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# Complex Analysis, Differential

## Equations, and Laplace Transform

Peter Avitabile
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Massachusetts Lowell
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Analysis

z = x + jy = x + iy
Where:

i = j = 1

## Real part of the function

Imaginary part of the function

Re(z) = x

Im(z) = y

z1 = x1 + jy1

z 2 = x 2 + jy 2

z1 + z 2 = (x1 + x 2 ) + j(y1 + y 2 )

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Multiplication

## z1 z 2 = (x1x 2 y1y 2) + j(x1y 2 + x 2 y1)

z1 z1 * = x12 + y12
where: z1* = complex conjugate
and: z1* = x jy

if:
Division

z1 = x + jy
x1 + jy1
x1 + jy1 x 2 jy 2

=
x 2 + jy 2 x 2 + jy 2 x 2 jy 2

(
x1x 2 + y1y 2 ) + j(y1x 2 y 2 x1 )
=
x 22 + y22

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Complex Number Multiplication

Perform the following multiplication and express
the result in rectangular form.

( 2 + j5)(3 j2)

## Solution: Treating the two complex numbers as

binomials, the product is obtained as

( 2 + j5)(3 j2)

= 6 + j19 + 10

## 22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

= 6 + j4 + j15 j 10

= 4 + j19
4

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Complex Number Division

Perform the following division of complex numbers and
express the result in rectangular form.

1 + j3
2 + j5
Solution:

1 + j3 2 j5 13 + j11 13 j11
=
+

=
2 + j5 2 j5
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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Complex Conjugate

Given:

z = 1 + 2 j

Evaluate:

zz *

Solution:

zz* = ( 1 + 2 j)( 1 2 j)
= ( 1) + (2 ) = 5
2

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Conjugates

Location of Complex
Conjugates in the
Complex Plane

x jy

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

x = r cos
y = r sin
z = x + jy

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Polar Form - Eulers Formula

j

e = cos + j sin
z = x + jy = r cos + j r sin
z = r (cos + j sin ) = r e

r = z = Re{z} + Im{z} = x 2 + y 2
2

y
= tan
x

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Express the complex number

z = 3+ j 3
in polar form.
Solution:

3
=
= tan
6
3

z = 12 = 2 3

z=2

j
6

3e

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Determine the location and the phase angle of
the complex number:

2
1 + j
Solution: Express this number in standard
rectangular form by multiplying its numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.

2
1 j 2 2 j
=
= 1 j

1+1
1+ j 1 j
Phase Angle = +225 or -135
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Multiplication and Division (Polar Form)

Multiplication

z1 = r1e

j1

; z 2 = r2e
z1z 2 = r1r2e j( + )
1

Division

j 2

z1 r1 j( )
= e
z 2 r2
1

Complex Conjugate

z1* = re

j1

z z* = re j re j = r 2
1

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Functions
Complex Variable, s

s = + j
G (s) = K
N(s)
=
D(s)

s m + a1s m 1 + K + a m 1s + a m
s n + b1s n 1 + K + b n 1s + b n

(where m < n )

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Function
The complex function can be expressed in POLE-ZERO form as:

(
s z1 )(s z 2 )K (s z m )
G (s) = K
(s p1 )(s p 2 )K (s pn )
The roots of the numerator are referred to as ZEROS.
The roots of the denominator are referred to as POLES.
Often this can be written is partial fraction form as:

a1
a2
an
G (s) =
+
+K
s p1 s p 2
s pn

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Express the given complex function in pole-zero form. Identify
the zeros and the poles, as well as the multiplicity of each.

G (s) =

2s + 1
s(s + 2 )2 (10s + 3)

## Solution: G(s) can be written in pole-zero form as:

G (s) =

2(s + 0.5)

10s(s + 2 )2 (s + 0.3)

s + 0.5
1
=
5 s(s + 2 )2 (s + 0.3)
Simple zero: s=-0.5
Two simple poles: s=0 and s=-0.3
Double pole: s=-2
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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Differential Equations
1st Order ODE

1
x& + x = f ( t ) for ( > 0 )

## 2nd Order ODE

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = f ( t )

- damping ratio
cc critical damping
n natural frequency

c
2 k
= ; cc = 2mn ; n =
cc
m
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## 2nd Order ODE

2nd order 2 integrals/derivatives 2 constants
Initial Value Problem
Constant Coefficients time independent
x is dependent variable t is independent
If coefficients do not depend on x, then the
equations are linear (linear superposition possible)
Has Xh and Xp homogeneous & particular

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Types of ODEs

First-order, linear with
constant coefficients
Second-order, linear with
constant coefficients
Second-order, linear

2x& + x = 0
&x& + 3x& + 9x = 2 sin t
&x& + (2t 1)x& + 2x = 0
x& + (sin t )x = sin 3t

First-order, linear

2
&
2x + x = t
&x& + (x +1)x& + 9x = 0

First-order, nonlinear
Second-order, nonlinear

## If the coefficients are constants or functions of t, the ODE is

linear. Otherwise it is non-linear.
*Highest derivative identifies the order

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example 1st Order ODE

Consider the single-tank, liquid-level system shown in the
figure below. The mathematical model of this system is given
by the following first-order, linear ODE with constant
coefficients.
Flowrate
IN

RA &
R
h + h = qi (t)
g
g
Level

19

Flowrate
OUT

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example 1st Order ODE

The ODE can easily be expressed in the standard form as:

1
g
h = qi (t)
h& +
A
RA
As a result, the systems time constant is identified as:

RA
=
g

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response First Order

Homogeneous Solution

1
x& + x = 0 > 0

Characteristic Equation
1
1
+ =0 =

x ( t ) = ce

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Consider a 1st order system described as:

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
And subjected to a step input.

dx
f(t)
+ x =

dt
B
In standard form:

dx
1
f(t)
+
x =
dt

A
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

First Order homogeneous response is in the form of
an exponential function

yh (t) = e

where

The solution is

y( t ) = Ce

1
=

+ yp (t)

## where C is determined from initial condition for a

particular solution and yp indicates the particular
solution.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

If the system is subjected to a step change

= 0 t 0
f ( t ) = s ( t )
= 1 t > 0
The particular solution can be found to be

y( t ) = Ce

+1

## Given the initial conditions when the system is

initially at rest (t=0, ys(0)=0 requires that C=-1
which then gives

y( t ) = 1 e
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Step Response - First Order

95.0
Percentage of Response

86.5
63.2

0.1

3
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Response is broken up into two regions:
1. Transient region where system is still responding
dynamically
2. Steady-state region where system has reached its final
value
Note: There is no clear break point; often, 3, 4, or 5 is
chosen based on desired accuracy

## The initial slope of the response may be found

by differentiating y(t) to give

dy 1
=
dt
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Using the following equation

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ----Calculate the response by hand and plot by hand.
Let A = month and B = day of your birthday
Use MATLAB to confirm your results

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Transfer Function of Step Response

Diff. Eq.
reduces to
or

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
A
x& + x =
B
1
x& + A x =

B

1
f (t)
B
1
f (t)
A

## Transferring to the LaPlace domain:

Transfer
Function is
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

1

x(s) A
=
f(s) (s + AB )
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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Using MATLAB and the equivalent Laplace form,
the system transfer function is described as

1
A

B
1
S + =
B
A
A

S +
A

NUM = [0 1/A];
DEN = [1 B/A];
step(NUM,DEN)

## Step Response - First Order

95.0
Percentage of Response

86.5
63.2

2
0.1

3
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Second Order

Homogeneous Solution

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = 0
Characteristic Solution

2 + 2n + n 2 = 0
1, 2 = n

(n )2 n 2

= n n 2 1
c
=
;
cc

cc = 2mn ;

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k
=
m

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Second Order

For purposes of development of these general
equations a simple mass, spring, dashpot system will
be used.
Equation of motion is
obtained from Newtons
f(t)
second law

d2x

dx
m 2 + c + kx = f ( t )
dt
dt

m
c

x(t)

With I.C.s

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Second Order

A solution of the form

(m

x=

t fits
e

+ c + k e t = 0

Characteristic equation

c c 2 4mk
2

m + c + k = 0 =
2m

## Solution has 2 roots and 3 possible solutions

depending on the term under the .

