History

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INFORMATION History A colony from ancient Greece may have once oc site of the city. Numerous monuments of antiqu links between this territory and the Eastern Med In the Middle Ages these lands were a part of the Galich and Volyn Principality, the Golden Horde, Lithuanian Principality, the Crimean Khanate and Empire. Crimean Tatars traded there in the 14th the course of Russian-Turkish wars these la captured by Russia at the end of the 18th century. Odessa was founded in 1794 by Catherine the Gre the Empress formed the territories newly acqui south-west other empire into a province called No During the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-91, Do Ribas, a soldier of fortune born in Naples of Spanis stock and one of many adventures in Catherine stormed the fortress of Yeny-Dunai at Khadzhibe and his close collaborator, a Dutch engineer name Volan, recommended Khadzhibei as the site for t principal port. Its harbor was deep and nearl Breakwaters, on the model of those found at Napl and Ancona, could be cheaply constructed and wo the harbor safe even for large fleets. The Govern of Novorossiya, Prince Platon Zubov — one of favorites — gave decisive support to the latter p 1794, Catherine gave it her approval. She immed twenty-six thousand roubles to de Ribas and d build a harbor. This new settlement was given Odessa. The city's name came about as a result of an er meant to be named after the ancient Greek city

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History

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or Ordissos, which was believed to have been foun vicinity. Actually, it was somewhere near the p town of Varna in Bulgaria. But Catherine the G "Adessa" — as it is pronounced by the Rus Ukrainians. In 1803, Tsar Alexander I appointed a you emigrant, then 36 years old, the Duke de Richelie gradonachalnik, or the mayor, of Odessa. Eighte later, in 1805, the Tsar enlarged his authority by him to serve simultaneously as the governor of provinces of Novorossiya. In the 11 year administration, the Duke de Richelieu acq extraordinary reputation for statesmanship and s abroad and in Russia. Clothed inexplicable in a statue now points out to the sea, presumably to i source of Odessa's wealth. Duke left Odessa on 26, 1814 for France. Even after his return to Fran as prime minister under the restored monarchy, h cordial ties with the Imperial Russian Court an Russian ambassador to France, Pozzo di Borgo. By 1820 Odessa had become an important c industrial and cultural center in the southern part Russia and the greatest seaport on the Black economy of Odessa was based on private busine made the city a 'dissident' in the old feudal Russia. The unique position of Odessa as a vital trade lin the West and the East, and the growth in imp Russia's external trade through the Black Sea in century made way for the establishment of a big center for the development of Odessa into an European city. A crucial event in the trade polic declaration of a free port regime in Odessa in Aug establishing a customs border in the vicinity. It wa overcoming scarcity in the domestic market attraction of investment capital. It has been because of absence of Russia's trade fleet in the Bl The free port was a guarantee of Odessa's financi a breakthrough into the civilized world, a dress re the development of an open economy in the Russi The transformation of Odessa into an advanced city was put forward by prominent adminis experienced and cultured governor generals Novorossiya region. Their work was based on the a representatives of numerous nations and nation came to Odessa bringing their cultures of man trade and management. It resulted in a ne comprising the best features of all its constituents. Throughout the whole period of the free port (1819-1858) there was a huge discussion supporters and opponents of the privileged tax re

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History

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trade influenced negatively the develop manufacturing in the region. Local products compete in quality with overseas goods. The Crimean War (1853-56) revealed the bankru closed economy in feudal Russia compared to the capitalistic economies of the Great Britain and F war prompted the reforms of the 1860's. With regulations, the free port regime in Odessa was o and was eventually abolished. By its hundredth anniversary (1894), Odessa oc 4th place in the Russian Empire in size and econom after St. Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw. Odes noted for their powerful economic and wonderf freedom which allowed them to achieve great suc field of science, education and the arts. Nowadays the city of Odessa, with a total po 1,050,000, is the capital city of Odessa region. conjunction with its satellite towns of Ilyichevsk a forms an important port and industrial complex a the largest urban conurbations on the entire Black It is strategically located on one of the shortest convenient waterways leading from Northern a Europe to the Middle East and Asia through the Danube river and canal system. This system, tog such waterways as the Dnieper, Dniester, and rivers combined with the three large ports o Ilyichevsk and Yuzhny and the Odessa railroad unique opportunity for the economic processing cargo traffic and passenger flows. Odessa is a lead of learning and culture with many seconda education, and training institutions. It is also a m area. The economic profile of Odessa is domina activities of the three major ports, but in addit there are industries such as: ship repairing, ma manufacturing, food processing and textile Ilyichevsk runs the largest fishing fleet in Ukraine. Among the great cities of the world, Odessa can cl distinctions. One of the major cities of contempora Odessa, officially founded in 1794, is among the ones. No other European city can match such gro the 19th century. It also developed in an ar continent that has an ancient tradition of trade a though discontinuous, history of urban settlement.

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