You are on page 1of 80

# Complex Analysis, Differential

## Equations, and Laplace Transform

Peter Avitabile
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Massachusetts Lowell
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Analysis

z = x + jy = x + iy
Where:

i = j = 1

## Real part of the function

Imaginary part of the function

Re(z) = x

Im(z) = y

Addition

z1 = x1 + jy1

z 2 = x 2 + jy 2

z1 + z 2 = (x1 + x 2 ) + j(y1 + y 2 )

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Multiplication

## z1 z 2 = (x1x 2 y1y 2) + j(x1y 2 + x 2 y1)

z1 z1 * = x12 + y12
where: z1* = complex conjugate
and: z1* = x jy

if:
Division

z1 = x + jy
x1 + jy1
x1 + jy1 x 2 jy 2

=
x 2 + jy 2 x 2 + jy 2 x 2 jy 2

(
x1x 2 + y1y 2 ) + j(y1x 2 y 2 x1 )
=
x 22 + y22

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Complex Number Multiplication

Perform the following multiplication and express
the result in rectangular form.

( 2 + j5)(3 j2)

## Solution: Treating the two complex numbers as

binomials, the product is obtained as

( 2 + j5)(3 j2)

= 6 + j19 + 10

## 22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

= 6 + j4 + j15 j 10

= 4 + j19
4

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Complex Number Division

Perform the following division of complex numbers and
express the result in rectangular form.

1 + j3
2 + j5
Solution:

1 + j3 2 j5 13 + j11 13 j11
=
+

=
2 + j5 2 j5
29
29 29

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Complex Conjugate

Given:

z = 1 + 2 j

Evaluate:

zz *

Solution:

zz* = ( 1 + 2 j)( 1 2 j)
= ( 1) + (2 ) = 5
2

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Conjugates

Location of Complex
Conjugates in the
Complex Plane

x jy

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

x = r cos
y = r sin
z = x + jy

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Polar Form - Eulers Formula

j

e = cos + j sin
z = x + jy = r cos + j r sin
z = r (cos + j sin ) = r e

r = z = Re{z} + Im{z} = x 2 + y 2
2

y
= tan
x

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Express the complex number

z = 3+ j 3
in polar form.
Solution:

3
=
= tan
6
3

z = 12 = 2 3

z=2

j
6

3e

10

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Determine the location and the phase angle of
the complex number:

2
1 + j
Solution: Express this number in standard
rectangular form by multiplying its numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.

2
1 j 2 2 j
=
= 1 j

1+1
1+ j 1 j
Location = third quadrant
Phase Angle = +225 or -135
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

11

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Multiplication and Division (Polar Form)

Multiplication

z1 = r1e

j1

; z 2 = r2e
z1z 2 = r1r2e j( + )
1

Division

j 2

z1 r1 j( )
= e
z 2 r2
1

Complex Conjugate

z1* = re

j1

z z* = re j re j = r 2
1

12

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Functions
Complex Variable, s

s = + j
G (s) = K
N(s)
=
D(s)

s m + a1s m 1 + K + a m 1s + a m
s n + b1s n 1 + K + b n 1s + b n

(where m < n )

13

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Function
The complex function can be expressed in POLE-ZERO form as:

(
s z1 )(s z 2 )K (s z m )
G (s) = K
(s p1 )(s p 2 )K (s pn )
The roots of the numerator are referred to as ZEROS.
The roots of the denominator are referred to as POLES.
Often this can be written is partial fraction form as:

a1
a2
an
G (s) =
+
+K
s p1 s p 2
s pn

14

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Express the given complex function in pole-zero form. Identify
the zeros and the poles, as well as the multiplicity of each.

G (s) =

2s + 1
s(s + 2 )2 (10s + 3)

## Solution: G(s) can be written in pole-zero form as:

G (s) =

2(s + 0.5)

10s(s + 2 )2 (s + 0.3)

s + 0.5
1
=
5 s(s + 2 )2 (s + 0.3)
Simple zero: s=-0.5
Two simple poles: s=0 and s=-0.3
Double pole: s=-2
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

15

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Differential Equations
1st Order ODE

1
x& + x = f ( t ) for ( > 0 )

## 2nd Order ODE

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = f ( t )

- damping ratio
cc critical damping
n natural frequency

c
2 k
= ; cc = 2mn ; n =
cc
m
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

