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EXPERIMENT 5: CHARACTERISTIC STUDY OF HORIZONTAL SINGLE STAGE

CENTRIFUGAL PUMP AND GEAR PUMP


OBJECTIVE
1. To understand the concept of Pump Head, Pump Power, Overall efficiency.
2. To study the characteristic curve of the Horizontal Single Stage Centrifugal Pump and
Gear Pump.

INTRODUCTION
Centrifugal pumps are the most commonly used kinetic-energy pump. Centrifugal force
pushes the liquid outward from the eye of the impeller where it enters the casing. Differential
head can be increased by turning the impeller faster, using a larger impeller, or by increasing
the number of impellers. The impeller and the fluid being pumped are isolated from the
outside by packing or mechanical seals. Shaft radial and thrust bearings restrict the movement
of the shaft and reduce the friction of rotation.
Furthermore, it can be regarded as the inverse of a reaction turbine. The flow is always
outwards and they convert mechanical energy into a head of liquid. Sadly they are less
efficient than a turbine because of smaller losses when converting pressure energy to kinetic
energy than vice versa. The rotating impeller creates a forced vortex in the passages of the
pump and the efficiency depends largely upon the extent to which the high velocity head is
converted to pressure head.
Like most pumps, a centrifugal pump converts rotational energy, often from a motor, to
energy in a moving fluid. A portion of the energy goes into kinetic energy of the fluid. Fluid
enters axially through eye of the casing, is caught up in the impeller blades, and is whirled
tangentially and radially outward until it leaves through all circumferential parts of the
impeller into the diffuser part of the casing. The fluid gains both velocity and pressure while

passing through the impeller. The doughnut-shaped diffuser, or scroll, section of the casing
decelerates the flow and further increases the pressure.
Centrifugal Pumps are used in a huge number of applications and are found in all
industries where it is necessary to move liquids around. Common uses include water, sewage,
petroleum and petrochemical pumping.
A gear pump uses the meshing of gears to pump fluid by displacement. They are one of
the most common types of pumps for hydraulic fluid power applications. They are also
widely used in chemical installations to pump high viscosity fluids. Gear pumps are positive
displacement (or fixed displacement), meaning they pump a constant amount of fluid for each
revolution. Some gear pumps are designed to function as either a motor or a pump.
They consist of at least two separate and rotating gears with intermeshing teeth. As these
meshed teeth separate, they create a partial vacuum which is filled by the fluid being pumped.
As the gears then continue to rotate the fluid becomes trapped and is carried around the
casing to the discharge side of the pump. Here as the gear teeth begin to re-mesh the fluid is
ejected creating a pumping action. There are a number of different Gear Pump designs but
ultimately they all employ this same pumping principle.
Gear pumps are capable of producing very high internal pressures and are often used to
pump thick liquids such as pitch and crude oil. Pump speeds must be reduced when viscosity
increases to allow enough time for the liquid to fill the voids between the gear teeth. A gear
pump is capable of pumping very precise amounts of liquid at high pressure and is often used
to pump fuel and heating oil, diesel fuel and gasoline. Gear pumps are commonly used in
automobile oil pumps and household sump pumps as well.

SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
First and foremost, avoid restrict a pumps flow by putting a valve on the suction line
because it can damage the pump. Besides, the motor speed for gear pump should not exceed
800 rpm. The speed controller should be slowly adjusted due to its sensitivity. Furthermore,
all valves are opened before switch on the motor.
MATERIAL AND APPARATUS
Gear Pump, Horizontal Single Stage Centrifugal Pump, hose pipe, water tank, power reader,
pressure reader, flow rate reader and speed reader.
EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES
1. The motor selector switch was switched to proper switch.
2. The valves were kept open and closed according to Table 1.
3. The speed control was set at Motor 1 for Centrifugal Pump and Motor 3 for gear pump.
4. For centrifugal pump, the pump characteristics were tested under the following conditions
and data was recorded.
i.

Maximum motor speed; varied V5 opening

ii.

V5 fully opened; varied motor speed

5. For gear pump, the pump characteristics were tested under the following conditions and
data was recorded.
i. V10 fully opened; varied motor speed.

RESULTS AND CALCULATIONS


Centrifugal Pump
(Condition i: maximum motor speed, varied V5 opening )
Speed (rpm)

Flowrate (%)

Pressure (%)

Power (W)

2378

63.6

17.7

630

2377

58.1

19.1

618

2377

54.7

19.9

609

2379

48.8

21.3

583

2384

42.9

22.5

578

2389

37.4

23.5

545

2378

Pump
Power
(W)
630

2377

618

109.9833

1.8331 x10-3

0.955

175.0611

28.33

2377

609

103.5471

1.7258 x10-3

0.995

171.7171

28.20

2379

583

92.3784

1.5396 x10-3

1.065

163.9674

28.12

2384

578

81.2097

1.3535 x10-3

1.125

152.2688

26.34

2389

545

70.7982

1.1800 x10-3

1.175

138.6500

25.44

Speed
(rpm)

