You are on page 1of 80

Complex Analysis, Differential

Equations, and Laplace Transform

Peter Avitabile
Mechanical Engineering Department
University of Massachusetts Lowell
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Analysis

z = x + jy = x + iy
Where:

i = j = 1

Real part of the function


Imaginary part of the function

Re(z) = x

Im(z) = y

Addition

z1 = x1 + jy1

z 2 = x 2 + jy 2

z1 + z 2 = (x1 + x 2 ) + j(y1 + y 2 )

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Numbers Multiplication and Division


Multiplication

z1 z 2 = (x1x 2 y1y 2) + j(x1y 2 + x 2 y1)

z1 z1 * = x12 + y12
where: z1* = complex conjugate
and: z1* = x jy

if:
Division

z1 = x + jy
x1 + jy1
x1 + jy1 x 2 jy 2

=
x 2 + jy 2 x 2 + jy 2 x 2 jy 2

(
x1x 2 + y1y 2 ) + j(y1x 2 y 2 x1 )
=
x 22 + y22

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example Complex Number Multiplication


Perform the following multiplication and express
the result in rectangular form.

( 2 + j5)(3 j2)

Solution: Treating the two complex numbers as


binomials, the product is obtained as

( 2 + j5)(3 j2)

= 6 + j19 + 10

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

= 6 + j4 + j15 j 10

= 4 + j19
4

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example Complex Number Division


Perform the following division of complex numbers and
express the result in rectangular form.

1 + j3
2 + j5
Solution:

1 + j3 2 j5 13 + j11 13 j11
=
+

=
2 + j5 2 j5
29
29 29

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example Complex Conjugate


Given:

z = 1 + 2 j

Evaluate:

zz *

Solution:

zz* = ( 1 + 2 j)( 1 2 j)
= ( 1) + (2 ) = 5
2

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Conjugates

Location of Complex
Conjugates in the
Complex Plane

x jy

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Numbers in Polar Form

x = r cos
y = r sin
z = x + jy

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Polar Form - Eulers Formula


j

e = cos + j sin
z = x + jy = r cos + j r sin
z = r (cos + j sin ) = r e

r = z = Re{z} + Im{z} = x 2 + y 2
2

y
= tan
x

(positive in ccw direction )

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Express the complex number

z = 3+ j 3
in polar form.
Solution:

3
=
= tan
6
3

z = 12 = 2 3

z=2

j
6

3e

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

10

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Determine the location and the phase angle of
the complex number:

2
1 + j
Solution: Express this number in standard
rectangular form by multiplying its numerator and
denominator by the conjugate of the denominator.

2
1 j 2 2 j
=
= 1 j

1+1
1+ j 1 j
Location = third quadrant
Phase Angle = +225 or -135
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

11

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Multiplication and Division (Polar Form)


Multiplication

z1 = r1e

j1

; z 2 = r2e
z1z 2 = r1r2e j( + )
1

Division

j 2

z1 r1 j( )
= e
z 2 r2
1

Complex Conjugate

z1* = re

j1

z z* = re j re j = r 2
1

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

12

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Functions
Complex Variable, s

s = + j
G (s) = K
N(s)
=
D(s)

s m + a1s m 1 + K + a m 1s + a m
s n + b1s n 1 + K + b n 1s + b n

(where m < n )

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

13

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Complex Function
The complex function can be expressed in POLE-ZERO form as:

(
s z1 )(s z 2 )K (s z m )
G (s) = K
(s p1 )(s p 2 )K (s pn )
The roots of the numerator are referred to as ZEROS.
The roots of the denominator are referred to as POLES.
Often this can be written is partial fraction form as:

a1
a2
an
G (s) =
+
+K
s p1 s p 2
s pn

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

14

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example
Express the given complex function in pole-zero form. Identify
the zeros and the poles, as well as the multiplicity of each.

G (s) =

2s + 1
s(s + 2 )2 (10s + 3)

Solution: G(s) can be written in pole-zero form as:

G (s) =

2(s + 0.5)

10s(s + 2 )2 (s + 0.3)

s + 0.5
1
=
5 s(s + 2 )2 (s + 0.3)
Simple zero: s=-0.5
Two simple poles: s=0 and s=-0.3
Double pole: s=-2
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

15

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Differential Equations
1st Order ODE

1
x& + x = f ( t ) for ( > 0 )

is the time constant

2nd Order ODE

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = f ( t )

- damping ratio
cc critical damping
n natural frequency

c
2 k
= ; cc = 2mn ; n =
cc
m
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

16

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

2nd Order ODE


2nd order 2 integrals/derivatives 2 constants
Initial Value Problem
Constant Coefficients time independent
x is dependent variable t is independent
If coefficients do not depend on x, then the
equations are linear (linear superposition possible)
Has Xh and Xp homogeneous & particular

