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The basic equations governing uid ow are the conservation of mass, the

conservation of energy, and conservation of linear momentum equations.

These are derived using a control volume of uid. By keeping track of the

transport of mass, momentum, and energy across the system boundaries, we

arrive at the following conservation principles.

The statement of the conservation of mass, better known as the Continuity

equation , may be stated asthe rate of mass of uid entering the system

must equal that exiting the system. In other words, mass is neither created

nor destroyed within the control volume. The mass ow rate through a closed

control volume is given by

(301.1)

For incompressible uids (such as water under normal pressures) the density

is constant, leading to Q = VA = constant, where Q is the volumetric ow

rate (Fig. 301.1).

The statement of the conservation of energy for incompressible uids, better

known as Bernoulli's equation , may be stated asfor steady, ideal ow in an

incompressible uidthe energy per unit weight (specic energy) is

conserved between two locations, as long as there are no energy loss

mechanisms between these locations. The specic energy can be written as

(301.2)

where is a correction factor for kinetic energy. This factor accounts for the

variation of ow velocity across the cross section and is given by

sections 1 and 2 are ignored, this leads to the ideal form of Bernoulli's

equation:

(301.3)

If friction and form losses between sections 1 and 2 are written as h f and a

pump or turbine is located between 1 and 2, this may be extended to

(301.4)

where s = shaft power (positive for turbines, negative for pumps)

= eciency of pump or turbine

expressed as absolute pressure or gage pressure without introducing error.

Example 301.1

Flow occurs in a rectangular open channel (6 ft wide) with velocity of 8 ft/s

and depth of 5.8 ft. The elevation of the channel oor is 568.5 ft above sea

level. At a downstream location, the channel oor elevation is 564.3 ft. The

depth at the downstream end is 6 ft. Determine the head loss due to friction.

Solution Using the continuity equation, we solve for the velocity at the

downstream section

The energy grade line slopes downward due to the head loss. Thus, the head

loss is equal to the decrease of total energy from locations 1 to 2. The surface

streamline is at atmospheric pressure (gage pressure = 0). The elevation of

the channel surface at the upstream location is 568.5 + 5.8 = 574.3 ft and at

the downstream location is 564.3 + 6.0 = 570.3 ft.

The statement of conservation of momentum is derived from Newton's second

law which states that the sum of external forces is equal to the rate of

change of linear momentum. This principle may be used to calculate the net

force acting on a node where a change in momentum occurs. Examples are

bends in pipes where the ow changes direction and pipe section

enlargements (or contractions) where the ow velocity decreases (or

increases).

(301.5)

where is a correction factor for linear momentum. This factor accounts for

The computed net force acts on the uid. Thus, if we are interested in

computing the force imparted by the uid, we should reverse the sign of the

computed force.

With constant ow rate, force on a rigid surface due to impinging ow =

Q V , where V is the change in velocity eected by the static surface.

With respect to a horizontal datum, the energy grade line (EGL) and the

hydraulic grade line (HGL) may be plotted as the functions.

(301.6)

For example, if a horizontal pipe is tapped with a Pitot tube as shown in Fig.

301.2, the stagnation pressure at the head of the tube causes the liquid

column to rise to the EGL elevation, whereas a tap into the same central

streamline (but which doesn't stagnate the ow) causes the liquid column to

rise to the elevation of the HGL. If these two pressure taps were connected

to a dierential manometer, the height dierence recorded on the manometer

is proportional to the quantity V 2/2g , where V = ow velocity.

These lines are plotted for the simple system shown in Fig. 301.3. A system of

pipes carries ow from the reservoir on the left to the one on the right. The

ow is aided by a pump and regulated by a valve. In the gure, the dark solid

line plots the EGL while the dashed line plots the HGL. The following

observations may be made about Fig. 301.3:

1. At free surfaces of large reservoirs, since the gage pressure is zero and

the velocity is eectively zero, both EGL and HGL coincide with the

reservoir free surface.

2. The slope of the EGL and HGL along each pipe segment represents friction

loss per unit length along that segment.

3. The vertical separation between EGL and HGL is proportional to the

square of the velocity. Thus, with the same ow rate through various pipes,

this separation will be greater for smaller pipe diameters.

4. At the location of the pump, there is a discontinuous jump in both HGL and

EGL.