0.885

Water
Power
(gHQ)
177.5841

Overall
Efficiency
(%)
28.19

Flowrate
(LPM)

Flowrate
(m3/s)

Pressure
(Bar)

120.3948

2.0066 x10-3

Sample Calculation:

Flow rate (LPM)

= Flow rate (%) Qmax

63.6
100

x 189.3

= 120.3948 LPM

Flow rate (m /s)

= Flow rate (LPM)

= 120.3948

1 min
1m

60 s 1000 L
1 min
1 m3

60 s 1000 L

= 2.0066 x10-3 m3/s


Pressure (bar)

= Pressure x Pmax
=

17.7
100

x 5 bar

= 0.885 bar

Water Power (W)

= gH Q
= (0.885 x105)( 2.0066 x10-3)
= 177.5841W

Overall Efficiency (%) n

= (Water Power / Motor Power) x 100%

177.5841
630

x 100%

= 28.19%
Centrifugal Pump
(Condition ii: V5 fully opened, varied motor speed)
Speed (rpm)

Flowrate (%)

Pressure (%)

Power (W)

2786

75.5

24.7

923

2571

69.8

21.0

780

2362

63.8

17.7

627

2168

58.2

14.9

520

1974

52.6

12.2

438

1776

47.3

9.9

370

2786

Pump
Power
(W)
923

2571

780

132.1314

2.2022 x10-3

1.050

231.231

29.65

2362

627

120.7734

2.0129 x10-3

0.885

178.1417

28.41

2168

520

110.1726

1.8362 x10-3

0.745

136.7969

26.31

1974

438

99.5718

1.6595 x10-3

0.610

101.2295

23.11

1776

370

89.5389

1.4923 x10-3

0.495

73.8689

19.96

Speed
(rpm)

1.235

Water
Power
(gHQ)
294.177

Overall
Efficiency
(%)
31.87

Flowrate
(LPM)

Flowrate
(m3/s)

Pressure
(Bar)

142.9215

2.3820 x10-3

Sample Calculation:

Flow rate (LPM)

= Flow rate (%) Qmax

75.5
100

x 189.3

= 142.9215 LPM

Flow rate (m /s)

= Flow rate (LPM)

= 142.9215

1 min
1 m3

60 s 1000 L
1 min
1 m3

60 s 1000 L

= 2.3820 x10-3 m3/s

Pressure (bar)

= Pressure x Pmax
=

24.7
100

x 5 bar

=1.235 bar

= gH Q

Water Power (W)

= (1.235 x105)( 2.3820 x10-3)


= 294.177 W
Overall Efficiency (%)

= (Water Power / Motor Power) x 100%

294.177
923

x 100%

= 31.87%
Gear Pump
(V10 fully opened: varied motor speed)
Speed (rpm)

Flowrate (%)

Pressure (%)

Power (W)

787

43.4

7.5

261

692

38.8

7.4

257

621

33.8

7.2

244

538

28.5

7.1

237

445

22.7

7.0

227

355

16.1

6.9

207

787

Pump
Power
(W)
261

692

257

11.0153

1.8419 x10-4

1.184

21.8081

8.49

621

244

9.5958

1.5993 x10-4

1.152

18.4239

7.55

538

237

8.0912

1.3485 x10-4

1.136

15.3190

6.46

445

227

6.4445

1.0741 x10-4

1.120

12.0299

5.30

355

207

4.5708

7.618 x10-5

1.104

8.4103

4.06

Speed
(rpm)

1.200

Water
Power
(gHQ)
24.6432

Overall
Efficiency
(%)
9.48

Flowrate
(LPM)

Flowrate
(m3/s)

Pressure
(Bar)

12.3213

2.0536 x10-4

Sample Calculation:

Flow rate (LPM)

= Flow rate (%) Qmax

43.4
100

x 28.39

=12.3213 LPM

Flow rate (m3/s)

= Flow rate (LPM)

= 12.3213

1 min
1 m3

60 s 1000 L

1 min
1 m3

60 s 1000 L

= 2.0536 x10-4 m3/s


Pressure (bar)

= Pressure x Pmax
=

7.5
100

x 16 bar

= 1.2bar

Water Power (W)

= gH Q
= (1.200 x105)( 2.0536 x10-4)
= 24.6432 W

Overall Efficiency (%)

= (Water Power / Motor Power) x 100%

24.6432
261

x 100%

= 9.48%

DISCUSSION
The characteristics curve of the horizontal single stage centrifugal pump was plotted.
For centrifugal pump:
Graph of pump power (W) against water flow rate (L.p.m.) for condition i
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Graph of pump power vs water flow rate


640
620
600
580
Pump power (W) 560
540
520
500
60

70

80

90

100 110 120 130

Water flow rate (Lpm)

Graph of overall efficiency (%) against water flow rate (L.p.m.) for condition i

Graph of overall efficiency vs water flow rate


29
28
27
Overall efficiency (%)

26
25
24
23
60

70

80

90 100 110 120 130

Water flow rate (Lpm)

Graph of flow rate (L.p.m.) against pump speed (r.p.m.) for condition ii

Graph of flowrate vs pump speed


200
150
Flowrate (Lpm)

100
50
0
1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000
Pump speed (rpm)

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Graph of pump head (bar) against pump speed (r.p.m.) for condition ii

Graph of pump head vs pump speed


1.4
1.2
1
0.8
Pump head (bar) 0.6
0.4
0.2
0
1600 1800 2000 2200 2400 2600 2800 3000
Pump speed (rpm)

For gear pump:


Graph of outlet pressure (bar) against flow rate (L.p.m.)

Graph of outlet pressure vs flowrate


1.25
1.2
Outlet pressure (bar)

1.15
1.1
1.05
4

9 10 11 12 13

Flow rate (Lpm)

Graph of outlet pressure (bar) against hydraulic power (W)

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Graph of outlet pressure vs hydraulic power


1.25
1.2
Outlet pressure (bar)

1.15
1.1
1.05
6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26
Hydraulic power (W)

Graph of outlet pressure (bar) against efficiency (%)

Graph of outlet pressure vs overall efficiency


1.25
1.2
outlet pressure (bar)

1.15
1.1
1.05
3

10

Overall efficiency (%)

Centrifugal pumps are the most common pumps used for pumping water in industrial
applications. They are used to transport fluids by the conversion of rotational kinetic energy
to the hydrodynamic energy of the fluid flow. The rotational energy typically comes from an
engine or electric motor. The fluid enters the pump impeller along or near to the rotating axis
and is accelerated by the impeller, flowing radially outward into a diffuser or volute chamber
(casing), from where it exits.

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A gear pump is a mechanical pump that moves liquids by the use of two rotating gears.
Liquid flows under pressure from the pump intake to the discharge in the space formed by the
gear teeth. The liquid also serves to lubricate the gears. The small clearances between the
walls of the pump chamber and gear teeth create a tight seal, thereby preventing liquid from
flowing back through the intake. Unlike other types of pumps, gear pumps do not need to be
primed and can be ran dry for short periods without damaging the pump. They are typically
used to pump water, oil and other liquids.
For the centrifugal pump, there are 2 conditions are discussed. The first condition is the
motor speed is set at the maximum while the valve is adjusting to control the flow rate. The
graphs for the centrifugal in condition i are shown. The first graph indicates that the pump
power increase with the increasing the flow rate. The second graph show that the efficiency
increase as the flow rate increases until a maximum point, then further increases in flow rate
will decrease the efficiency. Besides, according to the result, the flow rate is increased and the
pressure is decrease.
In addition, the second condition is the valve is fully opened while the motor speed is
varied. The graphs of centrifugal pump in condition ii are shown. The flow rate against pump
speed graph shows that the flow rate increases as the pump speed increases .The graph of
pump head against pump speed shows that pump head increases with increasing the pump
speed as well. According to the affinity laws of centrifugal pump performance, it express the
effect on pump performance due to changes in certain application variables. This variable
here is the pump speed in pump revolutions per minute (RPM). The Affinity Law states that
flow rate (Q) is proportional to the rotating speed, head is proportional to the square of the
rotating speed and power (P) is proportional to the cube of the rotating speed. Hence, both
pump head and flow rate increase as the motor speed increased. Changing the speed affects
the flow through the pump by a proportion equal to the increase or decrease in speed.
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From the result for gear pump, the graph shows that the outlet pressure increases as the
flow rate increases. Besides, the graph of outlet pressure against hydraulic power shows that
outlet pressure increases as hydraulic power increases while the graph of outlet pressure
against overall efficiency shows that outlet pressure increases as efficiency increases. Hence,
it is noticed that the outlet pressure increases as the flow rate, hydraulic power or efficiency
increased.

CONCLUSION
In conclusion, the characteristic curve of the horizontal single stage centrifugal pump and
gear pump are studied. For centrifugal pump, the pump power and efficiency increases as the
flow rate increases when the motor speed is set at maximum. The flow rate and pump head
increases due to increase the pump speed when the valve is fully opened. For gear pump, the
outlet pressure increases when flow rate, hydraulic power as well as efficiency increases. The
efficiency of centrifugal pump peaks at best-efficiency-point and at higher or lower pressures,
efficiency decreases. However, the efficiency of gear pump increases with increasing
pressure.
REFERENCES

What is a gear pump?[Online] Available at: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-gear-

pump.htm .
Single
stage

centrifugal

pump

(2011).

[Online]

Available

at:

http://www.codecogs.com/library/engineering/fluid_mechanics/machines/pumps/singl

e-stage-centrifugal-pumps.php.
The
Affinity
Law.

http://www.pricepump.com/pumpschool/psles4.html
Centrifugal
pump
(2015).
[Online]

[Online]

Available
Available

at:
at:

http://petrowiki.org/Centrifugal_pumps

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