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 < 4 mk

( < 1)

c 4mk c 2

=
2m
c
4mk c 2
1, 2 =

j
2m
2m

= j

## (Two complex conjugate roots)

The solution is

(
(
+j)t
j)t
x h = Ae
+ Be
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

e t

Factor out:

x h =e

(Ae

j t

+ Be jt

Recall that:

Then,

## [A(cos t + j sin t ) + B(cos t j sin t )]

t
=e [c1 cos t + c2 j sin t ]

xh = e

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using

xh = ce

xh

sin ( t + )

t
= ce 2 m

2
m

4mk c 2
t +
sin

2m

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response - Case 1

Now if we divide through by m, then
f
2
(homogeneous)
&x& + 2n x& + n x = = 0
m
where
c
c
=
= damping ratio =
c c 2 km
n = natural frequency =

x=e

n t

where

k
m

sin (d t + )

d = n 1 2

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response - Case 1

For small --- n d
n is independent of damping
If c = 0, then n d
Solution response is always of the form of a
damped exponentially decaying sinusoidal form
Free Response - Damped Exponential Decay
2

1.5

Magnitude

1.
2.
3.
4.

0.5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
Tim e (sec)

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 > 4 mk

c
c 2 4mk
=

2m
2m

( > 1)

## Two REAL Roots

x = c1e t + c 2e t
1

Recall

## e = sinh + cosh; e = sinh cosh

Then

x = c3 sinh 1t + c 4 cosh 2 t
Solution of this type will always be of the form
of a lag in the system.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Case 2

Response will have an exponential envelope but
Damping > 1
0.1
0.09
0.08

Amplitude

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 = 4mk

c
1 = 1 =
2m

= 1)

## Two REAL REPEATED Roots

x = c1e t + c 2 te t
1

## Solution of this type will also be in the form of a

steady state faster than any other damping
without overshoot.
This is the break point between structural
dynamics and controls problems.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response - Summary

< 1

= 1

> 1
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S-plane Representation

X Conjugate
Poles

Repeated
Roots

= 1

Real Roots

> 1

< 1
1 = n + jd

1, 2 = n

1* = n jd

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S-PLANE PLOTS
FOR IMPULSE
RESPONSE
OF A SINGLE
DEGREE OF
FREEDOM
MECHANICAL
SYSTEM

FRF

TIME
FRF

FRF

TIME
TIME

= 0.1

=0

= 0.3

FRF

TIME

= 0.7

= 1.0

TIME

> 1.0

TIME

STABLE

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UNSTABLE

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.12

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.13

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.14

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.16

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.17

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.18

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.19

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Using Matlab to Solve Differential Equations

Matlabs dsolve command is a common alternative
to solving complicated differential equations by
hand.
Example 1.17 will be solved again using Matlab

56

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Using Matlab to Solve Differential Equations

The same solution can be obtained with Matlab
and compared to the solution from Example 1.17.

5 t
1 4t
2t
x (t ) =
e
e
+ e
3
3

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform
Differential
Equations with force
or I.C. in time
domain

Laplace
Transform
using I.C.

Algebraic Equation
in
Laplace domain

Alternative:
Convolution Integral
(very difficult)

Closed-Form Solution

Inverse
Laplace

or
Numerical Solution
Time domain x(t)

## Rearrange terms into

good form
Frequency domain X(s)

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Laplace Transform Equation

G ( s ) = L {g (t )} = e st g (t ) dt

Derivatives

L{g& (t )} = s G ( s ) g (0)

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Laplace Transform of several functions

Function f(t)

Laplace Transform
s
s
1
s2

Unit Step
Unit Ramp

1
s

Unit Pulse
Unit Impulse (Dirac
delta function)
Unit Sinusoid

1
SIN
COS

Exponential
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

s2 + 2
s
s2 + 2

1
s+a
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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform
Unit Step

L{u s (t )} = u s ( s ) = u s (t ) e st dt
0

u s st
us
= e |0 = 0 =
s
s

Unit Ramp

us
s

L{u s (t )} = ur ( s ) = t e st dt
0

e st e st
e st 1
|0
dt =
|0 = 2
=t
2
0
s
s
s
s

Inverse Laplace

## Requires manipulation of Laplace domain equation to get in a

suitable form to apply L -1.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Convolution Integral
If G(s) and H(s) have known inverses g(t) and h(t),

## then the product of GH can be obtained by the

convolution integral.

