Voluntary migration- This is when people move of their own free willthey are usually trying to find a better standard of living, for example many people are moving from Eastern European countries like Poland to Western European countries like the UK for jobs and higher wages. They are called economic migrants. Forced migration- This is when people have no choice, they either move or face extreme hardship or even death. This often happens when there is a natural disaster or a war. These migrants are called refugees. For example at the end of 2005 200,000 people had to flee Sudan to Chad after there had been a two year civil war. Other examples of Forced migration are the Palestinians into The West Bank after the creation of Israel. The movement of people from Montserrat in 1997 after a volcanic eruption. Permanent/Temporary Migrationwhen people move either on a permanent or temporary basis. An example of permanent migration would be Irish migrants moving to the USA in the 19th century due to famine. An example of temporary migration would be Turkish construction workers going to Germany on short-term work
Case Study of Forced Migration- Darfur (Sudan) to Chad 2005 onwards By early 2006 there had been three years of civil war in Sudan’s western region of Darfur. The UN said that the events in Darfur would have a serious impact on not just Sudan and the refugees, but on the neighbouring country of Chad (where refugees fled). Details of the crisis… • 180,000 Darfuri’s killed • 200,000 fled to Chad and live in refugee camps. • Up to 1.8 million live in refugee camps in Darfur. • Hundreds of villages been burnt out, people killed and assaulted in their homes. Why did 200,000 people flee Darfur? There has been tension in Darfur for many years. The Darfuri’s say that Sudan’s government discriminate against them because they are not Muslims and do not allow them equal land and grazing rights. The Darfuri’s also have rebel groups (including the SLA ) who were originally formed to protect the black African farmers against the government soldiers and the Arab militia’s who support the government. In 2003 rebels started attacking government targets as a rebellion against discrimination. The Government and militia fought back- with air raids on Darfuri villages. The Arab militia then followed- riding into Darfuri villages on horses and camels slaughtering men, raping women and stealing anything they can find, and burning what they don’t want. Refugees in Chad The 200,000 people who fled from Darfur into Chad sought safety. They arrived in a remote desert region where water is in very short supply. They made rough shelters just over the border – but these were still near enough for the Arab militia to strike. In 2004 the UN intervened and moved the refugees a safe distance over the border. However many still live in Darfur close to the border and are vulnerable to attack. Conditions in refugee camps are very poor, and 1 million children are malnourished, many facing starvation. The government have not been particularly co-operative with Western Aid Agencies who are trying to improve the

Conditions experienced by those living in the refugee camps