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MATERIAL BALANCE

We produce acetaldehyde by dehydrogenation of ethanol.


Reaction: C2H5OH
Catalyst: Cu -Co-Cr2O3
Temperature: 280 3500C

CH3CHO + H2

OVERALL MATERIAL BALANCE:


Basis: One hour of operation.
Molecular weight of ethanol = 46 kg/kmol.
Molecular weight of acetaldehyde = 44 kg/kmol.
Molecular weight of hydrogen = 2 kg/kmol.
Amount of acetaldehyde to be produced = 50 TPD
50 *1000
24

=
=2083.335kg.hr
=47.34kmol/hr
conversion = 95%
To account for losses, taking acetaldehyde produced to be some extra ( let the value be
2500kg/hr )
2500 * 46
44 * 0.95

Amount of ethanol required for 95% conversion=


=2751.196kg/hr

BALANCE ACROSS EACH EQUIPMENT:


VAPORISER AND HEAT EXCHANGER :
Basis : one hour operation
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Ethanol at inlet= 2751.196kg/hr =59.80kmol/hr


Ethanol at outlet=2751.196kg/hr =59.80kmol/hr
REACTOR:
Basis: one hour operation
Conversion =95%
Ethanol available =2751.96kg

Amount of acetaldehyde produced=0.95 *

2751.96
46

= 59.80kmol

=2500 kg

Amount of hydrogen produced= 0.95 *

2751.96
46

= 59.80kmol=113.62kg

Amount of ethanol unreacted= 2751.96 113.62 2500 kg


=137.57 kg
INLET:
Ethanol = 2751.96 kg
OUTLET:
Acetaldehyde = 2500 kg
Ethanol = 137.57kg
Hydrogen = 113.62 kg

CONDENSER I
In this condenser, cooling water at 300C is used as cooling fluid which can best cool the
incoming stream to 400C. At this temperature the product stream would be a two phase mixture
and the mixture composition is found out from VLE data.
At 40oC, ethanol in vapour phase = 4.1mol%
Ethanol in liquid phase = 55mol%
ml= moles of liquid containing ethanol and acetaldehyde
mv=moles of vapour containing ethanol and acetaldehyde
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from mole balance, we have,


Ethanol:
0.55*ml + 0.041*mv = 2.99
Acetaldehyde :
0.45*ml + 0.9959*mv = 56.81
On solving,
ml =1.05kmol
mv=58.75kmol
OUTLET:
Vapour phase:
Hydrogen= 113.62kg
Acetaldehyde=0.959*58.75= 2479.95kg
Ethanol=0.041*58.75=110.80kg
Liquid phase:
Acetaldehyde=0.45*1.05=0.85kmol=20.79kg
Ethanol=0.55*1.05=1.04kmol=26.56kg

CONDENSER II
In this condenser , cooling fluid is saturated ammonia. It condenses the vapours from 40oC to
vapours at -25oC and the liquid stream is at 40oC.
From VLE data,
Acetaldehyde in vapour phase= 3.1mol%
Acetaldehyde in liquid phase=96.9mol%
OUTLET:
Vapour phase:
Acetaldehyde=0.031*2478.96=76.84kg
Hydrogen=113.62kg
Liquid phase:
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Acetaldehyde=.969*2478.96=2401.11kg
Ethanol=110.80kg

DISTILLATION COLUMN
Assuming recovery of acetaldehyde in distillate=98%
feed to distillation column:
ethanol=26.56+110.80=137.365kg
acetaldehyde=20.79 + 2402.11=2422.90kg
total feed=2560.265 kg

xd=

2422.90
44
2422.90 137.36

44
46

=0.95

xd=0.98
acetaldehyde = 0.98*2422.90= 2374.442kg
A
44

A E

44 46

=0.98
E=49.64 kg
D=49.64+2374.442=2424.052 kg
Now, F=D+W
W=F-D
=2560.265-2424.085
=136.179 Kg
xFF = xdD+xwW
0.95*2560.265=0.98*2424.085 +xw*136.179
xw=0.412

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