L1 {F ( s )} = L1{G ( s ) H ( s )} = ( g h)(t )
t

= h( ) g (t )dt = (h g )(t )
0

0

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Impulse Response First Order

The Equation

1
x& + x = ( t )

x0 = 0

Laplace

1
s X(s) + X(s) = 1

1
(s + ) X(s) = 1 look up inverse laplace

1
t

X(s) =

x
(
t
)
=
e
1
s+

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Laplace First Order ODE

The basic first order ODE can be expressed in

## the Laplace Domain as As& + Bs = 1 for unit impulse

and can be recast as As& = 1 Bs
This can be stated as follows:

## The basic value of s& is multiplied by A -- This

value is equal to 1 minus B times the integral of s&
Normalize the equation so the coefficient on s&=1,

1 B
s& = s
A A
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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

s&

+
Step
= 1/A

integrate

1
Normalize
to A coef

1
s

SCOPE

Multiply by
B/A

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

File New Model (workspace appears)

## Select the following items and place them on the

worksheet
Unit Step (from Sources) change amplitude
Sum (from Math) need + and
Gain (from Math) change gain value
Integrator (from Continuous)
Scope (from Sinks)

## Double click items to view or change property

GAIN block can be rotated by format.
T branch mouse online/CTRL and right mouse
button to extend line.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## &x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = (t)

Then,
with

x&0 = 0 and x 0 = 0

## Laplace with I.C. = 0

2

(s + 2 n s + n ) X (s) = 1

X(s) =

1
s 2 + 2 n s + n 2

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Impulse Response - Second Order

Note that (assume <1)

s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 = (s + n ) 2 ( n 2 ) + n 2

= (s + n ) 2 + n 2 (1 2 )
= (s + ) 2 + d 2
So that

X(s) =

1
(s + ) 2 + d 2

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Impulse Response - Second Order

The inverse Laplace

1
d
x(t ) = L
2
2
d ( s + ) + d
1

=
=

d
1

e t sin d t
e t sin d t

## If I.C. 0, then a more involved (but possible

solution) exists.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Step Response Second Order

For unit step f ( t ) = u ( t ),

x 0 = 0, x& 0 = 0

&x& + 2 n x& + n 2 x = u ( t )
with x& 0 = 0, x 0 = 0
Laplace with IC=0 gives

1
(s + 2 n s + n ) x (s) =
s
1
1
X(s) =
s s 2 + 2 n s + n 2
2

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Step Response Second Order

Again assume <1 - then

1
X(s) = 2
n

s + 2 n
2
2
s s + 2 n s + n

## Then the inverse Laplace

1 1

s + 2 n
X (t ) = L 2 2
2
n s s + 2 n s + n
1

1
n t
X (t ) = 2 1 e
sin d t
cos d t +
2
n
1

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.40

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## General Laplace Formulation

&x& + 2 n x& + n 2 x = f ( t )
Laplace

## L ( &x&) = s 2 x( s ) sx(0) x& (0)

L ( x& ) = sx( s ) x(0)
L ( x) = X ( s )
L F (t ) = F ( s )
s 2 x(s) sx(0) x& (0) + 2n [sx(s) x(0)] + n x(s) = F(s)
2

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## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## General Laplace Formulation

(s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 ) x (s)

## = F(s) + (s + 2 n )x(0) + x& (0)

Applied Force and
Initial Conditions

F(s)
(s + 2 n )x(0) + x& (0)
+
x(s) = 2
2
2
2
s + 2 n s + n
s + 2 n s + n
If initial conditions are zero, then the system
transfer function is
aka

output
input

x (s)
1
= H (s) = 2
2
F(s)
s + 2 n s + n

ms + cs + k

## Many books use G(s)!

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

77

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## 100&x& + 40 x& + 1000 x = F( t )

OR
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

78

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)

In alternate form (using the Transfer Function
Block)

79

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)

General Equation is
1
&x& = [F( t ) kx cx& ]
m
m&x& + cx& + kx = F( t )
This example is

80

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory