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Voluntary migration- This is when Case Study of Forced Migration- Darfur (Sudan) to Chad 2005 onwards
people move of their own free will-
By early 2006 there had been three years of civil war in Sudan’s western region of Darfur. The
they are usually trying to find a better UN said that the events in Darfur would have a serious impact on not just Sudan and the
standard of living, for example many refugees, but on the neighbouring country of Chad (where refugees fled).
people are moving from Eastern
European countries like Poland to Details of the crisis…
Western European countries like the • 180,000 Darfuri’s killed
UK for jobs and higher wages. They • 200,000 fled to Chad and live in refugee camps.
• Up to 1.8 million live in refugee camps in Darfur.
are called economic migrants.
• Hundreds of villages been burnt out, people killed and assaulted in their homes.

Why did 200,000 people flee Darfur?

Forced migration- This is when
people have no choice, they either There has been tension in Darfur for many years. The Darfuri’s say that Sudan’s government
move or face extreme hardship or discriminate against them because they are not Muslims and do not allow them equal land and
even death. This often happens when grazing rights. The Darfuri’s also have rebel groups (including the SLA ) who were originally
formed to protect the black African farmers against the government soldiers and the Arab
there is a natural disaster or a war. militia’s who support the government. In 2003 rebels started attacking government targets as
These migrants are called refugees. a rebellion against discrimination. The Government and militia fought back- with air raids on
For example at the end of 2005 Darfuri villages. The Arab militia then followed- riding into Darfuri villages on horses and
200,000 people had to flee Sudan to camels slaughtering men, raping women and stealing anything they can find, and burning what
Chad after there had been a two year they don’t want.
civil war. Other examples of Forced Refugees in Chad
migration are the Palestinians into The
West Bank after the creation of Israel. The 200,000 people who fled from Darfur into Chad sought safety. They arrived in a remote
The movement of people from desert region where water is in very short supply. They made rough shelters just over the
Montserrat in 1997 after a volcanic border – but these were still near enough for the Arab militia to strike. In 2004 the UN
intervened and moved the refugees a safe distance over the border. However many still live in
eruption. Darfur close to the border and are vulnerable to attack. Conditions in refugee camps are very
poor, and 1 million children are malnourished, many facing starvation. The government have
not been particularly co-operative with Western Aid Agencies who are trying to improve the
Permanent/Temporary Migration-
when people move either on a
Conditions experienced by those
permanent or temporary basis. An
living in the refugee camps
example of permanent migration
would be Irish migrants moving to the
USA in the 19th century due to famine.
An example of temporary migration
would be Turkish construction workers
going to Germany on short-term work

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