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

17

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example Types of ODEs


First-order, linear with
constant coefficients
Second-order, linear with
constant coefficients
Second-order, linear

2x& + x = 0
&x& + 3x& + 9x = 2 sin t
&x& + (2t 1)x& + 2x = 0
x& + (sin t )x = sin 3t

First-order, linear

2
&
2x + x = t
&x& + (x +1)x& + 9x = 0

First-order, nonlinear
Second-order, nonlinear

If the coefficients are constants or functions of t, the ODE is


linear. Otherwise it is non-linear.
*Highest derivative identifies the order

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

18

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1st Order ODE


Consider the single-tank, liquid-level system shown in the
figure below. The mathematical model of this system is given
by the following first-order, linear ODE with constant
coefficients.
Flowrate
IN

RA &
R
h + h = qi (t)
g
g
Level

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

19

Flowrate
OUT

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1st Order ODE


The ODE can easily be expressed in the standard form as:

1
g
h = qi (t)
h& +
A
RA
As a result, the systems time constant is identified as:

RA
=
g

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

20

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response First Order


Homogeneous Solution

1
x& + x = 0 > 0

Characteristic Equation
1
1
+ =0 =

The solution becomes

x ( t ) = ce

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

21

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


Consider a 1st order system described as:

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
And subjected to a step input.

dx
f(t)
+ x =

dt
B
In standard form:

dx
1
f(t)
+
x =
dt

A
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

22

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


First Order homogeneous response is in the form of
an exponential function

yh (t) = e

where

The solution is

y( t ) = Ce

1
=

+ yp (t)

where C is determined from initial condition for a


particular solution and yp indicates the particular
solution.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

23

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


If the system is subjected to a step change

= 0 t 0
f ( t ) = s ( t )
= 1 t > 0
The particular solution can be found to be

y( t ) = Ce

+1

Given the initial conditions when the system is


initially at rest (t=0, ys(0)=0 requires that C=-1
which then gives

y( t ) = 1 e
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

24

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


Step Response - First Order

95.0
Percentage of Response

86.5
63.2

0.1

3
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

25

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


Response is broken up into two regions:
1. Transient region where system is still responding
dynamically
2. Steady-state region where system has reached its final
value
Note: There is no clear break point; often, 3, 4, or 5 is
chosen based on desired accuracy

The initial slope of the response may be found


by differentiating y(t) to give

dy 1
=
dt
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

26

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


Using the following equation

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
HOMEWORK ASSIGNMENT ----Calculate the response by hand and plot by hand.
Let A = month and B = day of your birthday
Use MATLAB to confirm your results

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

27

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Transfer Function of Step Response


Diff. Eq.
reduces to
or

Ax& + Bx = f ( t )
A
x& + x =
B
1
x& + A x =

B

1
f (t)
B
1
f (t)
A

Transferring to the LaPlace domain:


Transfer
Function is
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

1

x(s) A
=
f(s) (s + AB )
28

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Step Response First Order


Using MATLAB and the equivalent Laplace form,
the system transfer function is described as

1
A

B
1
S + =
B
A
A

S +
A

NUM = [0 1/A];
DEN = [1 B/A];
step(NUM,DEN)

Step Response - First Order

95.0
Percentage of Response

86.5
63.2

2
0.1

3
0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

29

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response Second Order


Homogeneous Solution

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = 0
Characteristic Solution

2 + 2n + n 2 = 0
1, 2 = n

(n )2 n 2

= n n 2 1
c
=
;
cc

cc = 2mn ;

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

30

k
=
m

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response Second Order


For purposes of development of these general
equations a simple mass, spring, dashpot system will
be used.
Equation of motion is
obtained from Newtons
f(t)
second law

d2x

dx
m 2 + c + kx = f ( t )
dt
dt

m
c

x(t)

With I.C.s

x (0) = x o and x& (0) = x& 0

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

31

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response Second Order


A solution of the form

(m

x=

t fits
e

+ c + k e t = 0

Characteristic equation

c c 2 4mk
2

m + c + k = 0 =
2m

Solution has 2 roots and 3 possible solutions


depending on the term under the .

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

32

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 < 4 mk

Free Response - Case 1

( < 1)

c 4mk c 2

=
2m
c
4mk c 2
1, 2 =

j
2m
2m

= j

(Two complex conjugate roots)

The solution is

(
(
+j)t
j)t
x h = Ae
+ Be
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

33

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response - Case 1

e t

Factor out:

x h =e

(Ae

j t

+ Be jt

Recall that:

e j = cos + j sin ; e j = cos j sin


Then,

[A(cos t + j sin t ) + B(cos t j sin t )]


t
=e [c1 cos t + c2 j sin t ]

xh = e

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

34

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response - Case 1

sin( x + y) = sin x cos y + cos x sin y

Using

equation can be written as

xh = ce

xh

sin ( t + )

t
= ce 2 m

2
m

4mk c 2
t +
sin

2m

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

35

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response - Case 1


Now if we divide through by m, then
f
2
(homogeneous)
&x& + 2n x& + n x = = 0
m
where
c
c
=
= damping ratio =
c c 2 km
n = natural frequency =

x=e

n t

where

k
m

sin (d t + )

d = n 1 2

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

36

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response - Case 1


For small --- n d
n is independent of damping
If c = 0, then n d
Solution response is always of the form of a
damped exponentially decaying sinusoidal form
Free Response - Damped Exponential Decay
2

1.5

Magnitude

1.
2.
3.
4.

0.5

0
0

0.5

1.5

2.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5
Tim e (sec)

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

37

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 > 4 mk

Free Response Case 2

c
c 2 4mk
=

2m
2m

( > 1)

Two REAL Roots

x = c1e t + c 2e t
1

Recall

e = sinh + cosh; e = sinh cosh


Then

x = c3 sinh 1t + c 4 cosh 2 t
Solution of this type will always be of the form
of a lag in the system.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

38

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response Case 2


Response will have an exponential envelope but
will not have oscillatory motion about steady-state.
Damping > 1
0.1
0.09
0.08

Amplitude

0.07
0.06
0.05
0.04
0.03
0.02
0.01
0
0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

Time (sec)

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

39

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

c 2 = 4mk

Free Response Case 3

c
1 = 1 =
2m

= 1)

Two REAL REPEATED Roots

x = c1e t + c 2 te t
1

Solution of this type will also be in the form of a


lag to the system, but this system will return to
steady state faster than any other damping
without overshoot.
This is the break point between structural
dynamics and controls problems.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

40

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Free Response - Summary

< 1

= 1

> 1
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

41

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S-plane Representation

X Conjugate
Poles

Repeated
Roots

= 1

Real Roots

> 1

< 1
1 = n + jd

1, 2 = n

1* = n jd

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

42

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

S-PLANE PLOTS
FOR IMPULSE
RESPONSE
OF A SINGLE
DEGREE OF
FREEDOM
MECHANICAL
SYSTEM

FRF

TIME
FRF

FRF

TIME
TIME

= 0.1

=0

= 0.3

FRF

TIME

= 0.7

= 1.0

TIME

> 1.0

TIME

STABLE

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

43

UNSTABLE

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.12

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

44

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.12 (cont)

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

45

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.13

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

46

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.14

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

47

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.16

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

48

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.16 (cont)

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

49

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.17

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

50

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.17 (cont)

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

51

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.18

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

52

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.18 (cont)

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

53

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.19

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

54

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.19 (cont)

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

55

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using Matlab to Solve Differential Equations


Matlabs dsolve command is a common alternative
to solving complicated differential equations by
hand.
Example 1.17 will be solved again using Matlab

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

56

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Using Matlab to Solve Differential Equations


The same solution can be obtained with Matlab
and compared to the solution from Example 1.17.

5 t
1 4t
2t
x (t ) =
e
e
+ e
3
3

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

57

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform
Differential
Equations with force
or I.C. in time
domain

Laplace
Transform
using I.C.

Algebraic Equation
in
Laplace domain

Alternative:
Convolution Integral
(very difficult)

Closed-Form Solution

Inverse
Laplace

or
Numerical Solution
Time domain x(t)

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

Rearrange terms into


good form
Frequency domain X(s)

58

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform Equation

G ( s ) = L {g (t )} = e st g (t ) dt

Derivatives

L{g& (t )} = s G ( s ) g (0)

L{g&&(t )} = s 2 G ( s ) s g (0) g& (0)

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

59

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform of several functions


Function f(t)

Laplace Transform
s
s
1
s2

Unit Step
Unit Ramp

1
s

Unit Pulse
Unit Impulse (Dirac
delta function)
Unit Sinusoid

1
SIN
COS

Exponential
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

s2 + 2
s
s2 + 2

1
s+a
60

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace Transform
Unit Step

L{u s (t )} = u s ( s ) = u s (t ) e st dt
0

u s st
us
= e |0 = 0 =
s
s

Unit Ramp

us
s

L{u s (t )} = ur ( s ) = t e st dt
0

e st e st
e st 1
|0
dt =
|0 = 2
=t
2
0
s
s
s
s

Inverse Laplace

Requires manipulation of Laplace domain equation to get in a


suitable form to apply L -1.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

61

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Convolution Integral
If G(s) and H(s) have known inverses g(t) and h(t),

then the product of GH can be obtained by the


convolution integral.

