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Ambient: The surrounding atmosphere; encompassing on all sides; the environment

surrounding a body but undisturbed or unaffected by it.


Air Change: The amount of air required to completely replace the air in a room or
building; not to be confused with re-circulated air.
Dry Bulb Temperature: (DB) The temperature measured by a standard thermometer. A
measure of the sensible temperature of air.
Wet Bulb Temperature: The temperature at which water, by evaporating into air, can
bring the air to saturation at the same temperature. Wet-bulb temperature is measured by
a wet-bulb psychrometer.
Traditionally this was the temperature indicated by a thermometer whose bulb is wrapped
in a wet sheath. The wet bulb temperature and the dry bulb temperature (i.e. air
temperature) would then be used to calculate relative humidity or dew point.
Alternatively charts or tables can be used.
Wet-bulb Temperature: When a wet wick is placed over a standard thermometer and air
is blown across the surface, the water evaporates and cools the thermometer below the
dry-bulb temperature. This cooler temperature (called the wet-bulb temperature) depends
on how much moisture is in the air.
Relative Humidity: (RH) Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the water vapor
pressure to the saturation vapor pressure (over water) at the temperature of the gas. RH =
Pw/Pws * 100
Enthalpy: The quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a substance from
one point to a higher temperature. The quantity of heat includes both latent and sensible.
Grains
Bypass factor
Contact factor
CFM: (Cubic Feet per Minute) A standard measurement of airflow that indicates how
many cubic feet of air pass by a stationary point in one minute. The higher the number,
the more air is being forced through the system. A typical system produces 400 CFM per
ton of air conditioning.
Natural Ventilation: The supply of outdoor air through passive flow from windows,
chimneys, doors, and other infiltration.

Sensible Heat: Heat, that when added or removed, causes a change in


temperature but not in state. Heat that results in a temperature change.
Wall, roof, glass, partition, light, motor
Latent Heat: Heat, that when added or removed, causes a change in state - but
no change in temperature. A change in the heat content that occurs without a
corresponding change in temperature, usually accompanied by a change of state
(as from liquid to vapor during evaporation).

Reheat: The heating of air that has been previously cooled either by mechanical
refrigeration or economizer cooling systems.
DEHUMIDIFIER CFM
APPARATUS DEW POINT
GR/LB
Absolute Temperature: Temperature measured from absolute zero.
ACH: Air Changes Per Hour. The number of times that air in a house is
completely replaced with outdoor air in one hour.
AHU (Air Handler Unit): The inside part of the A/C system that contains the
blower, cooling (evaporator) coil, and heater. The part of an HVAC system
responsible for moving air, which may also clean, heat, or cool the air. This refers
to equipment used to provide conditioned air to a space. The air handler unit
generally includes a blower or fan, heating and/or cooling coils, and related
equipment such as controls, condensate drain pans, and air filters. Does not
include ductwork, registers or grilles, or boilers and chillers.
Air Conditioning: Control of the temperature, humidity, air movement and
cleaning of air in a confined space.
HUMIDITY: is the amount of water vapor in the air. Water vapor is the gas phase of
water and is invisible.[1] Humidity indicates the likelihood of precipitation, dew, or fog.

Higher humidity reduces the effectiveness of sweating in cooling the body by reducing
the rate of evaporation of moisture from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat
index table, used during summer weather.
There are three main measurements of humidity: absolute, relative and
specific. Absolute humidity is the water content of air.[2] Relative humidity, expressed
as a percent, measures the current absolute humidity relative to the maximum for that
temperature. Specific humidity is a ratio of the water vapor content of the mixture to the
total air content on a mass basis.

ARI: (Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute) Air-Conditioning and


Refrigeration Institute is a nonprofit, voluntary organization comprised of
heating,air conditioning and refrigeration manufacturers. ARI publishes standards
for testing and rating heat pumps and air conditioners to provide you with a
standardized measure of comparison. So, ARI ensures a level of performance
within the industry.
ASHRAE: A leading HVAC/R Association - American Society of Heating,
Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers - http://www.ashrae.org/ The trade
association that provides information and sets standards for the industry.
Blower (Fan): An air handling device for moving air in a distribution system.
BTU (British Thermal Unit):The amount of heat that will raise or lower one pound
of water 1 degree F. at 39.2 degrees F. One BTU is the equivalent of the heat
given off by a single wooden kitchen match. The British Thermal Unit is a
standard of measure for cooling and heating capacities. This is how the capacity
of air conditioning is measured. A standard measure of heat energy in the U.S.,
commonly used to measure the energy content of various fuels and steam. It
takes one Btu to raise the temperature of one pound of water by one degree
Fahrenheit at sea level. For example, it takes about 2,000 Btus to make a pot of
coffee. One Btu is equivalent to 252 calories, 778 foot-pounds, 1055 joules, and
0.293 watt-hours. Note: In the abbreviation, only the B is capitalized. For your
home, it represents the measure of heat givens off when fuel is burned for
heating or the measure of heat extracted from your home for cooling.
Calorie: One energy calorie is equivalent to 4.2 joules. Thus, it takes 500,000
calories of energy to boil a pot of coffee. One food calorie equals 1,000 energy
calories.
Carbon Dioxide: (CO2) A colorless, odorless, non-poisonous gas that is a
normal part of the air. Carbon dioxide, also called CO2, is exhaled by humans
and animals and is absorbed by green growing things and by the sea. A gas
which can at high levels (above 1.5 % or 15,000 parts per million), have

