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Unit 2


1 completely and in every way:

He made his reasons for resigning absolutely clear.
Are you absolutely sure?
This cake is absolutely delicious.
2 used to emphasize something:
The burglars took absolutely everything.
Jim knew absolutely nothing about the business when he joined the firm.
He has absolutely no experience of marketing.
absolutely not!

spoken used when you strongly disagree with someone or when you do not want
someone to do something:
'Do you let your kids travel alone at night?' 'Absolutely not!'

spoken used to say that you completely agree with someone

aerobics [uncountable]
a very active type of physical exercise done to music, usually in a class
allow [transitive]

to let someone do or have something, or let something happen [= permit]

allow somebody/something to do something
My parents wouldn't allow me to go to the party.
Women are not allowed to enter the mosque.
Don't allow your problems to dominate your life.
allow somebody something
Passengers are allowed one item of hand luggage each.
How much time are we allowed?
allow somebody in/out/up etc
I don't allow the cat in the bedroom.
The audience is not allowed backstage.

something is (not) allowed (=something is or is not officially permitted)

Are dictionaries allowed in the exam?
We don't allow diving in the pool.

to make it possible for something to happen or for someone to do something,

especially something helpful or useful[= permit]:
This adjustment of the figures allows a fairer comparison.
allow for
Our new system will allow for more efficient use of resources.
allow somebody to do something
A 24-hour ceasefire allowed the two armies to reach an agreement.
allow somebody something
a seatbelt that allows the driver greater freedom of movement

to be sure that you have enough time, money, food etc available for a particular
allow somebody something
Allow yourselves plenty of time to get to the airport.
allow something for somebody/something
I've allowed half a bottle of wine for each person.

formal to accept that something is correct or true, or that something is acceptable

according to the rules or law
allow that
I allow that there may have been a mistake.
The judge allowed the evidence.
allow me

formal used as a polite way of offering to help someone do something:

'Allow me,' the waiter said, opening the door.


allow for somebody/something

phrasal verb

to consider the possible facts, problems, costs etc involved in something when making
a plan, calculation, or judgment:
Allowing for inflation, the cost of the project will be $2 million.
You should always allow for the possibility that it might rain.
allow of something
phrasal verb

to make it possible for something to happen or be accepted:

The facts allow of only one interpretation.


[countable usually plural] plans and preparations that you must make so that
something can happen
arrangement for
I've agreed to help with arrangements for the party.
The family are making arrangements for his funeral.
Special arrangements can be made for guests with disabilities.
The hotel was full so we had to make alternative arrangements.
travel arrangements

[uncountable and countable] something that has been organized or agreed

on [= agreement]
arrangement between
An arrangement between the two couples ensured there was always someone to look
after the children.
arrangement with
The school has an arrangement with local businesses.
an arrangement to do something

Maxine cancelled our arrangement to meet.

come to an/some arrangement (with somebody) (=make an agreement that is
acceptable to everyone)
It would usually cost $500, but I'm sure we can come to some kind of arrangement.
Pets are permitted at the resort by prior arrangement.

[countable usually plural] the way in which something is organized:

The airport is currently reviewing its security arrangements.
domestic arrangements

[uncountable and countable] a group of things that are put in a particular position, or
the process of doing this
arrangement of
the traditional arrangement of desks in rows
a beautiful flower arrangement

[countable] a piece of music that has been written or changed for a particular
a piano arrangement of an old folk song

bargain [countable]
1 something you buy cheaply or for less than its usual price:
There are no bargains in the clothes shops at the moment.
It's an attractive little home, and I think it's a bargain.
That second-hand table was a real bargain.
Good knives don't come at bargain prices.
Thousands of bargain hunters (=people looking for things to buy at low prices)
queued up for hours.
2 an agreement, made between two people or groups to do something in return for
something else
make/strike a bargain

Management and unions have struck a bargain over wage increases.

I've kept my side of the bargain and I expect you to keep yours.
drive a hard bargain

at HARD (18)

into the bargain

also in the bargain American English in addition to everything else:

I am now tired, cold, and hungry, with a headache into the bargain.

busy comparative busier, superlative busiest


if you are busy, you are working hard and have a lot of things to do:
She's busy now - can you phone later?
a busy mother of four
busy with
Mr Haynes is busy with a customer at the moment.
busy doing something
Rachel's busy studying for her exams.
There were lots of activities to keep the kids busy.

a busy period of time is full of work or other activities:

December is the busiest time of year for shops.
a busy day
He took time out of his busy schedule to visit us.

a busy place is very full of people or vehicles and movement:

We live on a very busy road.


especially American English if a telephone you are calling is busy, it makes a repeated
sound to tell you that the person you are calling is talking on their
telephone [= engaged British English]
I called Sonya, but her line was busy.
I keep getting a busy signal.

a pattern or design that is busy is too full of small details - used to show disapproval

charity plural charities

1 [countable] an organization that gives money, goods, or help to people who are
poor, sick etc [ charitable]:
Several charities sent aid to the flood victims.
charity event/walk/concert etc (=an event organized to collect money for a charity)
2 [uncountable] charity organizations in general:
All the money raised by the concert will go to charity.
for charity
The children raised over 200 for charity.
3 [uncountable] money or gifts given to help people who are poor, sick etc:
refugees living on charity
Her pride wouldn't allow her to accept charity.
4 [uncountable] formal kindness or sympathy that you show towards other people:
Mother Teresa's works of charity
Newspaper reports showed him little charity.
charity begins at home

a phrase meaning that you should take care of your own family, country etc before
you help other people
cheer up
phrasal verb

1 to become less sad, or to make someone feel less sad:

Cheer up! The worst is over.

They cheered up when they saw us coming along.

cheer somebody up
Here's a bit of news that will cheer you up.
You both need cheering up, I think.
cheer something up

to make a place look more attractive:

I bought some posters to cheer the place up a bit.

cheque British English ; check American English [countable]

a printed piece of paper that you write an amount of money on, sign, and use instead
of money to pay for things
cheque for
They sent me a cheque for 100.
by cheque
Can I pay by cheque?
You could write her a cheque.
cash a cheque (=get cash in exchange for a cheque)

clown [countable]
1 someone who wears funny clothes, a red nose, bright MAKE-UP on their face etc,
and does silly things to make people laugh, especially at a CIRCUS
2 someone who often makes jokes or behaves in a funny way:
Frankie's a bit of a clown.
class clown (=someone in a school class who behaves in a funny or silly way)
3 a stupid or annoying person:
I can't understand what she sees in that clown.

coach [transitive]
1 to teach a person or team the skills they need for a sport [= train; coaching]:
Nigel coaches a cricket team in his spare time.
2 especially British English to give someone private lessons in a particular subject,
especially so that they can pass an important test [ coaching]
coach somebody in/for something
The child was coached for stardom by her mother.
3 to help someone prepare what they should say or do in a particular situation - used
to show disapproval [ coaching]
coach somebody in/on something
The girl must have been carefully coached in what to say in court.

1 [uncountable] the quality of being suitable or useful for a particular purpose,
especially by making something easier or saving you time:
Ready meals sell well because of their convenience.
the convenience of doing something
Most of us like the convenience of using credit cards to buy things.
for convenience
For convenience, the German translation is printed below.
2 [uncountable] what is easiest and best for a particular person
at somebody's convenience (=at a time that is best and easiest for someone)
These meals can be prepared in advance, and served at your convenience.
for somebody's convenience
For your convenience, the bank is open until 7 p.m.
Services should be run to suit the convenience of the customer, not the staff.
3 [countable] something that is useful because it saves you time or means that you
have less work to do:
The supermarket offers a bag-packing service, as a convenience to customers.
a hotel with all the modern conveniences
at your earliest convenience

formal as soon as possible - used in letters:

We should be grateful if you would reply at your earliest convenience.
5 [countable usually plural] also public convenience formal a public toilet
a marriage of convenience

a marriage that has been agreed for a particular purpose, not because the two people
love each other:
In the past most royal marriages were marriages of convenience, arranged for
political reasons.
crazy about somebody/something
liking someone very much, or very interested in something:
He's crazy about her.
Dan's crazy about football.

decimal [countable]
a FRACTION (=a number less than 1) that is shown as a FULL STOP followed by the
number of TENTHs, HUNDREDTHs etc. The numbers 0.5, 0.175, and 0.661 are decimals

1 [intransitive and transitive] British English to paint the inside of a room, put special
paper on the walls etc:
The bathroom is decorated in green and yellow.
We plan to spend the weekend decorating.

deep comparative deeper, superlative deepest


a) going far down from the top or from the surface [ shallow]:
The castle is on an island surrounded by a deep lake.
The swimming pool has a deep end and a shallow end for kids.
We'll take the boat out into deep water where we can dive.
a deep narrow valley
b) you use deep to say what distance something goes down from the top or surface
2 metres/6 feet etc deep
Dig a hole around 12 inches deep.
ankle-deep/waist-deep etc
In places, the snow was waist-deep (=deep enough to reach a person's waist).

going far in from the outside or from the front edge of something:
a deep wound
She was sitting in a deep leather chair.

serious or severe:
Despite the peace process, there are deep divisions in the community.
The country is in a deep recession.
Evan would be in deep trouble if he was caught.


a deep breath or SIGH is one in which you breathe a lot of air in or out:
She stopped and took a deep breath.
Tom gave a deep sigh of relief.

a deep feeling, belief etc is very strong and sincere[= profound]:

May I express my deepest sympathy.
The letters show her deep affection for him.
He has a deep understanding of the environment.

a deep sound is very low:

Her laugh was deep and loud.
I love that deep bass line.

a deep colour is dark and strong [ light, pale]:

She gazed at him with wide deep blue eyes.
The berries are a deep red colour.

important but complicated or difficult to understand:

These problems are too deep for me.
There is a deep issue of principle involved.

if someone is in a deep sleep, it is difficult to wake them:

He lay down and fell into a deep sleep.
deep in thought/conversation etc

thinking so hard or paying attention to something so much that you do not notice
anything else that is happening around you
deep in debt

owing a lot of money

a deep impression

a strong effect or influence that remains for a long time:

What he said made a deep impression on me.

a deep person is serious and intelligent, but is hard to know well:

Henry has always been a deep one. He keeps his views to himself.
be in deep shit

spoken not polite to be in a bad situation because of something you have done
be in deep water

to be in trouble or in a difficult or serious situation:

The company is in deep water over their refusal to reduce prices.

a deep ball is hit, thrown, or kicked to a far part of the sports field
jump/be thrown in at the deep end

to choose to do or be made to do a very difficult job without having prepared for it:
She decided to jump in at the deep end, buy a farm, and teach herself.
go off at the deep end

informal to become angry suddenly and violently, usually when there is not a good
WORD FOCUS: colour
a particular kind of colour: shade, hint, hue
words for describing dark colours: dark, deep, rich
words for describing light colours: light, pale, soft, pastel
words for describing bright colours:
bright, brilliant, vivid, garishdisapproving, gaudy disapproving
having a lot of colours: colourful, multicoloured British English/multicolored
American English
2 [transitive] to make something look more attractive by putting something pretty on
Children's pictures decorated the walls of the classroom.
decorate something with something
an old-fashioned dress decorated with ribbons and lace
3 [transitive] to give someone a MEDAL as an official sign of honour
decorate somebody for something
soldiers decorated for bravery

without any doubt [= certainly]:
'Do you reckon Margot will be there?' ' Definitely not.'
The hotel fitness centre is definitely worth a visit.
I definitely need a holiday.
surely, definitely, certainly, naturally, be sure to
distract [transitive]
to take someone's attention away from something by making them look at or listen to
something else:
Try not to distract the other students.

distract somebody/something from something

Coverage of the war was used to distract attention from other matters.

having or needing a lot of energy or determination:
an energetic man
an energetic drive to get more customers
energetic in doing something
We need to be more energetic in promoting ourselves abroad.
energetically adverb:
He fought energetically against apartheid.


[countable] something that happens, especially something important, interesting or

one of the most important events in the history of mankind
Leaving home was a major event in his life.
the events which led up to the prime minister's resignation
Police are trying to reconstruct the sequence of events on the night of the murder.
His resignation triggered a chain of events (=series of events which each cause the
next one to happen) that led eventually to the downfall of the government.
Nothing you could have done would have changed the course of events (=the way in
which events happened).

[countable] a performance, sports competition, party etc at which people gather

together to watch or take part in something:
The conference was an important social event (=an event at which people can meet
each other).
one of the major sporting events of the year
charity/fund-raising etc event
The school raises money by organizing fund-raising events.

[countable] one of the races or competitions that are part of a large sports
The next event will be the 100 metres.
The 800 metres is not his best event.
in any/either event

also at all events used to say that something will definitely happen or be true in
spite of anything else that may happen[= in any case]:
I might see you tomorrow, but I'll phone in any event.
in the event

used to emphasize what actually happened in a situation as opposed to what you

thought might happen [= as it happened]:
Extra police officers were brought in, although in the event the demonstration
passed off peacefully.
in the event of something

also in the event that something happens used to tell people what
they should do if something happens:
He left a letter for me to read in the event of his death.
in the normal course of events

if things happen in the normal way[= normally]:

In the normal course of events, the money is released within about three months.

1 extremely tired [= worn out]:
You look absolutely exhausted.
exhausted from/by
I was exhausted by the journey.
2 having or containing no more of a particular thing or substance:

an exhausted coal mine

fancy comparative fancier, superlative fanciest

1 fancy hotels, restaurants, cars etc are expensive and fashionable[= swanky]:
Harry took me to a fancy restaurant for our anniversary.
fancy prices British English (=very high and often unreasonable prices)
2 having a lot of decoration or bright colours, or made in a complicated way:
fancy soaps in seashell shapes
I just want a basic sports coat - nothing fancy.
3 complicated and needing a lot of skill [ straightforward]:
I can't do all that fancy stuff on the computer.
Negotiating a deal can take some fancy footwork (=skill at making deals).
4 [only before noun] American English fancy food is of a high quality
WORD FOCUS: expensive
high used about prices, rents, or charges
fancy used about restaurants, cars, or clothes that look expensive
posh used about hotels, restaurants, or cars that look expensive and are used by rich or
high-class people
cost a lot also cost a bomb informal to be very expensive
be out of somebody's price range to be more than someone can afford to pay
be a rip-off informal to be much too expensive, so that you feel you have been
exorbitant exorbitant prices are much too high
feedparticiple fed

a) to give food to a person or animal:
Have you fed the cat?
feed yourself
She was too weak to feed herself.
feed something to somebody
Several children were feeding bread to the ducks.
feed somebody on/with something
They were fed well on her mother's home cooking.
b) to provide enough food for a group of people:
groceries to feed a family of five

The prison is required to feed and clothe the prisoners.


[transitive] to give a special substance to a plant, which helps it grow:

Feed the tomatoes once a week.
feed something with something
Feed houseplants with a liquid fertiliser.

[intransitive] if a baby or an animal feeds, they eat:

Frogs generally feed at night.
Let your baby feed as long as she wants.

having plenty of food or not enough food:

a well-dressed, well-fed woman

[transitive always + adverb/preposition] to put information into a computer over a

period of time
feed something into something
Figures are fed into the computer, which then predicts the likely profit.

[transitive] to supply something, especially a liquid, gas, or electricity:

The public baths are fed by natural springs.
feed something to something
The sound is fed directly to the headphones.
feed something with something
Laura crouched by the fire, feeding it with dry sticks.


[transitive] to put something into something else, especially gradually and through a
small hole
feed something into/through something
A tube was fed down the patient's throat into her stomach.
feed something into something
She fed her last two coins into the machine for a cup of coffee.
Shelton fed the electricity meter.

[transitive] to increase the strength of an emotion, desire etc:

Her depression grew, fed by her bitter experiences.
feed an addiction/need etc

to satisfy a strong need, such as a need for a drug:

He committed both crimes to feed his addiction to heroin.

[transitive] to give someone information or ideas over a period time

feed somebody with something
She feeds the media with stories, which is a way of getting free advertising.
feed something to somebody
US intelligence had been feeding false information to a KGB agent.

[transitive] to throw or hit a ball to someone else on your team, especially so that they
can make a point
feed something to somebody
He fed the ball to Jol, who scored.

feed lines/jokes to somebody

to say things to another performer so that they can make jokes

feed your face

informal to eat a lot of food [= stuff yourself]


[transitive] to send a television or radio programme somewhere so that it can be

feed somebody a line

informal to tell someone something which is not true, so that they will do what you
; mouth to feed

atMOUTH (10)

feed back
phrasal verb

to give advice or criticism to someone about something they have done

feed back on
We're just waiting for the manager to feed back on it.
feed something back (to somebody)
I am grateful to all those who fed back their comments.
They feed back to the government the reactions of the people affected.
feed into something
phrasal verb

to have an effect on something or help to make it happen:

The influence of Italian designer fashion feeds into sports fashion.
feed off something
phrasal verb

1 if an animal feeds off something, it gets food from it:

birds that feed off the seeds from trees
2 to use something to increase, become stronger, or succeed - sometimes used to
show disapproval:
fad diets that feed off our desire to be thin
feed on something
phrasal verb

1 if an animal feeds on a particular food, it usually eats that food:

Owls feed on mice and other small animals.
2 if a feeling or process feeds on something, it becomes stronger because of it:
Prejudice feeds on ignorance.
feed somebody up
phrasal verb

to give someone a lot of food to make them more healthy [= fatten upAmerican


[countable] British English a marked out area of ground on which a sport is

played [= field]
football/cricket/rugby etc pitch
the world-famous Wembley football pitch
He ran the length of the pitch and scored.
on the pitch (=playing a sport)
Jack was on the pitch for his school in the Senior Cup Final.

goggles [plural]
a pair of GLASSES made of glass or plastic with a rubber or plastic edge that fit against
your skin and protect your eyes

graduate [countable]
1 someone who has completed a university degree, especially a first
degree[ undergraduate]:
a Harvard graduate
graduate of
a graduate of Edinburgh University
university graduates
a history graduate
graduate in
He's a graduate in philosophy.
2 American English someone who has completed a course at a college, school etc:
a high-school graduate

1 [intransitive and transitive] to try to answer a question or form an opinion when you
are not sure whether you will be correct:
I'd say he's around 50, but I'm only guessing.
guess right/correctly/wrong
If you guess correctly, you have another turn.
guess what/who/how etc
You can guess what happened next.
guess at
We can only guess at the cause of the crash.
What star sign are you? No, let me guess.
difficult/hard/easy etc to guess
It's hard to guess his age because he dyes his hair.
2 [intransitive and transitive] to realize that something is true even though you do not
know for certain
guess (that)
I guessed that you must be related because you look so similar.
guess from
I guessed from his expression that he already knew about the accident.
Can you guess the identity of this week's special guest?
keep somebody guessing

to make someone feel excited or not sure about what will happen next:
a thriller that keeps audiences guessing

I guess

a) used to say that you think something is true or likely, although you are not sure:
His light's on, so I guess he's still up.
b) used to say that you will do something even though you do not really want to:
I'm tired, so I guess I'll stay home tonight.
I guess so/not

spoken used to agree or disagree with a statement or question:

'You're one lucky guy.' 'I guess so.'
'I don't really have any choice, do I?' 'I guess not.'
guess what/you'll never guess who/what etc

spoken used before you tell someone something that will surprise them:
Guess what! Bradley's resigned.
You'll never guess who I saw today.


health [uncountable]
1 the general condition of your body and how healthy you

damage your healthimprove your healthgood/excellent

healthpoor/ill healthfailing health (=when someone is becoming
more ill)be in good/excellent/the best of healthbe in poor
healthbe good/bad for your healthsomebody's state of
healthmental healthhealth carehealth problemhealth benefits
(of something)health risk/hazard (=something that could
damage your health)health warning (=a warning printed on a
product that can harm you)

1 [uncountable and countable] an act of putting a drug into someone's body using a
special needle [ shot]:
The nurse gave me a tetanus injection.
injection of
an injection of insulin
The children hate having injections.
The only sure treatment is antibiotics, preferably by injection.
2 [countable] an addition of money to something in order to improve it
injection of
a massive injection of public funds
Our local football club may fold unless it gets a cash injection.
3 [uncountable and countable] the act of forcing a liquid into something:
a fuel injection system

interior designer [countable]

someone whose job is to plan and choose the colours, materials, furniture etc for the
inside of buildings, especially people's houses

jogger [countable]
someone who runs slowly and steadily as a way of exercising:
a jogger out for his early morning run

journalist [countable]
someone who writes news reports for newspapers, magazines, television, or
radio [ reporter]:
a well-known journalist and broadcaster

1 [countable] informal a child:
She'd always loved animals since she was a little kid.
He's married with three kids.

A neighbor volunteered to keep an eye on the kids (=their children or the children
they are responsible for).
2 [countable] informal a young person:
college kids
3 [countable usually singular] used by adults to address a person who is younger than
Hey kid, come here.
kid's stuff

also kid stuff American English something that is too easy or boring:
Pokemon? Oh boy, that is kid stuff!
a) [countable] a young goat
b) [uncountable] very soft leather made from the skin of a young goat:
a pair of white kid boots
kid gloves

a way of treating someone kindly and carefully because they easily become upset
treat/handle somebody with kid gloves
I want you to treat Hayley with kid gloves today. She's still upset about her father.

1 [intransitive] to make sounds with your voice, usually while you are smiling,
because you think something is funny:
Maria looked at him and laughed.
laugh at/about
'I didn't know what I was doing,' she said, laughing at the memory.
Tony was laughing so hard he had to steady himself on the table.
Nora laughed so much that she nearly cried.
laugh heartily/uproariously/hysterically etc (=laugh a lot)
The kids tumbled around on the floor, laughing hysterically.
He couldn't help it; he burst out laughing (=suddenly started laughing).
laugh your head off
He's one of the few writers who can make me laugh out loud.
2 [transitive] to say something in a voice that shows you are amused:

'You look ridiculous!' Nick laughed.

not know whether to laugh or cry

to feel upset or annoyed about something bad that has happened, but also able to see
that there is something funny about it:
And when I couldn't find the passports - honestly, I didn't know whether to laugh or
don't make me laugh

spoken used when someone has just told you something that is completely untrue,
asked for something impossible etc:
'Can you finish this by tomorrow?' 'Don't make me laugh.'
no laughing matter

informal something serious that should not be joked about:

It's no laughing matter having to walk by a group of rowdy drunks every night just
to get home.
be laughed out of court

also be laughed out of town/business etc American English if a person

or idea is laughed out of court etc, the idea is not accepted because people think it is
completely stupid:
We can't propose that! We'd be laughed out of court!
you have to laugh

spoken used to say that, even though a situation is annoying or disappointing, you can
also see that there is something funny about it

be laughing all the way to the bank

informal to make a lot of money without making much effort

somebody will be laughing on the other side of their face

spoken used to say that although someone is happy or confident now, they will be in
trouble later
be laughing

British English spoken informal to be happy or in a good situation, for example

because something has had a successful result for you:
Well they paid me, didn't they, so I'm laughing.
laugh in somebody's face

to behave towards someone in a way that shows that you do not respect them:
I told my sister what I thought, and she just laughed in my face.
laugh up your sleeve

to be secretly happy, especially because you have played a trick on someone or

criticized them without them knowing
giggle to laugh repeatedly in a silly way because you are amused, embarrassed, or
snigger to laugh unkindly and quietly, especially at something that is not meant to be
chuckle to laugh quietly, especially because you are thinking about something funny
roar/howl with laughter to laugh very loudly because you think something is very
be in hysterics to laugh uncontrollably
crack up informal to suddenly start laughing a lot
laugh at somebody/something

phrasal verb

1 to make unkind or funny remarks about someone, because they have done or said
something you think is stupid [= tease]:
I'm afraid the other kids will laugh at me because I don't understand.
2 to seem not to care about something that most people would worry about:
Young offenders just laugh at this sort of sentence.
laugh something off
phrasal verb

to pretend that something is less serious than it really is by laughing or joking about it:
Knox laughed off rumors that he would be running for mayor.

laughter [uncountable]
when people laugh, or the sound of people laughing:
Foster joined in the laughter.
He looked shocked, then burst into laughter (=started laughing).
roar/scream/shriek with laughter (=laugh very loudly)
Audiences roared with laughter.
He shook with laughter.
peals/gales/howls etc of laughter (=loud laughs)
The comment brought peals of laughter from her classmates.

lawyer [countable]
someone whose job is to advise people about laws, write formal agreements, or
represent people in court
lawyer, attorney, solicitor, barrister, counselLawyer is a general word for someone
who has professional training in legal work or who is an expert in the law.In American
English, the word attorney is often used instead, especially in legal or official
language and especially to refer to a lawyer who represents people in court.In British
English, there is a difference between a solicitor , who gives legal advice and prepares
legal documents, and a barrister , who represents people in court.In both American
and British English, someone's counsel is the lawyer or group of lawyers who
represent them in court.

leisure [uncountable]
1 time when you are not working or studying and can relax and do things you enjoy:
Most people now enjoy shorter working hours and more leisure time.
Watching television is now the nation's most popular leisure activity.
The hotel offers various leisure facilities such as a swimming pool and sauna.
The leisure industry (=the business of providing leisure activities) is now an
important part of the economy.

at (your) leisure

if you do something at your leisure, you do it slowly and without hurrying:

Come round for lunch and then we can discuss it at leisure.
Take the leaflets home and read them at your leisure.
gentleman/lady of leisure

someone who does not have to work - used humorously

lobby plural lobbies [countable]

1 a wide passage or large hall just inside the entrance to a public building[= foyer]:
a hotel lobby
I'll meet you in the entrance lobby.
a) a hall in the British parliament where members of parliament and the public meet
b) one of the two passages in the British parliament where members go to vote for or
against a BILL
3 [also + plural verb British English] a group of people who try to persuade a
government that a particular law or situation should be changed:
the anti-foxhunting lobby
a powerful environmental lobby group
4 an attempt to persuade a government to change a law, make a new law etc:
a mass lobby of Parliament by women's organizations

loose-fitting clothes are big and do not fit your body closely, so that they are
comfortable [= baggy; tight-fitting, tight]:
a loose-fitting jacket

trick [countable]

something you do in order to deceive someone:

Pretending he doesn't remember is an old trick of his.
He didn't really lose his wallet - that's just a trick.


something you do to surprise someone and to make other people laugh:

I'm getting tired of your silly tricks.
The girls were playing tricks on their teacher.

something that makes things appear to be different from the way they really are:
After walking for hours in the hot sun, his mind began playing tricks on him.
At first he thought someone was coming towards him, but it was just a trick of the

master's degree also master's informal [countable]

a university DEGREE such as an MA, M.SC., or M.S., that you can get by studying for
one or two years after your first degree

1 [uncountable and countable] a substance used for treating illness, especially a liquid
you drink:
Medicines should be kept out of the reach of children.
Have you been taking your medicine?
a medicine bottle
medicine chest/cabinet (=for keeping medicine in)
! Do not say that you 'drink medicine'. Say that you take your medicine.
2 [uncountable] the treatment and study of illnesses and injuries:
She studied medicine at Johns Hopkins University.
the remarkable achievements of modern medicine
complementary/alternative/folk etc medicine
traditional Chinese medicine
the best medicine

the best way of making you feel better when you are sad:
Laughter is the best medicine.

give someone a dose/taste of their own medicine

to treat someone as badly as they have treated you

take your medicine (like a man)

to accept an unpleasant situation or a punishment that you deserve, without



[uncountable and countable] your thoughts or your ability to think, feel, and imagine
It is impossible to understand the complex nature of the human mind.
Mind and body are closely related.
Meditation involves focusing the mind on a single object or word.
in somebody's mind
There was no doubt in my mind that it was the right decision to make.
Do you have a clear picture in your mind of what you want?
A plan began to form in his mind.
The event is still fresh in most people's minds.
independence/strength/flexibility of mind
men who were chosen for their independence of mind
change your mind

to change your decision, plan, or opinion about something:

I was afraid that Liz would change her mind and take me back home.
change your mind about
If you change your mind about the colour scheme, it's easy to just paint over it.
make up your mind/make your mind up

a) to decide which of two or more choices you want, especially after thinking for a
long time:

I wish he'd hurry up and make his mind up.

make up your mind/make your mind up about
He couldn't make up his mind about what to do with the money.
make up your mind whether
Karen couldn't make up her mind whether to apply for membership or not.
b) to become very determined to do something, so that you will not change your
No more argument My mind is made up.
make up your mind to do something
He had clearly made up his mind to end the affair.
make up your mind that
I made up my mind there and then that I would never get married.
c) to decide what your opinion is about someone or something
make up your mind/make your mind up about
I could never really make my mind up about him.
You're old enough to make your own mind up about smoking.
have somebody/something in mind (for something)

to have an idea about who or what you want for a particular purpose:
It was a nice house, but it wasn't quite what we had in mind.
Did you have anyone in mind for the job?
Have you any particular colour in mind for the bedroom?
bear/keep somebody/something in mind

to remember or think about someone or something when you are doing something:
It's a good idea - I'll keep it in mind.
You must always keep the reader in mind when writing a report.
Floor tiles can be difficult to clean - worth keeping in mind when you choose a new
bear/keep in mind that
Bear in mind that the price does not include flights.
More money should be given to housing, bearing in mind (=because of) the problem
of homelessness.

with somebody/something in mind

considering someone or something when doing something, and taking suitable action:
Most gardens designed with children in mind are safe but dull.
With these aims in mind, the school operates a broad-based curriculum.
on your/somebody's mind

a) if something is on your mind, you keep thinking or worrying about it:

He looked as though he had something on his mind.
Sorry I forgot. I've got a lot on my mind (=a lot of problems to worry about) at the
b) if something is on your mind, that is what you are thinking about:
She's the type of person who just says what's on her mind.
get/put somebody/something out of your mind

also put somebody/something to the back of your mind to stop

yourself thinking about someone or something:
I just can't seem to get her out of my mind.
You've got to try and put him out of your mind.
She put her disappointment to the back of her mind and concentrated on Dana.
cross/enter somebody's mind

also come into somebody's mind [not in progressive] if something crosses

your mind, you have a thought or idea:
It never crossed my mind that Lisa might be lying.
Suddenly a horrible thought came into my mind.
go/run/flash etc through somebody's mind

if something goes through your mind, you have a thought, especially for a short time:
She knew what was going through his mind.
All kinds of questions ran through my mind.

After the accident, one of the things that went through my mind was whether I would
be able to drive again.
come/spring to mind

[not in progressive] if something comes or springs to mind, you suddenly or

immediately think of it:
I just used the first excuse which sprang to mind.
A memory of last night came to mind, and he smiled.
Fatherhood doesn't immediately spring to mind when you think of James.
! Do not say that something 'comes to your mind' or 'springs to your mind'. Say that it
comes to mind or springs to mind.

[countable] used to talk about the way that someone thinks and the type of thoughts
they have:
He has a very devious mind.
My naturally suspicious mind thought he might be lying.

[countable usually singular] your intelligence and ability to think, rather than your
a mind trained to react with split-second accuracy
a brilliant/enquiring/logical etc mind
a bright child with an enquiring mind

[countable] someone who is very intelligent, especially in a particular subject or

activity [= brain]:
This is one of the issues that has most interested military minds.
Some of the finest minds in the country are working on the project.

state/frame of mind

the way someone is thinking and feeling at a particular time:

What happened had a lot to do with my state of mind at the time.
in a good/positive/relaxed etc frame of mind
She returned from lunch in a happier frame of mind.
in the right/wrong frame of mind
You have to be in the right frame of mind to play well.
to/in my mind

used to show you are giving your opinion about something:

The Internet, to my mind, represents information exchange at its best.
go/turn over something in your mind

to keep thinking about something because you are trying to understand it or solve a
Corbett rode along, turning over in his mind what Bruce had said.
be the last thing on somebody's mind

also be the furthest thing from somebody's mind to be the thing

that someone is least likely to be thinking about:
Insurance was the last thing on my mind when we set off that day.
take/keep/get somebody's mind off something

to make someone stop thinking and worrying about something:

Going back to work helped take my mind off my Ian's death.
Want a game? It might take your mind off things.
set/put somebody's mind at rest

also set/put somebody's mind at ease to make someone feel less

worried or anxious:
If you're worried, see a doctor to set your mind at rest.
it/that is a load/weight off somebody's mind

informal used to say that someone does not have to worry about something any more
prey on somebody's mind

also play on somebody's mind if a problem preys on your mind, you cannot
stop thinking about it:
Finally, she broached the subject that had been playing on her mind for days.
no one in their right mind ...

also who in their right mind ...? informal used to say that someone must be
stupid or crazy to do something:
Who in their right mind would want to do that job?
No woman in her right mind would go out with a man like him.
be out of your mind

informal to be stupid or crazy:

He must have been out of his mind to employ her.
be out of your mind with worry/grief etc

also be worried/bored etc out of your mind to be extremely worried,

bored etc:
It was getting late and I was out of my mind with worry.
go out of your mind

also lose your mind informal to become mentally ill or very worried, bored etc:
Nicole looked at him as if he'd gone out of his mind.
somebody's mind goes blank

also somebody's mind is a blank informal if your mind goes blank, you
suddenly cannot remember something:
For some inexplicable reason, her mind went completely blank.
His heart was thumping and his mind was a complete blank.
go (right/clean) out of somebody's mind

also slip somebody's mind if something goes out of your mind, you forget it,
especially because you are very busy:
I'm sorry. So much has been happening, it went clean out of my mind.
It had completely slipped her mind that Dave still had a key to the house.
bring/call something to mind

a) to make you think of someone or something:

The wine's sweet nutty taste calls to mind roasted chestnuts.
b) formal to remember something:
The only thing I could call to mind was something my mother once said.
put somebody in mind of somebody/something

[not in progressive] formal to remind someone of someone or something:

The girl put me in mind of my own daughter.
stick/stay in somebody's mind

if a name, fact etc sticks in your mind, you remember it for a long time:
For some reason, the name really stuck in Joe's mind.
One line from the poem had stayed in her mind.

be of one mind/of the same mind/of like mind

formal to have the same opinions as someone else:

It can be difficult to meet others of like mind.
be of one mind/of the same mind/of like mind on/about
The council and the government are of one mind on the long-term objective.
have a mind of your own

a) to have strong opinions about things, and make your own decisions without being
influenced by other people:
She's a woman without fear, with a mind of her own, who says what she thinks.
b) if an object has a mind of its own, it seems to control itself and does not work or
move in the way you want it to:
The bicycle seemed to have a mind of its own and I couldn't steer it straight.
put/set/turn your mind to something

to decide that you want to achieve something and try very hard to do it:
I think anyone can lose weight if they set their mind to it.
somebody's mind is not on something

if your mind is not on what you are doing, you are not thinking much about it because
you are thinking or worrying about something else:
His mind didn't seem to be on the game at all.
keep your mind on something

to keep paying attention to something, even though it is difficult:

He could hardly keep his mind on what she was saying.
keep your mind on the job/task in hand
Making notes is the best way of keeping your mind on the task at hand.

somebody's mind wanders

if your mind wanders, you no longer pay attention to something, especially because
you are bored:
Her mind was beginning to wander.
somebody's mind is racing

if your mind is racing, you are thinking very quickly and hard about something
because you are excited, frightened etc:
He tried to reassure her, but Carrie's mind was racing.
it's all in the mind

used to tell someone that they have imagined something and it does not really exist:
He's one of those doctors who say you're not really sick and it's all in the mind.
in your mind's eye

if you see something in your mind's eye, you imagine or remember clearly what it
looks like:
She paused, imagining the scene in her mind's eye.
have it in mind

formal to intend to do something

have it in mind to do something
For a long time I had it in mind to write a book about my experiences.
have it in mind that
I had it in mind that one day I might move to Spain.
have half a mind to do something


a) also have a good mind to do something used to say that you might
do something to show that you disapprove of something someone has done:
I've a good mind to tell him exactly what I think.
I've half a mind to stop him seeing her altogether.
b) used to say that you may decide to do something:
I've half a mind to come with you tomorrow.
mind over matter

used to say that you can use your thoughts to control physical feelings or an
unpleasant situation:
I'm scared, yes, but it's a case of mind over matter.

nonsense [uncountable]

ideas, opinions, statements etc that are not true or that seem very
stupid [= rubbish British English]
'I'm a prisoner in my own home.' 'Nonsense!'
absolute/utter/complete nonsense
'Nobody cares about me.' 'That's absolute nonsense, Mary!'
nonsense about
all this nonsense about health foods
If you ask me, these modern teaching methods are a load of nonsense (=a lot of
He was talking utter nonsense as usual.
be a nonsense British English
The government's housing policy is a nonsense.
By 1832 the idea had become an economic nonsense.
it is (a) nonsense to do something
It is nonsense to say that mistakes are never made.

behaviour that is stupid and annoying:

You're to stop that nonsense, do you hear me?
not stand/put up with/take any nonsense (=not accept such behaviour)

She won't stand any nonsense from the kids in her class.

speech or writing that has no meaning or cannot be understood:

Computer programs look like complete nonsense to me.
make (a) nonsense of something

British English to make an action, system, or plan useless or ineffective:

Having the army still in power makes a nonsense of last year's elections.
nonsense poems/verse/rhymes

poetry that is humorous because it does not have a sensible meaning


[countable] the process of cutting into someone's body to repair or remove a part that
is damaged

1 [sentence adverb] used when saying what bad thing will happen if something is not
You'll have to go now, otherwise you'll miss your bus.
Put your coat on, otherwise you'll get cold.
2 [sentence adverb] used when saying what would have happened or might have
happened if something else had not happened:
We were delayed at the airport. Otherwise we would have been here by lunch time.
They got two free tickets to Canada, otherwise they'd never have been able to afford
to go.
say/think/decide etc otherwise

to say, think, or decide something different:

The government claims that the economy is improving, but this survey suggests
A lot of people think otherwise.
4 except for what has just been mentioned:
He was tired but otherwise in good health.
[sentence adverb]
I could hear the distant noise of traffic. Otherwise all was still.
[+ adjective/adverb]
This spoiled an otherwise excellent piece of work.
Their arrival livened up an otherwise dull afternoon.
or otherwise

especially British English used to refer to the opposite of what has just been
We welcome any comments from viewers, favourable or otherwise.
The truth or otherwise of this diagnosis would be revealed in the future.
otherwise engaged

formal busy doing something else:

I'm afraid I will be otherwise engaged that day.
otherwise known as

also called:
Albert DeSalvo, otherwise known as the Boston Strangler
8 formal in a different way:
people who smoke or otherwise abuse their bodies
it cannot be otherwise/how can it be otherwise?

formalused to say that it is impossible for something to be different from the way it is:
Life in the military is hard - how can it be otherwise?


[intransitive and transitive] also pack up to put things into cases, bags etc ready
for a trip somewhere:
I forgot to pack my razor.
Have you finished packing yet?
pack your things/belongings
Kelly packed her things before breakfast.
pack a bag/case
You'd better pack your bags. We're leaving in an hour.
pack somebody something
Shall I pack us a picnic?

[transitive] also pack up to put something into a box or other container, so that it
can be moved, sold, or stored
pack something in/into something
Now wild mushrooms are available all year, packed in handy 25g boxes.

[intransitive always + adverb/preposition, transitive] to go in large numbers into a

space, or to make people or animals do this, until the space is too full
pack into/in/onto
50,000 fans packed into the stadium.
The sheep had been packed into a truck and transported without food or water.

[transitive] to cover or fill an object with soft material so that it does not get damaged
pack in/with
Glass must be packed in several layers of paper.


to press snow, soil, sand etc down so that it becomes hard and firm
pack something down
Pack the soil down firmly.
pack your bags

informal to leave a place and not return, especially because of a disagreement

pack a gun

American English informal to carry a gun

pack a (hard/hefty/strong etc) punch

also pack a wallopinformal to have a very strong or impressive effect:

The Spanish wine, with the flavour of honey, packed quite a punch.
send somebody packing

at SEND (11)
pack something away
phrasal verb

to put something back in a box, case etc where it is usually kept:

Christmas was over and the decorations packed away.
pack in
phrasal verb

pack something in

also pack something intosomething to do a lot in a limited period of

time, or fit a lot of information, ideas etc into a limited space:
We packed a lot of sightseeing into two weeks.

In an essay of 2000 words, you can pack a lot in.

pack somebody in

informal if a film, play etc packs people in, it attracts large numbers to come and see
Any film starring Tom Cruise always packs them in.
pack something in

British English informal to stop doing a job or activity that you are not enjoying:
After one year, I packed in university.
Sometimes I feel like packing it all in and going off travelling.
pack it in

British English spoken used to tell someone to stop doing something that is annoying
5 British English informal if a machine packs in, it stops working because there is
something wrong with it [= pack up]:
Halfway to the airport, the engine packed in.
pack somebody/something off
phrasal verb

to send someone to stay somewhere for a period of time

pack somebody/something off to
My parents used to pack us off to camp every summer.
pack up
phrasal verb

1 to put things into cases, bags etc ready for a trip somewhere:
Most of the holidaymakers had packed up and gone.
pack something up
I gave her a hand packing up her clothes and stuff.

pack something up

to put something into a box or other container, so that it can be moved, sold, or stored:
Don't worry. The removal men will pack everything up.
3 informal to finish work at the end of the day:
'What time do you pack up?' 'Oh, about six.'
4 British English informal if a machine packs up, it stops working because there is
something wrong with it [= pack in]:
The photocopier's packed up again.
pack something up

British English informal to stop doing something, especially a job:

He packed up his teaching job after only three months.

participate [intransitive]
formal to take part in an activity or event:
Some members refused to participate.
participate in
Everyone in the class is expected to participate actively in these discussions.
They welcomed the opportunity to participate fully in the life of the village.
! Participate is never followed directly by a noun. Say that youparticipate in
something: Everyone can participate in an election (NOT Everyone can participate
an election).

1 [uncountable and countable] an amount expressed as if it is part of a total which is
percentage of
The percentage of school leavers that go to university is about five per cent.
Tax is paid as a percentage of total income.
high/low/small percentage
A high percentage of married women have part-time jobs.
Interest rates fell by six percentage points (=6%).
The numbers are small in percentage terms (=when calculated as a percentage).
percentage change/increase etc
Crime figures showed significant percentage increases.
! If the noun that follows a percentage of is plural, use a plural verb: Only a small
percentage of people are interested in politics.

2 [countable usually singular] a share of the profits:

She gets a percentage for every record sold.
there is no percentage in doing something

British Englishinformal used to say that doing something is not going to help or be
There's no percentage in worrying.

plait [countable]
British English a length of something, usually hair, that has been
plaited[= braid American English]
in plaits
Jenni wore her hair in plaits.

a) having advantages because of your wealth, social position etc[ underprivileged]:
Students from a privileged background have an advantage at university.
Only the privileged few can afford private education.
the privileged

[plural] people who are privileged

2 having a special advantage or a chance to do something that most people cannot do:
Kylie feels fortunate to be in such a privileged position because of her successful TV
be privileged to do something
I was privileged to lead the team.
3 law privileged information is private and is not allowed to be made public by law

raise [transitive]

to move or lift something to a higher position, place, or level:

Can you raise the torch so I can see?
William raised his hat and smiled at her.
Raise your hand if you know the right answer.


to increase an amount, number, or level [ lower]:

Many shops have raised their prices.
The university is working to raise the number of students from state schools.
a campaign to raise awareness of meningitis
Dr Hayward intends to raise the museum's profile (=make it more well-known).

to collect money that you can use to do a particular job or help people:
The Trust hopes to raise $1 million to buy land.
They are raising funds to help needy youngsters.
a concert to raise money for charity

to improve the quality or standard of something:

Changing the law cannot raise standards.
The team need to raise their game.

to begin to talk or write about a subject that you want to be considered or a question
that you think should be answered [= bring up]:
He did not raise the subject again.
I'd like to raise the issue of publicity.
Betty raised the important question of who will be in charge.

to cause a particular emotion or reaction:

This attack raises fears of increased violence against foreigners.

The way the research was carried out raises doubts about the results.

to move your eyes, head, or face so that you are looking up [ lower]:
Albert raised his eyes and stared at Ruth.
'No,' he said without raising his head.

also raise up to move or lift yourself into an upright position [ lower]

raise yourself
Adele raised herself from the pillows.
He raised himself up on one elbow to watch.

especially American English to look after your children and help them grow [= bring
up British English]
Stan's dad died, leaving his mother to raise three sons alone.
It was time for Dean to settle down and raise a family.
Anne married a Jew, despite being raised a Catholic.
The new generation was the first to be raised on processed food.
Camus was born and raised in Algeria.
raise a smile

to smile when you are not feeling happy, or to make someone smile when they are not
feeling happy:
I couldn't raise a smile.

to look after animals or grow plants so that they can be sold or used as food:
He raised cattle in Nebraska when he was young.

Jim retired to raise raspberries.


to collect together a large group of people, especially soldiers:

The rebels quickly raised an army.
raise your eyebrows

to show surprise, doubt, disapproval etc by moving your EYEBROWs upwards:

Blanche raised her eyebrows in surprise.
raise eyebrows

if something raises eyebrows, it surprises people:

The band's new sound will raise some eyebrows.
raise your voice

to speak loudly or shout because you are angry:

He's never raised his voice to me.
I could hear raised voices in the next room.
raise your glass

spoken to celebrate someone's happiness or success by holding up your glass and

drinking from it:
Ladies and gentlemen, will you raise your glasses to the bride and groom.
raise the alarm

British English to warn people about a danger so that they can take action:
Sam stayed with his injured friend while a passing motorist raised the alarm.

raise the spectre of something

literary to make people feel afraid that something frightening might soon happen:
The violence has raised the spectre of civil war.
raise its (ugly) head

if a question or problem raises its head, it appears and has to be dealt with:
Another problem then raised its ugly head.

to make a higher BID than an opponent in a card game:

I'll raise you $100.
raise hell

informal to complain in a very angry way about something you think is not
I'll raise hell with whoever is responsible for this mess.
raise hell/Cain

especially American English to behave in a wild, noisy way that upsets other people:
The kids next door were raising hell last night.
raise the roof

to make a very loud noise when singing, celebrating etc


to speak to someone on a piece of radio equipment [= contact, get]:

They finally managed to raise him at Miller's sheep farm.

literary to wake someone who is difficult to wake:

Try as he might he could not raise her.

old use to make someone who has died live again:

Jesus raised Lazarus from the grave.
raise a siege/embargo

formal to allow goods to go in and out of a place again after they have been stopped
by force or by a law

formal to build something such as a MONUMENT [= erect]

raise 2/4/10 etc to the power of 2/3/4 etc

technical to multiply a number by itself a particular number of times:

2 raised to the power of 3 is 8.
raise, riseWhen raise is a verb, it must have an object. It is a fairly formal way to say
'lift something up' or 'move something up' Raise your right hand. He raised the box
above his head.It is not formal when it means 'make something increase' We will
have to raise our fees.When rise is a verb, it does not have an object. It is a fairly
formal way to say 'move up' Smoke rose into the sky.It is also a formal way to say 'get
up' or 'stand up', used mainly in literary writing He rose to greet me.It is not formal
when it means 'increase' Prices are rising rapidly.In British English, raise is never a

noun. Use rise He asked for a pay rise. There has been a rise in unemployment.In
American English, a raise is an increase in pay She offered me a raise.

not often [ frequently]:
She very rarely complains.
This method is rarely used in modern laboratories.

1 [transitive] to make something smaller or less in size, amount, or price[= cut;
The governor announced a new plan to reduce crime.
The helmet law should reduce injuries in motorcycle accidents.
Small businesses will need to reduce costs in order to survive.
reduce something by something
The workforce has been reduced by half.
reduce something (from something) to something
All the shirts were reduced to 10.
The new bridge should reduce travelling time from 50 minutes to 15 minutes.
2 [intransitive and transitive] if you reduce a liquid, or if it reduces, you boil it so that
there is less of it
3 [intransitive] especially American English to become thinner by losing
weight [ diet]
be in reduced circumstances

old-fashioned to be poorer than you were before

reduce somebody/something to something
phrasal verb

reduce somebody to tears/silence etc

to make someone cry, be silent etc:

She was reduced to tears in front of her students.
reduce somebody to doing something

to make someone do something they would rather not do, especially when it involves
behaving or living in a way that is not as good as before:
Eventually Charlotte was reduced to begging on the streets.
reduce something to ashes/rubble/ruins

to destroy something, especially a building, completely:

A massive earthquake reduced the city to rubble.
4 to change something into a shorter simpler form:
Many jobs can be reduced to a few simple points.


[intransitive and transitive] to rest or do something that is enjoyable, especially after

you have been working:
I just want to sit down and relax.
What Robyn needed was a drink to relax her.
A hot bath should help to relax you.

[intransitive and transitive] to become quiet and calm after you have been upset or
nervous, or to make someone do this:
Once out of danger, he started to relax.
Relax! Everything's fine.

[intransitive and transitive] if you relax a part of your body or it relaxes, it becomes
less stiff or less tight:
Gentle exercise can relax stiff shoulder muscles.

[transitive] to make a rule or law less strict

relax rules/regulations/controls
Hughes believes that immigration controls should not be relaxed.
relax your hold/grip

a) to hold something less tightly than before

relax your hold/grip on
He relaxed his grip on my arm.
b) to become less strict in the way you control something
relax your hold/grip on
The party has no intention of relaxing its hold on the country.
relax your concentration/vigilance etc

to reduce the amount of attention you give to something