L1 {F ( s )} = L1{G ( s ) H ( s )} = ( g h)(t )
t

= h( ) g (t )dt = (h g )(t )
0

= g ( ) h(t )dt = ( g h)(t )


0

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

62

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Unit Impulse Response First Order


The Equation

1
x& + x = ( t )

x0 = 0

Laplace

1
s X(s) + X(s) = 1

1
(s + ) X(s) = 1 look up inverse laplace

1
t

X(s) =

x
(
t
)
=
e
1
s+

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

63

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Laplace First Order ODE


The basic first order ODE can be expressed in

the Laplace Domain as As& + Bs = 1 for unit impulse


and can be recast as As& = 1 Bs
This can be stated as follows:

The basic value of s& is multiplied by A -- This


value is equal to 1 minus B times the integral of s&
Normalize the equation so the coefficient on s&=1,

1 B
s& = s
A A
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

64

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Block Diagram First Order ODE

s&

+
Step
= 1/A

integrate

1
Normalize
to A coef

1
s

SCOPE

Multiply by
B/A

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

65

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

MATLAB/SIMULINK (see tutorial)


Simulink
File New Model (workspace appears)

Select the following items and place them on the


worksheet
Unit Step (from Sources) change amplitude
Sum (from Math) need + and
Gain (from Math) change gain value
Integrator (from Continuous)
Scope (from Sinks)

Double click items to view or change property


GAIN block can be rotated by format.
T branch mouse online/CTRL and right mouse
button to extend line.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

66

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SIMULINK First Order Step Response

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

67

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SIMULINK First Order Impulse Response

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

68

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Unit Impulse Response Second Order

f(t) = (t), x& 0 = 0, x 0 = 0

For unit impulse,

&x& + 2n x& + n 2 x = (t)

Then,
with

x&0 = 0 and x 0 = 0

Laplace with I.C. = 0


2

(s + 2 n s + n ) X (s) = 1

X(s) =

1
s 2 + 2 n s + n 2

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

69

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Unit Impulse Response - Second Order


Note that (assume <1)

s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 = (s + n ) 2 ( n 2 ) + n 2

= (s + n ) 2 + n 2 (1 2 )
= (s + ) 2 + d 2
So that

X(s) =

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

1
(s + ) 2 + d 2

70

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Unit Impulse Response - Second Order


The inverse Laplace

1
d
x(t ) = L
2
2
d ( s + ) + d
1

=
=

d
1

e t sin d t
e t sin d t

If I.C. 0, then a more involved (but possible


solution) exists.
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

71

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Unit Step Response Second Order


For unit step f ( t ) = u ( t ),

x 0 = 0, x& 0 = 0

&x& + 2 n x& + n 2 x = u ( t )
with x& 0 = 0, x 0 = 0
Laplace with IC=0 gives

1
(s + 2 n s + n ) x (s) =
s
1
1
X(s) =
s s 2 + 2 n s + n 2
2

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

72

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Unit Step Response Second Order


Again assume <1 - then

1
X(s) = 2
n

s + 2 n
2
2
s s + 2 n s + n

Then the inverse Laplace

1 1

s + 2 n
X (t ) = L 2 2
2
n s s + 2 n s + n
1

1
n t
X (t ) = 2 1 e
sin d t
cos d t +
2
n
1

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

73

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.40

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

74

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

Example 1.40 (cont)

Example from Dynamic Systems by Vu and Esfandiari


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

75

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

General Laplace Formulation

&x& + 2 n x& + n 2 x = f ( t )
Laplace

L ( &x&) = s 2 x( s ) sx(0) x& (0)


L ( x& ) = sx( s ) x(0)
L ( x) = X ( s )
L F (t ) = F ( s )
s 2 x(s) sx(0) x& (0) + 2n [sx(s) x(0)] + n x(s) = F(s)
2

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

76

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

General Laplace Formulation

(s 2 + 2 n s + n 2 ) x (s)

= F(s) + (s + 2 n )x(0) + x& (0)


Applied Force and
Initial Conditions

F(s)
(s + 2 n )x(0) + x& (0)
+
x(s) = 2
2
2
2
s + 2 n s + n
s + 2 n s + n
If initial conditions are zero, then the system
transfer function is
aka

output
input

x (s)
1
= H (s) = 2
2
F(s)
s + 2 n s + n

ms + cs + k

Many books use G(s)!


22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

77

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)

100&x& + 40 x& + 1000 x = F( t )

OR
22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

78

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)


In alternate form (using the Transfer Function
Block)

100&x& + 40 x& + 1000 x = F( t )

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

79

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory

SIMULINK 2nd Order Impulse Response (or RAMP)


General Equation is
1
&x& = [F( t ) kx cx& ]
m
m&x& + cx& + kx = F( t )
This example is

100&x& + 40 x& + 1000 x = F( t )

22.451 Dynamic Systems Mathematical Topics

80

Dr. Peter Avitabile


Modal Analysis & Controls Laboratory