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N OV E M B E R 2 0 15

PUMPSANDSYSTEMS.COM

SYSTEMS

The Leading Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide

CHEMICAL
PROCESSING
How pumps reliably handle
caustics with safety & precision

Special Report
AHRI Standard for VFDs
Trade Show Preview
2015 Chem Show
Evolving Technology
Overcomes Sealing Challenges

When you think resources,


think beyond equipment.
From safety/operator training and equipment management
technologies, to custom solutions engineered to meet specialized
job requirements, United Rentals offers much more than just the
worlds largest rental fleet. Were here to help.
3 Calculate your pump needs online
at UnitedRentals.com/PumpCalc

UnitedRentals.com/pmp | 800.UR.RENTS

2015 United Rentals, Inc.

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With quality pumps from a quality manufacturer, you can rest assured your fluid-handling
needs are expertly handled at the job site. Whether transporting water for fracking,
transferring solids-laden drilling muds or recirculating tank bottoms, Gorman-Rupp has
the right pump for your oil and gas field needs and its all backed by the best distributor
network and parts inventory in the industry. Contact your local Gorman-Rupp distributor
today for more information on our extensive line of products for the oil and gas industry.

GORMAN-RUPP PUMPS
MXV[SVY4IUS
534

P.O. BOX 1217 I MANSFIELD, OHIO 44901 I USA


PH: 419-755-1011 I GRSALES@GORMANRUPP.COM I GRPUMPS.COM

Copyright, The Gorman-Rupp Company, 2015

Gorman-Rupp Pumps USA is an ISO 9001:2008 and an ISO 14001:2004 Registered Company

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From the Editor


I

n September, the Pumps & Systems team


attended the Turbomachinery Pump Symposia
(TPS) in Houston and WEFTEC in Chicago. TPS
had record numbers of international attendees and
exhibiting companies. WEFTEC welcomed more
Pumps & Systems Account Executives
than 25,000 registrants and 1,000-plus exhibitors, Mark Goins and Mary-Kathryn Baker
setting attendance records for the event. Clearly,
greet readers at the magazines booth
at WEFTEC 2015 in Chicago.
the pump industry is on the move with both
traditional companies and new product offerings.
It was invigorating to meet and talk with
so many of you who, collectively, make this
magazine the authoritative voice of the pump
and related systems industry. We saw the
growing level of innovation that encompassed
practically every type of industry-related system,
product, component and service. Of the many
Pumps & Systems staff members
new developments, companies are incorporating
including Senior Technical Editor Mike
advancements in information technology and
Pemberton, National Sales Manager
material science at an unprecedented rate.
Derrell Moody, Managing Editor Amelia
Messamore and Senior Editor Alecia
During both shows, we connected with
Archibald meet with Pentair Vice
influential members of industry associations,
President of Technology Philip Rolchigo
including representatives from the Hydraulic
and Marketing Communications
Manager Dean Henry during WEFTEC
Institute and new executive director Michael
Michaud; members of the Submersible Wastewater 2015 in Chicago.
Pump Association and the groups executive
director, Adam Stolberg; and representatives of the Fluid Sealing Association with
the organizations technical director, Henri Azibert; as well as many others. Also, we
met with several members of the Pumps & Systems Editorial Advisory Board. We are
indebted to these individuals who contribute their valuable time and experience.
In this months issue, the cover series on chemical processing begins on page 44. Th is
section includes articles on the role of plastic pumps in handling erosive and corrosive
chemicals plus the growing use of diaphragm pumps for volatile and toxic compounds.
The special section on instrumentation, controls and monitoring starts on page 28.
Articles include a discussion on the role of hydraulic drives in variable speed pumping
plus tips on choosing between a soft-starter and adjustable frequency drives.
We hope this issue provides useful information on pump systems and their ability to
move any kind of fluid in challenging applications. You can continue to count on Pumps
& Systems to bring you news of specific solutions to your pumping challenges.
Best regards,
Mike Pemberton, Senior Technical Editor
mpemberton@cahabamedia.com

Pumps & Systems


is a member of the following organizations:

EDITORIAL
SENIOR EDITOR, PUMPS DIVISION: Alecia Archibald
aarchibald@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2843
SENIOR TECHNICAL EDITOR: Mike Pemberton
mpemberton@cahabamedia.com
205-314-8279
MANAGING EDITOR: Amelia Messamore
amessamore@cahabamedia.com
205-314-8264
MANAGING EDITOR: Martin Reed

mreed@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2826
MANAGING EDITOR: Savanna Gray

sgray@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2839
ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Amy Cash
acash@cahabamedia.com 205-314-8274
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: Lev Nelik,
Ray Hardee, Jim Elsey

CREATIVE SERVICES
SENIOR ART DIRECTOR: Greg Ragsdale
ART DIRECTOR: Melanie Magee
WEB DEVELOPER: Greg Caudle
PRINT ADVERTISING TRAFFIC: Lisa Freeman

lfreeman@cahabamedia.com 205-212-9402
CIRCULATION
AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT MANAGER: Lori Masaoay

lmasaoay@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2840
ADVERTISING
NATIONAL SALES MANAGER: Derrell Moody
dmoody@pump-zone.com 205-345-0784
ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES:

Mary-Kathryn Baker
mkbaker@pump-zone.com 205-345-6036
Mark Goins
mgoins@pump-zone.com 205-345-6414
Addison Perkins
aperkins@pump-zone.com 205-561-2603
Garrick Stone
gstone@pump-zone.com 205-212-9406
MARKETING ASSOCIATES:

Ashley Morris
amorris@cahabamedia.com 205-561-2600
Sonya Crocker
scrocker@cahabamedia.com 205-314-8276

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VP OF SALES: Greg Meineke
CREATIVE DIRECTOR: Terri J. Gray
CONTROLLER: Brandon Whittemore

P.O. Box 530067


Birmingham, AL 35253
EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION

PUMPS & SYSTEMS (ISSN# 1065-108X) is published monthly by Cahaba Media Group, 1900 28th Avenue So., Suite 200, Birmingham, AL 35209. Periodicals
postage paid at Birmingham, AL, and additional mailing ofces. Subscriptions: Free of charge to qualied industrial pump users. Publisher reserves the
right to determine qualications. Annual subscriptions: US and possessions $48, all other countries $125 US funds (via air mail). Single copies: US and
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this publication may be reproduced without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher does not warrant, either expressly or by implication, the
factual accuracy of any advertisements, articles or descriptions herein, nor does the publisher warrant the validity of any views or opinions offered by the
authors of said articles or descriptions. The opinions expressed are those of the individual authors, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of Cahaba
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contained in this magazine. SUBMISSIONS: We welcome submissions. Unless otherwise negotiated in writing by the editors, by sending us your submission, you grant Cahaba Media Group, Inc., permission by an irrevocable license to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any
medium on multiple occasions. You are free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be
returned. Volume 23, Issue 11.

Nove mb er 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

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This issue
COVER
SERIES

NOVEMBER

Volume 23 Number 11

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

44 PLASTIC AODD PUMPS PROVIDE RELIABILITY FOR CHEMICAL


APPLICATIONS
By Rainer Frericks, Almatec
Containment of dangerous chemicals requires technology that resists corrosion and
significantly reduces product leaks.

48 DIAPHRAGM PUMPS COMBINE SAFETY & ACCURACY


By Steve Digby, SPX Flow Technology
Developments in this technology may offer significant savings and improved reliability.

50 THERMOPLASTIC PUMPS WITHSTAND ACIDS & CAUSTICS


By Ken Comerford, Vanton
A large, investor-owned utility in the southern US wanted to reduce corrosion problems,
boiler downtime.

53 METERING TECHNOLOGY EFFECTIVELY HANDLES POLYETHYLENE


PRODUCTION
By Kenny Loque, Milton Roy
Hydraulically actuated and critical service diaphragms enhance safety and uptime.

56 FUME SCRUBBER BENEFITS FROM SEALLESS MAGNETIC DRIVE PUMP


By Tom Marcone, IWAKI America
Chemical applications operate best with systems that offer strong corrosion
resistance.

59 ROLLING DESIGN PERISTALTIC PUMPS INCREASE EQUIPMENT

64
COLUMNS
PUMPING PRESCRIPTIONS
14 By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
Pumping Machinery, LLC

LONGEVITY
By Todd Loudin, Flowrox Inc.
This technology helped a facility save $20,000 in one year.

64 CALIFORNIA OLIVE RANCH CHOOSES STAINLESS STEEL FOR HARSH


PRODUCTION
By Mike Bjorkman, BJM Corp.
A combination of caustic cleaning fluid, high temperature and high head was causing
the plants original cast-iron pumps to fail.

State of Global Efficiency


Standards
First of Two Parts

PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT


16 By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.
Troubleshooting Piping Systems
Last of Three Parts

COMMON PUMPING MISTAKES


20 By Jim Elsey
Summit Pump, Inc.
Follow These Steps for a
More Reliable Pump

44
SSPECIAL
PECIAL
REPORT

INDUSTRY GUIDELINES

24 USING AHRI STANDARD 1210 & 1211 TO BENEFIT VFD APPLICATIONS


By Thomas Lowery & Jack Creamer, Schneider Electric
With the standard, specifying design engineers, owners and energy managers can
compare VFDs on an equal basis.
Nove mb er 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

2
8
66
90
91
92
96

FROM THE EDITOR


NEWS
TRADE SHOW PREVIEW
PRODUCTS
ADVERTISERS INDEX
PUMP USERS MARKETPLACE
PUMP MARKET ANALYSIS

Smaller Footprint.
Bigger Performance.

The new BaldorDodge Vertical Gearmotor offers


a high efficiency solution to low speed, high volume
pumping applications. Designed and built on a
standard low pole count motor platform and integrating
our proven planetary gear technology, our Vertical
Gearmotors provide optimum performance in a smaller
envelope.

Higher Efficiency

With available power ratings from 750 Hp to 25,000 Hp,


you can be certain the new BaldorDodge Vertical
Gearmotor will give you the highest efficiency, best
power factor in a smaller, lighter package.

Smaller Footprint

baldor.com

479-646-4711

2015 Baldor Electric Company

Cost Effective

Optimal Shaft Speed

Download a QR reader app


and scan this code for
more information.
http://esp.to/wY0m6a

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This issue
SSPECIAL
PECIAL
SECTION

NOVEMBER

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS
& MONITORING

DEPARTMENTS
68 BUSINESS OF THE
BUSINESS
Global Analysis of the Pump
Market in the Oil & Gas Industry
By Sakthi Pandian
Frost & Sullivan

28 INTELLIGENT PRESSURE SEWERS TRANSFORM AUSTRALIAN WASTEWATER


SYSTEM
By Joseph Harmes, For Pumps & Systems
South East Water combines grinder pumps and a remote control telemetry network to improve
groundwater quality and the economy in Mornington Peninsula.

70 EFFICIENCY MATTERS

32 SYSTEM CONSIDERATIONS FOR VSDS IN INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY

How to Properly Manage


Piping Loads
By Jack Claxton
Patterson Pump Company,
A Gorman-Rupp Company

By Paul Stavrou, Bosch Rexroth Corporation


The changing landscape of hydraulic drives leads many fluid power specialists to quickly adapt
to VSDs.

38 CHOOSING BETWEEN SOFT STARTERS & ADJUSTABLE FREQUENCY DRIVES


By Nichole Angiola, Eaton Drives

74 MAINTENANCE MINDERS
Get the Most from Lubricants
Through Quality Oil Analysis
By Michael Barrett
TestOil

This equipment can provide cost savings and extend motor life in the right application.

42 SYSTEM VIBRATION MONITORING IS ESSENTIAL TO PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE


By Mike Pemberton, Pumps & Systems
William Livoti, WEG

78 MOTORS & DRIVES


Steps to Successful
Installation of Vertical
Circulating Water Pumps
By William Livoti
WEG

Modern tools allow plants to predict and prevent costly failures.

PRACTICE & OPERATIONS


86 GLOBAL WASTEWATER CHALLENGES PLACE PRESSURE ON AGING

82 SEALING SENSE

INFRASTRUCTURE
By Horst Sturm, KSB

Insulating Over Rubber


Expansion Joints: A Good or
Bad Idea?
By Rob Coffee
FSA Member

88 COMBINING COMPONENT & CARTRIDGE SEAL TECHNOLOGY HELPS


REDUCE FAILURES
By Tom Broadbent, AESSEAL

84 HI PUMP FAQS

On the Cover: The Flint Hills chemical plant in Port Arthur, Texas. Flint
Hills Resources is a refining, chemicals and biofuels company. (Cover image
courtesy of Colfax Fluid Handling; image by photographer Bill Owens)

Sealless Design Advantages


& Centrifugal Seals in
Rotodynamic Pumps
By Hydraulic Institute

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD


THOMAS L. ANGLE, P.E., MSC, Vice
President Engineering, Hidrostal AG
BRYAN S. BARRINGTON, Machinery
Engineer, Lyondell Chemical Co.
KERRY BASKINS, VP/GM, Milton Roy
Americas
R. THOMAS BROWN III, President,
Advanced Sealing International
(ASI)
CHRIS CALDWELL, Director of
Advanced Collection Technology,
Business Area Wastewater Solutions,
Sulzer Pumps, ABS USA
JACK CREAMER, Market Segment
Manager Pumping Equipment,
Square D by Schneider Electric

BOB DOMKOWSKI, Business


Development Manager Transport
Pumping and Amusement Markets/
Engineering Consultant, Xylem, Inc.,
Water Solutions USA Flygt
WALT ERNDT, VP/GM, CRANE Pumps
& Systems
JOE EVANS, Ph.D., Customer &
Employee Education, PumpTech, Inc.
LARRY LEWIS, President, Vanton
Pump and Equipment Corp.
WILLIAM LIVOTI, Business
Development Manager/Energy
Efficiency Specialist, WEG Electric
Corporation

Nove mb er 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

TODD LOUDIN, President/CEO North


American Operations, Flowrox Inc.
MICHAEL MICHAUD, Executive
Director, Hydraulic Institute
JOHN MALINOWSKI, Sr. Product
Manager, AC Motors, Baldor Electric
Company, A Member of the
ABB Group

SCOTT SORENSEN, Oil & Gas


Automation Consultant & Market
Developer, Siemens Industry Sector
ADAM STOLBERG, Executive Director,
Submersible Wastewater Pump
Association (SWPA)
JERRY TURNER, Founder/Senior
Advisor, Pioneer Pump

WILLIAM E. NEIS, P.E., President,


Northeast Industrial Sales

DOUG VOLDEN, Global Engineering


Director, John Crane

LEV NELIK, Ph.D., P.E., APICS,


President, PumpingMachinery, LLC

KIRK WILSON, President, Services &


Solutions, Flowserve Corporation

HENRY PECK, President, Geiger Pump


& Equipment Company

JAMES WONG, Associate Product


Manager Bearing Isolator, Garlock
Sealing Technologies

MARIANNE SZCZECH, Director,


Global Marketing and Product
Management, Pump Solutions Group

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NEWS

NEW HIRES,
PROMOTIONS & RECOGNITIONS
FARROKH BATLIWALA, ITT CONTROL
TECHNOLOGIES BUSINESS
WHITE PLAINS, N.Y. (Sept. 29, 2015) ITT
Corporation has appointed Farrokh Batliwala as
president of its Control Technologies business.
In this role, Batliwala will be responsible for
delivering the strategic and operating plans
of ITTs Control Technologies business, which
Farrokh
employs approximately 1,100 people globally.
Batliwala
The business designs and manufactures
products for fuel management, actuation, and noise and energy
absorption for the aerospace and industrial markets, as well as
aerospace environmental control system components. itt.com

VICKY STUBBLEFIELD, VALVTECHNOLOGIES INC.


HOUSTON, Texas (Sept. 28, 2015) ValvTechnologies Inc. has named
Vicky Stubblefield director of global supply chain operations. Based
in Houston, Stubblefield will have executive responsibility for
ValvTechnologies global sourcing and purchasing groups, leading
the development and execution of supply chain strategies and
performance on a worldwide basis. Previously, she served as director
of supply chain at Forum Energy Technologies, following career
growth over a 17-year tenure at the company and its predecessors,
Global Flow Technologies, DSI Valve and Zy-Tech Global Industries.
valve.com

LYNN RICHARDS, RED VALVE COMPANY


CARNEGIE, Pa. (Sept. 23, 2015) Red Valve
Company Inc. has appointed Lynn Richards
as the new inside sales and customer support
manager. Richards was employed for almost
27 years as business development manager
at Development Dimensions International Inc.
At Red Valve, she manages a team of sales
Lynn Richards
and administrative professionals who cover
global sales and customer support while working with the executive
team on strategies, process improvements and a vision for the
organization. redvalve.com

THOMAS COX, FCX PERFORMANCE


COLUMBUS, Ohio (Sept. 22, 2015) FCX Performance Inc. has
announced the appointment of Thomas Cox as chief executive
officer. Cox, who became a director of the company earlier this year,
will continue to serve on FCXs board of directors. Prior to joining FCX,
Cox was executive vice president of sales at MSC Industrial Supply
for 17 years, during which the companys revenue grew from $500
million to more than $2.7 billion. fcxperformance.com

CHRIS TINDELL, SEPCO


ALABASTER, Ala. (Sept. 9, 2015) SEPCO Inc. has appointed Chris
Tindell as regional manager over the Texas area. Tindell has worked
in the manufacturing, power generation and refining industries for
more than 22 years, specializing in the integration of comprehensive

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

predictive technologies. Throughout his career,


Tindell has become a certified maintenance and
reliability professional recognized by the Society
of Maintenance and Reliability Professionals with
formal certifications within multiple engineering
technology fields. sepco.com

JACOB HOMILLER, A.W. CHESTERTON


GROVELAND, Mass. (Sept. 8, 2015) The A.W.
Chesterton Company has appointed Jacob
Homiller as their new senior vice president of
global business management and chief sales
officer. Homiller joins Chesterton from his
previous role as global vice president of the
EMEA Reinforcement Materials business for
Cabot Corporation, a specialty chemicals and
performance materials company.
chesterton.com

Chris Tindell

Jacob Homiller

DAG ANDERSON, BJM PUMPS


OLD SAYBROOK, Conn. (Sept. 8, 2015) BJM Pumps has added
Dag Anderson to the team, serving as manager of IT Operations.
Anderson entered the world of technology in 1999 when he joined
EDGAR Online as manager of information technology. From there,
he founded his own company, which focused on implementation,
functionality and security of electronic health records. He enjoys
applying his vast technology knowledge and experience to different
fields. bjmpumps.com

ULRIK FRODERMANN, SCHENCK


CORPORATION
DEER PARK, N.Y. (Aug. 27, 2015) Schenck
Corporation has appointed Ulrik Frodermann
as president and CEO. Frodermann comes to
Schenck from Bielomatik, where he served as
president of their two operating units in the U.S.
for the past six years. In addition to management
Ulrik
expertise in the machine technology industry,
Frodermann
Frodermann has experience in marketing
and sales. Frodermann holds a bachelors degree in mechanical
engineering from Kiel University in Germany. schenck-usa.com

BOB MORGENSTERN, PROPUMP SERVICES


BETHLEHEM, Pa. (Aug. 13, 2015) ProPump
Services (PPS) has promoted Bob Morgenstern to
vice president. Morgenstern began his career with
PPS in 2002 as a senior engineer and has more
than 35 years of pump engineering and service
experience. He has experience in pumping
equipment including design, maintenance,
Bob
troubleshooting and field testing. Morgenstern
Morgenstern
will oversee field service, engineering, contracts,
customer relations and more. propumpservices.com

p u mpsa
ems.c
Novemb er 2015
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orom
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10

NEWS

AROUND THE INDUSTRY


WEF Releases Future of
Stormwater Report
ALEXANDRIA, Va. (Sept. 28, 2015) The
Water Environment Federation (WEF)
has released a new comprehensive
report that details the challenges,
opportunities and pathways to
improving the nations stormwater
systems. The release of Rainfall to
Results: The Future of Stormwater at
WEFTEC 2015 in Chicago coincided
with the official launch of the WEF
Stormwater Institute, a new center to
address stormwater issues.
The growing issue of stormwater
pollution, coupled with regulatory
pressure, is driving the need for
innovative approaches, training,
technology solutions and progressive
financing. There is a clear need for
national leadership and collaboration
to help forge the path to more
sustainable stormwater management.
The report draws from the insights of
top stormwater experts from across
the U.S. who examined the challenges,
opportunities and best practices
that will lead to a more resilient and
effective stormwater sector.
wefstormwaterinstitute.org

Calif. Works to Control


Utility Water Losses
RANCHO CUCAMONGA, Calif. (Sept.
28, 2015) The American Water Works
Associations California-Nevada Section
(CA-NV AWWA) has announced the
formation of a program to educate
and assist drinking water agencies in
reducing unnecessary losses of water.
CA-NV AWWA stated that the California
Water Loss Control Collaborative will
be a far-reaching framework designed
to unify and expand independent
water loss initiatives in order to meet
the goals of new legislation currently
awaiting action by Gov. Brown.
Senate Bill 555, by Sen. Lois Wolk of
Davis, will require about 450 of the
largest water agencies in the state to
submit validated water audits annually
to the Department of Water Resources,
with the validation of data certified by
an expert in the field.
The bill was approved by the state
legislature in September and awaits
action by the governor.
ca-nv-awwa.org

SPOTLIGHT
XYLEM WELCOMES PUMPS & SYSTEMS FOR TOUR
EMMABODA, Sweden The Pumps & Systems magazine team toured Xylem
Inc.s home city and learned more about the 114-year-old company in the
process. The foundry is one of the worlds most advanced for casting complex
geometric shapes. Xylems Swedish plants focus on solving water challenges
through research and innovation. A full story about the tour can be found on
our website. pumpsandsystems.com/pump-tour-pumps-systemsvisits-xylem-inc

EPA Finalizes Rule to


Modernize Clean Water
Act Reporting
WASHINGTON (Sept. 24, 2015)
The U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has finalized a rule to
modernize Clean Water Act reporting
for municipalities, industries and
other facilities. The final rule will
require regulated entities and state
and federal regulators to use existing,
available information technology to
electronically report data required
by the National Pollutant Discharge
Elimination System (NPDES) program
instead of filing written paper reports.
EPA estimates that once the rule
is fully implemented, the 46 states
and the U.S. Virgin Islands territory
that are authorized to administer the
NPDES program will collectively save
approximately $22.6 million each year
as a result of switching from paper to
electronic reporting.
The final rule will make facilityspecific information, such as inspection
and enforcement history, pollutant
monitoring results, and other data
required by NPDES permits accessible
to the public through EPAs website.
epa.gov

Grundfos Highlights
Manufacturing Center &
Wastewater Pump Production
AURORA, Ill. (Sept. 17, 2015) The
Grundfos S-Line of energy-efficient
wastewater pumps is now locally
assembled at the companys Illinoisbased Water Utility Competency
Center, alongside other Grundfos
brands, such as Yeomans, Morris,
Chicago and Sewer Chewer.
Grundfos showcased the submersible
wastewater pumps at the 2015 WEFTEC

Annual Technical Exhibition held Sept.


26-30 in Chicago.
The manufacturing center located in
Aurora, Illinois, is a 105,000-squarefoot facility devoted exclusively to the
production, servicing and distribution
of pumps and other equipment for
the municipal wastewater treatment
market throughout North America.
us.grundfos.com

HI Launches New Pump Test


Approval Program
PARSIPPANY, N.J. (Sept. 11, 2015) The
Hydraulic Institute (HI) has announced
the launch of the new Pump Test
Lab Approval program. HI member
company Hydro Inc. becomes the
first organization to have their pump
test laboratory approved through the
program. The program assists pump
OEMs and other pump test laboratories
to improve their current laboratory
procedures and policies by working
with an experienced third-party auditor
to develop and maintain accurate,
uniform and repeatable pump testing
protocols. The program also helps
participating organizations adhere to
the requirements of the international
test laboratory accreditation
standard (ISO 17025) concerning test
measurement equipment.
The program has been designed
around the new Hydraulic Institute
Program Guide for Pump Test
Laboratory Approval (HI 40.72015),
which summarizes the key elements
of this voluntary program. The guide
is available at no cost in the HI eStore.
Any qualified domestic or global
corporation, research institution or
laboratory can participate in the
HI Pump Test Laboratory Approval
Program. pumps.org

To have a news item considered, please send the information to Amelia Messamore, amessamore@cahabamedia.com.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

11

Chemical Metering Pumps and Flowmeters


LONDON (Sept. 10, 2015) New analysis
from Frost & Sullivan, The SafetySecurity Argument: Expanding Needs
in a Connected Enterprise, has found
that the global cybersecurity market for
control systems is expected to grow at a
rate between 20 to 25 percent every year
until 2021. North America and Europe
will remain at the forefront of initiating
technology advancements that address
attacks from advanced persistent threats.
As the Internet of Things (IoT) transforms
plant architecture, defence-by-default
security strategies will give way to defenceby-design solutions. In-built security
solutions that can sense and respond to
threats based on ecosystem parameters
will gain traction.
Creating industry- and applicationspecific solutions will also be crucial as
information technology (IT) solutions
continue to stream into the operational
technology (OT) space. Solution providers
in the IT and the OT ecosystems must join
hands to deploy end-to-end cybersecurity
solutions for industrial systems. frost.com

Registration Opens for


24th Automation Fair
ABU DHABI, United Arab Emirates
(Sept. 2, 2015) The 2015 Automation
Fair event hosted by Rockwell Automation
and members of its PartnerNetwork
program takes place Nov. 18-19 in Chicago.
It will showcase advancements in tools,
technologies, services and solutions
that can help drive changes across the
automation investment life cycle.
At this years event, more than 100
exhibitors are expected to fill the west
building of Chicagos McCormick Place
along with attendees of user-group
meetings, hands-on labs, technical
sessions and demonstrations. Attendees
can experience Rockwell Automation
products and technology at 19 handson labs and participate in any of the 91
technical sessions.
During nine industry-and audiencespecific forums, attendees will share
best practices for these industries and
segments: automotive, chemical, food and
beverage, global machine and equipment
builders, life sciences, metals, oil and gas,
power and energy, and water/wastewater.
rockwellautomation.com

for Successful Water & Waste Water Treatment.

BHAT*LNK

Laneop]hpe_Iapanejc

Ejfa_pknLqil

Three Models
Available with Feed
Rates Ranging from
0.1 GPH/.03 LPH to
158 GPH/600 LPH.
Brushless Variable
Speed Motor.
Terminal Blocks in
Junction Box for
Remote Connections.
Patented Tube Failure
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Growth Expected in Global


Cybersecurity Market for
Control Systems

12

NEWS

MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS


JWC Environmental to acquire
IPEC Consultants Ltd.
Sept. 24, 2015
EBARA acquired
Thebe Bombas Hidrulicas S.A.
Sept. 18, 2015

Emerson acquired Spectrex Inc.


Sept. 9, 2015

GHX Industrial acquired Anchor Industrial Sales Inc.


Sept. 8, 2015

Reliability Concepts acquired


Alignment Supplies Inc.
Sept. 8, 2015

Columbus McKinnon acquired Magnetek


Sept. 2, 2015
Nidec acquired U.S.-Based KB Electronics Inc.
Sept. 2, 2015

EVENTS
International Association of
Amusement Parks & Attractions
(IAAPA) Attractions Expo
Nov. 16-20, 2015
Orange County Convention Center
Orlando, Fla.
703-836-4800
iaapa.org/expos/iaapa-attractions-expo
ALL-TEST Pro LLC
Electrical Reliability Training
Seminar
Nov. 16-20, 2015
Fairfield Inn & SuitesChicago River North
Chicago, Ill.
860-399-4222 / alltestpro.com
2015 Chem Show
Nov. 17-19, 2015
Javits Center
New York, N.Y.
203-221-9232 / chemshow.com
Lateral & Torsional
Rotodynamics for Centrifugal &
Reciprocating Machinery
Dec. 8-9, 2015
Southwest Research Institute
San Antonio, Texas
210-522-2537
swri.org/9what/events/confer/
rotordynamics-short-course.pdf
POWER-GEN International
Dec. 8-10, 2015
Las Vegas Convention Center
Las Vegas, Nev.
918-831-9160 / power-gen.com

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N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

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om
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er 2015

14

PUMPING PRESCRIPTIONS
Troubleshooting & repair challenges
By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
Pumping Machinery, LLC, P&S Editorial Advisory Board

State of Global Efficiency Standards


First of Two Parts

espite an increasing focus


on energy savings around
the world, no formal
standardthat is also simple and
practicalexists. A recent pump
energy conference in the Middle
East took a comparative look at
available resources on the subject
in the U.S., Europe, Israel and
other areas of the world.
Several fledgling documents on
formalizing the approach are in
the works, but nothing is complete
to the point of availability to the
pumping community.
In the U.S., the Department of
Energy (DOE) has proposed new
efficiency standards for commercial
and industrial pumps1, with the
hope of having something issued
by the end of 2015. Unfortunately,
the scope of the project appears
to some to be too grand and not
specific enough. While it stresses
the importance of saving energy,
it remains an overall assessment
of energy consumption by pumps
and motors, leaving out practical
how-to details.
The European Standard IEEE EN
505982 is also an attempt in the
right direction, but it mainly deals
with motor efficiency, drives and
other electrical aspects.
In Israel, the Ministry of
National Infrastructures/
Department of Energy
Conservation has been conducting
work to assess the impact of
potential improvements in overall
systems efficiency for installed

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

pumps (and other machinery). The


department set guideline values
for pump efficiencies for different
pump types, but the values do
not yet account for design details
(such as number of stages, flow or
power rates, and other factors).
Regardless, it is a starting point in
establishing reasonably achieved
values. The nations ongoing energy
conservation programs are planned
to refine and fi ll the details.3 This
work is also supported by the
Standards Institution of Israel.
Field measurements of actual
versus predicted pump efficiencies
have also been conducted by the
Pumping Machinery Technology
Center in the U.S. and in Israel, as
presented at the recent conference
on the subject.4a/b
The overall state of creating
pump efficiency guidelines is
still in rudimentary form, and
progress is slow because of many
factors, including technical
aspects, logistics, political impact
and a diversity of opinions on
the approach and content of the
end-product publication. Several
reasons exist for the stalemate in
progress, and given the diversity
of needs and parties involved,
slow progress in this arena is
completely understandable.

Actual Efficiencies of
New OEM Pumps
While the subject is of great
commercial importance during a
pumps procurement processand

mainly of interest when large


units (typically 1,000 horsepower
[hp] and up) are being bidthis
should not be the main focus of
the effort. The difference in quoted
efficiency for new pumps of similar
design rarely varies more than +/- 1
percentage point. Most established
pump manufacturers have been
producing pumps for many years
and have evolved the designs (often
by the same designers who might
have worked at several competitors
over the years) to the point that
manufacturers can do little to
outperform their competitors in
regard to efficiency.
For a large pump, even a single
point of efficiency could mean
significant savings. For example,
a double-suction split-case
pump operating nonstop burns
about $3.3 million per year. This
translates to about $30,000 per
each point of lost efficiency. This,
however, still represents only
a statistical variation from one
bid war to the next, when the
situation often reverses. The bigger
picture, as we will touch on later,
is elsewhere.

Actual Field Efficiencies


of Installed Pumps
The actual field efficiencies of
installed pumps are where great
differences from the initial original
equipment manufacturer (OEM)
efficiencies are noticed. Studies
show that efficiencies of installed
pumps are commonly reduced by

15

10, 20 and often close to 50 percent


below the OEM quoted (rated) point.4a/b
There are good reasons for this trend,
including wear over time (clearances),
changed flow conditions, degraded
internals (impellers, casing) and
other factors. As studies also show,
the majority of pumps in the U.S.
operate essentially with few recorded
values of efficiency trends, and
millions of dollars are burned daily
because of this lack of information
about pump operation and the energy
consumption associated with it.
Part 2 of this series will discuss a
user-oriented approach to measuring
system efficiency.
References
1. Maurer, J., Proposed Pump Efficiency
Standards, DOE, March 18, 2015
2. Gross, A., Energy Efficiency Indicators for
Power Drive Systems and Motor Starters,
Sept. 8-9, 2015, PumpTec-Israel-2015,
conducted at Israel Water Works
Association
3. Bet-Hazavdi, E., Energy Conservation
for Rotating Machinery via Efficiency
Improvements, DEC Israel, PumpTecIsrael 2012
4a. Nelik, L., Energy/Efficiency Studies by
On-Line Efficiency Monitoring System
(PREMS-2A), doctorpump.com
4b. Nelik, L. and Moskovich, D., Efficiency
Evaluation for the Vertical Turbine
Pump, Clean Water Well, Weizmann
Institute Israel

Editors Note: A reader asked about


the characteristics of 300 and 400
Dr. Nelik (aka Dr. Pump) is
president of Pumping Machinery,
LLC, an Atlanta-based firm
specializing in pump consulting,
training, equipment troubleshooting
and pump repairs. Dr. Nelik has
30 years of experience in pumps
and pumping equipment. He may
be reached at pump-magazine.
com. For more information, visit
pumpingmachinery.com/pump_
school/pump_school.htm.

steel and the 400 series are non-magnetic,


but the 300 series is magnetic. For further
questions, please contact Dr. Nelik at
drpump@pumpingmachinery.com. Thanks
to our readers for their careful attention.

series stainless steel as discussed in Part


3 of Efficiency Monitoring Saves Plants
Millions (Pumps & Systems, September
2015). According to Dr. Nelik, the reader
was correct in pointing out that carbon

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others available upon request. Standard features
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

16

PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT


A better understanding of complete system operation
By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.

Troubleshooting Piping Systems


Last of Three Parts

arts 1 and 2 of this series


(Pumps & Systems, September
and October 2015) discussed
the engineering principles that
dictate the operation of various
elements of a piping system. Using
those principles, we developed a
mathematical model of an example
piping system, used the model
to simulate the operation of the
physical system, and determined
if the equipment is operating
within the confines of the model.
The model was compared with
with the physical piping system
to identify and isolate problems
within the piping system to arrive
at a course of corrective action.
Part 3 will examine the results and
model validation, exploring ways to
evaluate the model.
Using the valve stem indicator on
the control valve, we can determine
the valve is approximately 75
percent open. Using this position,
the manufacturers Cv table for
valve position and the flow rate of
1,000 gpm through the flow meter,
we can calculate the differential
pressure across the control valve. If
the calculated differential pressure
across the control valve matches
the differential pressure calculated
above, we can validate the control
valves inlet and outlet pressures.
Using the ANSI/ISA 75.01.01
Flow Equations for Sizing Control
Valves standard, Equation 7 can
determine the Cv value.
The control valve manufacturer
provides the Fp value. Table 1
displays the Cv data for FCV-101.
The calculated Cv value falls

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

between the 70 and 80 percent valve operating tank level in TK-101 has
increased from 10 to 15 feet of level.
open position. Performing a linear
interpolation between the 70 and 80 How will that effect the system?
Again, the boundary parameters
percent open results in a calculated
valve position of 74 percent for FCV- drive the system operation; in this
101 using the valve sizing equation. example system, the boundary
parameters consist of the supply
The calculated results correlates
tank, the destination tank and the
with the observed valve position.
flow control loop FCV-101 that
Because we have an independent
regulates the flow rate to a set value.
method of calculation using the
Changing any of these boundary
model with the actual observed
values, we can validate the results of values will change the operation
of every item in the system. With
the control valve.
a change of operating parameters,
The total energy values at
the plant operates at 30 psig and a
the inlet and outlet of the head
exchanger and the inlet and outlet
of the flow meter have not been
Q
1,000
=
= 231
Equation 7
Cv =
validated. Because the total energy
dP
19.2
1 FP
.99
calculated by the model at PI-101
SG
.994
and the inlet of FCV-101 have been
Where:
validated, one could assume that the C = flow coefficient (unitless)
v
total energy calculated accurately
Q = flow rate (gpm)
reflects the physical piping system
FP = piping geometry factor (unitless)
even without the validation of
dP = differential pressure across control valve
installed instrumentation.
(pounds per square inch)
Based on the correlation between
SF = specific gravity of process fluid (unitless)
the calculated energy of the
model and the
Table 1. This table describes the manufacturers Cv and valve coefficient values as
observed values
a function of the valve position. This can be used to simulate the operation of the
provided by the
specific control valve under various operating conditions. (Courtesy of the author)
installed plant
instrumentation,
one could assume
that the model
accurately
represents the
operation of the
system under this
condition.
Imagine two
week after the
system has been
validated the

17

20 foot level in destination tank


PV-102. Figure 5 shows the values
of the installed instrumentation.
We will use the existing model
to determine if it still accurately
reflects the system operation. The
flow rate through the system is still

maintained at 1,000 gpm by the


flow control loop. We can see that
the position of FCV-101 is now 82.6
percent open. We will evaluate the
existing system to see if the model
accurately reflects what the system
is showing.

Figure 5. Operation of the example system with different


boundary conditions in the destination tank PV-102

s
low
F
n

I
re

tio
va
no

For
Handling

The pump suction and discharge


pressures have not changed. This is
to be expected because no change
occurred in the supply tank level or
the flow rate through the suction
pipeline, pump and discharge
pipeline. As a result, the pressure
values in PI-100 and PI-101 should
be the same as before. Because
the flow rate through the heat
exchanger, flow meter and all the
connecting pipelines upstream of
control valve FCV-101 are the same,
the inlet pressure to the control
valve should be 173.12 feet of fluid.
Now we will look at the system
from the control valve outlet to the
destination tank PV-102. Using
the Bernoulli equation, we will
determine the static head at the
destination tank (see Equation 8).

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

18

PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

Because the flow rate through


the pipeline connecting the control
valve outlet and the destination
tank has not changed and the flow
rate through the system remains at
1,000 gpm, the total energy at the
control valve outlet is 145.15 feet
(139.68 + 5.47 ft).
The new head loss across the
control valve is 27.97 feet (173.12145.15). Converting the head
loss across the control valve to
differential pressure results in a
value of 12.04 psi. Plugging the
flow rate of 1,000 gpm and the
differential pressure of 12.04 psi
into the valve sizing equation,
we can determine the Cv of the
control valve is 290.23. Using the
Cv values found in Table 1 results in
a calculated valve position of 82.6
percent. These calculated results

2
2
= 139.68 ft
H = Z + 144 P + v = (50 + 20) + 144 x 30 + 0

62
2g
2 x 32.2

correlate with the results displayed


in the operating system.
As demonstrated, the
mathematical model developed
using the manufacturers supplied
data and the basic engineering
equations that calculate head,
pressure and head loss accurately
reflect the operation of fluid piping
systems. This provides us with two
powerful points of knowledge:
1. The model accurately reflects the
operation of the physical piping
system.
2. Any deviation between the
model and the operation of the
physical system can be traced
to equipment not operating

Equation 8

according to the manufacturers


supplied data or standard
engineering calculations.
Next month we will use this
knowledge to determine when
a physical piping system is not
operating according to the piping
system model and how to correct
the problem.
Ray Hardee is a principal founder of
Engineered Software, creators of PIPE-FLO
and PUMP-FLO software. At Engineered
Software, he helped develop two training
courses and teaches these courses
internationally. He may be reached at ray.
hardee@eng-software.com.

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N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

19

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

20

COMMON PUMPING MISTAKES


Simple solutions for end users
By Jim Elsey
Summit Pump Inc.

Follow These Steps for a More Reliable Pump

often witness end users


operating pumps to the left
side of the curve, away from
the best efficiency point (BEP)
and near shutoff. This is not the
ideal area because of issues with
shaft deflection, cavitation and
recirculation, all of which lead to a
reduction in pump reliability. There
are several other reasons to avoid
operating in this region as well.

Minimum Flow
Minimum flow is the operating
area where centrifugal pumps will
quickly get into trouble. The power
introduced into a pump by the
driver will manifest as energy or
workeither as a useful flow with
a corresponding head or as heat,
vibration, noise (acoustic energy) or
a combination of all these. Because
no pump is 100 percent efficient,
the energy not used in the work for
the head and flow will show up as
one of these other items.
Technically, four factors affect
minimum flow: fluid temperature
rise, minimum stable flow, internal
recirculation and thrust capacity.
For most cases, we can simplify
these factors and just look at two
main areas. The first area is under
the category of mechanical issues,
and the other is thermal issues. A
minimum continuous flow rate for
a pump should be determined for
mechanical and thermal factors.
The higher of the two becomes the
minimum flow rate for that pump.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Mechanical Issues
When the pump is operated
away from BEP, the radial thrust
will increase dramatically. For a
single volute pump, it is close to a
hyperbolic function. The shaft will
deflect and create issues with the
bearings and seals, dramatically
shortening their useful life. Also,
the flow velocity (angle/profi le)
will not match the impeller vane
speeds (velocity/inlet angle/
angle of incidence), and suction
recirculation will occur, creating
fluid stalls and cavitation.
The shaft deflection ratio (L 3/
D4) comes into play in these
calculations: A low L 3/D4 ratio will
mitigate the deleterious effects.
Calculating MCSF
Minimum continuous stable flow
(MCSF) is defined as the flow rate
below which the pump should
not be operated. The American
Petroleum Institute (API) will
define it as operating without
exceeding specified vibration
limits. The actual calculation of
this MCSF rate is a function of
numerous factors that include
suction energy (in my opinion,
suction energy is otherwise an
outdated concept), suction-specific
speed and specific speed (impeller
geometries). Pay particular
attention to factors that affect the
onset of suction recirculation and
exit turbulence at the vane tips as
these result in vortex cavitation.

Some specifications tend to


simplify these calculations and
state that minimum flow should
be a percentage of the BEP flow
rate. For example, API 610 states
that MCSF will be no less than 60
percent allowable value (70 percent
is preferred). ANSI B73.1 states
in paragraph 5.1.6 that pumps
shall be designed to operate
continuously between 110 percent
of BEP and the minimum flows
shown in Table 5. There is more
to this specification, which I will
not cover here, but please note that
Table 5 values do not take thermal
flow factors into consideration.

Thermal Considerations
While the energy put into a pump
running at minimum flow (for
other than head and flow) may
yield vibration and noise, it is most
likely to manifest as heat. Another
possibility is heating the fluid to
the point of vaporizing the fluid
and cavitating or even exceeding
the design limits of the casing (due
to the vaporization of the fluid to
a gas and causing casing rupture).
The rate at which the temperature
will rise in a pump with a closed
discharge valve can be calculated
using Equation 1.
For my metric (SI) friends,
the temperature TR is degrees
C per second. The power will be
in kilowatts (kW), the specific
heat for water is 4.19 joules per
gram-degree C, and the pump

21

casing volume will be in liters.


SI calculations can also drop the
0.085 in the numerator.
Some of the heat from the
temperature rise will be dissipated
to ambient. When the pumps
ability to dissipate the heat is
exceeded by heat generation, the
pump and fluid temperature rise
quickly. Insulation and ambient
temperature affect heat balance.

TR =

(0.085) (PSO)
(Q) (C V ) (Sp. Gr.)

When calculating the brake


horespower (BHP) at this no flow
condition, realize that no flow is
produced downstream of the pump,
but it is produced internally. Most
manufacturers use the casing
volume as a minimum plus a flow
rate factor that is a function of the
pump size and number of stages.
The pump efficiency at these low
flows is low and hard to pinpoint.

Equation 1

Where:
TR = Temperature rise in degrees F per second
PSO = Shutoff power in BHP
C V = Specific heat of water (1.0 BTU per pound-degree F)
Q = Volume of the casing in gallons

The time required for the fluid


to vaporize can be calculated by
dividing the temperature rate (see
Equations 2 and 3) into the value of
the differential temperature
( T). The T is the temperature
difference between the pump
suction temperature and the fluid
saturation temperature.
The temperature increase in the
pump, especially at low flow, is
dependent on the liquids rate of
flow through the pump.

MCTF
Minimum continuous thermal flow
(MCTF) is usually not the most
limiting factor in determining a
pumps minimum flow. Typically
the mechanical aspects will be the
limiting factor, but do not ignore
the thermal flow considerations.

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22

COMMON PUMPING MISTAKES

T =

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(PX) (5.1)
(Q) (CP) (Sp. Gr.)

Q
(T) = T pump
QX

Equation 2

Equation 3

First, you need to know the saturation temperature for the


fluid you are pumping. You should already know this value
because you already completed the net positive suction head
available (NPSH A) calculation. Then determine the temperature
of the fluid as it is entering the pump. The difference between
these two temperatures is your maximum allowable T.
The Pump Handbook (Igor J. Karassik, Paul Cooper et al.)
recommends you give at least a 15-degree F margin (9 degrees C).
Subtract that from your original T number to arrive at the new
value with a safety margin. Then using the following equations
(see Equations 2 and 3), first calculate different temperature
rises in the pump until you arrive at the number that no longer
exceeds the maximum allowable temperature rise previously
calculated. I suggest you start with flows that are around 10
percent or better of BEP flow.
In Equation 2, PX is the power at the flow you selected (in
BHP).Do not confuse with PSO from Equation 1, which is the
shutoff power. QX is the flow rate (in gallons per minute)
through the pump at the flow you selected and T will equal the
fluid temperature rise. Metric friends can drop the value 5.1. The
flow rate is liters per second, power is in kW, the casing volume
is in liters and temperatures are in Celsius. CP is the specific
heat for the fluid and Q is the casing liquid volume. Sp. Gr. is the
specific gravity.
If the temperature rise you calculate at 10 percent of BEP flow
is less than the maximum allowable temperature rise calculated
earlier, then use 10 percent of BEP flow as the minimum
continuous thermal flow.
You should always operate the pump in a region of best
efficiency and the least amount of cavitation, vibration,
noise and heat generation. If this is not feasible, then change
something with the pump and/or the system. Otherwise, you
will reduce the reliability of the pump and increase costs.
Jim Elsey is a mechanical engineer who has focused on
rotating equipment design and applications for the military and
several large original equipment manufacturers for 43 years
in most industrial markets around the world. Elsey is an active
member of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, the
National Association of Corrosion Engineers and the American
Society for Metals. He is the general manager for Summit Pump
Inc. and the principal of MaDDog Pump Consultants LLC. Elsey
may be reached at jim@summitpump.com.

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24
SPECIAL REPORT

Using AHRI Standard


1210 & 1211 to Benet
VFD Applications
With the standard, specifying design engineers, owners and
energy managers can compare VFDs on an equal basis.
BY THOMAS LOWERY & JACK CREAMER
SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC

2006 to develop a performance standard for VFDs. The


ariable frequency drives (VFDs) have been
result was the publication of AHRI Standard 1210 (IP) and
widely applied to pumping applications for
1211 (SI) Performance Rating of Variable Frequency Drives.
nearly 30 years to provide variable flow and
The complete standard sets a minimum of three test
pressure output to meet changing conditions
criteria for VFD manufacturers to publish under the
in commercial buildings. While the affinity laws for
newly published guidelines:
centrifugal loads explain the large energy savings
potential due to speed
reduction, the individual
Figure 1. AHRI standard test setup for drive system efficiency and power
components of this variable
line harmonics (Graphics courtesy of Schneider Electric)
speed system have not
historically been examined
or held to any efficiency
standard. VFDs are also
commonly packaged with
options for pump applications
like harmonic fi lters, EMC
fi lters, dV/dt motor fi lters
and contactor bypass, which
impact system efficiency. Even
VFD parameters adjusted
during startup can affect how
much power is consumed by
both the VFD and the motor.
To establish some means
P1 - Closest point less than 1 m to input terminals of the VFD
of evaluating these systems
P2 - Closest point less than 1 m to input terminals of the motor
for efficiency, the AirP3 - Temperature sensor installed on the motor stator winding out of the cooling air circulation path
Conditioning, Heating, and
P4 - Torque/speed sensor between the motor and the load
P5 - Ambient temperature sensor near the cooling air entering the motor
Refrigeration Institute (AHRI)
formed a VFD task force in
N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

25

Drive System Efficiency (percent)


Motor Insulation Stress, Peak V and Rise Time (sec)
Power Line Harmonics, Total Harmonic Current
Distortion (THDi) (percent)

This article will focus in detail on the Drive System


Efficiency aspect of the standard.

Calculating VFD Efficiency


If system efficiency is to be determined for a VFD, one
might think it can be as simple as measuring the power
into and out of it, then dividing the two measurements
to represent it as a percentage value. The AHRI VFD task
force quickly realized it was not that simple.
Even small changes to the drive setting, such as carrier
switching frequency, could have a large impact on VFD
efficiency. Likewise, in order to provide a standard
method of test, basics like connected motor style, cable
characteristics between the drive, and the motor had to
be standardized. Electrically, power source impedance,
phase imbalance and power factor needed definition in
order to establish a standardized system where a user
would be able to compare data between compliant drives
and be assured that it was collected and published based
on the same system.
Figure 1 shows the standardized test setup defined in
AHRI 1210 and 1211.

Reducing Capacitance VFD Input Waveform


An example of how drive technology has been
impacted by advanced switching algorithms is
seen in drives that reduce DC bus capacitance,
allowing a more efficient transfer of power from
line to load. When combined with rapid sensing
circuits that detect abnormal line condition,
a VFD can automatically adjust the motor
output waveform by modulating the required
amount of voltage and associated energy to
the motor, avoiding nuisance trips or loss of
speed. Effective conversion of the line power
to a custom pulse width modulated waveform
without the need for large energy storage inside
the drive via capacitors has increased VFD
efficiency by up to 5 percent.

Consulting engineers took this information and placed


minimum efficiency requirement values in specifications
as seen in the example below.
A. The alternating current (AC) drive shall be designed
to operate at the input line voltage indicated on the
equipment schedule.
B. The AC drive shall operate from an input frequency
range of 60 Hertz (Hz) 5 percent.
C. The displacement power factor shall not be less than
0.96 lagging under any speed or load condition.
D. The efficiency of the AC drive power converter at
100 percent speed and load shall not be less than
97 percent.
E. The AC drive shall be sized to operate a variable torque
load, and rated overcurrent capacity shall be not less
than 110 percent for one minute.

Drive Technology
Todays VFDs have three power component sections: an
input rectifier, a fi xed DC-bus section and a transistorized
inverter. Each design can differ slightly in components,
as well as how the power devices are controlledall of
which have an impact on their efficiency. In the early
1990s most VFDs were updated to include newer power
semiconductors, and insulated-gate bipolar junction
transistors (IGBT) were controlled by pulse-width
modulation (PWM) algorithms. This
change greatly enhanced reliability and
Figure 2. Typical VFD circuit diagram
reduced the overall size of VFDs, allowing
electrical variable speed control to replace
mechanical methods of varying flow in
pump systems.
Even though the majority of pumping
systems rarely require running at
full load and speed, the efficiency
calculations and subsequently stated
values for VFDs are typically represented
as a single percentage value. Table 1
shows typical efficiency values in VFD
product literature.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

26

SPECIAL REPORT

Table 1. Typical efficiency values as shown in VFD product literature


Electrical Specifications
Input voltage and
horsepower (hp) range

200-15 percent to 240 +1 percent, three-phase input, three-phase output, 1 hp to 40 hp


380-15 percent to 480 +10 percent, three-phase input, three-phase output, 1 hp to 100 hp

Input frequency

50 Hz -5 percent to 60 Hz +5 percent

Galvanic isolation

Galvanic isolation between power and control (inputs, outputs and power supplies)

Drive input power section

Six-pulse bridge rectifier

Drive output power section

IGBT inverter with pulse-width modulated output

Power factor

Above 99 percent

Efficiency

Above 98 percent at full load

Switching frequency

Selectable: 6 to 16 kHz, 12 kHz nominal rating for 1 hp to 20 hp at 200/240 V, 380/480 V


Selectable: 6 to 16 kHz, 8 kHz nominal rating for 30 hp to 40 hp at 200/240 V, 30 hp to 100 hp at 380/480 V

Table 2. Speed/torque test points for drive system efficiency.


Please note: Output frequency or other readouts from the VFD
shall not be used to determine percent speed. Only those cells
that contain CT or VT are test points.

Percent Torque
16%
40%
Percent
Speed

50%

25%

56%

VT

100%
CT

VT

75%
100%

CT
VT

CT
CT/VT

VFD Efficiency
While a single value did provide some comparison of VFD
efficiency between manufacturers, it did not provide a
means of comparison at any point other than full load
and speed, where equipment rarely operates in modern
variable volume systems. AHRI Standard 1210 and 1211
addresses this issue by requiring test data be published
at four speed and torque points representing a variable
torque fan or pump motor load, or a constant torque
positive displacement pump or compressor loads. Table 2,
taken from the AHRI Standard, illustrates data that must
be published by manufacturers seeking to be certified.
Certified VFDs
With the release of AHRI Standard 1210 and 1211,
specifying design engineers, owners and energy managers
can compare VFDs on an equal basis. Efficiency has been
the driving force behind motor regulations that define
minimum levels of acceptable power usage.
VFDs now have a similar tool for those trying to
maximize system efficiency with detailed operating
points that closely define where fans and pumps operate
within variable volume systems. As a result, simple,
certified test data will be published following third-party
verification testing to comply with these new standards.
N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Trusted Certification Program


AHRI Certified products are verified to perform as
specified by the manufacturer, and the process of
certification holds them accountable for their reported
efficiency ratings.
This globally recognized, industry-respected approach
to product certification carries benefits for consumers
and specifying engineers.
The performance of equipment in the program is
independently measured and verified, allowing for fair
product comparisons. Equipment must undergo rigorous
testing by independent, third-party laboratories under
contract to AHRI.
References
ANSI/AHRI Standard 1210 (I-P) and ANSI/AHRI Standard 1211 (SI)

Thomas Lowery is the drives marketing operations


manager for Schneider Electrics industry business. He
has more than 25 years of experience in the application
of variable speed electric drives in HVAC and industrial
markets. He serves as chairman and Handbook
Subcommittee chairman for ASHRAE TC1.11 Electric
Motors and Motor Controls.
Jack Creamer is Schneider Electrics market segment
marketing managerpumping equipment. He is
actively involved in key industry associations such
as the Hydraulic Institute and the Submersible
Wastewater Pump Association.
He also represents Schneiders
membership in numerous industry
organizations. Creamer serves on the
Editorial Advisory Board of Pumps &
Systems magazine.

27

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28
SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

Intelligent Pressure Sewers


Transform Australian
Wastewater System
South East Water combines grinder pumps and a remote control
telemetry network to improve groundwater quality and the
economy in Mornington Peninsula.
Last of Two Parts
Read the first part of this series at
pumpsandsystems.com/
intelligent-pressure-sewers

BY JOSEPH HARMES
FOR PUMPS & SYSTEMS

outh East Water had evaluated three septic


alternatives for the Mornington Peninsula
project: gravity, vacuum and low-pressure sewers
(LPS). Gravity sewerswith origins in the Roman
aqueductsare bulky systems usually requiring major,
disruptive excavation to install. And, like septic systems,
gravity sewer infrastructure can tend to leak and be prone
to infi ltration and inflow.
Navigating the terrain was another consideration. The
landscape ranges from undulating plains to low hills,
largely sitting upon sandy foundations.
Perhaps the biggest drawback of a gravity project was
price: approximately $416 million compared with $297.5
million for an intelligent LPS, significantly lower in
capital outlays than the competing options.
South East Water concluded that the low-pressure
system was the best option based on value, whole-of-life
worth, quality of equipment and the track record of South
East Waters 15-year history of designing and operating
pressure sewers.
Besides cost, South East Water considered other
benefits of a low-pressure system:
the need for only a fraction of the pumping stations a
gravity system would have required

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

lower capital and operating expenditures


immediate environmental gains and a reduced
pollution load
the absence of inflow and infi ltration of ground- and
stormwater
the grinder pumps capacity to pump long distances
and up challenging elevations at significant head

Grinder pump stationsabout the size of a washing


machinealso could be retrofitted easily in established
residential areas, often in the same hole previously
occupied by a decommissioned septic tank.
The Mornington Peninsula project broke ground in late
2013 with sewer main installation, mainly along roads
or in nature strips. Using horizontal directional drilling
(HDD) for low-invasive community and environmental
impact, the plan simultaneously progresses to the burying
of sewer reticulation pipe in an accelerated timeframe.
The utility chose HDD because of the projects scale and
because it is well-suited to the peninsulas soil conditions.
The technique also delivers a low environmental impact
on the boot-shaped promontoryhome to nearly a
dozen national and state parks and wildlife preserves
and causes minimal disruption to its beach towns

29

Image 1. Pressure testing the low-pressure sewer


pressure main, which ensures all fittings are liquid
tight to prevent infiltration or exfiltration
(Images courtesy of South East Water)

residential neighborhoods and urban commercial areas, golf


courses, riding schools, fishing and boating facilities, and
campgrounds.
The use of low-pressure sewers instead of traditional
gravity mains, HDD and in-house developed technology
(OneBox) has cut 12 months off construction time and saved
$100 million of projected costs.
This project really is first of its kind in terms of design,
construction and technology, Thompson says. The capital
investment savings made possible by utilizing pioneering
technology to allow for downsizing of reticulation networks
and transfer mains are significant.
Additional economic benefits from efficiency include
smaller storage capacity, reduced pipe diameters (while
maintaining scouring velocity) and smaller treatment plants.

Additional Capabilities
A pilot project is under way to capture rainwater for recycling,
which will be beneficial in times of drought. Using a OneBox
network to manipulate this storage will provide a flood
prevention mechanism.

Image 2. A contractor attaches the inlet fitting


to the tank prior to in-ground installation.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

30

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

We have a 500-house development


proposal with 500 rain tanks (in the trial),
Casey says. It will allow us to utilize the
available volume in those rain tanks to
accommodate peak rainfall events and reduce
flooding because we can control all of the
levels of the rain tanks and can utilize the
available volume at any given moment for
peak flood flow mitigation.
The rain tanks level sensor will
communicate via the OneBox system to our
control system and actuate valves on the rain
tanks to allow us to empty the rain tanks
in a controlled manner. We can discharge
rainwater into the drainage system ahead of
a storm event. We can have a controlled flow
from multiple rain tanks into the waterway,
which can be easily regulated.
Full acceptance of the concept by workers
and other water utilities, however, is not yet
universal.
As with any change in technology, there
will be some who want to wait to see it in
full operation before they have comfort,
Thompson says. The benefit in this case is that South
East Water is both the developer and user of the product.
The test bed South East Water has created allows us to
demonstrate that the system works. Our focus has been
to reduce the operational aspects of managing lowpressure sewer units which you can do remotely. Sixty
percent of South East Waters call-outs were out of hours.
These can now be addressed during normal business
hours, which saves on overtime on the weekend.

Over the Horizon


Sewer connections on Mornington Peninsula are
projected to last until the year 2030. South East Water
created Peninsula ECO (Early Connection Option),
allowing property owners to pay to connect to the system
up to 16 years ahead of schedule.
According to the utility, the benefits of the ECO
program are increased property values, the elimination of
existing septic tank maintenance costs, and eliminating
odors and dampness associated with failing systems.
Economic development is expected to continue as early
connections are implemented and beyond the finalization
of the project. In 2009, growth was stymied in one
commercial area alone where the Mornington Wastewater
Management Plan reports that more than 50 percent
of these (septic) systems were either discharging
wastewater off-site or failing with wastewater ponding
at the ground surface.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Image 3. Completed installation of E/One lowpressure sewer tank with Iota OneBox. Lowprofile features and modern industrial design of
components make for a more attractive amenity.

The lack of sewerage to this area continues to severely


restrict the business and tourism activities on existing
commercial sites, the plan stated.
Less than 10 percent of the installs are expected to
be completed by the time holiday revelers return to
the beach this Christmas. South East Water and E/One
currently are connecting about 80 pumps and OneBox
units per month, a job which ebbs and flows and is
suspended during the high season.
It will take a while to dig 16,000 holes, Lachut says.
But even 1,000 properties per year is a good pace for any
LPS system.
E/Ones president, Eric LaCoppola, anticipates a bright
future for Mornington Peninsulas environmental quality
of life. The larger-scale multi-thousand unit installations
enabled by OneBox technology signal a new era of market
adoption for a technique once relegated as alternative
and now considered most appropriate.
South East Water is a state-owned corporation providing
water, sewerage and recycled water services to more
than 1.65 million people in the southeast of Melbourne,
Australia. Joseph Harmes has documented the evolution
and acceptance curve of grinder pumps and low-pressure
sewer systems for two decades. Hes profiled overseas
installations in Baja California, Mexico and Turawa,
Poland, as well as the Western Hemispheres biggest LPS
installation of more than 5,000 grinder pumps in Indiana.

31

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32

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

System Considerations
for VSDs in Industrial
Machinery
The changing landscape of hydraulic drives is leading many
uid power specialists to quickly adapt to VSDs.
BY PAUL STAVROU
BOSCH REXROTH CORPORATION

espite ominous predictions in the 1980s and


90s, the complete replacement of hydraulics
with electrical drives did not occur, and fluid
power still plays an important role in modern
drive technology.
When large forces and high torques are required,
hydraulic drives are irreplaceable because of their
enormous power density. During the last 30 years, the
field of traditional hydraulics has evolved into electrohydraulics, the integration of electronics and closedloop controls. This integration has become an industrial
standard. Combining strength and intelligence, modern
fluid power drives are perfect examples of highly
integrated mechatronic devices.
Advanced Solutions
Ongoing competition with electrical drives and
ever-increasing performance and energy efficiency
requirements have led the hydraulic drive industry to
more advanced system solutions.
Electrohydraulic drives typically use resistive or
volumetric power control. In resistive control, a valve
usually a proportional devicecontrols the system by
throttling oil flow delivered from a power supply source.
In volumetric control, flow is controlled by adjusting the
displacement of a pump or by directly changing the drive
speed of a fi xed or variable displacement pump. Resistive
control has excellent dynamic characteristics but poor
energy efficiency. Heat dissipation from throttling the

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

hydraulic fluid in the control valve can cause


significant energy costs associated with cooling the
hydraulic equipment, fluid reservoir and equipment spaces.
A number of broad manufacturing trends are
influencing the increased interest in and potential value
of pump variable speed drives (VSDs).
Rising costs of energy and increased awareness of
environment issues has resulted in new trends in drive
systems. During the last two decades, improvements
in electrohydraulic efficiency were a main goal of many
companies and research institutes. Given advances
in drive technology and closed-loop control, efficient
volumetric control using speed variable pump systems
is replacing the resistive throttling method.
Reducing throttling losses lowers the amount of
heat transferred to the oil and oil reservoir. Lower
heat generation allows for a smaller capacity cooling
system and lower parasitic power needed to maintain
optimum oil temperature.
Using variable frequency drives (VFDs) with hydraulic
power units can also lower average noise emissions,
as the pump speed is reduced during partial load
operations, such as pressure holding or idling. The
average sound level can be lowered by as much as 10-20
dB(A), improving environmental working conditions.

Growth of VSDs
The combination of advanced electric drive technology
and hydraulics opens a new chapter in electrohydraulic

33

Image 1. A refit and customized hydraulic system


(Images courtesy of Bosch Rexroth Corporation)

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34

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

drive systems. Machine builders can


benefit from both the traditional
hydraulic characteristics of robustness
and power density and the advantages
of electric drives: inherent drive
intelligence and ease of integration
with factory automation systems.

This changing landscape of


hydraulic drives pushes fluid power
specialists to quickly adapt to using
VSDs. For many engineers, this is
not easy. Optimum use of VSDs often
requires additional considerations and
modifications to a system design.

Mission SCADA Works Right Out


Of The Box, But Wont Box You In
Mission managed SCADA systems are
designed to get you up and running in
hours, not days. Our packages start at
around $1,000 with a maintenance fee of
less than $1 a day. Mission strives for
ease in doing business. Give us a try no
bureaucratic red tape, no huge commitment. If you like it, buy it. If not, send it
back. Its that simple.

In Sewer Level Alarm

Mission flexibility allows you to expand


your system as you are ready and on your
terms. Mix and match any of our products
one at a time or all at once, the choice is
yours. That is why you will find Mission
SCADA monitoring over 2,000 municipalities across the U.S. and Canada.

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(877) 993 - 1911 www.123mc.com
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N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Fluid power engineers must


understand the distinctive features
of VFDs and the requirements of
the production process to define the
critical points for the electric and
hydraulic elements. The goal of the
system is to meet the requirements
of dynamics and accuracy while
maintaining overall energy efficiency.
When applying a VFD-driven pump,
using a conventional induction motor
or a permanent magnet servo motor
(PMM), dynamic behavior will differ
from a system using a constant speed
drive and throttling control valve.

HYDRAULIC DRIVE TRENDS


AND CONSIDERATIONS
Technology trends
Intelligent electrohydraulics
enables much greater control
and exibility.
Variable speed pump drive
technology provides signicant
energy-efciency improvement.
Reduction of throttling losses
lowers oil reservoir cooling
requirements.
Using VFDs with hydraulic
power units can lower average
noise emissions by 10-20 dB(A).
Key considerations
Dynamic performance and
power requirements determine
the choice of the motor.
Select motor and drive size
based on pressure-ow-time
cycle (p/Q prole) for the
application.
When selecting pumps, consider
suitability of pump construction
for variable speed operation.
Also consider mechanical and
volumetric efciency at the
design operating points.
Improper pump selection or
operation outside allowed
conditions can result in
premature pump failure
or suboptimal control
performance.

35

in heavy industry applications and for machining tool


System Design Options
applications for which the control task is typically
Systems using VSDs can use a number of different design
regulating system pressure or flow.
solutions. The selection of the best drive and circuit
design depends on a number of factors, including the
Selecting Motor Size
type of hydraulic circuit, the required response times and
The motor size and drive should be selected based on the
accuracy and the power required.
pressure-flow-time cycle (p/Q profi le) for the application
Dynamic performance and power requirements
determine the choice of the
motor. For applications requiring
the fastest response times and
highest accuracies, a PMMused
extensively in plastic injection
molding machinesmay be the
best selection. These drive systems
offer extremely high performance
and have high productivity rates.
Because of their high power
density and low drive inertia,
PMMs have the highest
acceleration capabilities. These
high dynamics allow complex
machine control tasks, such as
Provided to Our Customers For Over 125 Years
direct force, speed and cylinder
position control, to be realized
Balancing Machines for all Industries
without proportional valves. The
Moment Weighing Solutions
main limitation when using
PMMs is maximum continuous
Spin Test Systems
output power, typically less
than 60 kilowatts (kW). Units
High Speed Facilities
with output power greater than 60
Vibration Analysis Equipment
kW may require multiple PMMpump groups.
Schenck Academy Seminars and Training
Standard asynchronous
Its a relationship that begins when the negotiations end.
induction motors driven with
Its balancing equipment that goes beyond specications and
VFDs can be used in higher power
exceeds expectations.
applications, where direct control
Its a higher level of service that is responsive and maximizes
of high dynamic axes is not
performance.
required. Using standard induction
motors with VFDs, operating in a
Its comprehensive support to guide you through the
sensorless vector control mode (no
challenges, elevate your capabilities and train your experts of
separate motor feedback device
the future.
required), results in a cost-effective
system. The designer, however,
should be aware of the limitations
of direct control using these drives,
including long system response
times that result from the high
Stop
Booth # by
inertia of the induction motor.
PowerGe3542 at
VSDs using standard induction
n 2015
motors with VFDs are used in the
1-800-873-2352
woodworking industry, on press
www.schenck-usa.com
sales@schenck-usa.com
applications, in plastics machinery,

The Diference is Quality.


The Diference is

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36

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

machine. In practice, motors on standard hydraulic power


units are often sized based on corner power, which is
calculated from the maximum pump pressure and flow.
Duty cycle is commonly not taken into account.
This results in the installation of excess motor
horsepower. If partial load comprises a significant
portion of the machine cycle, the excess motor power can
be significant.
When sizing PMMs for VSDs, users should follow
methods commonly used in electromechanical actuator
drives, including calculating the root mean square (RMS)
value based on the load torque and average drive speed.
Once a pump size is determined, the motor torque and
speed are calculated from the required pump pressure
and flow.
The dynamic torque requirements for accelerating and
decelerating the motors rotor and pump inertia also
should be added. These calculated values are used to select
the proper size drive and motor. Specialized tools, which
can analyze p/Q profi les and motor load factors, can be
used for drive sizing and system optimization. For a more
complex analysis, a numerical simulation can be used to
model the system.
Dynamic simulations provide more insight into system
dynamics, such as pressurization, and interactions
between the drive and the hydraulic system. These
simulations also help with analysis of the performance
of closed-loop controls. These dynamic simulations can
be carried out using software that includes drive and
hydraulics model libraries.

Pump Selection Criteria


When selecting a pump for variable speed operation,
several important factors must be considered:
Is the pump construction suitable for variable speed
operation?
What are the minimum and maximum allowed
revolutions per minute for the pump?
Can the pump be used bi-directionally, and, if so, are
there any pressure and speed limitations?
Is the pump suitable for start and stop operation?
What is the maximum operating pressure allowed
for the pump, and does pressure affect the maximum
allowable pump speed?
What fluid will be used in the system, and does it limit
the pumps pressure and speed, based on viscosity and
pump lubrication?
What is the mechanical and volumetric efficiency of
the pump at the design operating points?
What is the pump acoustic noise level based on
expected speed, pressure and displacement?

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Image 2. A core shooter at a foundry

Figure 1. Using variable displacement pumps integrated with VFDs allows


more efficient operation during partial load conditions, when compared
with a standard variable displacement pump running at constant speed.

Figure 2. In recent years, the cost of using variable speed drive


technology has become more economical, making it effective to combine
variable speed electric drives with hydraulics.

37

What will the pressure and flow pulsations be over


the range of operating speeds?
Is the hydraulic circuit open or closed?

Improper pump selection or operation outside allowed


conditions can result in premature pump failure or
suboptimal control performance. Pumps used with VSDs
are typically internal gear or piston pumps. In some
cases, properly selected vane pumps may also be used.
Internal gear pumps are characterized by high
efficiency, low flow ripple, low mechanical inertia
and high pressure capability. Because of these
characteristics, they are widely used with PMMs on
injection molding machines. The limitations are fi xed
displacement and limits on the minimum drive speed
during pressure holding operation.
Axial piston pumps, either fi xed or variable
displacement design, have the desired property of high
efficiency at low speed, making them ideal for pressure
holding operation.
Using a variable displacement pump allows the
possibility to lower the motor torque during pressure
holding in the machine cycle. This can result in higher
system efficiency, since the motor and pump can operate
under more desirable operating conditions. High
response variable displacement pumps can have reaction
times an order of magnitude faster than a VFD-driven
induction motor. Combining this type of pump with
a VFD-controlled induction motor results in greater
efficiency and much higher system response than does
variable speed alone. This is of greater value when used
with higher horsepower drive motors.
VSDs are expected to replace an increasing number of
standard motors in hydraulic power units in the future.
This change has already been adopted by many plastic
machinery manufacturers and is quickly expanding in
press applications. Understanding the principles of VSDs
and the interaction between hydraulics and electric
drives will be key to future fluid power engineering.

The Leading Edge...We are the innovator of


cutting-edge design and the manufacturer
of electrical level and low switches as well
as nonelectric indicators. We manufacture
using a wide variety of materials such as,
Bronze, SST, Plastics and more.
Standard Products In Stock
Integrated Product Development
Continuous Customer / Product Support
Quick Turnaround On Custom Models
Through Our Short Order Dept.

Paul Stavrou has 39 years of experience in the fluid


power industry. Stavrou has a degree in electrical
engineering from Lehigh University and
holds three patents for electronic control
systems. He is currently manager of
system applications at Bosch Rexroth
Corporation, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania.

Technical information and consultation also provided by


Jan Komsta.

Designers & Manufacturers Of Quality Level & Flow Sensors

(v) 860.621.9101 (f) 860.621.1470

800.666.9101 www.thomasprod.com

PS001

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

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38

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

Choosing Between Soft


Starters & Adjustable
Frequency Drives
This equipment can provide cost savings and extend
motor life in the right application.
BY NICHOLE ANGIOLA
EATON DRIVES

otors often require large amounts of energy


when quickly accelerating to full speed.
Using soft starters and adjustable frequency
drives reduce in-rush currents and limit
torqueprotecting valuable equipment and extending
the motors life by reducing motor heating caused by
frequent starts and stops.
Choosing between a soft starter and an adjustable
frequency drive (AFD) often depends on the application,
system requirements and cost, both for initial startup and
over the life cycle of the system.

Soft Starters
A soft starter is a solid-state device that protects
alternating current (AC) electric motors from damage
caused by sudden influxes of power by limiting the large
initial in-rush of current associated with motor startup.
They provide a gentle ramp up to full speed and are used
only at startup (and stop if equipped). Ramping up the
initial voltage to the motor produces this gradual start.
Soft starters are also known as reduced voltage soft
starters (RVSS).
Soft starters are used in applications that have the
following requirements:
Speed and torque control during startup (and stop if
equipped with soft stop)
Reducing large startup in-rush currents with a
large motor

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

A gentle start for the mechanical system to relieve


torque spikes and tension with normal startup (for
example, conveyors, belt-driven systems, gears
and pumps)
Pumps that eliminate pressure surges in piping
systems when fluid changes direction rapidly

How does a soft starter work?


Electrical soft starters temporarily reduce voltage or
current input by reducing torque. Some soft starters may
use solid-state devices to help control the currents flow.
They can control one to three phases, while three-phase
control usually produces better results.
Most soft starters use a series of silicon-controlled
rectifiers (SCRs) to reduce the voltage (see Figure 1).
In the normal
off state, the
Figure 1. Soft starter schematic (Images and
SCRs restrict
graphics courtesy of Eaton Drives)
current, but in
the normal on
state, the SCRs
allow current. The
SCRs are engaged
during ramp
up, and bypass
contactors are
pulled in after
maximum speed

39

is achieved. Th is helps to significantly reduce motor


heating and improve the life of the systems.

Benefits of choosing a soft starter


Soft starters are often the more economical choice for
applications that require speed and torque control only
during motor startup. Additionally, they are often the
ideal solution for applications where space is a concern
because they usually take up less space than AFDs.
Since soft starters use SCRs during normal
operation, there is a reduction in heat emitted. This
will significantly increase the reliability of the full
system and maintain functionality.
Also, soft starters can have the benefit of a pump
algorithm to help eliminate the water hammer effect by
using an S-curve to start and stop the pump. This can
lengthen the pump systems life.

AC supply: Comes from the facility power network


(typically 480V, 60 Hz AC)
Rectifier: Converts network AC power to DC power
Filter and DC bus: Work together to smooth the
rectified DC power and to provide clean, low ripple DC
power to the inverter
Inverter: Uses DC power from the DC bus and fi lter to
invert an output that resembles sine wave AC power
using a pulse width modulation (PWM) technique
Pulse width modulation: Switches the inverter

Figure 2. The function of an AFD

Adjustable Frequency Drives


An AFD is a motor control device that protects and
controls the speed of an AC induction motor. An AFD
can control the motors speed during the start and stop
cycle, as well as throughout the run cycle.
AFDs are used in applications including ones that
require complete speed control,
have a goal of energy savings or
need custom control.
How do AFDs work?
AFDs convert input power to
adjustable frequency and voltage
source for controlling the speed
of AC induction motors. The
frequency of the power applied to
an AC motor determines the motor
speed based on the following
equation:
N = 120 x f x p
N = speed (rpm)
f = frequency (Hz)
p = number of motor poles
For example, a four-pole motor
is operating at 60 Hertz (Hz). These
values can be inserted into the
formula to calculate the speed:
N = 120 x 60 x 4
N = 1800 (rpm)

Variable Speed Controls for Pumps

Provides variable speed control for AC Induction, DC, PMSM and EC motors, 1/50 to 5 HP.
115, 208/230, 400/460 VAC 50/60 Hz 1 and 3 Input.
When a standard off the shelf drive will not meet your needs, KB will work
with you to develop a custom drive solution, Ready to Use Out-of-the-Box.

KB Electronics, Inc.
12095 NW 39th Street, Coral Springs, FL 33065-2516

Figure 2 shows components of


an AFDs function.

Designed and
Assembled in USA

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40

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

Speed control is another advantage of an AFD


because it offers consistent acceleration time
throughout the motors entire operating cycle,
not just during startup.
semiconductors in varying widths and times that,
when averaged, create a sine waveform, as shown
in Figure 3

Benefits of using an AFD


The benefits provided by AFDs in the appropriate systems
are numerous:
Energy savings
Reduced peak energy demand
Reduced power when not required
Fully adjustable speed (pumps, conveyors and fans)
Controlled starting, stopping and acceleration
Dynamic torque control
Provides smooth motion for applications such as
elevators and escalators
Maintains speed of equipment, making drives ideal
for as mixers, grinders and crushers
Offers versatility
Provides self-diagnostics and communications
Includes PLC-like functionality and software
programming
Digital inputs/outputs (DI/DO)
Analog inputs/outputs (AI/AO)
Energy savings
AFDs offer the greatest energy savings for fans and
pumps. The adjustable flow method changes the flow
curve and drastically reduces power requirements.
Centrifugal equipment, such as fans, pumps and
compressors, follows a general set of speed affi nity
laws. The affi nity laws defi ne the relationship between
speed and a set of variables including flow, pressure
and power.
Based on the affinity laws, flow changes linearly with
speed while pressure is proportional to the square of the
speed. The power required is proportional to the cube
of the speed. The latter is most important because if the
motor speed drops, the power drops by the cube.
In this example, the motor is operated at 80 percent
of the rated speed. This value can be inserted into the
affinity laws formula to calculate the power at this
new speed:

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Therefore, the power required


to operate the fan at 80 percent
speed is half the rated power.

Selecting Soft Starters


Choosing a soft starter or an
adjustable frequency drive often
depends on your application.
Soft starters are smaller and less
expensive when compared with
AFDs in larger horsepower applications. Larger AFDs
take up more space and are usually more expensive than
soft starters.
While an AFD is often more expensive up front, it can
provide energy savings of up to 50 percent and produce
more cost savings over the life of the equipment.
Speed control is another advantage because it offers
consistent acceleration time throughout the motors
entire operating cycle, not just during startup. AFDs can
also provide more robust functionality than soft starters
offer, including digital diagnostic information.
It is important to note that an AFD can initially cost
two to three times more than a soft starter. Therefore, if
constant acceleration and torque control is not necessary
and your application requires current limiting only during
startup, a soft starter may be a better solution from a
cost standpoint.

Figure 3. PWM waveform

Nichole Angiola is the OEM adjustable frequency


drive product manager of Eatons Control Power and
Conversion Division in Menomonee Falls, Wisconsin. She
is responsible for OEM, HVAC, and industrial
application solutions, with a focus on
harmonics reduction and increased system
energy efficiency. Angiola received her B.S.
in mechanical engineering from Oakland
University in Rochester Hills, Michigan.

41

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

42

SPECIAL SECTION

INSTRUMENTATION, CONTROLS & MONITORING

System Vibration
Monitoring Is Essential to
Predictive Maintenance
Modern tools allow plants to predict and prevent costly failures.
BY MIKE PEMBERTON, PUMPS & SYSTEMS
& WILLIAM LIVOTI, WEG

n todays industrial landscape, remote monitoring


of rotating assets is critical for reliable operation.
Specifically, vibration data from pump bearings
and other monitored points allows users to analyze
the data spectrum and identify problems, such as shaft
misalignment and pump cavitation.
The effective use of vibration technology begins within
the context of a well-managed predictive maintenance
program. When not caused by improper installation,
rotating machine failure is typically caused by component
wear that can result from multiple sources, including a
lack of proper maintenance, shaft misalignment, incorrect
balance, damaging harmonic frequencies, lubricant type or
misapplication.
End users, however, can mitigate these common
problems by using vibration monitoring to quantitatively
monitor and diagnose the root cause of failure. Condition
monitoring is a powerful solution in the arsenal of effective
predictive maintenance programs. While this technology
and methodology is often well documented, understood
and applied, todays economic climate and a growing
shortage of skilled labor in North American facilities
have led to a scarcity of experienced people to perform
and manage these programs. As a result, many areas of
preventive maintenance are neglected or suffer because of
budget, manpower and training constraints.
Vibration monitoring is one part of a comprehensive
predictive maintenance program, which typically includes
oil sampling, performance testing, thermography and
other types of well-established testing procedures. The
long-term sustainability of manufacturing plants will
continue to depend on this frontline defense to ensure
process uptime and throughput into the foreseeable future.
N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

One common way to capture vibration data is the use of


portable handheld probes that incorporate accelerometers.
These devices can also be installed on the equipment itself.
The technology is easy to use, and the stainless-steel sensor
housing protects the accelerometer, which operates across a
wide frequency spectrum and temperature range with high
accuracy and repeatability. Most plants rely on vendorspecific application programs to consolidate and analyze
collected vibration data. In many cases, however, the actual
vibration spectrum is not collected and only vibration
levels can be established.
For those sites that collect data in an inconsistent
manner, the lack of a well-structured vibration monitoring
program can result in the following issues:
Failure to collect data because of time constraints, lack
of manpower or proper equipment
Data is collected using inconsistent techniques or in
different XYZ planes
Data may be misinterpreted or anomalies can be
undetected
Failure to transfer captured data to the appropriate
database
Failure to capture baseline data after refurbishment
To address these concerns, wireless remote monitoring
has become the preferred method in many cases. Wireless
technology eliminates the need for costly hardwiring for
communication and also reduces sensor cable lengths. In
addition, some new designs do not require sensor cables
as they are independently powered by capacitor-like
technology that generates micro levels of power based
on the equipment vibration itself. Wireless technology
has become robust and reliable and can be practically

43

Vibration monitoring is one part of a comprehensive predictive


maintenance program, which can include oil sampling, performance
testing, thermography and other procedures.

foolproof with backup systems. This equipment also


of the overall predictive maintenance program
provides repeatable results because the readings are taken
depends on a holistic approach, multiple skill sets and
at the exact same place on each piece of equipment. The
good communication.
primary benefit of capturing and analyzing vibration data
is the ability to track the results and quality of equipment
Mike Pemberton is the senior
upgrades, rerates and redesigns.
technical editor for Pumps & Systems.
For condition monitoring, 802.11 b/g (Wi-Fi) is the
He may be reached at mpemberton@
established wireless communication protocol because of its
cahabamedia.com.
signal strength and ease of use. However, a few issues still
must be addressed:
Demands on existing wireless devices and networks
William Livoti is the power generation
Battery backup system, which also requires ongoing
business development manager for
maintenance
WEG Electric Corporation. Livoti may be
High bandwidth required because of the large volume of
reached at wlivoti@weg.net.
data sent over the wireless link
Dynamic range, low noise
levels, high-level processing
capabilities and ability to
capture data at the right time
Sensitivity (proper selection)
and durability of the wireless
sensors
Qualified people to analyze
New Powerful, Configurable Controller
data; all equipment is analyzed
for Mechanical & Electronic Engines
by the same person using the
same equipment
MPC-10 Features:
Single point of data entry into
the predictive maintenance
Passcode Protection
database
A well-designed vibration data
collection and analysis program
is one key part of any plants
predictive maintenance program.
Monitoring provides maintenance
with a report that clearly and
concisely presents the results of
vibration analysis.
The report provides relevant
information to maintenance
personnel that indicates the as
is condition of your plant and
recommends areas for process
improvements. The effectiveness

Manual & Auto


Control

Rugged Industrial
Design

Final

OWTRJ["

ORE/32

918-317-2633
www.fwmurphy.com/takecontrol
1511763 09/15

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

44
CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Plastic AODD Pumps


Provide Reliability for
Chemical Applications
Containment of dangerous chemicals requires
technology that resists corrosion and signicantly
reduces product leaks.
BY RAINER FRERICKS
ALMATEC

he manufacture, transfer, handling and use of


dangerous chemicals such as acids, caustics and
solventswhich can be corrosive, toxic and
hazardous to life and the environmentcan
pose significant challenges for steel pumps. Specific
types of steel pumps may cover only a narrow chemicalresistance band, which, in some cases, can limit the
applications they can handleparticularly those
involving dangerous chemicals.
One alternative for successful chemical-manufacturing
and handling operations is the plastic pump. Within this
subset, end users can choose from many types of pump
technologies: for example, lobe, gear, vane, centrifugal
and progressive cavity. Some of these technologies,
however, can have potential shortcomings that may
make them impractical for chemical-related applications.
Some of these challenges include the inability to run
dry or self-prime, use of leak-prone mechanical seals,
shear-producing operation, inability to deadhead, limited
viscosity ranges and elevated maintenance costs.
Plastic air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD) pumps
may be an ideal alternative for handling dangerous,
caustic chemicals. These pumps are capable of running
dry and self-priming, produce a shear-sensitive flow, have
no mechanical seals, can deadhead, are powered by air
and can be easily maintained.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Benefits of Solid-Body Pumps


While plastic AODD pumps can be
ideal for operations that manufacture
or transfer dangerous chemicals, one
question remains: Should the pump be constructed of
injection-molded plastic or from a solid block of plastic?
A reliable and proven choice for these applications
is the plastic solid-body AODD pump, specifically
one that is machined from a solid block of
polyethylene (PE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).
The materials are also available in PE-conductive and
PTFE-conductive formulations for use in potentially
explosive atmospheres.
End users seem to prefer solid-body plastic AODD
pumps over their injection-molded cousins. One reason
is that solid-body pumps are inherently thick-walled,
providing stability during the pumping process. Injectionmolded pumps can have small cavities or crevices in the
body where liquids can accumulate and leak paths can
form. Because injection-molded pumps are lightweight,
any motion during the pumping process is transferred to
surrounding system components and piping, which can
lead to equipment damage.
Pumps that are machined from a solid block of PE or
PTFE, on the other hand, can provide more weight,
wall thicknesses, chemical compatibility and sealless

Image 1. Solid-body plastic AODD pumps are a proven


choice for potentially explosive chemical applications.
(Images courtesy of Almatec)

design along with the ability to withstand potentially


explosive atmospheres. Pumps that are constructed
of polyethylene offer excellent abrasion-resistance.
One line of plastic solid-body AODD pumps has been
shown to last seven times longer than pumps made with
polypropylenewhile still having similar chemicalresistance characteristicsand are said to be 1.6 times
more durable than stainless-steel pumps.
Solid PE may also deliver better sealing, higher static
weight, smoother operation and better torque retention
than other popular materials of construction. Similarly,
PTFE has a nearly universal chemical resistance.
The machining of a solid block of PE or PTFE is
relatively economical because of advanced modern
computer numerical controlled (CNC) technology,
enabling far tighter tolerances to be achieved than those
possible with many injection-molded parts, which require
tightening straps and seals to compensate for mechanical
variations from surrounding parts. The occurring loads in
a solid-body AODD pump are absorbed by the component
itself with no necessary external reinforcements. This
allows the external unit to be designed without any metal
at all, which reduces the risk of corrosion.

Image 2. These AODD pumps are machined from solid plastic


blocks of polyethylene (PE) or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE).

An AODD pump with a solid-block design is more


capable of withstanding external shocks, such as those
created by improper handling. A solid-body pump is
also capable of absorbing the loads created by the
connecting pipes.
Solid-body AODD pumps constructed of PE/PTFEconductive plastic are intrinsically safe and meet the
operational requirements of the European ATEX 94/9/EG
directive, as well as the U.S. Food & Drug Administration
for hygienic-manufacturing operations that take place in
potentially explosive atmospheres.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

46

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

From The Field


Anytime substances comprised of dangerous
chemicals are manufactured or handled,
an inherent risk is involved. This risk
stems from the fact that the release of
these chemicals can lead to severe health
consequences for all forms of life and
environmental damage.
A number of high-profi le companies that
require full containment of the dangerous
chemicals that play an important part
in their manufacturing processes have
successfully incorporated solid-body AODD
pumps in their operations.
Many of the solvents that a Switzerlandbased pharmaceutical company uses in
its production process are produced at its
German research and diagnostics facility
and are classified as hazardous or dangerous
chemicals. They must be handled according
to the ATEX requirements of European
Union directive 94/9/EG regarding the use
and disposal of potentially explosive liquids.

ws
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Image 3. Because of their potential to be hazardous to plant personnel and the environment,
full containment of chemicals and solvents is a top-of-mind concern for plant operators.

Improve

Reliabilityand

Versatility

EnviroGear and G Series Internal Gear Pumps offer you highly reliable and versatile
pumping solutions for a wide range of applications, from thin to viscous fluids. With
field-proven technology thats safer, greener and interchangeable with competitive
technologies, the G Series and EnviroGear line of pumps are the workhorses youve been
looking for!
EnviroGear
Lowest overall cost of ownership
50% reduction in maintenance costs
Single fluid chamber design eliminates leaks
Patented between-the-bearing support
greatly improves reliability

G-Series
Best-in-class delivery
Interchangeable with competitive models
Flexible design for easy installation
Multiple seal options available
Available in cast iron and stainless steel

For more information, please go to: psgpumps.com/ps1115mip

PSG
22069 Van Buren Street
Grand Terrace, CA 92313-5651
P: +1 (909) 422-1731
psgdover.com

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N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

47

Safety and efficiency are the two most important


aspects here at our site, the facilitys assistant tank
manager said. I think that (these solid-body AODD)
pumps are very safe and reliable, and they are one thing
that I never have to worry about.
A company in the Netherlands specializes in creating
and supplying complete systems used in surface-treating
steel, particularly pretreatment applications in the hotdip galvanizing process. The hot-dip galvanizing process
uses a flux fluid that is highly abrasive and corrosive,
necessitating the use of plastic pumps.
We knew that to manufacture our products we would
need plastic pumps that would have to deal with very
corrosive fluids like hydrochloric acid, the director
and co-owner of the company said. Steel, carbon steel
and stainless steel arent compatible with these very
aggressive fluids, so you need plastics like PE. The heart of
our units is formed by (these types of) pumps. We have to
rely on them.

Conclusion
Achieving the full containment of hazardous, fl ammable
or explosive chemicals is a daily challenge and concern

for plant operators who manufacture, handle or use


them. Notable shortcomings in chemical compatibility,
corrosion resistance and operational capabilities
have limited the use of steel pumps and other pump
technologies. As plastic AODD pumps, especially those
constructed of PE or PTFE, grow in use in dangerous
chemical applications, plastic solid-body AODD pump
can be an ideal choice. Solid-body AODD pumps possess
the weight, wall thickness, tolerances and machining
needed to deliver leak-free operation when handling
dangerous chemicals.
Rainer Frericks is the marketing manager for Almatec,
Kamp-Lintfort, Germany. He may be reached at rainer.
frericks@psgdover.com or +49 2842 961-0. Almatec is a
manufacturer of air-operated double-diaphragm (AODD)
pumps and is a product brand of PSG, a Dover company.
PSG is comprised of several pump brands, including
Abaque, Almatec, Blackmer, Ebsray, Griswold, Neptune,
Maag Industrial Pumps, Mouvex, RedScrew, Quattroflow
and Wilden. For more information, visit almatec.de and
psgdover.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

48

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Diaphragm Pumps
Combine Safety & Accuracy
Developments in this technology may oer
signicant savings and improved reliability.
BY STEVE DIGBY
SPX FLOW TECHNOLOGY

he potential danger and volatility of certain


fluids make safety a primary concern within the
chemical industry. Diaphragm pump technology
offers many benefits in such applications and
the latest technologys design ensures efficiency and high
performance, as well as virtually leak-free operation.
The chemical industry faces many challenges due to the
nature of the fluids processed. Fluids may be abrasive,
hazardous, toxic or volatile when they mix with other
compounds such as water. These chemicals must be
handled carefully and any leaks or ingress of moisture
involving substances such as Triethylaluminium (TEAL)
can cause serious health and safety risks.
Slurries or suspensions containing particulates can be
abrasive and have detrimental effects on rotating parts of
pumps and their seals.
In addition to concerns about damage creating
leakages, machinery may require increased maintenance
and greater system downtime with such fluids. Special
materials and sophisticated seal systems can be used
to improve pump performances, but keeping the liquid
separate from the pump internals may offer a more
secure, efficient and reliable solution.

Examining the Pumps


When using a hydraulic diaphragm pump head, the
diaphragm separates and protects the pumps moving
parts from the pumped liquid. Hydraulic fluid pushes
the diaphragm backward and forward and, as it moves
N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Image 1. This type of metering pump comprises diaphragm and plunger


pumps, with drives to accommodate single or multi-stream applications
using horizontal or vertical configurations. (Courtesy of SPX)

backward, it increases the volume inside the pump


chamber. This creates suction that opens an inlet valve
and allows fluid into the chamber. As it pushes forward
again, the chamber volume reduces, opening the outlet
valve and pushing the fluid out again. The lack of spinning
parts carries benefits that include preventing leaks that
may be harmful to personnel or the environment and
providing quiet, energy-efficient operation.
Compared with a diaphragm pump, plunger pump
technology can seem appealing because of its simple
maintenance, ease of use and lower initial cost
outlay. Operating costs associated with plunger pump
technology, however, rise considerably with age.
Diaphragm technology in many applications may offer
significant savings in total ownership cost throughout
a pumps lifetime while providing improved safety and
reliability in critical chemical installations.

49

Once a diaphragm pump is set to a given flow rate


and pressure, operation is simple with no further
adjustments required. Fewer parts are exposed to the
pumped fluid, leading to overall increased reliability
and uptime that may further negate the need for a duty/
standby configuration depending on how critical the
process is. The benefits these pumps offer can increase
with the latest developments, including double-acting,
double-diaphragm technology and triple-diaphragm head
configurations.
The latest diaphragm pump designs can increase
pumping efficiency and reduce maintenance in
several ways.

Reciprocating Diaphragm Pump


Reciprocating diaphragm pump technology offers the
potential to maximize process uptime. The technology
offers reduced wear compared with pumps with more
internal parts in contact with fluids, particularly if those
fluids are abrasive. Using a double diaphragm offers
increased protection against leaks and produces a sealless
design that reduces maintenance needs.
Pump configurations that use a double-acting head
where the displacer suction and discharge stroke operate
simultaneously, effectively doubling the pumping
capacity, are also available. This means the pump offers
the reliable performance of proven diaphragm pump
head technology with the capacity of equivalent duplex
pumps. Using a single gear, the double-acting pump heads
further reduce maintenance time and cost compared with
a duplex system. It also creates a more compact solution
with reduced footprint and weight ideal for achieving
required pumping duty where space comes at a premium.
Diaphragm Process Pumps
Modern diaphragm process pumps offer additional
benefits besides the safe and reliable operation associated
with using diaphragm technology. Models such as
one manufacturers triple diaphragm pump use pump
heads arranged in three dimensions. The design reduces
the number of crankshaft bearings from six to two.
This simplified form increases reliability and reduces
maintenance overheads. These process pumps can also
be manufactured using the double-acting head design to
further increase flow transfer capacity.
Digital Communications
Diaphragm pumps are available with all modern digital
communication protocols for easy integration into wider
plant supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA)
systems. Pump controls are designed to maximize

efficiency and improve quality. The pumps accuracy


optimizes the use of raw materials that can further
reduce production costs. Pumps are available with ATEX
certification for use in hazardous areas up to Zone 1 IIC
T4 (Zone 22 also available), Pressure Equipment Directive
(PED) certification as required, CE and American
Petroleum Institute (API) standards.

Chemical Applications
Diaphragm pumps have been proven in a variety of
applications such as the pumping of caustics, ammonia,
methanol, sodium cyanide and all types of acids including
sulphuric, hydrochloric or hydrofluoric, and hydrazine.
One major chemical manufacturer in the Middle East
used the technology for the safe pumping of TEAL. This
particular chemical combusts on contact with moisture,
so pump designs were adapted to incorporate nitrogen
seals to prevent leakage paths from being exposed to air.
Diaphragm pumps can operate under high pressure
and high-flow transfer conditions, and they can handle a
wide range of temperatures. Gear sizes can be combined to
achieve required flow rate and pressure parameters. Pumps
can also be constructed from various materials to handle
different fluid properties, making them an adaptable
solution. Various manufacturers offer configurable
products to meet specific installation needs, as well as
the capability to provide complete pump packages in
a framework with all pipework, valves, controls and
instrumentation. This gives users a fully tested solution
that requires little on-site work and, with the supplier
taking total ownership for the overall package, greater
peace of mind for a smooth-running project.
Conclusion
The latest developments in diaphragm pump technology
combine safety and accuracy with pump configurations
that can increase capacity and reduce maintenance,
offering an even faster return on investment. These
pumps can safely handle a wide variety of harsh,
dangerous chemicals including slurries and hightemperature liquids. The pumps accuracy optimizes the
use of raw materials and increases efficiency in high-flow,
high-pressure applications.
Steve Digby is the commercial manager at the SPX
Brixworth plant in the UK. He is responsible for
all commercial activity from this facility. Digby
also manages the UK external sales team that
works with customers across SPX Bran+Luebbe,
Johnson Pump and Plenty Pump brands.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

50

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Thermoplastic
Pumps Withstand
Acids & Caustics
A large, investor-owned utility in the southern US wanted
to reduce corrosion problems and boiler downtime.
BY KEN COMERFORD
VANTON

lectricity-generating power
plants rely on high-pressure
steam to drive turbines
and create electricity. The
water used to create the steam can
contain minerals, so it is imperative
to extract these to prevent them from
being deposited on the turbine blades
and corroding the steam circuit. To
achieve these goals, power plants
typically treat the condensate with ion
exchange resins.
As part of a cost-reduction and
profitability program, management
at a specific utility headquartered in
the southern U.S. began a planned
program of reducing maintenance
costs through equipment upgrades.
A significant part of the upgrade
program involved reducing corrosion
problems and boiler downtime
associated with pumping acids and
caustics needed to purify the water.
At the companys main power
plant, water bills averaged $6,000 a
month. Boiler water required 100,000 gallons per day,
while another 25,000 gallons per day were needed for
cooling, sealing, and regenerating and rinsing the resins.
A demineralization system removes dissolved solids

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Image 1. This power plants demineralization installation uses three acid pumps
made of PVDF handling ambient sulfuric acid at 20 gpm against a 55-foot
total dynamic head. The maintenance department replaced metal pumps that
experienced chronic downtime due to corrosion. (Images courtesy of Vanton)

remaining in treated water. The utility uses sophisticated


ion exchangers in the demineralization system because
water flowing into the once-through boilers must be
extremely pure. Removal of dissolved solids from the
water prevents corrosion and scale problems.

51

The ion exchange


purification process is
complicated, but one key
parts involves regenerating
a resin bed that strips
mineral ions from effluent
water and replaces
them with hydrogen.
Concentrated chemical
solutions remove the
depleted ions from the resin
bed and replace them with
hydrogen and hydroxyl ions.
Pump performance is
critical to this operation.
Handling various
Image 2. The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide needed for the ion exchange purification process is
concentrations of sulfuric
stored in these large tanks outside the processing building.
acid and sodium hydroxide
thermoplastic pump on the caustic system.
creates contamination and corrosion problems, which
The selected pump needed to deliver 20 gallons per
result in high pump maintenance costs and excessive
minute (gpm) of 50 percent caustic at 108 F against
downtime. As part of the corporate cost-saving
a 46-foot total dynamic head. To handle the task,
initiative, the maintenance group reviewed alternate
the pumps casing, fl anges, impeller, vertical column
chemical pump designs. The review prompted the
and cover plate were made of homogenous virgin
maintenance superintendent to test a vertical centrifugal

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CHEMICAL PROCESSING

polypropylene. The pumps 96-inch vertical shaft was isolated


from the solution by a thick polypropylene sleeve, and a
special shaft seal protected the bearing and motor from
corrosive fumes.
Results of the test were positive, and a similar pump was
installed on the acid tank. To handle the sulfuric acid, the

material specified for the wetted end and the shaft seal was
polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The pump was required to
deliver 20 gpm of acid at ambient temperatures against a
55-foot total dynamic head.
The sulfuric acid and sodium hydroxide required for the
ion exchange purification process is stored in these large
tanks outside the processing building. A
concrete containment vault served to catch
any spillage.
Because of the performance and service
records of the two initial pumps, the
plants maintenance manager decided
to replace all six metal pumps with
thermoplastic pumps manufactured to the
same design specs as the test units.

Image 3. This pump shows ribbed column


construction, molded casing and impeller
and a thick, sectioned thermoplastic sleeve
that isolates the stainless steel shaft from
fluid contact.

Ken Comerford is the vice


president of Vanton Pump
and Equipment Corp.
He has been with the
company for 32 years.
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CHEMICAL PROCESSING COVER

SERIES

Metering Technology
Eectively Handles
Polyethylene Production
Hydraulically actuated and critical service diaphragms enhance
safety and uptime.
BY KENNY LOQUE
MILTON ROY

ore than 60 million tons of polyethylene


Pump Accuracy
are manufactured each year, making it the
Although metering pump accuracy is important in any
worlds most pervasive plastic. It is used
industry, it takes on a different meaning in critical
to make bottles, buckets, packaging and
chemical processing. As a comparison, consider metering
dozens of other products that we see and touch every day.
pumps used for some other industries where small
The feedstocks used to make plastics are crude oil
and natural gas, which are broken down into smaller
components, such as naphtha, ethane and propane
(among others). Larger hydrocarbons are further
separated into smaller molecules through a
complex cracking process that uses temperature,
pressure and chemical additives to create the
building blocks needed to transform feedstock
into plastics.
This process is like baking a cake in that
different ingredients are added in specific
amounts at precisely the right time. These
ingredients, however, are toxic, dangerous and,
in some cases, fl ammable. Metering pumps must
be designed to administer these chemicals for the
highest level of accuracy and safety.
Some of the largest chemical producers in the world
have established a checklist of items that define
their most effective technology (MET). In chemical
applications such as polyethylene production, the METs
for metering pumps are technologies engineered for
Image 1. These metering pumps are designed for high-pressure,
accuracy, reliability, flexibility and safety.
critical chemical processing. (Image courtesy of Milton Roy)

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53

54

COVER

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CHEMICAL PROCESSING

tolerances in the volume of chemicals rendered will still


produce the desired effect. Consider the same scenario
with metering chemical catalysts to make plastics.
Hydrocarbons changing state do not pass from a single
starting point to a single end point. Instead, they follow
a dynamic continuum where pressure and temperature
variations, or different volumes of catalysts, can cause
feedstocks to transform into any number of elements.
Metering out too much or too little can result in an
explosion, or it can render a product that does not
resemble the desired plastic. Either way, it is paramount
to dose the precise amounts of catalysts at precisely the
right time to produce the desired product.
In chemical processing, accuracy goes beyond quality
control. It also affects the bottom line. Because chemical
plants run continuous operations, actions need to be
done right the first time. It is difficult and, in some cases,
impossible, to repeat the setup and start over. Errors in
one part of the process create ripple effects elsewhere that
cost time and money.
For all of these reasons, metering pumps must be
designed to deliver 1 percent steady state accuracy
with 100 to 1 turndown ratios and capacity that can be
adjusted by manual controls, variable speed drives, and
electronic or pneumatic actuators.

Increased Reliability
Failures or unscheduled maintenance activities can have
expensive consequences for plants that run operations
on a 24-hour basis. To guard against failures, many of the
largest chemical processing companies rely on metering
pumps with hydraulically actuated diaphragms (HAD).
The secret to the HAD pumps longevity is a Teflon
diaphragm that acts as a barrier between the piston and
process fluids. The HAD operates with equal pressure
between the hydraulic and process fluids, eliminating
diaphragm stress, since the pressure is essentially equal
on both sides at all times. Without equal pressure on
both sides, the diaphragm would have to withstand all of
the process pressure. With a HAD pump, the diaphragm
is balanced and remains under low stress. None of the
moving parts get stretched or compressed, resulting in
longevity that can run for 96,000 hours (or 10 years of
continuous uptime) with minimal maintenance.
System Flexibility
Because of the toxic nature of fluids, combined with
numerous temperature and pressure variations during
production, flexibility in metering pump design is
essential for process critical operations.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Metering pump designs should be modular and


customizable so that it can accept a variety of liquid
ends (stainless, alloy, PVC) and meet different process
requirements. Pumps should ideally have different frame
sizes to be able to address a wide range of capacities and
pressures. Multiplex configurations of the same frame
or a mixture of frames creates even greater flexibility,
allowing as many as 16 different pumps to be driven by
one motor.

Worker Safety
The harsh nature of the chemicals put through metering
pumps can cause check valves and diaphragms to fail,
causing clogs in the liquid end that lead to potential leaks.
For applications up to 5,000 pounds per square
inch (psi), a critical service diaphragm (CSD) has been
engineered to handle high suction pressure. The CSD

CASE STUDY
THE CHALLENGE
Polypropylene reactor catalyst charge pumps used
by a major polyethylene plant were experiencing
numerous failures, leading to catalytic reactor unit shut
downs and the loss of hundreds of thousands dollars of
production per hour. The facility needed a more reliable
pump that could withstand the harsh chemicals,
pressures and processing conditions, and it needed a
pump that could endure the climate fluctuations within
the region.

THE SOLUTION
One manufacturer engineered a customized reactor
charge pump. The pump featured critical service
liquid ends, a specially designed diaphragm made
from Gylon with thicker walls than standard pumps,
and check valves equipped with hardened balls and
seats. The pumps design enabled it to accommodate
the solids and viscosity encountered in the reactor
fluid and pump the solids continuously to the catalyst
reactor at about 800 psi with accuracy and reliability.
In addition, the pump is unprotected from the weather,
being exposed to conditions ranging from 100 F (38 C)
heat to rain, wind and other harsh conditions. Because
of the reliability of the pumps performance, the plant
operator has installed pumps in other facilities within
the region and across the globe.

55

can handle suction pressures equal to the


maximum discharge pressure of the pump
without harming the diaphragm. This is
particularly useful when handling saturated
liquids, because suction pressure is needed to
overcome high vapor pressures to
keep the liquids in solution.
In addition, CSD metering
pumps assure high fluid velocity
through the pump head. Frontscavenging technology on the
diaphragm evacuates the entire
liquid end with every stroke,
cleaning it out and preventing
clogs or leaks. Because some
hydrocarbons ignite when they
mix with air, metering pumps
should not have any rotating seals
that could cause leaks. They should
have sealed diaphragms and, in
some cases, double diaphragms
with rupture detection systems
that can shut down the pumps
motor prior to any rupture.

Conclusion
The production of plastics remains
a huge industry, and it is one that
continues to grow. Because of
the rise in U.S. shale production,
enhancing the ease of delivering
feedstocks, more chemical
processing plants have been
built in the U.S. in the last two
years than in the previous 15
years combined.
The dangers associated with
plastics production are well
understood; the best practices for
safely handling the materials are
codified; and the technology that
automates these best practices
continues to evolve and improve.
Given these factors, the
long-term outlook for domestic
polyethylene production is viable,
and with MET metering pumps
readily available, it truly is a time
when chemical companies can have
their cake and eat it, too.

Kenny Louque is the southern regional manager for Milton


Roy. For the last 35 years, Louque has served all areas of
the oil and gas and chemical processing industries for
Milton Roy. He may be reached at 337-754-7834 or
ken.louque@miltonroy.com.

A World Class Provider of


Fluid Sealing Solutions

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56

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Fume Scrubber Benets


from Sealless Magnetic
Drive Pump
Chemical applications operate best with systems that oer
strong corrosion resistance.
BY TOM MARCONE
IWAKI AMERICA

oll chemical manufacturing is an arrangement


where a company manufactures or blends
proprietary chemical products for other
companies. The liquids and powders find uses in
as-is finished products, food or drug nutrients, additives,
coloring agents, catalysts, fi lm coatings and special
products for almost any industry.
These specialty chemical manufacturers are typically
small- to medium-size plants that produce on slim profit
margins in a competitive market. Their engineering and
maintenance resources are stretched. The following shows
how a sealless magnetic drive pump saved downtime and
maintenance on a troublesome fume scrubber application.

The Problem
In this application, the company manufactures
specialty chemical products in batches of up to 5,000
gallons using 37 percent hydrochloric acid (HCL) as
a concentrated base reactant solution. Some of the
reactions are endothermic, and some are exothermic.
When using the acid in a reactor, HCL fumes are often
generated and emitted. The manufacturer had installed
a fume scrubber using water as the scrubbing medium.
The water is sprayed into a column packed with a plastic
fibrous material.
A centrifugal blower takes emissions from the vessel
and blows them through the column. As the HCL vapors
meet the moisture from the water, they are absorbed
and the clean air is released (see Figure 1).

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Many companies neutralize the acidic scrubber contents


and discharge them to waste treatment. In this particular
case, the manufacturer needs to add water to the reaction
process to control temperature. Adding the slightly acidic
water from the scrubber is an ideal way to recycle what
would normally be waste.
The concentrated solution of HCL and water is very
corrosive. It is also a medium with air entrapped,
sometimes causing cavitation in the pump. This
combination plays havoc on traditional mechanical seals.
Mechanically sealed pumps typically carry a lower
initial cost than sealless pumps. A pumps initial cost is
typically less than 20 percent of its total life cycle cost
(LCC). Factors such as energy and disposal costs are equal
Figure 1. Example of a typical air scrubber (Images and graphics courtesy
of IWAKI America)

57

when considering LCC whether the pump is sealed or


sealless. But factors such as maintenance, downtime and
environmental costs can equal up to 50 percent of the LCC.
The most common reason a pump needs maintenance
is a leaking mechanical seal. The three major reasons a
mechanical seal will leak are open
seal faces, heat generation and
chemical attack.

sealless pumps have dry-run sensors built into or around


the pump to alert operators of such a condition. Some
designs even have patented bearings that withstand
dry-run conditions. Almost all sealless pumps have dualthrust surfaces designed to handle moderate cavitation.

Open Seal Face


The major contributor to a seal
face opening is shaft movement,
which can be either axial, radial or
due to vibration. Axial movement
is usually associated with varying
pump operation during startup,
shutdown or valves opening and
closing. It can also be associated
with temperature changes during
process cycles or batches. Sealless
pumps use high-strength magnets
coupled with thrust surfaces
designed for varying pump
operation. They also use materials
designed for varying temperatures.
Radial movement is associated
with end play or shaft deflection
when the pump runs past its best
efficiency point. It is common
when bearing frames wear and
shaft deflection occurs. Sealless
pumps are designed for full curve
operation typically using dual
thrust surfaces, and many of them
are close-coupled, eliminating
shaft-deflection risk. Vibration is
usually found during cavitation
periods when net positive suction
head available is low or the pump is
vortexing fluid from a supply tank.
Sealless pumps typically using dual
thrust surfaces are designed to
handle moderate cavitation.
Heat Generation
Heat generation is often associated
with dry-run conditions or
prolonged cavitation. It can
damage seal faces and elastomers,
causing them to fail and degrade
lower-grade seal materials. Many
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58

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Chemical Environment
Many fluids crystallize when exposed to air or heat from
mechanical seals. Examples are caustics, seawater, brine,
hydrocarbons and sugars. Sealless pumps have no contact
with air. A chemical environment can promote corrosion,
such as acids attacking carbon seal faces, chlorides
attacking stainless steel faces and metal-finishing

Picking the Pump


This facility utilized magnetic drive pumps that feature
a no contact bearing system ideal for cavitation
situations. Proprietary high-strength magnets hold the
rotating element in a neutral position that avoids contact
with forward or rear thrust surfaces. The pump features
ethylene tetrafluoroethylene, which provides strong
corrosion resistance, and a carbon and ceramic bearing
system. The carbon and ceramic with the magnets allowed
the pump to run without fluid for brief periods.
This solved a troublesome and costly problem for this
toll chemical manufacturer.
Tom Marcone is the national sales
manager for IWAKI America. He has more
than 20 years of experience in chemical
transfer and metering pump technologies.
He can be reached at tmarcone@
iwakiamerica.com or 508-474-2062.

Image 1. Two pumps


provide a run/spare
scenario because a
pump failure could
place the company in
violation of stringent
emission standards.

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chemicals corroding metal bellows/set screws and plated


seal faces. Sealless pumps come in high-alloy metallic and
non-metallic materials for chemical applications.

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N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

59

Rolling Design
Peristaltic Pumps Increase
Equipment Longevity
This technology helped a facility save $20,000 in one year.
BY TODD LOUDIN
FLOWROX INC.

for exotic alloy housings and internal components such


electing pumps for chemical pumping can
as titanium, Hastelloy C, Monel or others. The rubber or
be challenging. The pumped mediums
Teflon components are much less expensive than building
characteristics can lead users to a certain pump
complete pumps out of titanium or other exotic alloys.
style that best fits a given application. This article
Also, diaphragm pumps and peristaltic pumps may be
examines certain issues for selecting pumps to be used in
good alternatives to these other pump types.
chemical pumping.
With flocculants, polymers or reagents
that have long polymer chains, certain
Image 1. A rolling design peristaltic pump with only one hose compression per
revolution and virtually no heat generation (Images and graphics courtesy of Flowrox)
types of pumps will not be a good fit.
For example, a high-sheer pump will
destroy the polymer chains. The net
result will be an increased consumption
of flocculants or polymers. This does
not mean that the high-sheer pump
will perform poorly, but it will damage
the flocculants and cause the user to
use significantly more flocculants or
polymers. A low-sheer pump will
not destroy the polymer chains and
will allow the reagents to reach
maximum effectiveness, resulting in less
overall consumption.
Every process has variables that end
users must consider to determine the
most ideal pumping technology for their
applications. A highly corrosive medium
may require exotic alloys to survive
chemical attack; however, certain
types of pumps utilize Teflon or rubber
components that may eliminate the need

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

60

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

Peristaltic pumps utilize rubber hoses and smaller


diameter polymeric tubes that have extreme chemical
resistance. The advantage is the pumps hosing does not
Table 1. Chemicals and their corresponding common wear
compounds in pumps
Chemical

Common Wear Compound

Sodium Hypochlorite

EPDM

Sodium Bisulfite

NR, EPDM, CSM

Ferric Chloride

NR, EPDM

Lime Slurry

EPDM

Sulfuric Acid

NR, EPDM

Diethylene Glycol

EPDM

Nitric Acid

EPDM, Norprene

Hydrochloric Acid

NR, EPDM

Hydrofluoric Acid

EPDM

Magnesium Hydroxide

NR, EPDM

Reagents & Coagulants

EPDM

Caustic Soda

EPDM

Sodium & Calcium Carbonate

NR

Animal Fats

NBR

Oils and Hydrocarbons

NBR, CSM

Erythorbic Acid

EPDM

Acetone

EPDM

Salt Brine

NR

Sodium Bromide

Norprene

Sodium Permanganate

Norprene

have to be made of exotic alloys. The rubber or polymeric


hoses and tubes isolate the pump casing from the medium
that is passing through the pump. These types of pumps
are typically equipped with hose and tube leak-detection
devices that alert the user when the internal elements
have failed. The pump is then shut down and can be
cleaned to prevent corrosion from taking place in the
pump housing.
Table 1 shows a list of chemicals that may be pumped
by pumps incorporating rubber as the wear components
within the equipment.
Please note that high temperatures and high
concentrations of the chemicals shown in Table 1 may
cause some of the listed materials to become
incorrect selections.
Abrasion is another example of how certain pumps
built with metal internals in direct contact with the
medium may fail. There are two ways to combat severe
abrasion: Make the internal components harder or make
the internal wear components softer.
Certain styles of centrifugal pumps have been
successful with rubber coating impellers and all internal
surfaces with rubber linings and coatings. This practice
has worked well for many years in the mining industry.
Also, peristaltic pumps, some rotary lobe pumps and
progressive cavity pumps rely on rubber internal
components as the wearing part.
Variables such as driving head or NPSH A may lead the
consumer into different styles of pumps. Positive suction
head is not typically a problem for most pumps. When

Figure 1. Typical shoe design pump that compresses the hose twice per revolution. This design can lead to heat generation that may shorten hose
lifetime and increase pump operational costs.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

61

driving head is weak or even negative, the style of pump


may need to be varied. For example, certain pump styles
may destroy themselves in applications where insufficient
head is available. An example is a progressive cavity
pump that runs dry and destroys the rotor and stator
in minutes, if not seconds. Other pump styles such as
peristaltic pumps have the ability to run dry at any time
and can even perform suction lift duties when negative
head exists.
When high pressure is required, certain pump styles
such as multi-stage progressive cavity pumps, gear pumps
and piston pumps may be the best fit. Other styles of
pumps such as diaphragm pumps and peristaltic pumps
will be limited to relatively low-pressure applications
less than 240 pounds per square inch gauge (psig).
Temperatures above 300 degrees F may completely
eliminate pumps utilizing rubber components.
One example of a challenging medium involves
pumping lime slurry or milk of lime. Milk of lime is a
suspension of calcium hydroxide in water, and it is an
effective alkali. Uses for industrial lime slurry are for
municipal water treatment, pH adjustment in chemical
production, metal precipitation,
flue gas desulfurization and odor
control. Lime slurry is typically
not pumped at high pressures
because of its abrasive nature. In
many cases, the lime is pumped
at approximately 30 to 40 percent
solids and pressures of 150 psig
or less. Often it is pumped at less
than 75 psig.
Lime is a suspended solid that
is jagged and abrasive, and it can
scale internal components of
pumps and piping systems. Lime is
not the most abrasive application
for a pump, but it ranks with many
formidable opponents. The typical
pressure at which it is pumped is
manageable by many pumps, but
the abrasiveness and the scale
aspect can cause problems.

lime slurry, it is time to begin research on the types of


peristaltic pumps that are available and decide which type
is best for the application.
Peristaltic pumps have been in existence for about
85 years. Rubber manufacturing and durability have
made quantum leaps in those 85 years. Even just 30
years ago, automobile tires lasted up to 20,000 miles. In
2015, automobile tires are available with 80,000-mile
guarantees. This surge in rubber technology has allowed
peristaltic pumps to move from laboratory pumps to
main production pumps based on their reliability. But
the peristaltic pump operating principle limited the
production availability until about 15 years ago.
In the first 70 years, peristaltic pumps were
manufactured with a fi xed rotation point in the center
of the pump hosing; two metal shoes rotate on fi xed
arms to compress the rubber hose. This design generates
a significant amount of heat that, over time, damages
the rubber hose and limits its longevity. To help combat
the heat, the pump is fi lled with glycerin used for both
lubrication and heat dissipation. Large amounts of this
glycerin help transfer the heat to the pump casing. When

Picking a Peristaltic Pump


If all the variables have been
evaluated and the peristaltic
pump has been determined as
the best alternative for pumping

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the hose in this style of peristaltic pump begins to fail,


the acid or slurry starts to mix with the large amount
of glycerin. This is a hassle because a large amount of
contaminated glycerin needs to be disposed, and the
glycerin typically costs more than $100 per gallon.
A 2.5-inch or 65-mm shoe design peristaltic pump
may require 5 gallons or more of this glycerin. So with
every hose change the consumer must dispose of more
than $500 of useless glycerin. A chemical plant that has
10 or 15 shoe peristaltic pumps may consume more than
$30,000 of glycerin annually.

Approximately 15 years ago, a newly designed


peristaltic pump entered the market. This new design
incorporates a roller fi xed on a cam that rolls over the
rubber hose rather than grinding against it. In the shoe
design peristaltic pumps, there are two fi xed points where
the shoes compress the rubber hose twice per revolution.
The newly designed peristaltic pumps compress the
rubber hose once every revolution.
A common misconception with peristaltic pumps is
that the medium determines how long the rubber hose
will last. Of course, the medium has an impact, but the

How a Rolling Design Peristaltic Pump Saved $20,000


The City of Hamilton, Ohio, was using shoe design peristaltic pumps for pumping lime slurry at its municipal
power plant. These design differences may not seem significant, but the operating cost differences can be
extreme. The facilitys operations staff
members realized they were spending
Table 2: The one-year operating cost of a 2.5-inch pump with a 4-inch shoe
design pump.
a significant amount of their budget
on replacement parts for their shoe
2.5-inch rolling
4-inch shoe design
design peristaltic
design peristaltic pumps.
Plant personnel investigated a
Hose life, revolutions
2,721,600
518,400
rolling
design peristaltic pump as a
Speed, rpm
21
6
potential replacement.
Revolutions/hour
1,260
360
The power plant was utilizing a
Power consumption, kW/h
7.4
12
4-inch shoe design peristaltic pump to
Total downtime/hose
15
30
keep the revolutions per minute (rpm)
Glycerine need/hose, gallons
0.75
15.8
low and limit the heat generation of
this pump style. The plant decided
Maintenance time/hose brake
2
4
to utilize a 2.5-inch rolling design
Revolutions/a
10,485,720
2,995,920
peristaltic pump to do the work of
Number of spare hoses/a
4.0
6.0
the 4-inch shoe design pump in
Maintenance time/a
60
180
February 2008.
Utilization rate
99.3 percent
97.8 percent
The purchase price of the 2.5-inch
pump was about half of the 4-inch
shoe design. Also, the 2.5-inch rolling
Operating costs
design pump operated at almost four
Lubricant
$348
$9,100.80
times the rpm of the 4-inch shoe design
Hoses
$4,800
$13,800
but produced tremendous operational
Electricity
$3,571.80
$5,792.11
savings as well. The City of Hamilton
Maintenance
$350
$525
saved enough on operational costs that
it could afford to purchase a new rolling
design pump every year.
Total
$9,069.80
$29,217.91
Table 2 compares the one-year
Difference to LPP, $
$0.00
$20,148.11
operating cost of the 2.5-inch pump
Difference to LPP-T percent
0 percent
69 percent
with the 4-inch shoe design pump.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

63

primary determining factor in how long


a hose lasts in a peristaltic pump is how
many times the rubber hose is compressed.
So a pump that only compresses the rubber
hose once per revolution is going to have
hose life that is twice that of a pump that
compresses the hose twice per revolution.
The second advantage of rolling rotor
design is that it requires only a fraction
of glycerin that a shoe design peristaltic
pump requires.
The reason the rolling design does not
require massive amounts of glycerin is
that the rolling design does not generate
the friction and heat. For example, your
car tires drive over the road for hundreds
of miles and may get warm, but they do
not get extremely hot and require a bath
in glycerin to cool them down. The
single rolling design peristaltic pump
only requires a half-gallon of glycerin for
a 2.5-inch or 65-mm pump. This glycerin
is required for light lubrication of
the rubber hose only and not for the
dissipation of heat.
This is important because the shoe
designs have significant limitations on
rotation speed, but the rolling designs do
not face the same limitations.
Shoe designs will literally burn up
the rubber hose if run at a high rpm
continuously. Also, the continuous
friction caused by two rubbing shoes
can have a detrimental effect on a hoses
lifetime even in a pump that is rotating
at a slow rpm.
Rolling designed peristaltic pumps
can produce hose lifetimes that
are three to five times longer than
peristaltic pumps utilizing shoe designs.
Todd Loudin has been the president
and CEO of Flowrox Inc. for the past 12
years. He has a bachelors
degree in marketing and an
Executive MBA from Loyola
University. He may be
reached at
todd.loudin@flowrox.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

64

COVER

SERIES

CHEMICAL PROCESSING

California Olive Ranch


Chooses Stainless Steel for
Harsh Production
A combination of caustic cleaning uid, high temperature and high
head was causing the plant s original cast-iron pumps to fail.
BY MIKE BJORKMAN
BJM CORP.

alifornia is legendary for its capacity to grow a


variety of foods. Many crops native to Europe
and elsewhere have flourished when introduced
to the mild California climate and its rich
soileverything from wine grapes to avocados. Recently,
another crop has emerged from Californias prolific fields
to be made into a common product typically produced
outside the U.S.olive oil. According to data from the
International Olive Council, worldwide olive oil production
has doubled since 1990, from 1.5 million to more than 3
million metric tons. During the same period, U.S. imports
have tripled from 100,000 to 300,000 metric tons.
One producer of high-quality, American-grown olive oil
is California Olive Ranch (COR). Its Artois orchard sits on
approximately 1,400 acres in the Sacramento Valley, but
the company processes a total of approximately 13,000
acres of orchards.
COR and its growers take steps to grow the olives
sustainably. For example, they recycle water when possible,
use drip irrigation, mulch tree trimmings back into the
field and put leftover olive pits to use.
These olives are much smaller and are produced
specifically for their oil. The mill fires up when the olive
harvest begins, typically in mid-October, and runs 24/7 for
approximately 45 days until the harvest is over.
Within hours of being harvested, the olives are sent to
CORs facility in Artois where they are milled. This process
includes washing the olives, grinding them into a paste and
separating the oil from solids and water.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

After the olives are milled and the oil is extracted,


some of it is bottled immediately and marketed as a fresh
specialty oil. The rest of it is racked, a process of storing
the oil in large steel tanks to let the remaining organic
matter settle out. CORs tank farm is housed in half of a
30,000-square-foot facility that was built in 2010. The
other half of the facility is home to CORs packaging lines.
Although the freshly harvested olives are processed in a
relatively short time, the racking process continues yearround. After the oil has been racked, it is drained from the
tank to be bottled. What is left in the bottom of the tanks
is olive sludge and sediment.
After the olive oil has been drained, the tanks must be
cleaned. Olive oil doesnt have the microbiological risk
as does, for example, dairy. But the material itself is the
challenge, said Logan Jennings, plant operations manager
for COR.
A hot, highly caustic cleaning solution is mixed outside
the production facility in a clean-in-place (CIP) skid. It is
then pumped to the plant floor to clean the tanks. The hot
cleaning fluid is eventually pumped to the waste treatment
system by one of two pumps. One pump is located in a
sump under the CIP skid to collect any overflow or spillage
from the CIP system. Another pump is housed in a small
sump in the plant floor to collect all of the floor drainage
from the facilityany spillage from the CIP process or
other liquidas well as occasional cardboard pieces, small
chunks of wood and glass. The sump can hold between 800
and 1,000 gallons of liquid.

65

Image 1. The California Olive Ranch, located in the


lush Sacramento Valley, uses a high-density method
of planting trees to get a greater yield from its olive
orchards. (Images courtesy of BJM Corp.)

The pipes to move the cleaning fluid and other liquids are
located overhead to keep the plant floor clear of obstacles.
To pump the fluid to the waste treatment system, the
pumps must overcome more than 70 feet of static head
through 3-inch pipe.
In this challenging environment, the combination of
caustic cleaning fluid, high temperature and high head was
causing the original cast-iron pumps to fail.
The pumps that were originally specked out werent able
to handle what they were exposed to, Jennings said. If
the pump fails, we dont have very much storage space for
recovered fluid. As a result, the maintenance crew would
have to bring in a separate unit to pump it out.
R.F. MacDonald, a large distributor of pumps in
California and Nevada, had completed service work for
COR when it was built. Kevin Peters, sales representative
for R.F. MacDonald, explained that COR had several pumps
in their process that were manufactured overseas, which
meant getting replacement parts could be a challenge.
When Peters asked what CORs pain points were, the
sump pumps quickly floated to the top.
The original pumps were pedestal pumps that sat on
top of a column. The columns extended into the water so
the pumps motors werent subjected to chemicals or heat.
Because the arrangement had a long, extended shaft with a
sleeve bearing, however, the pumps did not last long.
To help COR solve these pumping challenges, Peters
recommended high-temperature, high-head, 316 cast
stainless steel pumps in the COR sumps. These stainless
steel pumps could withstand caustic cleaning solutions,
temperatures up to 200 F and up to 90 feet of head.
These side discharge submersible dewatering pumps were
designed for harsh conditions and are typically used in
sump applications where the liquid level can be controlled
and where the pumps are partially submerged.
The pumps have several features that enable them to
withstand the harsh conditions at the COR facilities.
For example, all metal parts exposed to pumped liquids
are made of 316 stainless steel, and elastomers (gaskets
and O-rings) are made of FKM. In addition, the motor
is protected by double mechanical seals. The lower seal
is made of silicon carbide/silicon carbide, and the upper

Image 2. One of two pumps installed at the California Olive


Ranch sits in this sump in the plant floor collecting drainage
from the 30,000-square-foot tank farm and production facility.

seal is made of carbon/ceramic. An additional lip seal is


installed above the impeller to help prevent abrasives such
as dirt, silt or sand from entering into the seal chamber.
Winding protection and National Electrical Manufacturers
Association (NEMA) Class R motor insulation with a
thermal cutout switch allows the stator to have a winding
temperature of up to 300 F (150 C).
We really havent had any real issues since these pumps
have been in, Jennings said.
Having reliable equipment saves COR time and money
because production time is not wasted identifying
a problem and bringing in new equipment to solve
it. Previously, COR maintenance staff would have to
physically walk the plant to ensure the pumps were
working because we never knew when one would fail,
said Mat Martin, COR maintenance manager. Because of
the new pumps, Martin says that the team has not had to
touch the pumps in over a year.
We know theyre working because we havent had a
problem, Martin said. Theyre very reliable, and that
provides a lot of peace of mind.
Mike Bjorkman is vice president of BJM Corp. and has
more than 30 years of experience in the pump industry.
He serves as director of marketing and IT for BJM Pumps
LLC and All Test Pro LLC. Both companies are subsidiaries
of BJM Corp. Bjorkman can be reached at 860-399-5937.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

66

TRADE SHOW PREVIEW

2015 Chem Show Celebrating 100th Anniversary


Nov. 17-19, 2015
Javits Convention Center
New York, NY

he 2015 Chem Show will celebrate its 100th anniversary


as one of the leading showcases for information about
the chemical process industries.
This years event is happening Nov. 17-19 at the Javits Convention Center in New York City. The International Exposition
Company produces and manages the Chem Show, which happens every two years.
If you are involved in processing chemicals,
pharmaceuticals, foods or other products that require mixing,
blending, separating or any process application, the Chem
Show is your best resource to see and learn about the latest
solutions that fit your process applications, according to the
events website.
As of early October, more than 270 exhibitors were signed
up, with more expected.
Since 1915, The Chem Show is the showcase for the latest
process equipment, products and services, bringing together

Exhibition Hours
Tuesday, Nov. 17
Wednesday, Nov. 18
Thursday, Nov. 19

10 a.m. - 5 p.m.
10 a.m. - 5 p.m.
10 a.m. - 3 p.m.

manufacturers and innovative new suppliers with executives,


process engineers, production teams and plant personnel,
according to organizers.
The events 2013 registration report shows total registered
attendance at 5,575 individuals, including 4,251 total
registered visitors in attendance and 1,324 registered exhibitor
personnel. The 2013 gathering included 31,900 square feet of
exhibit space from 283 exhibiting companies.
Of those who attended, marketing/sales and manufacturing
representatives accounted for 31 percent, while engineering
personnel totaled 23 percent and corporate and general
management including purchasing totaled 20 percent.
For more information about this years event, visit the 2015
Chem Show website at chemshow.com, which includes details
about exhibitors, hotel and travel planning, and registration.
The Javits Convention Center is located at 655 W. 34th St., New
York, NY 10018.

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You Can Help Us

TRADE SHOW PREVIEW

GIVE
CLEAN
WATER

THIS IS HOW
In May, Pumps & Systems traveled to
Malawi and Zambia to report on how
pump technology is changing lives
across rural Africa. To continue to
expand access to clean water, Pumps
& Systems has partnered with Design
Outreach to raise $9,200 to install a
LifePump in a village in Malawi.
This money will be used to install the
pump and provide the resources and
training needed for the community to
maintain it. This pump will serve about
300 to 400 people who will gain access
to a clean, reliable source of water
some for the first time in their lives.

For more information or to donate, visit


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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

67

68

BUSINESS OF THE BUSINESS

Global Analysis of the Pump Market


in the Oil & Gas Industry
As oil prices recover over time, a number of factors are expected to shape the
future of this crucial market driver.
By Sakthi Pandian
Frost & Sullivan

he oil and gas industry has


undergone a tremendous
change over the past year
with weak prices and inconsistent
demand globally. The oil and gas
market drives the gross domestic
product (GDP) of several countries,
with a number of key end-user
industries also dependent on it.
Changes in the oil and gas arena
have a ripple effect on multiple
industries, and investments in
this sector play an important role
in the progress of various nations.
During the last year, the industry
has witnessed a drastic fall in oil
prices with severe implications
such as slowing of investments
in new projects. Falling oil prices
almost resulted, for example, in the
bankruptcy of several shale plays in
the U.S.
As oil prices recover over time, a
number of factors are expected to
shape the future of the oil and gas
industry. In upstream oil and gas,
increasing focus on unconventional
sources is attracting a large portion
of the investments across North
America, Latin America and
Asia. China has one of the largest
reserves for shale and is expected to
dominate the investment landscape
in the Asian region. Although
uncertainties regarding accessibility
and extraction and production
technology remain, many global

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

oil and gas participants are actively


looking for opportunities in China.
As China looks toward cutting down
coal consumption, the successful
ventures in shale gas are expected
to help China achieve this goal.
The Latin American region also
has potential in shale gas. As oil
companies plan investments in
countries such as Mexico and
Argentina, this segment is expected
to drive the demand for a wide
range of equipment along the
value chain.
A significant part of the
discoverable volume of reserves is
offshore, which has led to increased

investment in subsea plays. The


growing number of subsea projects
in regions that include the North
Sea, Gulf of Mexico, West Africa,
Brazil and Asia is expected to
boost pump demand almost 15
percent over the next six years. This
growing number is expected to lead
to a significant investment in the
advancement of subsea technology,
and new subsea technology is slowly
gaining the limelight.
In midstream infrastructure,
planned pipeline construction in
2015 has slipped an estimated 30
percent from forecasts in 2014.
Future plans, however, indicate

Figure 1. Total pump market in oil and gas industry (Courtesy of Frost & Sullivan)

69

an increased mileage compared


with earlier years. Long-term
investments in pipeline plans in the
U.S., Asia and Africa contribute to
the larger portion of the expected
plans beyond 2015. The growing
demand for natural gas in China is
expected to boost construction of
liquefied natural gas (LNG) import
terminals. In addition, traditional
land-based units are coupled with
floating storage and regasification
units (FSRUs) in China, Russia,
Brazil, Colombia and others.
Another trend in midstream
natural gas is the implementation
of micro LNG facilities, which
are modular setups that require
significantly lower investments.
In the long term, midstream focus
is expected to shift toward these
small-scale LNG terminals in order
to reduce costs while maintaining
safety standards, scalability,
flexibility and ease of access to
difficult end-user sites.
Downstream investors remain
optimistic on the demand/supply
scenario, while investment plans in
emerging regions continue to rise.
Countries in Asia and Latin America
witnessed increased investment
in the recent past, and, despite the
overcapacity in the global market,
oil companies continue to invest in
China and India.
Recent oil and gas reserve
discoveries in East Africa are
expected to lead to investments
in this region as well. Capacity
additions in emerging regions are
expected to offset the closures of
refineries in Europe. Additionally,
the shale boom had resulted in an
increased production potential of
ethylene fueling the petrochemical
industry in the U.S. The investments
in these industries have led to a
moderate demand for positive
displacement (PD) pumps and
centrifugal pumps.

Pump Market Analysis


The global pump market in oil and
gas stood at a staggering $9 billion
market in 2014.
Although the growth rate for
pumps is expected to be low during
the current year because of the
recent weakness in investments
in oil and gas, the compounded
growth over the next five years
is expected to be 3.2 percent.
Conventional sources of oil and
gas continue to dominate global
production, while unconventional
sources lead to a higher growth
rate in the pump market. A
number of factors shape the pump
market in oil and gas, including
shale production in the U.S., oil
sands in Canada, discovery of
other conventional reserves in
Latin America and deep-water
discoveries in Asia Pacific. The
upstream sector in oil and gas
generated the most revenue for
the pump market as significant
investments occur in offshore
and onshore exploration and
production activities.
In this industry, centrifugal
pumps are primarily used in
midstream and downstream
applications across pipelines
for transportation, storage and
terminals. Some pumps, including
horizontal multi-stage pumps, are
used for water injection and other
treatment applications. Such pumps
must be highly engineered based on
the specifications required by the
oil producers.
Centrifugal pumps typically
have lower maintenance costs,
are easier to change parts and can
be configured easily for different
applications in comparison with PD
pumps. Vertical turbine pumps are
regularly used in booster stations,
while in downstream applications
the opportunities for sealless pumps
are increasing.

Investment in downstream is
uncertain in regions such as Europe,
while some activity continues in
Asia. Regardless, the growth for the
pump market is expected to have a
moderate demand. Investment in
specific pockets of upstream such
as subsea will lead to a high growth
rate for centrifugal pumps required
for water-handling subsea activities.
The growth rate for PD pumps
in oil and gas is expected to be low
for the current year as a number
of projects face postponement in
investments. However, because
of recovery in oil prices and
continuing upstream activities, the
growth of PD pumps is expected
to recover fairly rapidly. These
pumps are used heavily in wells
where flow is declining and in
places where crude oil may contain
sand content. Reciprocating pumps
are predominantly used for shale
exploration and production in highpressure applications such as frac
pumps. Metering pumps are often
used in exploration and production
activities as well.
In the long term, the oil and gas
industry continues to dominate
the energy requirement globally.
The current market is expected
to continue moderate growth
as investments in extraction
from more inaccessible locations
intensify. These factors are expected
to drive the pump market and
maintain an active demand from
this industry.
Sakthi Pandian is a research
analyst for Frost & Sullivan. She
can be reached by contacting Ariel
Brown, corporate
communications
associate for Frost &
Sullivan, at
ariel.brown@
frost.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

70

EFFICIENCY MATTERS

How to Properly Manage Piping Loads


These forces can have destructive effects if not carefully considered in piping design.
First of Two Parts
By Jack Claxton
Patterson Pump Company, A Gorman-Rupp Company

primary objective in any


pump installation should
be to minimize loads on a
pump induced by the piping system
design. Piping in the vicinity of the
pump should be properly supported
and restrained to obtain optimal
pump service life. If this is not
accomplished, objectionable loads
can be placed on the pump that
can reduce the service life of the
equipment, increase maintenance
costs and the total cost of
ownership of the pump or result in
catastrophic pump failure. Piping
loads placed on a pump will be
transferred through the pump to
the pump support structure and the
foundation under the pump. If the
loads are high enough, foundation
problems can also occur.
In terms of load-carrying
capability, pumps are a relatively
weak element. Their capability
is not comparable to piping,
piping restraints or pipe anchors.
Excessive loads can overstress and
distort the pump casing, causing
relatively tight internal clearances
to be overcome and creating
excessive misalignment with the
driver. In severe cases, the piping
loads can crack the pump casing.
Proper piping-pump interaction
is not automatic, so users should
analyze piping loads to ensure
that the pumps load capability is

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

not exceeded. If the piping system


design is carefully engineered,
users can practically eliminate or
manage piping loads to avoid these
troublesome scenarios in most
installations.
The piping near the pump must
be carefully evaluated. A system
designer should recognize that
pump piping loads fall into three
categories:

Residual mechanical pipe strain


forces
Hydraulic pressure reaction
forces
Thermal growth or contraction
reaction forces

Often, solutions for piping loads


do not address all three of these
potential load sources. This can be
a problem because a piping system
designed to reduce or eliminate
loads from one or two of these
sources may induce excessive loads
on the pump from the remaining
source. System designers should
consider the potential for excessive
loads from each of these potential
load sources and the unique
characteristics of each installation.
While reoccurring piping design
trends may be present in certain
pump applications, a cookie-cutter
approach to piping design can
negatively affect pump reliability
and maintenance costs.

Figure 1. Rubber expansion joint (Graphics courtesy of Patterson Pump Company)

71

Mechanical Pipe Strain Forces


Mechanical pipe strain caused by
piping misalignment and piping
excessive assembly tolerances is
the easiest source of piping loads
to visualize. A reasonably precise
pump and piping installation will
prevent such loads.
Piping flanges bolted to pumps
should be close to the pump flange
in their unbolted position so
excessive force is not required to
pull the flanges into the operating
position. In general, the separation
of the unbolted pipe flange from
the pump flange should be within
a small tolerance of the gasket
thickness. In any case, a flange
separation amount is excessive if it
results in the pump flange moving
some amount in line with the pipe
when the flanged joint is unbolted.
For small pumps, 0.005 inches is a
good worst-case limit criterion and
will be used throughout this article.
Piping flanges bolted to pumps
should also be relatively parallel to
the pump flange in their unbolted
position. A tolerance of 0.001
inches per inch of flange outside
diameter with a maximum of 0.010
inches typically ensures that the
as-installed piping misalignment
will not place undue stress on the
pump. Because forces from other
potential sources will be present,
mechanical pipe strain loads should
be kept low.
The effects of the fluid mass are
often overlooked. If the piping is
not properly supported, piping that
is aligned with the pump in the dry
state can move and improperly load
the pump when the system is fi lled
and prepared for service.
Hydraulic Pressure
Reaction Forces
Pressure in a pipe causes expansion
of the pipe, even if only a small
amount, in all directions. Linear

expansion is caused by the pressure


acting on the projected area of the
pipe corresponding to the pipes
inside diameter.
If valves or special pipe fittings
with larger inside diameters than
the pipe are present, the area
corresponding to the maximum
inside diameter should be
considered. This often involves
a much larger area than the pipe
and a much larger force. Figure 1
illustrates this by using a rubber
expansion joint as an example.
For a piping run that is
unrestrained at either end, linear
expansion is resisted by the piping
as it stretches under the force of
hydraulic pressure. Even cast-iron
or steel pipe will stretch some
amount. Any fittings in the
piping will also be subjected to
these forces.
The overall effective axial
stiff ness of a run of piping and
the internal pressure times the
projected area will determine
how much the piping run will
stretch if unrestrained (see Figure
1). Equation 1 represents the
deflection of a spring.

Axial stiff ness for individual pipe


components or fittings is calculated
using Equation 3.
k = aE/L

Equation 3

Where:
a = cross sectional area of the pipe
component or fitting (between
outer diameter and inner
diameter)
E = modulus of elasticity of the
fitting material
L = length of the fitting or
component

For axially flexible fittings using


thrust rods, a is the total cross
sectional area of all the rods, and
L is the distance between the
surfaces of the flanges where the
nuts on the thrust rods resist the
thrust. If an axially flexible pipe
fitting (such as a sleeve type pipe
coupling or rubber expansion joint)
is used without thrust rods, the
axial stiff ness k of the fitting may
be considered to be approximately
zero for the range of axial deflection
values of interest here. This also
results in an effective axial pipe
stiff ness that approaches zero.
Consider a piping run that is
dp = Fp/k
Equation 1
restrained at the pump end only.
The linear expansion is resisted
Where:
by the piping as it stretches under
dp = deflection, inches
the force of hydraulic pressure, but
k = the effective axial pipe spring
all of the expansion is away from
rate or stiff ness
the pump with little to no pressure
reaction on the pump.
Equation 2 uses a model for
Typically, in such an installation,
several springs in series.
resistance from sliding friction in
a pipe support or an orthogonal
k = (1/((1/k1)+(1/k 2)+(1/k 3)+.
(1/k n))
Equation 2 run of pipe created by an
elbow or a manifold resists the
axial deflection, and creates a
Where:
k1, k 2, k 3, k n = axial stiff ness values reaction force.
For a piping run restrained at the
for individual pipe
pump end and the other end, the
components or
restraint opposite the pump can
fittings measured in
be in the form mentioned above
pounds per inch
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

72

EFFICIENCY MATTERS

or a pipe anchor. Other restraints


include situations in which the
pipe attaches to a manifold, passes
through a wall or turns down
into the floor. The ability of these
restraints to resist the linear
stretching is typically far greater
than that of the pump.
For our purposes, the deflection
at the restraint at the opposite end
of the pipe is zero. Because the
stretch in the pipe will be resisted
by the pipe and the pump, this
results in a reaction load of some
magnitude on the pump that is
also transmitted to the pump
support structure, baseplate and
foundation. This reaction load on
the pump can be compared to the
rated nozzle load.
Figure 2 can help explain this
analysis approach. It shows the
interaction of the pump and piping
as a system of springs in parallel,
with one spring representing the
effective piping stiff ness and one
representing the pump and its
support structure.
For a certain value of deflection
to be achieved at the pump flange,
the piping must stretch and the
pump flange must deflect the same
amount, with some component
of Fp being restrained by the
piping and some component being
restrained by the pump. This
calculated reaction load can be
compared with the rated nozzle
load for the pump to make sure the
rated nozzle load is not exceeded.

Using this model, the value


Knowing Fp, kpipe and kpump,
deflection d for the installation can of kpump may be determined by
applying a known force on the
be calculated. The reaction load on
the pump is not Fp = (P)(A) because pump and measuring the resulting
deflection at the flange.
this force is resisted by both the
pipe and the pump. An exception
kpump = F/d
would be a case where the pipe
Equation 7
stiff ness approaches zero.
This practice is strongly
discouraged for the following:
Figure 2.
The hydraulic pressure
force is easily constrained
by thrust rods and easily
transmitted to the piping
that can handle such force.
The hydraulic pressure
reaction loads placed on
the pump in such cases are
typically relatively high
compared with the pump
Figure 3.
capability.
Any hydraulic pressure reaction
force placed on the pump is
transmitted to the support
structure and foundation.
A hydraulic pressure reaction
force will load the pump,
support structure and
foundation each time the pump
is started.

Because the reaction is


proportional to the relative
stiff ness values of the piping and
pump, the use of proper thrust rods
across any axially flexible fitting
provides for a piping system axial
stiff ness that reduces the pressure
reaction force on the pump. The
reaction force on the pump will be
less than the Fp generated by the
In this model: dp = Fp/ktotal
pressure in well-designed systems.
Another model (see Figure 3)
Equation 4
is used to determine the reaction
load on the pump to compare it to
Where:
ktotal = (kpipe+ kpump)
Equation 5 the rated nozzle load. Consider for
any force F on the pump nozzle
restrained only by the pump, the
Recall that kpipe is calculated for
deflection is show in Equation 6.
the various pipe components as
discussed, and Fp = (P)(A).
d = F/kpump
Equation 6

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Figure 4.

73

Historically, some pump nozzle load


standards have been based on maximum
allowable deflection when subjected to
the nozzle load, an approach that lines
up with this method of analysis.
Using Equations 4 and 5, Equation 8
for the reaction load R can be derived.
R = Fp (dp)(kpipe)

Equation 8

The reaction load R can now be


compared to the rated nozzle load,
and the deflection dp can be evaluated.
If this analysis method is applied to
an installation that uses nozzle loads
that have been based on a maximum
allowable deflection criterion, the piping
design should be such that the value of
R does not exceed the nozzle load and
the deflection dp does not exceed the
maximum allowable deflection criterion
using Equation 8.
If this analysis method is applied
in an installation that does not use
nozzle loads that have been based on a
maximum allowable deflection criterion,
the piping design should ensure that
the deflection dpipe from the piping alone
using Equation 9 does not exceed 0.005
inches for best results.
dpipe = Fp/kpipe

In axially weak piping systems, a


relatively strong pump structure produces
potentially excessive nozzle loads if the
deflection is held to acceptable levels, and
a relatively weak pump structure is needed
to hold the nozzle load to acceptable levels,
however, the deflection is excessive.
Axially strong piping systems better
enable the objectives of acceptable nozzle
loads and deflection to be achieved. These
insights underscore the need to coordinate
the piping and pump so they successfully
interact.
If an elbow at the end of the piping run
results in an orthogonal run of pipe, the
effects of pressure reaction forces may be
evaluated by using the effective piping
stiffness for that run of pipe (see Figure 4).
In this case, the stretch of the offset
pipe is calculated using the equations for
Fp and kpipe to reflect the characteristics of
that run of pipe.

dpipe = Fp/kpipe

Equation 10

The resulting deflection dpipe can then


be divided by the offset distance. If this
resultant is less than 0.001 inches per
inch with a maximum of 0.010 inches
when multiplied by the pump fl ange
diameter, then the effect of this force
is equivalent to the fl ange parallelism
criterion for mechanical pipe strain and
is acceptable.

Jack Claxton, P.E., has been involved


with pump engineering for Patterson
Pump Company since his
graduation from Georgia
Tech. in 1975. He is
currently vice president,
engineering.

Equation 9

However, such a piping design can


be difficult to achieve, and a deflection
of 0.010 inches is unlikely to harm the
pump. In this case, the deflection dp at
the pump flange will be less than the
deflection dpipe from the piping alone
because of the resistance to deflection
contributed by the pump.
By this analysis, axially rigid piping
keeps reaction loads on pumps at
manageable levels. An axially stiff
piping run usually produces lower pump
reaction forces, while axially flexible
piping (especially using flexible fittings
with no thrust rods or weak thrust rods)
usually creates higher pump reaction
forces to restrain the force produced
by pressure.
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

74

MAINTENANCE MINDERS

Get the Most from Lubricants


Through Quality Oil Analysis
An effective program can increase the reliability and availability of machinery while
minimizing maintenance costs.
First of Two Parts
By Michael Barrett
TestOil

he practice of oil analysis


has changed drastically from
its inception in the railroad
industry. In todays exploding
computer and information age,
oil analysis has evolved into a
mandatory tool in ones predictive
maintenance (PdM) arsenal.
As a PdM tool, oil analysis is
used to uncover, isolate and offer
solutions for abnormal lubricant
and machine conditions. These
abnormalities can result in
expensive, sometimes catastrophic
damage that causes lost
production, extensive repair costs
and even operator accidents.
The goal of an effective oil
analysis program is to increase
the reliability and availability
of machinery while minimizing
maintenance costs associated with
oil change-outs, labor, repairs and
downtime. Accomplishing this goal
takes time, training and patience;
however, the results are dramatic
and the documented savings and
cost avoidance are significant.

Lubrication Properties
Lube oil analysis helps companies
maintain equipment. In order
to take full benefit from oil
samples test data, it is important

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Figure 1. A simplified version of what lubricants do (Images and graphics


courtesy of TestOil)

Two Body Abrasive Wear

Three Body Abrasive Wear

Full Fluid Film Lubrication

Oil Film

75

to understand a lubricants basic


properties. Equally important is the
understanding of how these properties
affect the lubricants ability to function.
Lastly, knowledge of the common test
techniques and instrumentation used
to analyze oil can aid in data
interpretation and lead to more
productive corrective action.
To effectively monitor how well a
lubricant is working, the lubricants
functions must be understood. The
primary function of a lubricant is
obviously to lubricate, that is, to reduce
friction. By reducing friction, wear is
reduced, as is the amount of energy
required to perform the work.
In 1699, a physicist named Guillaume
Amontons deduced that friction is
the result of surface roughness. Since
no solid surface is perfectly smooth,
opposing friction surfaces have peaks
called asperities that come in contact
with one another. Ideally, a lubricant
will physically separate these asperities
with an oil fi lm. This is called full fluid
fi lm lubrication.
When the proper lubricant is used and
the proper load is applied, the asperities
are not in contact and, in theory, no
wear will occur. When inadequate
lubrication is present or the load is
increased, the oil fi lm will not be thick
enough to fully separate the asperities.
Mixed lubrication, which is a cross
between boundary and hydrodynamic
lubrication, occurs when the oil fi lm
thickness is equal to the average asperity
height. The largest asperities will come
in contact and result in increased wear.
Many oils are fortified with antiwear additives to combat wear under
these circumstances. As load continues
to increase or lubrication degrades,
boundary lubrication occurs and the
oil fi lm thickness cannot separate the
friction surfaces. This can result in
metal-to-metal contact. At this point,
asperities are adhering to one another,
causing severe machine wear. This can
also manifest itself during periods of

shock loading, startup


or shutdown. Extreme
pressure additives
are used in oils that
frequently encounter
these types of situations.
Lubricants also
control the equipments
temperature. Oil
absorbs heat generated
at the friction surface
and carries it away to
be dispersed. Many
systems incorporate heat
exchangers or radiators to Image 1. Lubricant condition is monitored with tests that quantify
the oils physical properties to ensure that it is serviceable.
aid in removing heat from
the system. Along with
heat, lubricants transport dirt and other packages contain agents that break
up contaminants and hold them in
debris away from the friction surface.
suspension to be fi ltered out. This
Particulate contamination leads to
prevents harmful deposits and varnish
increased wear through abrasion and
from forming within the equipment.
reduced oil flow. Some oil additive

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

76

MAINTENANCE MINDERS

It is imperative to select the proper blend of tests to monitor


the machines lubricant condition, wear debris and contaminants
in order to meet the goals of successful oil analysis.

Contaminants: Increased
Alkaline additives also protect the
contaminants from the
components by neutralizing acid
surrounding environment in
and preventing corrosion.
the form of dirt, water and
Hydraulic oils have the added
process contamination are
function of transmitting power.
the leading cause of machine
To function properly, hydraulic
degradation and failure.
oil must be clean and free of
Increased contamination
contaminants. Many contaminants
indicates it is time to take action
will cause oil to foam and entrain
in order to save the oil and avoid
air or water. Entrained air causes
unnecessary machine wear.
the oil to compress under pressure,
Machine wear: An unhealthy
resulting in a loss of power.
machine generates wear
Particulate contaminants can cause
particles at an exponential rate.
the control valves to malfunction
The detection and analysis of
and restrict the oil flow.
these particles assist in making
critical maintenance decisions.
The Role of Oil Analysis
Machine failure due to worn out
Selecting the proper lubricant,
components can be avoided. It
along with maintenance of that
is important to remember that
lubricant, is essential to ensure
healthy and clean oil leads to the
protection for any machine. Proper
minimization of machine wear.
lubrication is defined as the correct
amount of the correct lubricant at
Lubricant condition is monitored
the correct time.
with tests that quantify the oils
Maintaining a lubricant means
ensuring it has the correct viscosity physical properties to ensure
that it is serviceable. Metals and
and the necessary additives for
debris associated with machine
the application. Steps must be
wear are measured to monitor
taken to keep the lubricant clean
equipment health.
and serviceable. Oil analysis is
Some tests target specific
the most effective way to prolong
contaminants that are commonly
the useful life of lubricants, while
found in oils. It is imperative to
maintaining maximum protection
select the proper blend of tests to
of equipment.
monitor the machines lubricant
Oil analysis tests reveal
condition, wear debris and
information that can be broken
contaminants in order to meet the
down into three categories:
goals of successful oil analysis.
Lubricant condition: The
assessment of the lubricant
condition reveals whether the
Elemental Spectroscopy
system fluid is healthy and fit
Elemental spectroscopy is a test
for further service or ready for
that monitors all three categories:
a change.
lubricant condition, wear debris

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

and contaminants. A spectrometer


is used to measure the levels of
specific chemical elements present
in an oil.
Two types of spectrometers
are commonly used. Arc emission
spectrometers apply energy in
the form of an electric arc to the
sample. This excites the atoms into
vapor form, creating a spectrum
where light is generated. Individual
light frequencies in the spectrum
are measured and quantified
to determine the presence and
quantities of specific elements.
The other common type of
spectrometer is the ICP, or
inductively coupled plasma
spectrometer. This operates on a
similar principle, except the energy
is applied to the sample by a plasma
fl ame rather than an electric arc.
There are typically 20 elements
measured by spectroscopy and
reported in parts per million
(ppm). These measurements
represent elements in solution.
Spectroscopy is not able to measure
solid particles larger then roughly 7
micrometer (m), which leaves this
test blind to larger solid particles.
Typical levels of wear can vary
greatly depending on the type of
equipment being sampled. For
example, a gearbox will normally
have much higher levels of iron
than a hydraulic system. Levels
of wear can vary across different
units of the same type depending
on oil hours, operating conditions,
loading levels or other conditions.
For this reason, it is impossible
to establish firm limits for any

77

piece of equipment based solely on


the equipment type. To take full
advantage of monitoring wear, a trend
should be established to provide an
operational baseline of data. This will
ensure detection of abnormal wear
rates as they develop and allows for
the fact that similar equipment may
not wear at the same rate.
Monitoring additive levels provides
information to ensure the proper
lubricant is used for the application
and for topping off. Four types of
lubricants are generally used in most
industrial applications, and each
has different additive levels. It is
important to note that an oils level of
additives measured by spectroscopy
is not necessarily an indication of the
oils quality.
The four types of lubricants include:
Engine oils, which will typically
contain anti-wear additives
composed of zinc and
phosphorus. One should expect
to see these elements
present in approximately 1,000
ppm (200 ppm). A detergent
package should also be present,
composed of some configuration
of barium, magnesium and
calcium. These levels will vary
depending on the oil.
Extreme pressure oils, which are
typically for gear applications.
It is common to see significant
amounts of phosphorus.
Anti-wear oils, which include
many bearing oils, some gear
oils and hydraulic fluids. These
oils contain both zinc and
phosphorus from 200 to 600
ppm. There also may be very low
levels of detergent (magnesium
or calcium) present.
Rust and oxidation inhibiting oils,
which are the easiest to identify.
They include turbine oils,
compressor oil and some bearing
and hydraulic oils. These oils
have no metallic additives that

variance. High water levels, as well


as the matrix of some synthetic base
stocks, can cause interference in the
spectrum. In short, always double
check with another sample before
taking any invasive maintenance
action. Never rely on just one
piece of data when making a
maintenance decision.

can be measured by spectroscopy,


so there should be extremely low
numbers for all additive metals.
It is not uncommon to see low
levels (<20 ppm) of some additive
metals where they are not expected.
This is usually the result of residual
contamination in the equipment or
storage tanks.
There are oils that do not fit into
these descriptions. Many oils are
formulated for specific applications
and alternative additives must be
used. An example would be oils
formulated for some stationary and
electromotive diesel engines. In
many cases, operating conditions
or emission concerns call for a less
traditional additive package.
As with any type of testing,
spectroscopy is subject to inherent

Michael Barrett has worked at TestOil


for 23 years in a variety of positions.
He is responsible for directing TestOils
marketing and sales efforts. Barrett
has a BA in economics
from Kenyon College
and a masters degree in
business administration
from Case Western
Reserve University.

Got VFDs on your motors?

Monitor them.
SKFs EXP4000 and
NetEP dynamic motor
monitoring solutions
reveal adverse impacts
variable-frequency
drives have on motors,
and they can help you
optimize performance
of those VFDs.

To learn more, call 970-282-1200, or visit www.skf.com/emcm.


The Power of Knowledge Engineering

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

78

MOTORS & DRIVES

Steps to Successful Installation of Vertical


Circulating Water Pumps
Following the correct procedures for pump and motor alignment is necessary for
reliable operation.
By William Livoti
WEG

he power generation industry


uses high-flow, low-head
vertical pumps for circulating
water in both fossil and nuclear
power plants. Many of these plants
are approaching 40 years old and
require equipment refurbishment
or component replacement. One
specific component that has been
a major topic of discussion is the
circulating water pump.
The circulating water pump is
critical in any fossil or nuclear
power generation plant, providing
water to and through the condenser
for cooling. The water may be
supplied from a lake, river or ocean.
Subject pumps typically have a flow
rate in excess of 100,000 gallons
per minute (gpm) at a relatively low
head of 28 to 40 feet.
Circulating water pumps, motors
and intake structures experience
substantial abuse, because the
operating procedure requires a 90
percent or fully closed discharge
valve during startup and shutdown.
The power industry is in the midst
of massive changes, and utilities
are struggling to adapt. Renewable
power generation, Clean Air Act,
Clean Water Act and 316B (an
addendum to the Clean Water Act
that requires all new and existing
power plants to convert to closedloop cooling) regulations are forcing
power generators to focus heavily on

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

uptime, availability and reliability.


A relatively low-cost measure to
address these concerns is proper
installation of critical systems such
as circulating water pumps.
Pump reliability begins with
proper installation, which means
perfectly plumb and level as defined
in this procedure. If the entire
pump/motor baseplate is not plumb
and level, the rotating components
(above the wet end) may contact the
stationary components.

Think of the pump and motor


rotating components as a solid shaft
from the motor thrust bearing,
motor rotor and pump shaft down
to the impeller. This entire rotating
assembly pivots off the motor thrust
bearing (see Figure 1). If the pump
is not installed perfectly level and
plumb, the impeller will attempt to
center itself in the volute, while the
motor and pump shaft rides against
the motor sleeve bearing, upper
bushing and line shaft bushings.

Figure 1. Cross section view of a typical circulating water pump indicating the
critical components and the impact of the entire installation if the sole plate is
out of level. Also note that the entire rotating assembly pivots off the motor thrust
bearing at the top of the motor. (Graphics courtesy of WEG)

79

The pump bushings are not true


bearings but rather rotor guides
with a large (compared with the true
hydrodynamic bearing in the motor)
clearance between the rotor journal
and the shaft. A true hydrodynamic
bearing typically has 0.004-inch
running clearance (one thousand
per inch of shaft), while a guide
bushing may have three to four
times that amount with no ability to
sustain a hydrodynamic loading.
Vertical circulating water pumps
can be either pullout or non-pullout
design. In a pullout design, the
inner element of the pump can be
removed for maintenance, leaving
the suction bell, column, discharge
elbow and discharge piping in place.
A non-pullout design requires
removal of the entire pump. This
installation procedure addresses
both configurations.

Cementitious grout is old


technology and does not provide the
bonding (chemical and mechanical)
required to achieve a monolithic
design. Epoxy grouting is the grout
material of choice for both new and
existing repairs or upgrades. While
epoxy grout may cost more than
other materials, it is the media of
choice because of the stress that the
pump and system experience during
startup and shutdown.
Proper installation begins
with the sole plate, which is the
foundation for the pump. A poorly
installed foundation will result
in premature failure. Prior to
installation, the bottom of the
sole plate should be grit-blasted to
a white metal finish and painted
with epoxy primer then installed
flat and level within 0.002 inches
overall using leveling bolts. Allow

Figure 2. A precision motor mounting surface (motor and motor stand) ensures a
flat surface with minimal or no shimming.

YGI"
Rolled"Steel"Line

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Circle 143 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

A comprehensive, detailed Excel Spreadsheet QA/QC


checklist for the entire installation process as defined in this
articleincluding step-by-step instructions, dimensional
tolerances and hold points, as well as images for clarification
is available upon request. Please contact Pumps & Systems at
pumpeditors@cahabamedia.com for more information.

80

MOTORS & DRIVES

In todays rapidly changing power generation industry,


risk mitigation is the key to reliable plant operation. In pumping
applications, reliability begins with a sound installation.

a minimum 3 to 6 inches of clearance


between the concrete intake structure
and the sole plate for epoxy grout.

Steps for Successful Installation


1. Sole plate must be fl at and level
within 0.002 inches. Use precision
straight-edge, machinist level and
feeler gauge.
2. Motor stand (discharge head) must
be fl at and level within 0.002 inches
(two places) between the motor
stand and sole plate and the motor
stand and motor. Use the same
procedure as step one.

3. Stuffing box should be concentric to


motor stand.
4. Check for soft foot motor stand to
sole plate using dial indicator. This
should require minimal shimming.
5. Motor-to-motor mounting face
should be fl at within 0.002 inches.
The motor shaft should be at a
90-degree angle to the mounting
surface (see Figure 2).
6. Ensure minimal shimming between
the motor stand and motor (if Steps
1 through 5 were followed). Check for
soft foot and torque to specification.
7. Use a strong arm lift pump shaft to

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N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

allow the rotating element (shaft/


impeller) to center itself relative to
stationary components, and allow
installation of spacer blocks to
retain centralization.
8. Use precision spacer blocks to center
pump shaft in stuffing box; offset
alignment only. Release strong back.
9. Using dial indicator, check for
concentricity and parallelism at
coupling faces. In some cases, it may
be necessary to move stuffing box to
achieve concentricity.
10. Using laser alignment, align motor
shaft to pump shaft.
11. With alignment equipment
installed, connect discharge
piping while periodically checking
alignment.
Besides the normal equipment and
tools required to perform a typical
pump installation, the following
precision equipment will be needed:
Six-foot precision straight edge
Machinist level
Dial indicators and magnetic base
Fixture for checking motor shaft to
motor face run-out
Set of feeler gauges
Four precision alignment blocks
machined to fi ll clearance between
pump shaft and stuffing box
In todays rapidly changing power
generation industry, risk mitigation is
the key to reliable plant operation. In
pumping applications, reliability begins
with a sound installation.
William Livoti is the power generation
business development manager for
WEG Electric Corporation. Livoti may be
reached at wlivoti@weg.net.

81

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p u mpsa
ndsyst
ems.c
| Novemb
er 2015

82

SEALING SENSE

Insulating Over Rubber Expansion Joints:


A Good or Bad Idea?
By Rob Coffee
FSA Member

he practice of insulating
over metallic expansion
joints to minimize heat loss
in a piping system may be common,
but it is not a good idea to follow
this same practice with rubber
expansion joints.
Rubber expansion joints
typically consist of synthetic
(oil-based) elastomers (ethylene
propylene diene monomer [EPDM],
neoprene, chlorobutyl, nitrile or
clorosulphonated polyethlyeneCSM) combined with polyester
or nylon and wire reinforcing
that provide pressure-restraining
capability.
If an end user were to install a
typical rubber expansion joint in a
system needing insulation to cover
the joint in a hot application, that

individual must consider


the probability of failure resulting
from heat exposure.
A rubber expansion joint that
is covered by insulation will soak
up heat from the fluids being
pumped. When operating near the
temperature limit of its constituent
material, the rubber expansion
joint may begin to lose its oil-based
properties, drying out and causing
the elastomers to become brittle.
Figure 1 depicts this
deterioration of an elastomer
expansion joint.
In addition, the pressurerestraining reinforcing materials
(polyester or nylon) can start
to break down under the heat.
This could eventually lead to a
catastrophic failure (see Figure 2).

Figure 1. Damaged elastomer expansion joint from


excessive temperature (Images courtesy of FSA)

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Rubber expansion joints should be


allowed to breathe to atmosphere
in order to let the heat escape. This
will keep the joint hydrated during
operation. Atmospheric cooling
helps maintain the operating
temperature below the material
limits and reduces the adverse
effect of elevated temperatures.
Another question users ask is if
they can use heat tracing to wrap
around their joints. This is also not
a good idea.
While heat tracing does provide
benefits to the system by keeping
piping at a constant or nearconstant temperature, wrapping
the expansion joint with heat
tracing can concentrate the heat
in a limited contact area, burning
the outer rubber cover (typically

Figure 2. Insulated joint failure

83

Figure 3. Metal cover option

water piping and the need to jacket the expansion


joint to keep condensation to a minimum. In this
case, insulating over a rubber expansion joint
in a chilled water system is acceptable to keep
condensation from forming.
When the application is in question regarding
whether or not to insulate over a rubber type
expansion joint, the safe route for the joints
longevity is to avoid this common practice.
Next Month: Enhanced Mechanical Seal Face
Materials: Substrate and Coatings

1/16-inch thick) and working its way into the


pressure-restraining reinforcing materials (polyester
or nylon).
Over time, the expansion joint will become weak,
which could result in a catastrophic failure.
If the two practices mentioned above are
not recommended, how then should users
keep heat loss to a minimum?
The thermal conductivity of elastomers
is so much less than that of metal (two
orders of magnitude) that they actually act
as an insulator. The heat loss through an
expansion joint is minimal compared with
a metal pipe and even less compared with
a metal expansion joint, which has a high
surface area because of the multiple number
of convolutions required to accommodate
motion. So the need for additional external
insulation to keep process thermal energy
may not be necessary.
Some users incorporate metal covers,
which are separated from the rubber
expansion joints by metal clips attached to
the bolt at the rubber expansion fl ange or the
bolt of a control unit. The cover shields the
rubber expansion joint from potential harsh
external elements but allows the heat to
escape from the expansion (see Figure 3). The
cover helps shield the system from external
conditions and protects personnel in hightraffic areas in the event of a failure.
As always, there are exceptions to the
rule. Someone may ask about their chilled

We invite your suggestions for article topics as well as questions on


sealing issues so we can better respond to the needs of the industry.
Please direct your suggestions and
questions to sealingsensequestions@
fluidsealing.com.

Circle 148 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

84

HI PUMP FAQS

Sealless Design Advantages &


Centrifugal Seals in Rotodynamic Pumps
By Hydraulic Institute

What are the advantages


and limitations of a
sealless pump design?
A sealless pump is used
when there is a need to contain
toxic, dangerous and/or valuable
fluids. Application may be dictated
by space, noise, environment or
safety regulations. This section
outlines types, nomenclatures
and components of sealless
rotodynamic-type pumps.
Sealless pump design is founded
on eliminating the dynamic
shaft seal between the wetted
end of a centrifugal pump and
the atmosphere. This is achieved

by enclosing the pump and its


rotor assembly inside a pressure
vessel with the pumped fluid.
The pressure vessel or primary
containment is sealed by static
seals, such as gaskets or O-rings.
The inner rotor assembly is
driven by a rotating magnetic
field that is transmitted through
a containment barrier. Sealless
pumps fall into two categories:
magnetic driven pump (MDP)
and canned motor pump (CMP),
as shown in Figures 5.1.3.1 and
5.1.2.1.
The liquid-lubricated
bearing design and application
considerations are essentially the

Figure 5.1.3.1. Magnetic drive pump: separately coupled


(closed or semi-open impeller) (Graphics courtesy of
Hydraulic Institute)

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

same for CMPs and MDPs. Factors


internal to the unit design such as
pressures, temperatures, flows and
heat transfer characteristics within
the drive section and hydraulic
performance of the pump end
must be understood to properly
select circulation plans and assess
application questions.
Properly designed, applied and
operated sealless pumps may offer
the following advantages:
Improved safety when handling
hazardous liquids
Eliminated leakage through
primary containment to the
environment during normal
operation

Figure 5.1.2.1. Canned motor pump: close-coupled, end


suction, overhung impeller

85

For more information about


sealless pumps, see ANSI/HI 5.15.6 Sealless Rotodynamic Pumps
for Nomenclature, Definitions,
Application, Operation and Test.

the pump is shut down, and it must


run dry during pump operation.
This can be accomplished by

dry-type packing, multiple lip


seals, other proprietary devices or

mechanical seals with either dry

run capabilities or fitted with a


separate flush.

There is a maximum allowable


What is a centrifugal
suction pressure Ps above which,
seal in rotodynamic
depending on speed of rotation,
Some limitations must be
centrifugal pumps?
a centrifugal seal will not
understood to properly apply a
A centrifugal seal is a
operate properly. For this reason,
sealless pump:
centrifugal seals are not effective
Temperature of motor windings dynamic seal that only operates
when the pump shaft is rotating
on the second or higher stages of
(CMP) or magnet components
and has no seal effect when the
multiple-pump installations, where
(MDP)
the pumps are arranged to have
Control of bearing environment shaft is stationary. It consists of
an expeller or set of expellers
the full discharge of the preceding
is required to provide clean
located in a separate chamber
stage applied to the suction of the
non-fl ashing liquid.
behind the impeller, which is
following stage.
Primary containment shell is
typically fitted with expelling
If the pumps are installed at
relatively thin, and corrosion
vanes on the back shroud.
specified intervals and elevations
potential should be carefully
When the pump is running, the
spread out along a slurry transport
considered.
centrifugal seal generates pressure line, then it is possible to use
Retraining of maintenance
Pe to equalize the pressure Pb, as
centrifugal seals on all stages. The
personnel may be required.
shown in Figure 12.3.8.3.6, so that arrangement should be such that
Drive-generated heat may
the pump operates without leakage. the suction pressures on each stage
affect the NPSH required with
A centrifugal (dynamic) seal
are approximately equal and do
some circulation plans for
needs to be combined with a
not exceed 10 to 20 percent of the
volatile liquids.
backup or static seal to prevent
discharge pressure. An analysis
Overheating of drive section
leakage when the pump is not
should be made of the centrifugal
may occur with loss of flow or
running. The general requirements seal performance, based on actual
loss of suction.
for the backup-sealing device are
head, flow and suction pressure, so
Potential for higher repair cost
that proper operation is ensured.
if bearings fail before detection that it must seal statically when
Additional information about
centrifugal
(dynamic) seals is
Figure 12.3.8.3.6. Centrifugal (dynamic) seal with dry-type packing
available in ANSI/HI 12.1-12.6
Rotodynamic (Centrifugal) Slurry
Pumps for Nomenclature, Definitions,
Applications, and Operation.

Optional backup secondary


containment
Eliminated loss of valuable
liquids
Lower noise level (CMP designs)
Suction pressure usually does
not affect the axial thrust
Reduced or eliminated periodic
shaft seal replacement cost

HI Pump FAQs is produced by the


Hydraulic Institute as a service to pump
users, contractors, distributors, reps
and OEMs. For more information, visit
pumps.org.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

86

PRACTICE & OPERATIONS

Global Wastewater Challenges Place Pressure


on Aging Infrastructure
Shifting trends in water use and a changing sewage composition cause
complex problems for the worlds sewer systems.
First of Six Parts
By Horst Sturm
KSB

he quality of the worlds


sewage systems in past years
has been influenced by four
main factors: design of the system
of pipes and valves, the design of the
pump sump, the operation concept
and the pump itselfincluding
impeller type and design.
Today, additional influences
require new consideration.
In some cases, worldwide
wastewater pumping stations
that worked well in years past
(sometimes 10 or more) are now
struggling because of new sewage
handling challenges.
In general, the composition of
todays sewage is different than that
of previous years with an ongoing
trend. The availability and increased
use of non-flushable wipes in
daily processes places added load
on sewage handling systems. At
the same time, the global pump
industry is moving steadily toward
a sustainable environment that
requires low energy consumption
and high efficiency for all energyrelevant machines and processes.
In developing countries, water
and wastewater technologies are
improving the quality of life for
many communities. As more people
become connected to water sources
and wastewater disposal systems,
N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

an increasing variety of items are


being disposed of via sewerage. The
positive trend of water supply and
wastewater disposal goes hand in
hand with new behavior that results
from modern conveniences. This
new behavior is changing sewage
composition.
In many cases, increased use of
wastewater infrastructure leads
to uncontrolled input into sewers.
Plastic bags, hygienic articles and,
in extreme cases, even tires from
cars are found in sewer systems that
were not designed to handle the
extended load these items place on
the system.
The situation in many developed
countries is even worse. The cost of
water is rising nearly everywhere,
resulting in a boom in water-saving
devices such as showerheads,
toilets and washing machines.
Private households across the
globe account for approximately 80
percent of water consumption, while
commercial companies consume
much less. Increasing quality of life
leads to better hygienic behavior
but also decreased consumption of
water in most industrial countries,
especially in Europe. This trend,
in turn, is leading to heavy
solid loads and more rags in the
wastewater. Modern habits equate

to transporting higher solid loads


with less water.
In countries like the U.S., water
prices are still rather low, so daily
water usage per person is much
higher. (In 2007, the average was
295 liters or 78 gallons per per
person per day.)
The infrastructure of water
supply systemsincluding pipes,
valves and other equipmentis
typically more than 50 years
old and outdated, requiring
substantial investment to upgrade.
Unfortunately, most municipalities
do not have the funds and are
reluctant to raise the price of water.
The water shortage in the southern
and western regions of the U.S.
complicates the matter.
Old pipes and systems combined
with less water and higher loads
negatively affect the entire
systemnot just the pipes but
also the pumps and valves. If the
diameter of the pipes remains the
same as the volume of water flowing
through the system decreases,
velocity declines and the flushing
effect cannot work properly. The
impact of sink velocity is more
dominant than the horizontal or
the vertical flow velocity.
With the increased use of variable
frequency drives (VFD) operation

87

with a lower speed of


pumps, flow velocity
decreases even more,
causing the system to
crash from clogging.
Increased use
and disposal of
synthetic wipes
that do not break
down are negatively
impacting these
systems. While many
Images 1 and 2. Image 1 (left) shows a test and demonstration model regarding flow velocity. Solids as they
manufacturers clearly
may appear in sewage pipes are inside the flexi pipes. The flow velocity is modified by a pump in the back
advise on the package
and measured with a flow meter. The flow velocity influences the transport of the solids in the horizontal and
not to flush these
vertical pipe. Even if different kind of solids are used, the impact of wipes in the real world would require an
even higher minimum flow velocity to transport the composition in the system. Image 2 (right) shows that
products, the warning
some solids are lying at a sloped (baffle) wall. The angle of the slope of the wall can be changed. A certain
is often ignored
angle is needed to enable the solids to move down.
or misunderstood
and the wipes are
Horst Sturm is vice president of business development at KSB
disposed of in the toilet anyway.
Inc. He has worked in the wastewater industry for KSB since
These wipes are resistant, flexible and not designed to
1990 in different fields and functions.
be fast recycled in a natural way. In the sewerage systems
they trend to stretch and braid. Many wastewater
pumping stations that have been operating for many
years with little trouble are beginning to experience
downtime and equipment failures due to these wipes.
Recent experience shows that after many years of
trouble-free operation, disposal of these wipes can cause
damage to the pumping station.
Companies operating the pumping stations are being
forced to reevaluate their operation concept, piping
system, pumps and other conditions. While efficiency is
important, the reliability of the equipment is even more
vital. Pump stations in remote areas with pumps that
run infrequently face even more challenges.
Parameters such as free passage for pumps that are at
least 3 inches as described in the Ten States Standards
play an important role especially for smaller size pumps
of up to 6 inches.
Many large cities in the U.S., for example, recognize
the challenging situation and are doing awareness
campaigns to inform citizens about wastewater
infrastructure challenges and to encourage them to avoid
throwing wipes, rags and other non-disposables in the
toilet.
Many pump manufacturers are helping to solve the
challenge with new technical solutions.
Part 2 of this series will discuss cutting or macerating
technologies as a means of solving todays wastewater
challenges.
Circle 150 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

88

PRACTICE & OPERATIONS

Combining Component & Cartridge Seal


Technology Helps Reduce Failures
Advances in modular component seal design enables end users to
minimize downtime and extend equipment life.
By Tom Broadbent
AESSEAL

omponent seals consist of


multiple parts including
the rotor, rotor face,
stationary face, springs, O-rings,
gaskets and seal gland. Each
of these components requires
careful handling and skill
during installation. As a result,
component seals face considerable
risk of assembly errors, including
incorrect spring setting (resulting
in improperly loaded faces),
dirt or grease contamination
on the seal faces, and damage
to sealing components from
mishandling. These errors can
result in premature or immediate
failure of the seal, which can lead
to expensive consequences and
serious safety issues.

Bridging the ComponentCartridge Gap


Historically, one of the major
limitations with component seals is
that installation could be difficult
and time-consuming. If site
conditions were not ideal or users
faced pressure to get equipment up
and running as quickly as possible,
the seals performance could be
further compromised.
To address these challenges,
some component seals incorporate
cartridge seal technology to
improve seal face cooling through
directed barrier fluid flow systems,
hydraulically balanced seal face
technology and plug-in designs
used to improve performance
and reliability.

Because it does not require


setting, this plug-in design fi lls a
gap between component seals and
cartridge seals, reduces fitting time
and ensures correct installation.
This design takes on characteristics
of cartridge seals while retaining
all the benefits of component seals.

Improved Reliability
One way of aiding seal installation
is an axially restrained drive
ring, which stops the drive ring
from detaching from the retainer
during installation. In addition,
a full-convoluted diaphragm
allows for more axial movement
of the rotary face than the
half-convolution bellows. This
enables the seal rotary to track

Image 1. Seal faces require optimum running conditions to maintain the longest life possible. (Images courtesy of AESSEAL)

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

89

the stationary much better in the


event of misalignment of the two
faces (resulting from seat incorrect
positioning, shaft misalignment,
etc.). The full-convolution bellows
can also compensate for more
wear of the rotary face and handle
higher pressures than the halfconvolution bellows.
A common failure mode in seals
of this type is the drive mechanism
between two relatively thin
metallic members. To overcome this
problem, one manufacturers seals
spread the drive force over a large
surface area.
The resulting patented design
incorporates more than 250 percent
additional drive area compared
with some other seals. This reduces
the possibility of seal face hang-up
or premature failure.
A further design improvement to
the plug-in seals is directed barrier
fluid flow, which also directly
improves seal performance and life.

Reduced Failure
One failure mode of some types of
bellows seals is rupturing bellows
that lead to premature failure.
This rupturing has two main
causes. The first cause is when the

Image 2. A side view of a rotary head showing the flanged


drive ring and axially retained drive ring

torsional drive, which in


COMPONENT SEALS BY RANGE
normal operation goes
through the spring, is
Component seal ranges incorporate
transmitted through
seals to suit an extensive range
the bellows as the
of pump types and applications
spring disengages
in multiple industries including
from one end. The
wastewater, food and beverage,
second cause is
chemical processing, and automotive.
particulates or sharp
Rubber Bellows: Types B09xU, BP0xU
objects in the water that
tear the bellows.
Parallel Single Spring: Type P0xU
To prevent this
Tapered Single Spring: Type T0xU
failure mode, some seals
Wave Spring: Type W0xU
incorporate a patented
Multi-spring: Type M0xU
drive mechanism that
always transmits the
Stationeries only: Type S0xU
drive through a metalPump Specific Seals: Types T05 Range,
to-metal interface
ALXU, HT0C
and that encases the
Clamp
Ring only: Types C0xU
majority of the bellows
in a metal shroud
during operation. These
features ensure that
can counteract this challenge by
the soft rubber is not exposed to
allowing pressure to act over a
particulates or sharp objects.
thinner area than the seal face
running track area, reducing the
Extended Life
closing force. This allows the seals
Seal faces require optimum
running conditions to maintain the to operate in higher pressures
and at higher shaft speeds,
longest life possible. This means
generating less heat and face wear.
they require clean fluid to pass
Typically, balanced seal faces will
between the faces. The friction
have a longer operating life than
between the two faces generates
unbalanced sealswhether they
heat. If this heat builds, the faces
distort or the fluid fi lm evaporates, are component or cartridge seals.
leading to even more friction.
Eventually, the faces will generate
Tom Broadbent is a project
excessive heat and the seal will fail.
manager at AESSEAL in
Directed barrier fluid is a clean,
Rotherham, England. He joined
cool fluid that passes around the
AESSEAL in 2010 after graduating
faces. It can reduce heat generation
with a 1st Class Industrial Design
and excessive friction between the
BSc (Hons) from De Montfort
faces, increasing mechanical seal
University, Leicester. As part of
life and the reliability of the pump.
his degree, Broadbent
Component seals can be
worked as a quality
unbalanced, which means that
assurance engineer
all the product pressure acts to
at Vauxhall Motors
close the gap between the seal
manufacturing plant
faces and causes face contact.
in Ellesmere Port.
Hydraulically balanced seal designs

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

90

PRODUCTS
Notable pump technology products selected by the Pumps & Systems editors:
De-Chlorination Analyzer

Variable Area Flowmeters

Electro-Chemical
Devices DC80 DeChlorination Analyzer
accurately measures
near-zero or zero levels
of chlorine by utilizing
a zero-shift method to
ensure stable and reliable
chlorine measurement. he methodology protects total
chlorine sensors from damage that naturally occurs
when measured water samples contain near-zero or zero
levels of chlorine. he DC-80 De-Chlorination Analyzer
monitors chlorine in drinking water, wastewater,
cooling water and other de-chlorination applications
from 0.05 to 20 ppm.
Circle 201 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Universal Flow Monitors


Inc. is ofering a HART
protocol option on all of
its variable area and piston
style lowmeters, which
are designed to perform
in challenging lubrication
environments. Considered a popular industrial protocol,
HART is a digital communication signal superimposed
on top of the 420 mA standard analog signal that
provides additional digital information to the controller.
Product speciication choices are available for units
of measurement, maximum low rate, pipe size and
pressure. Meters come in 12 sizes and go up to 2,000 psi
pressure for low.
Circle 202 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Mechanically Cleaned Filter

Solids Management System

Eaton has launched its new DCF-3000


mechanically cleaned ilter, which
reduces product loss and provides a
more thorough contaminant purge in
a highly concentrated waste stream.
he DCF-3000 ilter also eliminates
or minimizes the need for disposable
ilter bags and cartridges, which
reduces operator handling, inventory
costs and landill waste. he ilter
can handle a wide range of iltration needs, including
demanding applications that ilter thick liquids such as
paper coatings, ethanol, machining coolants, detergents,
petroleum-based greases, adhesives, hot fry oils, ink
and chocolate.
Circle 203 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Gorman-Rupp is ofering the


Eradicator Solids Management
System for the Super T Series
line of self-priming centrifugal
trash pumps to handle sanitary
wipes, plastic bags, feathers,
hair, sludge and other clogprone material. he Eradicator
is designed to improve system
uptime, decrease service calls and overall maintenance
costs. he system consists of a new, patented lightweight
inspection cover, a back cover plate incorporating an
obstruction free low path, and a self-cleaning wear plate
including laser-cut notches and grooves, along with a
tooth designed to clear material from the impellers eye.
Circle 204 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Submersible Groundwater Pumps

Specialty Pumps

Grundfos has
launched an
extended range
of high-eiciency
medium-sized SP submersible groundwater pumps. Many
of the improvements on the new 4-inch SP pump range
are taken from the range of large SP pumps. he range,
which has been expanded from two to three sizes, is built
of corrosion-resistant stainless steel with three material
grades available, covering liquids from drinking water
to seawater. It ofers high eiciency, improved octagonal
discharge and cable guard attachment, high resistance
to abrasives, reliable motors and easy maintenance. A
complete monitoring and control system is available for
constant optimization.
Circle 205 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

SIMS Pump ofers


SIMSITE structural
graphite composite for
its engineered pumps
and pump parts. his
equipment does not
corrode in seawater,
wastewater, sewage
or chlorinated water.
Patented SIMSITE pumps
and parts are technology upgrades for new or existing
pumps, which make any centrifugal pump energy
eicient. SIMSITE products improve performance,
longevity and eiciency, and eliminate corrosion, erosion
and cavitation problems.
Circle 206 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

To have a product considered for our Products page, please send the information to Martin Reed, mreed@cahabamedia.com.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

91
FREE PRODUCT INFORMATION

Adver t ise rs
Advertiser Name

Advanced Engineered Pump, Inc.


Almatec, Part of Pump
Solutions Group
AutomationDirect
Baldor Electric Company
Basetek, LLC
BJM Pumps, LLC
Blue-White Industries
Blue-White Industries
Boerger, LLC
Carver Pump Company
Continental Pump Company
Dan Bolen & Associates, LLC
Dickow Pump Company
Disclo Corporation
Dura Bar
Equipump
Flomatic Corporation
Frost & Sullivan
FW Murphy
Gorman-Rupp Company
Lobe Pro
Hoosier Pattern, Inc.
Hydraulic Institute
JDA Global
Jordan, Knauf & Company
KB Electronics, Inc.
Load Controls, Inc.
Load Controls, Inc.
Maag Pump Systems
Magnatex Pumps

Page

RS#

Advertiser Name

92

151

17
3
5
95
80
IBC
11
22
15
95
95
57
13
23
95
41
91
43
1
94
18
66
12
66
39
33
95
46
61

117
100
101
172
134
115
116
118
119
154
153
120
103
104
177
105
145
135
106
155
121
146
122
147
136
123
156
124
137

Master Bond Inc.


Meltric Corporation
MISSION Communications
Nachi America, Inc.
National Pump Company
Pinnacle-Flo, Inc.
Pioneer Pump, Inc.
Proco Products, Inc.
Pulsafeeder
Rosedale Products, Inc.
Rotech
RuhRPumpen
Ruthman Companies
Scenic Precise Element, Inc.
Schenck Trebel Corporation
SEPCO
SEPCO
SERO Pump Systems
Sims Pump Valve Company, Inc.
Sims Pump Valve Company, Inc.
Sims Pump Valve Company, Inc.
SKF

NSF 61 Certified Expansion Joints


Red Valve Company is touting
the Redlex as the only line of
NSF 61 Certiied expansion joints
designed to relieve piping stress,
compensate for movement,
reduce noise and isolate
vibration. he rugged PTFE core
extends through the entire length
of the joint to the face of the lange. he PTFE is backed
by a fabricated rubber body reinforced with high-strength
synthetic fabric and steel wire. he cover material is
selected to suit service characteristics and has the option
to be coated with special paint to resist weathering, ozone
or acid fumes. NSF 61 Certiied expansion joints are
available with single, double, triple or wide arches.
Circle 207 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Visit psfreeinfo.com to request more


information from these advertisers.

Page

RS#

Advertiser Name

95
94
34
47
52
63
7
73
51
83
92
19
9
94
35
55
94
94
81
93
94
77

157
158
125
126
127
138
107
139
133
148
173
108
109
159
132
128
160
161
113
170
171
140

St. Marys Foundry


Stein Seal Company
Summit Pump, Inc.
TF Seals
hermOmegaTech
homas Products, Ltd.
Titan Flow Control, Inc.
Titan Manufacturing Inc.
Trachte, USA
Tuf-Lok International
United Rentals, Inc.
Vanton
Varisco USA Inc.
Vaughan
Verderlex
Vertilo Pump Company
Vesco
Watson Marlow Fluid
Technology Group
WEG Electric Corp.

Page

RS#

93
63
75
92
31
37
87
93
92
92
IFC
27
93
BC
58
93
93

162
141
142
163
114
129
150
164
165
166
110
112
167
111
130
168
169

21
79

131
143

he Index of Advertisers is furnished as a courtesy, and no


responsibility is assumed for incorrect information.

Comprehensive
Industry Coverage

Positive Displacement Pumps


Centrifugal Pumps
Specialty & Other Pumps
Industrial Valves
Pneumatic & Hydraulic Valves
Industrial Automation & Process Control
Electric Motors & Drives
Actuators
Compressors
Custom Research
White Papers

Frost & Sullivan evaluates and implements


effective growth strategies. We employ 50
years of experience in partnering with Global
1000 companies, emerging businesses and
the investment community from more than
40 offices on six continents.
Visit us at www.frost.com
For more information, contact Liz Clark
at 210.477.8483 or liz.clark@ frost.com
Circle 145 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

92

PUMP USERS MARKETPLACE

U-iv>}}Eiv
}`}
U}ii
>i`
U->i
`ii
UV
U}i`
Tuf-Lok International
*i\ n{n U www.tuflok.com

Circle 166 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Circle 163 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Circle 151 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Statement of Ownership, Management and Circulation

Publication Title: Pumps & Systems Magazine


Publication Number: 1065-1084
Filing Date: 9/24/2015
Frequency: Monthly
Number of Issues Published Annually: 12
Annual Subscription Rate: $48.00
Complete Mailing Address of Known Office of Publication
1900 28th Avenue South Ste 200
Birmingham, Alabama 35209
Complete Mailing Address of Headquarters or General Business Office of Publisher
1900 28th Avenue South Ste 200
Birmingham, Alabama 35209

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Full Names and Complete Mailing Address of Publishers, Editor and Managing Editor
Publisher: Walter B. Evans, Jr.
1900 28th Avenue South Ste 200
Birmingham, Alabama 35209
Editor: Alecia Archibald
1900 28th Avenue South Ste 200
Birmingham, Alabama 35209
Managing Editor: Amelia Messamore
1900 28th Avenue South Ste 200
Birmingham, Alabama 35209
Owner: Cahaba Media Group
P.O. Box 530067 Birmingham, AL 35253
Walter B. Evans, Jr.
P.O. Box 530067 Birmingham, AL 35253

Average No. of
Copies Each Issue
During Proceeding
12 Months

No. Copies of Single


Issue Published
Nearest to the
filing date.

Issue Date of Circulation Below: September 2015


Total Number of Copies (Net Press Run)

37,266

36,828

Paid/Requested Outside County Mail Subscriptions Stated on form 3541 (Include advertisers proof
and exchange copies)

23,310

23,397

Sales Through Dealers and Carriers, Street Vendors, Counter Sales, and Other Paid or Requested
Distribution Outside USPS

Total Paid and/or Requested Circulation

23,314

23,399

Non-Requested Distribution Outside County as stated on 3541

12,195

11,833

Non-Requested Copies Distributed Outside the Mail

803

1,204

Total Non-Requested Distribution

12,998

13,037

Total Distribution

36,312

36,436

Copies not Distributed


Total
Percentage Paid and/or Requested Circulation

954

392

37,266

36,828

64.20%

64.22%

Electronic Copy Circulation


Requested and Paid Electronic Copies
Total Requested and Paid Print Copies (Line 15c) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies (Line 16a)
Total Requested Copy Distribution (Line 15f) + Requested/Paid Electronic Copies (Line 16a)
Percent Paid and/or Requested Circulation (Both Print & Electronic Copies) (16b divided by 16c x 100)

9,110

9,394

32,424

32,793

45,422

45,830

71.38%

71.55%

I certify that all information furnished on this form is true and complete. I understand that anyone who furnishes false or misleading
information on the form or who omits material or information requested on the form may be subject to criminal sanctions
(including fines and imprisonment) and/or civil sanctions (including civil penalties).
Walter B. Evans, Jr. Publisher

Nove mb er 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

9/23/2015

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93

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

94

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Novemb er 2015

96

PUMP MARKET ANALYSIS

Wall Street Pump & Valve Industry Watch


By Jordan, Knauff & Company
Figure 1. Stock indices from Oct. 1, 2014, to Sept. 30, 2015

he Jordan, Knauf &


Company (JKC) Valve Stock
Index was down 27.3 percent
over the last 12 months, while the
broader S&P 500 Index was down
1.3 percent. he JKC Pump Stock
Index also decreased 25.8 percent
for the same time period.1
he Institute for Supply
Managements Purchasing
Managers Index (PMI) fell to
50.2 percent for the month of
September, the lowest reading
since May 2013. Only seven
industries reported growth in
the month, the fewest in nearly
three years. he New Orders Index
decreased to 50.1 percent from
51.7 percent, the lowest reading
since 2012, while the Production
Index fell 1.8 percentage points to
51.8 percent. Survey respondents
cited overseas developments as
their most signiicant concerns,
with comments such as concerns
about China downturn and
international business trending
bearish noted in the report.
he Bureau of Labor Statistics
reported that employment
increased by 142,000 in
September with the largest job
gains occurring in health care,
professional and business services,
retail and information. So far this
year, job growth has averaged
198,000 per month compared

to an average monthly gain


of 260,000 in 2014. he
manufacturing sector lost
9,000 workers in September.
Over the last eight months,
the sector has added zero
net new jobs. In the second
half of 2014, manufacturers
hired an average of more
than 20,000 workers per
month. he overall labor force Source: Capital IQ and JKC research. Local currency converted to USD using
participation rate fell from
historical spot rates. he JKC Pump and Valve Stock Indices include a select list of
62.6 percent in August to 62.4 publicly traded companies involved in the pump and valve industries weighted by
market capitalization.
percent in September, the
Reference
production is forecast to average
lowest igure for this measure
1. he S&P Return
8.7 million barrels per day.
since October 1977.
igures are provided
On Wall Street, the Dow
Brent crude oil spot prices
by Capital IQ.
Jones Industrial Average was
increased by $1 per barrel in
September to a monthly average of down 1.5 percent, the S&P 500
$48 per barrel. Due to uncertainty Index declined 2.6 percent and
Jordan, Knauf
the NASDAQ Composite fell
regarding potential lower
& Company is an
3.4 percent for the month of
economic and oil demand growth
investment bank
September.
in emerging market countries,
based in Chicago,
While the indices started the
crude oil price volatility increased
Illinois, that
provides merger and
third quarter on a positive note,
signiicantly in August and
acquisition advisory
they lost their momentum as
remained high in September.
services to the
Oil prices remained high enough the quarter progressed as the
pump, valve and
Dow Jones Industrial Average
in the second quarter of the year
iltration industries.
Please visit
fell 7.6 percent, the S&P 500
to support continued drilling
jordanknauf.com for
Index declined 6.9 percent and
in the core areas of the Bakken,
more information.
the NASDAQ Composite lost 7.4
Eagle Ford, Niobrara and Permian
Jordan, Knauf &
percent for the quarter. Weak
regions. However, total U.S. crude
Company is a member
oil production started to decline in manufacturing data in China,
of FINRA.
disappointing trade data and
May. he U.S. Energy Information
Administration expects U.S. crude factory output, along with a
oil production to generally decline decline in industrial output
These materials were
dampened investor sentiment.
through August 2016, when total
prepared for informational

Figure 2. U.S. energy consumption and rig counts

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration


and Baker Hughes Inc.

N ov e mber 2015 | Pum ps & S y st e m s

Figure 3. U.S. PMI and manufacturing shipments

Source: Institute for Supply Management Manufacturing


Report on Business and U.S. Census Bureau

purposes from sources that


are believed to be reliable
but which could change
without notice. Jordan,
Knauff & Company and
Pumps & Systems shall not
in any way be liable for
claims relating to these
materials and makes no
warranties, express or
implied, or representations
as to their accuracy or completeness or for errors or
omissions contained herein.
This information is not
intended to be construed
as tax, legal or investment
advice. These materials do
not constitute an offer to
buy or sell any financial
security or participate in
any investment offering or
deployment of capital.

Peristaltic Performance at an Excellent Price Point


ProSeries-M Peristaltic Metering Injector
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IP6
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EM
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A Superior Diaphragm MMeetering Pump


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