physiological effects. Main indoor source is human respiration; measurements


used as indicators of ventilation conditions.
Carbon Monoxide: (CO) An colorless, odorless gas that is the product of
incomplete fuel combustion or carbon burns without sufficient air nearby. It is a
chemical asphyxiant; in the bloodstream it effectively prevents the transport of
oxygen to the body's tissues. CO exposure can affect the lungs, heart, and
nervous system, and can cause death. Sources include cooling and heating
appliances, tobacco smoke, and entrained exhaust from parking garages and
truck idling areas. A gas, made up of carbon and oxygen molecules, produced by
incomplete burning of carbon or carbonaceous materials, including carbon-based
fuels. Including coal, natural gas, gasoline, oil and wood. It is a major air pollutant
on the basis of weight. Carbon monoxide is also produced from incomplete
combustion of many natural and synthetic products. For instance, cigarette
smoke contains carbon monoxide. When carbon monoxide gets into the body,
the carbon monoxide combines with chemicals in the blood and prevents the
blood from bringing oxygen to cells, tissues and organs. The body's parts need
oxygen for energy, so high-level exposures to carbon monoxide can cause
serious health effects, with death possible from massive exposures. Symptoms
of exposure to carbon monoxide can include vision problems, reduced alertness,
and general reduction in mental and physical functions. Carbon monoxide
exposures are especially harmful to people with heart, lung and circulatory
system diseases.
Ceiling Plenum: The space between the suspended and structural ceiling used
as part of the air distribution system that accommodates the mechanical and
electrical equipment. This space usually accommodates electrical,
communications, and mechanical connections as well. The space is kept under
negative pressure.
Celsius: A temperature scale based on the freezing (0 degrees) and boiling (100
degrees) points of water. Abbreviated as C in second and subsequent references
in text. Formerly known as Centigrade. To convert Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply
the number by 9, divide by 5, and add 32. For example: 10 degrees Celsius x 9 =
90; 90 / 5 = 12; 18 + 32 = 50 degrees Fahrenheit.
Chiller: A device that produces chilled water to provide air conditioning for large
buildings or cooling for process applications. A device that cools water, usually to
between 40 and 50 degrees Fahrenheit for eventual use in cooling air.
Clean Air Act: The original Clean Air Act was passed in 1963, but the national air
pollution control program is actually based on the 1970 version of the law. The
1990 Clean Air Act Amendments are the most far-reaching revisions of the 1970
law. The 1990 amendments are often referred to as as the 1990 Clean Air Act.
Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

These ammendments represent a major overhaul of the earlier Clean Air Act of
1970. Changes include revised provisions for attainment and maintenance of
National Ambient Air Quality Standards, mobile sources, hazardous air pollutants,
and other assorted air quality issues. In addition, it establishes guidelines for
reductions in air pollution. The Act also specifically limits sulfur dioxide and
nitrogen oxide emissions of power plants.
Cogeneration: Simultaneous production of two or more forms of useable energy
from a single fuel source, e.g., heat energy and electrical or mechanical power, in
the same facility. Because a typical cogeneration facility uses thermal energy
which is generally vented in a traditional power plant, the process can be 50 to
70 percent more efficient. Fuels used in cogeneration facilities may take the form
of natural gas, biomass, oil or coal. Most cogeneration systems are designed to
simultaneously produce electric power (to be used on site or sold back to an
investor-owned utility or both) and thermal heat for industrial processes or the
heating and cooling of buildings. Cogeneration projects can be any size, from 10
kilowatts to 1,000 megawatts or more.
Coil: A cooling or heating element, often including fins, through which treated
gas or liquid is passed, exchanging thermal energy with air surrounding it for
heating or cooling.
Compressor: The heart of an air conditioning or heat pump system. The large
(usually black) part in the condenser (outdoor unit) that pumps refrigerant. The
pump of a refrigerating mechanism which draws a low pressure on cooling side
of refrigerant cycle and squeezes or compresses the gas into the high pressure
or condensing side of the cycle. The compressor maintains adequate pressure to
cause refrigerant to flow in sufficient quantities to meet the cooling requirements
of the system.
Condenser: This is the unit that will sit outside and is part of a split system, it
contains the compressor which is the heart of your air conditioner or Heat Pump,
it pumps the refrigerant through your system. Some people call the condenser
the compressor, but the compressor is a component of the condenser along with
the fan motor and condenser coil. Coil or outdoor coil dissipates heat from the
refrigerant, changing the refrigerant from vapor to liquid.
Condenser Coil: [Also see Outdoor Coil] The outdoor portion of a heating or
cooling system that either releases or collects heat from the outside air,
depending on the time of year. The Condenser Coil is connected directly to the
home's Air Handler and is also known as the Outdoor Coil.
Condensing Unit: Part of a refrigerating mechanism which pumps vaporized
refrigerant from the evaporator, compresses it, liquefies it in the condenser and

returns it to the refrigerant control. The outdoor portion of a split system air
conditioner contains the compressor and outdoor coil ignoring the reverse cycle
operation, also the outdoor in a heat pump system.
Cooling Capacity, Latent: Available refrigerating capacity of an air conditioning
unit for removing latent heat from the space to be conditioned.
Cooling Capacity, Sensible: Available refrigerating capacity of an air
conditioning unit for removing sensible heat from the space to be conditioned.
Cooling Capacity, Total: Available refrigerating capacity of an air conditioner for
removing sensible heat and latent heat from the space to be conditioned.
Cooling tower: A heat transfer device, which cools warm water using outside air.

Damper: A device that is located in ductwork to adjust air flow. This movable
plate opens and closes to control airflow. Dampers are used effectively in zoning
to regulate airflow to certain rooms. There are basically two types of dampers:
Manual and motorized. A manual damper generally consists of a sheet metal (or
similar material) flap, shaped to fit the inside of a round or rectangular duct. By
rotating a handle located outside of the duct a technician can adjust (see
Balancing) air flow to match the needs of a particular area or room. A motorized
damper is generally used in a zoned system (see Zoning) to automatically deliver
conditioned air to specific rooms or zones. In particular, the following types, can
be distinguished:
Multiple leaf dampers, comprising of a number of blades (or shutters) of opposed
or parallel leaf type.
Single leaf dampers (the flap being mounted at one end), commonly called
splitter dampers.
Hit-and-miss dampers, having two or more slotted slide mechanism.
Butterfly dampers, with two flaps in "V" arrangement.
Dampers: Controls that vary airflow through an air outlet, inlet, or duct. A damper
position may be immovable, manually adjustable or part of an automated control
system.
db: (Decibel) A decibel describes the relative loudness of a sound. Some
common sounds are fairly close to a typical air conditioner or heat pump's sound
level: human voice, 7.0 decibels; blender, 8.8 decibels.
DDC: (Direct Digital Control) Direct Digital Control

Dehumidification: The reduction of water vapor in air by cooling the air below
the dew point; removal of water vapor from air by chemical means, refrigeration,
etc
Delta: (or Delta T) A difference in temperature. Often used in the context of the
difference between the design indoor temperature and the outdoor temperature.
Demand Billing: The electric capacity requirement for which a large user pays. It
may be based on the customer's peak demand during the contract year, on a
previous maximum or on an agreed minimum. Measured in kilowatts.
Demand Charge: The sum to be paid by a large electricity consumer for its peak
usage level.
Demand: (Utility) The rate at which electricity or natural gas is delivered to or by
a system,, part of a system, or piece of equipment, e.g., to end users, at a given
instant or averaged over any designated period of time. Electricity demand is
typically expressed in kilowatts.
Design Conditions: Cooling loads vary with inside and outside conditions. A set
of conditions specific to the local climate are necessary to calculate the expected
cooling load for a home. Inside conditions of 75 degrees Fahrenheit and 50%
relative humidity are usually recommended as a guideline. Outside conditions are
selected for the 2.5% design point.
Dewpoint: Is the temperature at which air becomes saturated with water and
begins to condense - forming a dew. Therefore at 100 % RH the ambient or
process temperature equals the dewpoint temperature. The more negative the
dewpoint temperature is from the ambient temperature the less the risk of
condensation and the drier the gas or air stream.
Diffusers and Grilles: Components of the ventilation system that distribute and
return air to promote air circulation in the occupied space. Generally speaking,
supply air enters a space through a diffuser or vent and return air leaves a space
through a grille.
Direct Expansion: (Refrigeration) Any system that, in operation between an
environment where heat is absorbed (heat source), and an environment into
which unwanted heat is directed (heat sink) at two different temperatures, is able
to absorb heat from the heat source at the lower temperature and reject heat to
the heat sink at the higher temperature. The cooling effect is obtained directly
from a fluid called a refrigerant that absorbs heat at a low temperature and
pressure, and transfers heat at a higher temperature and higher pressure.
Direct Gas-Fired Heater: The burner fires directly in the air stream being
heated, rather than through a heat exchanger. 100% of available BTUs are

delivered to the heated space because no flue or heat exchanger is required.


This results in no wasted energy.
Double Glazing: Windows having two sheets of glass with an airspace between.
Drain Trap: A dip in the drain pipe of sinks, toilets, floor drains, etc., which is
designed to stay filled with water, thereby preventing sewer gases from escaping
into the room.
Duct: A pipe or closed conduit made of sheet metal, fiberglass board, or other
suitable material used for conducting air to and from an air handling unit. A
passageway made of sheet metal or other suitable material used for conveying
air or other gas at relatively low pressures.
EER: - (Energy Efficiency Ratio) A ratio calculated by dividing the cooling
capacity in Btu's per hour (Btuh) by the power input in watts at any given set of
rating conditions, expressed in Btuh per watt (Btuh/watt). EER & SEER can not
be compared equally. Air source equipment is rated by SEER and geothermal
equipment is rated by EER. EER changes with the inside and outside conditions,
falling as the temperature difference between inside and outside gets larger.
Exhaust: Air removed deliberately from a space, by a fan or other means,
usually to remove contaminants from a location near their source. The air flow
leaving the treated space. Exhaust may be accomplished by one or more of the
following methods:
a. Extraction: exhaust in such a manner that the air is discharged into the
atmosphere.
b. Relief: exhaust in such a manner that the air is allowed to escape from the
treated space if the pressure in that space rises above a specified level.
c. Recirculation: exhaust in which the air is returned to the air treatment system.
d. Transfer: exhaust in which air passes from the treated space to another
treated space.
Fan Coil: An indoor component of a heat pump system used in place of a
furnace, to provide additional heating on cold days when the heat pump does not
provide adequate heating. A component of a heating, ventilation and air
conditioning (HVAC) system containing a fan and heating or cooling coil, used to
distribute heated or cooled air.
Filter: A device for removing dust particles from air or unwanted elements from
liquids.
Fire Valves: (or Fire Dampers) Components which are installed in an air
distribution system between two fire separating compartments and are designed
to prevent propagation of fire and/or smoke. Generally are kept open by

mechanical restraint, whose effect is canceled under specific conditions. The


valve is then closed automatically.
Fungi: A large group of organisms including molds, mildews, yeasts,
mushrooms, rusts, and smuts. Any of a group of parasitic lower plants that lack
chlorophyll. Most fungi produce spores, which are broadcast through the air so
that virtually all environmental surfaces will have some fungal material. Most
health effects are associated with allergic responses to antigenic material or toxic
effects from mycotoxins. Fungi also generate certain volatile organic compounds.
Fungicide: Substance or chemical that kills fungi.
Grille: An air terminal device with multiple passages for the air.
Grilles Coverings for the ducts where they open to the conditioned space. (Same
as Registers)
Refrigerant: Substance used in refrigerating mechanism. A substance that
produces a refrigerating effect while expanding or vaporizing. Air conditioning
systems use Refrigerant in the Evaporator Coil to cool air as it passes by.
Refrigerants absorb heat in evaporator by change of state from a liquid to a gas,
and releases its heat in a condenser as the substance returns from the gaseous
state back to a liquid state.
Thermostat: A temperature sensitive switch for controlling the operation of a
heater or furnace. Typically found on a wall inside the home, that consists of a
series of sensors and relays that monitor and control the functions of a heating
and cooling system. A device that allows you to control the temperature inside
your home by telling the heating or cooling system how much air to produce. An
automatic control device designed to be responsive to temperature and typically
used to maintain set temperatures by cycling the HVAC system.
Thermostat, Air-Sensing: Thermostat unit in which sensing element is located in
refrigerated space.
Thermostat, Setback: (Programmable Thermostat) A state-of-the-art electronic
thermostat with a built-in memory that can be programmed for different
temperature settings at different times of the day. A device, containing a clock
mechanism, which can automatically change the inside temperature maintained
by the HVAC system according to a preset schedule. The heating or cooling
requirements can be reduced when a building is unoccupied or when occupants
are asleep.
Ton or "Ton of Cooling": A cooling unit of measure. Each ton equals the cooling
effect of 12,000 Btuh. Heat pumps and air conditioners are generally sized in

tons. Typical sizes for single family residences are between two and five tons. It
is important to note that actual capacity is not constant and will change based on
outdoor or indoor temperatures. The published capacity rating of air conditioners
and heat pumps is based on performance at the ARI standard temperature levels
of 95 F outside, 80 F inside, and 50% relative humidity. The number of tons a
system has is the total BTU capacity of the system. The size of the area to be
cooled will determine the correct size of the system in tons. While an air
conditioner may be called a three ton unit, it may not produce 36,000 Btu/h in
cooling. There is a wide variety of actual capacities that are called "three tons."
Transformer: A device, which through electromagnetic induction but without the
use of moving parts, transforms alternating or intermittent electric energy in one
circuit into energy of similar type in another circuit, commonly with altered values
of voltage and current.
Valves: Components inserted into air ducts or devices which permit modification
of the air resistance of the system and consequently a complete shut-off of the
air flow (control valves).
VAV System: (Variable Air Volume System) A mechanical HVAC system capable
of serving multiple zones which controls the temperature maintained in a zone by
controlling the amount of heated or cooled air supplied to the zone.
VAV: (Variable Air Volume) Variable Air Volume.
VFD: (Variable Frequency Drive) Electronic speed control for motors.

HEAT LOAD CALCULATION


FIND THE VOLUME OF THE SPACE
1. VENTILATION OR INFILTRATION
1A FOR COMFORT AIRCONDITIONING 3CFM/PERSON IS USED
1F AIR CHANGES = (NO OF AIR CHANGES)*(VOLUME OF THE ROOM)/60
2. INTERNAL SPACE SENSIBLE HEAT GAINS
FIND THE AREA OF WALL, GLASS, PARTITION IN DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
FACTOR FOR WALL IS 0.34 REFER DESIGN NOTES
FACTOR FOR PARTITION IS 0.3 REFER DESIGN NOTES
FACTOR FOR GLASS IS 0.56 REFER HANDBOOK 1-52(INSIDE VENETIAN BLIND IS CHOOSEN)
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE FOR WALL
EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE (P 1-62)+ CORRECTION FACTOR(P 1-63)

TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE FOR GLASS TAKE VALUE FROM 10 NORTH LATITUDE AND MAY21
REFER PAGE 1-45
TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE FOR ROOF
EQUIVALENT TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE + CORRECTION FACTOR REFER PAGE 1-63
FOR ALL GLASS
TAKE TOTAL SQFT OF GLASS AREA FACTOR OF 1.13 AND TEMPERATURE DIFFERNCE OUTSIDE
DB-INSIDEDB
PARTITION TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE IS OUTSIDE DB-INSIDE DB-5F
FOR ROOF FACTOR OF 0.1 IS TAKEN
IF FLOOR ABOVE IS NOT AIRCONDITIONED CEILING LOAD IS TO BE TAKEN
IF RETURN AIR IS THROUGH FALSE CEILING FACTOR OF 0.4 AND TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OF
OUTSIDE TEMPERATURE-INSIDE TEMPERATURE-5 IS TOBE BE TAKEN
IF RETURN AIR IS THROUGH DUCT FACTOR OF 0.15 IS TO BE TAKEN
IF FLOOR BELOW IS NOT AIRCONDITIONED FLOOR LOAD IS TO BE TAKEN
FACOTOR OF 0.54 AND TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE OUTSIDE DB-INSIDE DB-5F
VENTILATION______CFM * TEMPERATURE DIFFERENCE * 0.15 BYPASS FACTOR * !.08
PEOPLE_______ * _________SENSIBEL HEAT PER PERSON REFER PAGE 1-100
LIGHTS FROM THE CUSTOMER
EQUIPMENT LOAD ALSO FROM THE CUSTOMER
TAKE THE TOTAL OF ALL THE SENSIBLE HEAT GAIN
SAFETY OF 10% IS TAKEN
LIGHTS AND EQUIPMENT CAN BE EXCLUDED FROM THIS SAFETY IF REQUIRED
THIS GIVES TOTAL SENSIBLE HEAT LOAD
Relative Humidity in India (RH) in summer.
25 Degree C and 55 % RH.
Kochi
Summer 58 % RH
Monson 88% RH
Winter 69% RH