5. At all locations where form losses occur (such as entry into the pipe

system, exit from the pipe system, pipe bends, etc.), there is a

discontinuous jump in both HGL and EGL.

The uid power (power needed to transmit a ow rate Q of a uid with unit

weight and provide it with a lift H ) is given by P = QH . In order that a

pump operating at an eciency provides this uid power, it must be rated

at a higher power given by

(301.7)

Example 301.2

Five manholes (A to E) with characteristics shown in the table exist along a

storm sewer as shown. During extreme rainfall events, the pipe ows full

with the pressures given in the fourth column. At which manholes does the

storm water overow through the manhole onto the street above?

Location

Pipe C.L

Pressure

d (ft)

elevation z (ft)

(Ib/in2)

8.2

100

10.5

86

4.2

12.4

71

6.3

6.8

54

3.1

6.2

43

1.2

(listed in the third column in the table below). For example,

the fourth column of the table).

Pressure

Location

(Ib/in2)

Pressure

HGL

Ground

head p /

elevation

elevation

(ft)

p / + z (ft)

(ft)

100

108.2

4.2

9.7

95.7

96.5

6.3

15.7

86.7

83.4

3.1

7.2

61.2

60.8

1.2

2.8

45.8

49.2

overow. In other words, if the pressure head at a certain location exceeds

the burial depth of the sewer, the manhole will overow.

301.5. Viscosity

The viscosity of a uid is a measure of its ability to resist shear stresses.

When a shear stress, no matter how small, is applied to any uid, a velocity

gradient develops transverse to the plane on which the shear stress is

applied. For newtonian uids, the applied shear stress causes a proportional

applied. For newtonian uids, the applied shear stress causes a proportional

velocity gradient. The constant of proportionality is termed the viscosity, or

dynamic viscosity, .

(301.8)

Viscosity has units of FT/L 2 (N-s/m2 or lb-s/ft 2) or M/LT (kg/m-s or slug/ft-s).

For nonnewtonian uids, the relationship between the applied shear stress

and the resulting velocity gradient is nonlinear and is most commonly

expressed as a power law.

(301.9)

The kinematic viscosity v is given by

(301.10)

Example 301.3

A newtonian uid with viscosity = 0.01 lb-s/ft 2 lls the annular space

between a xed inner cylinder diameter = 2.0 in and an outer rotating drum

(inner diameter = 2.04 in). The length of the assembly is 35 in. The drum is

rotated at a constant speed of 2000 rpm. What is the torque required to

maintain the rotation of the drum?

Solution

Rotational speed

Thickness of uid lm = 0.04 2 = 0.02 in.

Velocity gradient in the thin uid lm (in the annular space)

Therefore, the torque needed is the moment of the resultant surface force

about the axis

function of temperature.

Temp

(F)

Specic

weight

(lb/ft 3)

Dynamic

Kinematic

Surface

Density

viscosity

viscosity

tension

(slug/ft 3)

(lb-s/ft 2)

(ft 2/s

(lb/in

105)

104 )

105

Vapor

pressure

(lb/in2)

32

62.42

1.940

3.746

1.931

4.32

0.09

40

62.43

1.940

3.229

1.664

5.12

0.12

50

62.41

1.940

2.735

1.410

4.24

0.18

60

62.37

1.938

2.359

1.217

4.20

0.26

70

62.30

1.936

2.050

1.059

4.15

0.36

80

62.22

1.934

1.799

0.930

4.10

0.51

90

62.11

1.931

1.595

0.826

4.05

0.70

100

62.00

1.927

1.424

0.739

4.00

0.95

110

61.86

1.923

1.284

0.667

3.94

1.27

120

61.71

1.918

1.168

0.609

3.89

1.69

130

61.55

1.913

1.069

0.558

3.83

2.22

140

61.38

1.908

0.981

0.514

3.78

2.89

150

61.20

1.902

0.905

0.476

3.73

3.72

160

61.00

1.896

0.838

0.442

3.68

4.74

170

60.80

1.890

0.780

0.413

3.62

5.99

180

60.58

1.883

0.726

0.385

3.56

7.51

190

60.36

1.876

0.678

0.362

3.50

9.34

200

60.12

1.868

0.637

0.341

3.44

11.52

212

59.83

1.860

0.593

0.319

3.37

14.70

air as a function of elevation above mean sea level.

Elevation

Temperature

(ft)

(F)

Density

(slug/ft 3

105)

Kinematic

viscosity

Pressure

(ft 2/s 10

(lb/ft 2)

59.0

237

15.6

2116

1,000

55.4

231

16.0

2041

2,000

51.9

224

16.4

1968

5,000

41.2

205

17.7

1760

10,000

23.4

176

20.0

1455

15,000

5.54

150

22.8

1194

20,000

12.3

127

26.1

973

25,000

30.1

107

30.0

785

30,000

48.0

89

34.7

628

35,000

65.8

74

40.4

498

40,000

67.6

59

50.6

392

50,000

67.6

36

81.8

242

100,000

67.6

3.3

89.5

22.4

150,000

113.5

0.3

1.32

200,000

160.0

0.06

6.84

0.665

A submerged static object is subject to hydrostatic pressure acting on the

various surfaces dening the boundary of the object. The resultant of these

static pressures is the buoyancy force acting on the object. For an object of

negligible volume, these forces are in static equilibrium and the buoyancy is

zero. Archimedes' principle on buoyancy may be stated as

1. The buoyancy force on a submerged object is equal to the weight of the

displaced uid.

2. An object in neutral equilibrium (oating) displaces a volume of uid whose

weight equals the weight of the object.

Thus, an ideal submerged plate (zero thickness, zero volume) develops equal

and opposite pressure proles on either side, and therefore has no buoyancy.

The following section outlines the procedure for calculating the static

pressure on one side of a plane surface.

301.6.1. Static Pressure on Plane Area of Arbitrary Shape

inclined at an angle with the horizontal. Z C and Z R are distance from the

free surface, measured parallel to the plane of the submerged object. The

center of gravity of the object is marked as CG and the "eective location" of

the resultant force is marked as CP (center of pressure). The resultant force

on one side of the plane object is given by

(301.11)

The depth of the center of gravity (measured vertically) is

(301.12)

The distance Z R is given by

(301.13)

where I is the second moment of area (moment of inertia) of the submerged

plane about a horizontal axis passing through its center of gravity, and A is

the cross-sectional area of the submerged plane.

Example 301.4

A triangular plate serves as a gate for a water storage tank as shown. The

gate is hinged at the top (point A in the tank cross section or line AA in the

side view of the gate) and at the bottom (point B). Calculate (1) the resultant

force (lbs) acting on the gate, (2) the eective depth of the resultant force

(ft), and (3) the force exerted at the hinge B.

the base AA) = 5 ft.

Centroidal moment of inertia of a triangle

Area of triangle

5.278 ft.

1. The resultant force is R = h c . A = 62.4 3 8 = 1497.6 lb.

2. The (vertical) depth to the center of pressure is

3. Since the top of the gate is at depth 2 ft, the bottom is at depth 5 ft, and

the depth of the center of pressure is at 3.167 ft, the reaction at B, using

the Lever rule, is given by

Segments)

Calculating the resultant force on a nonplanar surface can be very complex if

performed as an integration of the pressure prole acting normal to

innitesimal elements. An easier and equivalent procedure is to perform the

calculation in two steps as follows:

1. Draw a vertical plane through the toe of the surface and calculate the

horizontal force as the resultant of the pressure acting on the projection of

the surface onto this vertical plane. In Fig. 301.5, the toe of the surface is

at the point d and the vertical projection of the surface onto the vertical

plane is de .

2. Calculate the vertical force as the weight of the uid above the surface. In

Fig 301.5, this would be the weight of the uid in the region abcde .

To calculate total force on the curved surface cd , draw a vertical plane de

through the toe. The horizontal force H = resultant of the hydrostatic

pressure on de . The vertical force V = weight of uid in area abcde . The

resultant force acting on the surface can then be calculated from

used to demonstrate that dynamic similarity (or dissimilarity) exists between

dierent uid ow elds. For example, if model tests are carried out in a

laboratory experiment (such as in a wind tunnel or water tunnel) to study a

full-scale phenomenon, one must ensure that the model and prototype ow

regimes have similar characteristics. This may be ensured by maintaining the

same Reynolds number (Re) or Froude number (Fr) or Mach number (M) in

both ow elds.

There are two aspects to maintaining similarity between model and

prototype. The rst is geometric similarity , which is to maintain the same

geometric proportions (model is true-to-scale in length, area, and volume).

The second is dynamic similarity , which is to maintain equal ratios of all

types of forces for the model and prototype.

There are various types of forces at work in a uid eld. Some of these are

inertial forces, viscous forces, surface tension forces, and gravitational

forces. For the eld of civil engineering, the two most important of these

dimensionless numbers are the Reynolds number and the Froude number.

For systems where inertial and viscous forces dominate, the relative eect of

these forces is expressed in terms of the Reynolds number (Re). Examples of

systems where Reynolds number similarity is desirable are subsonic aircraft,

closed pipe-ow (turbulent), pumps, submarines, turbines, and drainage

through tank orices.

Reynolds number

(301.14)

Thus, if the model and prototype are to have equal Reynolds number,

(301.15)

This can be rearranged to relate the velocity ratio (or scale) to the length

scale as given below. The length scale, velocity scale, and viscosity scale are

expressed as L , V , and , respectively.

(301.16)

Thus, if the uid surrounding the prototype structure and the model are the

same (density and viscosity are the same), this would reduce to the simpler

relation

(301.17)

Example 301.5

A 1:50 scale model of a suspension bridge is tested in a water tunnel. The

model is completely immersed in the uid. If the temperature of the water is

70F, what is the velocity of the water needed to replicate wind eects (air

temperature 60F) due to a 60 mph wind?

Viscosity of water at 70F = 1.059 10 5 ft 2/s.

Viscosity of air at 60F = 1.58 10 4 ft 2/s.

Solution This is a case of submerged ow. Therefore, Reynolds number

similarity must be maintained.

Similarity)

For systems where inertial and gravitational forces dominate, the relative

eect of these forces is expressed in terms of the Froude number (Fr).

Examples of systems where Froude number similarity is desirable are ows

over spillways, weirs, open channel ow with varying surface levels, surface

Froude number

(301.18)

Thus, if the model and prototype are to have equal Froude number,

(301.19)

This can be rearranged to relate the velocity ratio (or scale) to the length

scale as given below. The length scale, velocity scale, and gravity scale are

expressed as L , V , and g , respectively.

(301.20)

Thus, if the gravity eld strength for the prototype structure and the model

are the same, this would reduce to the simpler relation

(301.21)

Example 301.6

A 1:50 scale model of a spillway is constructed to replicate ow phenomena

for a ow rate of 500 cfs. What must be the ow rate in the model?

Solution This is a case of free surface ow. Therefore, Froude number

similarity must be maintained.

= VL 2. Therefore, the ow rate scale is given by

Reynolds number is the ow parameter used to distinguish laminar and

turbulent ows. The term laminar ow indicates that individual streamlines

remain parallel and distinct and mixing does not occur. For turbulent ows,

slight perturbations upstream cause adjacent streamlines to cross, thereby

inducing mixing. For ow through closed conduits, ow is laminar when the

Reynolds number is less than approximately 1000 and turbulent if the

Reynolds number is greater than approximately 3000. Between these limits,

the ow regime goes through a transition from laminar to turbulent ow.

Figure 301.6 shows laminar and turbulent ow proles in circular pipes and

between parallel plates. The boundary layer for turbulent ow is of

insignicant thickness, as seen from the Fig. 301.6(b). As a result, for fully

turbulent ow, the average velocity is a good indicator of the true maximum

velocity, which occurs at the center streamline. On the other hand, for

laminar ow, a parabolic velocity prole develops, given by

(301.22)

Figure 301.6. Velocity distribution for (a) laminar and (b) turbulent

ow in a conduit.

where r = radial distance from centerline

The nominal velocity of ow in a conduit is often calculated as the average

velocity which is given by dividing the ow rate by the cross-sectional area. A

direct result of the parabolic prole is that for laminar ow in a circular pipe,

the maximum velocity is twice the average velocity and for laminar ow

between parallel plates, the maximum velocity is 1.5 times the average

velocity. For fully turbulent ow in a circular conduit, the maximum velocity is

approximately equal to 1.18 times the average velocity.

Example 301.7

The velocity is measured along the centerline of a circular pipe (internal

diameter 2 in) experiencing laminar ow is V = 1.5 in/s. What is the ow rate

(cfs)?

Solution Since the ow is laminar ow in a circular pipe, the theoretical

velocity distribution is parabolic and the average velocity is half of the

maximum velocity (along centerline).

Thus, average velocity = 0.75 in/s.

Flow rate

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