16

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## 2nd Order ODE

2nd order 2 integrals/derivatives 2 constants
Initial Value Problem
Constant Coefficients time independent
x is dependent variable t is independent
If coefficients do not depend on x, then the
equations are linear (linear superposition possible)
Has Xh and Xp homogeneous & particular

17

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example Types of ODEs

First-order, linear with
constant coefficients
Second-order, linear with
constant coefficients
Second-order, linear

2x& + x = 0
&x& + 3x& + 9x = 2 sin t
&x& + (2t 1)x& + 2x = 0
x& + (sin t )x = sin 3t

First-order, linear

2
&
2x + x = t
&x& + (x +1)x& + 9x = 0

First-order, nonlinear
Second-order, nonlinear

## If the coefficients are constants or functions of t, the ODE is

linear. Otherwise it is non-linear.
*Highest derivative identifies the order

18

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example 1st Order ODE

Consider the single-tank, liquid-level system shown in the
figure below. The mathematical model of this system is given
by the following first-order, linear ODE with constant
coefficients.
Flowrate
IN

RA &
R
h + h = qi (t)
g
g
Level

19

Flowrate
OUT

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example 1st Order ODE

The ODE can easily be expressed in the standard form as:

1
g
h = qi (t)
h& +
A
RA
As a result, the systems time constant is identified as:

RA
=
g

20

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response First Order

Homogeneous Solution

1
x& + x = 0 > 0

Characteristic Equation
1
1
+ =0 =

x ( t ) = ce

21

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Consider a 1st order system described as:

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
And subjected to a step input.

dx
f(t)
+ x =

dt
B
In standard form:

dx
1
f(t)
+
x =
dt

A
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

22

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

First Order homogeneous response is in the form of
an exponential function

yh (t) = e

where

The solution is

y( t ) = Ce

1
=

+ yp (t)

## where C is determined from initial condition for a

particular solution and yp indicates the particular
solution.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

23

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

If the system is subjected to a step change

= 0 t 0
f ( t ) = s ( t )
= 1 t > 0
The particular solution can be found to be

y( t ) = Ce

+1

## Given the initial conditions when the system is

initially at rest (t=0, ys(0)=0 requires that C=-1
which then gives

y( t ) = 1 e
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

24

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Step Response - First Order

95.0
Percentage of Response

86.5
63.2

0.1

3
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

25

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Response is broken up into two regions:
1. Transient region where system is still responding
dynamically
2. Steady-state region where system has reached its final
value
Note: There is no clear break point; often, 3, 4, or 5 is
chosen based on desired accuracy

## The initial slope of the response may be found

by differentiating y(t) to give

dy 1
=
dt
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

26

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Using the following equation

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ----Calculate the response by hand and plot by hand.
Let A = month and B = day of your birthday
Use MATLAB to confirm your results

27

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Transfer Function of Step Response

Diff. Eq.
reduces to
or

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
A
x& + x =
B
1
x& + A x =

B

1
f (t)
B
1
f (t)
A

## Transferring to the LaPlace domain:

Transfer
Function is
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

1

x(s) A
=
f(s) (s + AB )
28

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Step Response First Order

Using MATLAB and the equivalent Laplace form,
the system transfer function is described as

1
A

B
1
S + =
B
A
A

S +
A

NUM = [0 1/A];
DEN = [1 B/A];
step(NUM,DEN)

## Step Response - First Order

95.0
Percentage of Response

86.5
63.2

2
0.1

3
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

29

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Second Order

Homogeneous Solution

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = 0
Characteristic Solution

2 + 2n + n 2 = 0
1, 2 = n

(n )2 n 2

= n n 2 1
c
=
;
cc

cc = 2mn ;

30

k
=
m

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Second Order

For purposes of development of these general
equations a simple mass, spring, dashpot system will
be used.
Equation of motion is
obtained from Newtons
f(t)
second law

d2x

dx
m 2 + c + kx = f ( t )
dt
dt

m
c

x(t)

With I.C.s

31

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Second Order

A solution of the form

(m

x=

t fits
e

+ c + k e t = 0

Characteristic equation

c c 2 4mk
2

m + c + k = 0 =
2m

## Solution has 2 roots and 3 possible solutions

depending on the term under the .

32

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 < 4 mk

( < 1)

c 4mk c 2

=
2m
c
4mk c 2
1, 2 =

j
2m
2m

= j

## (Two complex conjugate roots)

The solution is

(
(
+j)t
j)t
x h = Ae
+ Be
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

33

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

e t

Factor out:

x h =e

(Ae

j t

+ Be jt

Recall that:

Then,

## [A(cos t + j sin t ) + B(cos t j sin t )]

t
=e [c1 cos t + c2 j sin t ]

xh = e

34

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using

xh = ce

xh

sin ( t + )

t
= ce 2 m

2
m

4mk c 2
t +
sin

2m

35

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response - Case 1

Now if we divide through by m, then
f
2
(homogeneous)
&x& + 2n x& + n x = = 0
m
where
c
c
=
= damping ratio =
c c 2 km
n = natural frequency =

x=e

n t

where

k
m

sin (d t + )

d = n 1 2

36

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response - Case 1

For small --- n d
n is independent of damping
If c = 0, then n d
Solution response is always of the form of a
damped exponentially decaying sinusoidal form
Free Response - Damped Exponential Decay
2

1.5

Magnitude

1.
2.
3.
4.

0.5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
Tim e (sec)

37

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 > 4 mk

c
c 2 4mk
=

2m
2m

( > 1)

## Two REAL Roots

x = c1e t + c 2e t
1

Recall

## e = sinh + cosh; e = sinh cosh

Then

x = c3 sinh 1t + c 4 cosh 2 t
Solution of this type will always be of the form
of a lag in the system.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

38

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response Case 2

Response will have an exponential envelope but
will not have oscillatory motion about steady-state.
Damping > 1
0.1
0.09
0.08

Amplitude

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

39

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 = 4mk

c
1 = 1 =
2m

= 1)

## Two REAL REPEATED Roots

x = c1e t + c 2 te t
1

## Solution of this type will also be in the form of a

lag to the system, but this system will return to
steady state faster than any other damping
without overshoot.
This is the break point between structural
dynamics and controls problems.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

40

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Free Response - Summary

< 1

= 1

> 1
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

41

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S-plane Representation

X Conjugate
Poles

Repeated
Roots

= 1

Real Roots

> 1

< 1
1 = n + jd

1, 2 = n

1* = n jd

42

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S-PLANE PLOTS
FOR IMPULSE
RESPONSE
OF A SINGLE
DEGREE OF
FREEDOM
MECHANICAL
SYSTEM

FRF

TIME
FRF

FRF

TIME
TIME

= 0.1

=0

= 0.3

FRF

TIME

= 0.7

= 1.0

TIME

> 1.0

TIME

STABLE

43

UNSTABLE

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.12

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

44

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

45

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.13

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

46

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.14

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

47

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.16

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

48

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

49

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.17

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

50

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

51

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.18

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

52

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

53

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.19

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

54

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

55

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Using Matlab to Solve Differential Equations

Matlabs dsolve command is a common alternative
to solving complicated differential equations by
hand.
Example 1.17 will be solved again using Matlab

56

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Using Matlab to Solve Differential Equations

The same solution can be obtained with Matlab
and compared to the solution from Example 1.17.

5 t
1 4t
2t
x (t ) =
e
e
+ e
3
3

57

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform
Differential
Equations with force
or I.C. in time
domain

Laplace
Transform
using I.C.

Algebraic Equation
in
Laplace domain

Alternative:
Convolution Integral
(very difficult)

Closed-Form Solution

Inverse
Laplace

or
Numerical Solution
Time domain x(t)

## Rearrange terms into

good form
Frequency domain X(s)

58

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Laplace Transform Equation

G ( s ) = L {g (t )} = e st g (t ) dt

Derivatives

L{g& (t )} = s G ( s ) g (0)

59

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Laplace Transform of several functions

Function f(t)

Laplace Transform
s
s
1
s2

Unit Step
Unit Ramp

1
s

Unit Pulse
Unit Impulse (Dirac
delta function)
Unit Sinusoid

1
SIN
COS

Exponential
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

s2 + 2
s
s2 + 2

1
s+a
60

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform
Unit Step

L{u s (t )} = u s ( s ) = u s (t ) e st dt
0

u s st
us
= e |0 = 0 =
s
s

Unit Ramp

us
s

L{u s (t )} = ur ( s ) = t e st dt
0

e st e st
e st 1
|0
dt =
|0 = 2
=t
2
0
s
s
s
s

Inverse Laplace

## Requires manipulation of Laplace domain equation to get in a

suitable form to apply L -1.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

61

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Convolution Integral
If G(s) and H(s) have known inverses g(t) and h(t),

## then the product of GH can be obtained by the

convolution integral.

L1 {F ( s )} = L1{G ( s ) H ( s )} = ( g h)(t )
t

= h( ) g (t )dt = (h g )(t )
0

0

62

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Impulse Response First Order

The Equation

1
x& + x = ( t )

x0 = 0

Laplace

1
s X(s) + X(s) = 1

1
(s + ) X(s) = 1 look up inverse laplace

1
t

X(s) =

x
(
t
)
=
e
1
s+

63

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Laplace First Order ODE

The basic first order ODE can be expressed in

## the Laplace Domain as As& + Bs = 1 for unit impulse

and can be recast as As& = 1 Bs
This can be stated as follows:

## The basic value of s& is multiplied by A -- This

value is equal to 1 minus B times the integral of s&
Normalize the equation so the coefficient on s&=1,

1 B
s& = s
A A
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

64

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

s&

+
Step
= 1/A

integrate

1
Normalize
to A coef

1
s

SCOPE

Multiply by
B/A

65

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## MATLAB/SIMULINK (see tutorial)

Simulink
File New Model (workspace appears)

## Select the following items and place them on the

worksheet
Unit Step (from Sources) change amplitude
Sum (from Math) need + and
Gain (from Math) change gain value
Integrator (from Continuous)
Scope (from Sinks)

## Double click items to view or change property

GAIN block can be rotated by format.
T branch mouse online/CTRL and right mouse
button to extend line.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

66

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

67

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

68

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## &x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = (t)

Then,
with

x&0 = 0 and x 0 = 0

## Laplace with I.C. = 0

2

(s + 2 n s + n ) X (s) = 1

X(s) =

1
s 2 + 2 n s + n 2

69

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Impulse Response - Second Order

Note that (assume <1)

s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 = (s + n ) 2 ( n 2 ) + n 2

= (s + n ) 2 + n 2 (1 2 )
= (s + ) 2 + d 2
So that

X(s) =

1
(s + ) 2 + d 2

70

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Impulse Response - Second Order

The inverse Laplace

1
d
x(t ) = L
2
2
d ( s + ) + d
1

=
=

d
1

e t sin d t
e t sin d t

## If I.C. 0, then a more involved (but possible

solution) exists.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

71

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Step Response Second Order

For unit step f ( t ) = u ( t ),

x 0 = 0, x& 0 = 0

&x& + 2 n x& + n 2 x = u ( t )
with x& 0 = 0, x 0 = 0
Laplace with IC=0 gives

1
(s + 2 n s + n ) x (s) =
s
1
1
X(s) =
s s 2 + 2 n s + n 2
2

72

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Unit Step Response Second Order

Again assume <1 - then

1
X(s) = 2
n

s + 2 n
2
2
s s + 2 n s + n

## Then the inverse Laplace

1 1

s + 2 n
X (t ) = L 2 2
2
n s s + 2 n s + n
1

1
n t
X (t ) = 2 1 e
sin d t
cos d t +
2
n
1

73

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.40

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

74

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

75

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## General Laplace Formulation

&x& + 2 n x& + n 2 x = f ( t )
Laplace

## L ( &x&) = s 2 x( s ) sx(0) x& (0)

L ( x& ) = sx( s ) x(0)
L ( x) = X ( s )
L F (t ) = F ( s )
s 2 x(s) sx(0) x& (0) + 2n [sx(s) x(0)] + n x(s) = F(s)
2

76

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## General Laplace Formulation

(s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 ) x (s)

## = F(s) + (s + 2 n )x(0) + x& (0)

Applied Force and
Initial Conditions

F(s)
(s + 2 n )x(0) + x& (0)
+
x(s) = 2
2
2
2
s + 2 n s + n
s + 2 n s + n
If initial conditions are zero, then the system
transfer function is
aka

output
input

x (s)
1
= H (s) = 2
2
F(s)
s + 2 n s + n

ms + cs + k

## Many books use G(s)!

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

77

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## 100&x& + 40 x& + 1000 x = F( t )

OR
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

78

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)

In alternate form (using the Transfer Function
Block)

79

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

## SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)

General Equation is
1
&x& = [F( t ) kx cx& ]
m
m&x& + cx& + kx = F( t )
This example is

80

## Dr. Peter Avitabile

Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory