collective defense

treaty among eight


communist states; led by
the USSR.
NATO
a collective defense

whereby its member states


agree to mutual defense in
response to an attack by
any external party.

Name ________________________

Cold War Dinner Party


Directions: Imagine that you get the chance to host a dinner party to help ease the tension of the Cold War. You want to
make sure things go well and dont lead to an all-out war! To do so, you must seat all 8 people in a way that they get along
with the people sitting next to them.
Ronald Reagan

Mao Zedong

Harry Truman

John F. Kennedy

Ho Chi Minh

Fidel Castro

Richard Nixon

Mikhail Gorbachev

In each square, draw that persons picture and write their name underneath. Then figure out who they would most like to
talk to and seat that person next to them. In the space provided, explain what made you seat them that way and what they
will talk about.

Are seated next to each


other because.

Are seated next to each


other because.

Are seated next to each


other because.

Are seated next to each


other because.

Students of History - http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Students-Of-History

Cold war dinner


party!

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
By the late 80s, East German citizens held mass

protests to show their desire for new leadership.


The Berlin Wall, which divided communist East

Berlin from democratic West Berlin, was the bestknown symbol of the Cold War.
by late 1989 the communist government of East

Germany was so unstable that East German


citizens began to tear down whole sections of
the wall.

The butter battle reading & worksheet

The Iron Curtain

Rises on Eastern Europe


Visit this website, look at
the maps, and shade
Yugoslavia during the cold
War and again in 1992.

http://goo.gl/F7LDxr

Warm up:
The iron curtain rises
on eastern europe

Europe During The Cold War

Yugoslavia 1992

What problems do you think


could arise from shifting
national borders? Explain.
________________________
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Visit this website, read, and answer the


questions below. http://goo.gl/y2n0Wg
1. While the collapse of Communism brought freedom to Eastern Europe, it
also brought chaos. Why?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
2. What was evidence that former Soviet Blocs had repudiated (disowned)
their former status as Soviet Satellites?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________
3. What symbolized Eastern Europes coming out party from behind the
iron curtain? ______________________________________________
4. How did Soviet rule benefit ethnic rivalries in Eastern Europe?
_________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

HISTORICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Yugoslavia
Post WWII created Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia created as a

communist state (modeled after Soviet Union)


1986 Slobodan Milosevic elected president of Serbia
believed in Serbian nationalism & dominance over all other ethnicities
Ethnicities of Yugoslavia
Serbians, Macedonians, Montenegrins (Orthodox Christian)
Croats & Slovenians (Roman Catholic)
Albanians, Bosnians & Herzegovinians (Muslim)
1991 : Croatia & Slovenia declare independence
Result: Yugoslav army invades > U.N. peacekeepers sent >truce

HISTORICAL CHARACTERISTICS
Yugoslavia
1992: Bosnia & Herzegovina declare

independence leaving Yugoslavia.


Yugoslav troops invade & seize land
carry out ethnic cleansing against

Bosnia & Muslims


Bosnian Muslims carry out revenge

killings
U.N. & NATO intervene w/air strikes
ends w/1995 Dayton Peace Accords
international peacekeepers remain

in Bosnia

https://goo.gl/GoIFfQ
http://goo.gl/WWG1tM

Case study: Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia

Modern Ethnic and Religious Conflicts


The Middle East
The Middle East has seen great conflict over the past 60 years. The biggest has been the ArabIsraeli conflict, which refers
to political tension and hostilities between Arab peoples and the Jewish community of the Middle East. The conflict
between Palestinian Jews and Arabs emerged in the early 20th century, expanding to all Arab League countries with the
creation of the modern State of Israel in 1948. Territory regarded by the Jewish people as their historical homeland is also
regarded by Arabs as belonging to the Palestinian Arabs and regarded as Muslim lands.
The conflict, which started as a political and nationalist conflict over competing territorial ambitions following the collapse
of the Ottoman Empire, has shifted over the years from the large scale ArabIsraeli conflict to a more local Israeli
Palestinian conflict. Peace agreements were signed between Israel and Egypt in 1979, and Israel and Jordan in 1994.
Nevertheless, the Arab world and Israel remain at odds with each other.

warm up:
modern Ethnic and
Religious Conflicts

Northern Ireland
A religious and political conflict has gone on in Northern Ireland which spilled over at various times
into England, and the Republic of Ireland since the 1960s. The principal issue was division of the
island into Northern Ireland as part of the United Kingdom, and the Republic of Ireland, an
independent state. Mainly Protestant unionists and Catholic nationalists have been at odds since
the United Kingdom granted independence to Ireland in 1920.
The conflict has been called The Troubles and there were terrorist acts committed by both
Protestants and Catholics in Northern Ireland. The worst part of the conflict was called
Bloody Sunday, which occurred on January 30, 1972 in Derry, Northern Ireland. 26
unarmed civil-rights protesters and bystanders were shot by soldiers of the British Army. It
was not until 2012 that British Prime Minister David Cameron issued a formal apology.
Many agree that the conflict ended with the Belfast Good Friday Agreement of 1998. However,
sporadic violence has been ongoing since then.
The Balkans

The Balkan Peninsula in Europe has been a place of great conflict for over 100
years. In the former Yugoslavia from 1991 to 1995 (and again from 1998-2001)
republics who sought sovereignty have clashed with the government in Belgrade.
The wars were bitter ethnic conflicts among the peoples of the former Yugoslavia,
mostly between two ethnic groups known as Serbs and Croats. The conflicts have
become infamous for the war crimes involved, including mass murder and genocide.
These were the first conflicts since World War II to be formally labeled as genocide
and many key individual participants were subsequently charged with war crimes.
The most famous of which was former President of Yugoslavia and Serbia,
Slobodan Miloevi. He was charged with war crimes in 2006, but died before a
verdict was reached.

The wars ended in various stages and mostly resulted in full international
recognition of new sovereign territories of Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo,
Croatia, Slovenia, and Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The Horn of Africa
The Horn of Africa is the region of East Africa which includes Somalia,
Ethiopia, and Kenya. In 1991, a civil war began in Somalia that has lasted
until the present. The UN sent peacekeepers to the region in 1993. They were
removed soon after the US suffered significant casualties in the Battle of
Mogadishu, which was made into the film Black Hawk Down. Acts of piracy
from Somalians off the coast of Africa in recent years have brought more
attention to the region and demands for global intervention.
Students of History - http://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Store/Students-Of-History

HISTORIC CHARACTERISTICS
North Ireland
Northern Ireland is a part of Great Britain
The Troubles
Catholics (the minority) had begun to face

discrimination by Protestants.
protests erupted and in 1972, British troops killed 20

people in protest (Bloody Sunday)


1969 to 1997 Irish Republican Army (IRA) promoted

violence (ex. car bombs) in uniting Ireland and


pushing the British out of Northern Ireland.

Name________________________
Global Studies

The Northern Ireland Conflict


In the 16th Century, the Protestant religion was born
from the Reformation and Henry VIII led the Church
of England away from the rule of the Roman Catholic
Church. In an attempt to control Catholic Ireland and
anglicize the country, the English crown confiscated
land from Irish landowners and gave it to Protestant
settlers from England and Scotland. This process of
plantation carried on throughout the 16th and 17th
centuries. Catholic Ireland, repressed by the Protestant
English crown became the scene of sectarian and
ideological conflict for centuries to come.
THE BIRTH OF NORTHERN IRELAND
Under the terms of the Government of Ireland Act
1920, the Irish Free State was born on 6th December
1922. The act also
provided the unionist
majority six counties in
Ulster (known as
Northern Ireland), the
opportunity to opt out of
any future Irish Free State
and remain a part of the
United Kingdom. The
government of Northern
Ireland (also established
under the act)
immediately decided to
remain within the United
Kingdom and the
Parliament of Northern
Ireland was created on
7th December 1922.
THE NORTHERN
IRELAND CIVIL
RIGHTS MOVEMENT
During the 1960s, various
groups began to emerge protesting against the
Northern Ireland government and its policies. The civil
rights movement sought equality for all citizens in the
shape of job, housing, voting and policing reforms.
Although the demands of these groups would affect all
citizens of Northern Ireland, the civil rights movement
was increasingly seen as one which catered more to
Catholic (due to claims of discrimination). As the
movement continued into the late 60s, clashes with the

Royal Ulster Constabulary (RUC) became more


frequent, forcing the British government to introduce
the British Army onto the streets of Northern Ireland.
With clashes surrounding the civil rights movement
escalating into the outbreak of the Troubles in the late
1960s and despite achieving most of their reforms, the
civil rights movement took a backseat to the violence
that went on to engulf Northern Ireland.
THE TROUBLES HOW DID IT BEGIN?
The beginning of the Troubles is a date that is disputed
some people believe that the turning point was 5th
October 1968 whilst others believe that it was the
deployment of the British Army onto the streets of
Northern Ireland in August 1969. In Belfast, many
Catholics were burned from their homes by loyalist
mobs. In nationalist areas where such incidents
occurred, the Irish Republican Army were criticized
for failing to protect these communities. This criticism
led to a pivotal split in the IRA. In December 1969 the
Provisional Irish Republican Army formed, breaking
away from the IRA (who became known as the Official
IRA). The PIRA began a violent campaign against the
RUC, British Army and state of Northern Ireland.
Their aim was to rid Northern Ireland of British rule
and unite it with the Republic of Ireland. By 1972, the
British government had assumed control of Northern
Ireland in an attempt to restore order but with an
increased number of troops deployed onto the streets,
tensions soared and attacks increased.
PATHWAYS TO PEACE
The Anglo-Irish Agreement, signed in November
1985, was an attempt to improve the relationship
between the Republic of Ireland and Britain and to
help bring an end to hostilities in Northern Ireland. It
was hoped that the Agreement would bring unionists
back to a power sharing government and also slow
down support for Sinn Fin, who since 1981 had begun
contesting elections in Northern Ireland and Britain.
The Agreement met opposition from both sides of the
community.
Four years of peace talks and off again/on again cease
resulted in the signing of the Good Friday Agreement
on 10th April 1998. The Good Friday Agreement,
supported by the majority of the population,

The Northern
Ireland conflict
worksheet

C O U N T RY C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Germany
Divided Germany: 1945 to 1990:
1990 Reunified as one Germany
Angela Merkel current chancellor
first female chancellor of Germany
considered the worlds most powerful woman (currently)
Economy
Type: Market Economy
GDP: 2.94 trillion
GDP Rank: 4th
Labor Force: Agriculture : 1%, Industry: 31%, Services: 68%

C O U N T RY C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
France
2014 - Present Hollande current president
On 13 November 2015, a series of coordinated terrorist

attacks occurred in Paris


3 suicide bombers struck near the Stade de France,

followed by suicide bombings and mass shootings


The attackers killed 130 people and injured 368 people.
Economy
Type: Mixed Economy (moving towards Market)
GDP: 2.145 trillion
GDP Rank: 5th
Labor Force: Agriculture : 1%, Industry: 25%, Services: 74%

C O U N T RY C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Russia
December 1991 Soviet Union falls; 15 soviet states are now

independent
Vladimir Putin elected president in 2000
Market Economy reforms > economic growth
Political & Social reforms > seen by West as un-

democratic
2012 Vladimir Putin re-elected President of Russia

protests against him and his


election met with resistance

Economy
Type: Mixed Economy
GDP: 2.22 trillion
GDP Rank: 9th
Labor Force: Agriculture: 12%, Industry: 23%, Services:
65%

C O U N T RY C H A R AC T E R I S T I C S
Great Britain
Margaret Thatcher elected prime minister (Britain's

first female prime minister 1979 to 1990)


"Iron Lady", a nickname that became associated

with her uncompromising politics and leadership


style
her diplomacy with Gorbachev and influence over

President Reagan helped end the Cold War.


David Cameron prime minister (2011 to Present)
Economy
Type: Market Economy
GDP: 2.174 trillion
GDP Rank: 7th
Labor Force: Farming: 4%, Industry: 24%, Services: 72%

More than a million migrants and refugees

crossed into Europe in 2015, sparking a crisis


as countries struggle to cope with the influx,
and creating division in the EU over how best
to deal with resettling people.
The conflict in Syria continues to be by far

the biggest driver of the migration.

Name:______________________________________________

Refugee Stories: Mapping a Crisis


Teaching with the News Online Resource

Refugee Stories
Instructions: The following are stories published online by the United Nations Refugee Agency
(UNHCR). Read the story that your teacher assigned to you. As you read, circle any terms with which
you are unfamiliar. You can find each story, as well as photographs and videos in some cases, by visiting the following link: http://stories.unhcr.org/.

Ahmet: Syria to Cyprus


The fear of a grinding war that had already scattered his family across Europe left 55 year-old
Ahmet with no other choice but to also flee Syria. Italy was the promised destination. From there, it
would have been easy to move on to Germany to unify with their brothers and two eldest sonsat
least this is what Ahmet, his wife, daughter, and son were led to believe.
I was born in Homs and I wanted to live there until the end, but this vicious war left us no other
choice but to leave all behind For the sake of my childrens future we had to take the risk. I had to
pay the smuggler eight thousand US dollars for each member of my family. Ive never done anything
illegal in my whole life, but there was no other solution.
With 339 others, they sailed on a flimsy fishing boat, which the smugglers abandoned during the
journey. They were rescued from the rough seas, off the coast of Cyprus. Ahmet is now staying with
his family in a tent at a refugee camp near Nicosia, which was set up to temporarily host the 339 survivors; children, women and men.
The relief they initially felt when they were saved was substituted by disappointment and anxiety
for their future. So far only six survivors have applied for asylum. Most of them are reluctant to do so
out of fear that their application for asylum in Cyprus will remove their prospects of being reunited
with their families in other EU member states. Ahmet says:
I will think about my options, but Im certainly not going at sea again. I left for the future of my
kids; Im not going to die with them in the sea. Life is not over.

Awad: Sudan to South Sudan


When fighting erupted in Kormaganza, Blue Nile state [Sudan], in September last year, 80-yearold Dawa Musas family decided to flee to the neighbouring village of Mafot. Dawa was too frail to
make the two-day journey by foot, so her son, Awad Kutuk Tungud, hid her in the bush for three
days while he moved his wife, Alahia, and nine children to safety. Awad returned for his mother and
carried her to Mafot where the family remained in relative safety for several monthsuntil artillery
began shelling the village.
Awad again fled with his familythis time across the border to South Sudan. For 15 gruelling
days, he carried both his elderly mother and his daughter Zainab on his back, until they reached the
border crossing [into South Sudan] at Al Fudj in February. UNHCR transported the family to Jamam
refugee camp in South Sudans Upper Nile state. They lived in safety for seven months until heavy
rains caused flooding, making it difficult for UNHCR to bring clean water to the camp and bringing
the threat of highly contagious waterborne diseases.
UNHCR set up a new camp in Gendrassa, located 55 kilometers from Jamam and on higher
ground, and began the relocation of 56,000 people to the new camp. Among them were Awad and his
family. Awad carried his mother once again, but this time it was to their new tent in Gendrassa camp.
Awad has plans to begin farming. Come back in three months, he said, and there will be maize
growing.

THE CHOICES PROGRAM

WATSON INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL AND PUBLIC AFFAIRS , BROWN UNIVERSITY

WWW.CHOICES.EDU

Mapping refugees
in Europe

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Natural Resources
The countries of Europe have

advanced farming techniques,


high crop yields, and fertile soil
called chernozem.
Russia has abundant sources of

natural gas, coal, and oil.


Russia also produces energy

with nuclear power and


hydroelectric power.

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Chernobyl
In 1986, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant located in the

Ukraine exploded.
As a result of the explosion, massive levels of radiation

was

released into the air.


Fires also started into the plants damaged reactor
Spread more radiation throughout the surrounding

communities.
the entire city of over 300,000 people had to be evacuated.

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
Infrastructure
The countries in Europe have

well developed infrastructures.


The Chunnel, connects

France and England under the


English Channel
Efficient rail system,
Large % of internet

connections and cell phone


use.

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
The European Union is the

dominant economic union in


Europe. (28 member states)
The European Union has

introduced a single currency


called the euro in order to
promote and facilitate trade.
The eurozone is a monetary

union of 19 of the EU member


states which use the euro .

ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS
The European debt crisis is a multi-year debt crisis

that has been taking place in the European Union


since the end of 2009.
Greece, Portugal, Ireland, Spain and Cyprus were

unable to repay or refinance their government debt.


Greece became the center of Europes debt crisis

after Wall Street imploded in 2008.


Greece announced in October 2009 that it had

been understating its deficit figures for years,.

Greece and the EU:


Navigating Debt and Austerity
Teaching with the News Online Resource

Greece in Financial Crisis

n 2008, a local economic crisis that started


in the United States spread throughout the
world. The global financial crisis began when
large financial firms and banks that made risky
investments in the U.S. housing market found
themselves facing default.
How did the 2008 global financial
crisis affect Europe?
The crisis that began in the United States
in 2008 affected the economies of Europe as
well. European banks and investment firms
also faced shortages of funds, but the problems did not end with the banks. The financial
crisis led to a global recession. In countries
throughout the world, businesses produced
less, unemployment rose, and governments
collected less in taxes. With decreased tax
revenues, the governments of several European
countries faced debt crises in 2009. These
governments struggled to pay their bills. If
these governments defaulted by not paying
their bills, massive unemployment, economic
crises that spread beyond borders, and political unrest could follow.
These were cases where economic stabilization funds were needed, but the political
conditions in Europe meant that the response
to the crisis required coordination and cooperation. Beginning in the early 1950s, European
countries had worked to unify their economies
into a single economy by adopting shared laws
and regulations. The purpose was not only
economic. It was also an effort to avoid the political conflicts that had led to two world wars.
The result of these efforts was the formation of
the European Union (EU), comprised of half a
billion people in twenty-eight countries.
Nineteen of the twenty-eight countries in
the European Union, including Greece, share
a currency called the euro. These countries belong to what is called the eurozone.
Europes leaders were concerned that the
economic crisis could lead to some countries
leaving the eurozone and even the European
Union.

THE CHOICES PROGRAM

Definitions
DefaultDefault means failing to pay
ones bills.
RecessionA recession is a period
when economic output declines.
RevenueRevenue is government
income, usually from taxes.
Economic stabilization fundsThese
are bailout loans to prevent countries from
defaulting on their debts.
Budget deficitA budget deficit occurs when a government spends more
money than it takes in.
AusterityAusterity refers to sharp
cuts in government spending to reduce a
budget deficit.

Why did Greece need economic


stabilization funds?
In the early 2000s, Greeces economy had
grown rapidly. The Greek government had a
large budget deficit, but because the economy
was doing well the deficit was not an immediate problem. During this period, investors and
banks from around the world had been willing to lend money to Greece. When the global
recession hit in 2008, government revenues
fell sharply. Investors and banks worried that
Greece would default and refused to lend it
more money.
Greeces government needed a bailout to
prevent default and massive economic hardship for the people of Greece. If Greece were to
default, it might also give up using the euro as
its currency and return to printing its own currency. Politicians and economists worried that
if Greece defaulted, other countries with struggling economies like Italy, Spain, Portugal, and
Ireland might default as well. This could cause
further damage to both the European Union
and the world economy. In addition, some
experts believed that these crises could lead to
the end of the euro as a shared currency and
damage the political unity of Europe.

WATSON INSTITUTE FOR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES, BROWN UNIVERSITY

WWW.CHOICES.EDU

Greek financial
crisis explained
worksheet

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
A common cultural and

spiritual heritage derived


from Greek and Roman
history, Christianity, the
Renaissance, and the
political thinking of the
Enlightenment.
A specific conception of

the guarantees of human


rights and the liberty of
the individual.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
Europeans started to explore

and spread their culture.


Colonization is when a

group of people from one


country settle in another
country.
Imperialism is when a

country takes over another


country to control resources
and spread culture.

Name_____________________
Global Studies

Landmarks in Europe & Russia

Name_____________________________________

Location__________________________________

Name____________________________________

Location__________________________________

Name_____________________________________

Location___________________________________

Landmarks in
Europe &
Russia graphic
organizer

The Tower Bridge in London England.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S

Notre Dame
in Paris,
France.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S

The Louvre, a large museum, in Paris France.

The Colleseum in Rome, Italy. The Romans built this for


gladiators.

The Vatican in
Vatican City.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S

Big Ben, a giant clock, in London England.

The Arc De Triomphe in Paris, France.

The Leaning Tower


of Pisa in Italy.

The Parthenon on the acropolis in Greece. Greece was


the first democratic country.

Eiffel Tower in Paris, France.

Schnbrunn Palace
in Vienna, Austria.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
Ballet is a dance form that

originated in France, but the


Russians adopted it because
they wanted to become
more like western Europe.
Matryoshka dolls, also

known as nesting dolls.


Oriental carpets from the

eastern parts of the regions.

C U LT U R A L C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S
The Eastern Orthodox

Church, the most popular


church in Russia.
Russian Orthodox

Churches often have onion


shaped domes at the top.
The most famous

Russian church is St.


Basils Church.