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A.

"Inquiry" is defined as "a seeking for truth, information, or knowledge -seeking information by questioning." Individuals carry on the
process of inquiry from the time they are born until they die. This is true even though they might not reflect upon the process.
Infants begin to make sense of the world by inquiring. From birth, babies observe faces that come near, they grasp objects, they put
things in their mouths, and they turn toward voices. The process of inquiring begins with gathering information and data through
applying the human senses: seeing, hearing, touching, tasting, and smelling. Joe Exline (2004)

B. Inquiry is an approach to learning whereby students find and use a variety of sources of information and ideas to increase their
understanding of a problem, topic or issue. It requires more of them than simply answering questions or getting the right answer. It
espouses investigation, exploration, search, quest, research, pursuit, and study. Inquiry does not stand alone, it engages, interests
and challenges students to connect their world with the curriculum. Although it is often thought of as an individual pursuit, it is
enhanced by involvement with a community of learners each learning from the other in social interaction. However, without some
guidance it can be daunting. Kuhlthau et al (2007)

C.
Inquiry is a dynamic process of being open to wonder and puzzlement and coming to know and understand the world. As such, it is a
stance that pervades all aspects of life and is essential to the way in which knowledge is created. Inquiry is based on the belief that
understanding is constructed in the process of people working and conversing together as they pose and solve the problems, make
discoveries and rigorously testing the discoveries that arise in the course of shared activity. http://galileo.org/teachers/designing-learning/articles/what-is-inquiry

D. Inquiry is the beginning of meaningful learning and too many students sit passively in schools
students are curious and can take more control of their own learning. The ability to pose good questions when we are confronted
with complex situations contributes to our growing up - to living our lives to their fullest potential. We cannot wait, however until
our students are (at university) we need to cultivate their curiosities within the curricula from the first day of kindergarten to their
graduation from high school. John Barrell (2003)

E. Inquiry-based learning is a natural human activity in which the learner obtains meaning from experience. Traditionally, inquiry has
been most readily associated with the sciences, yet it has been employed in many other fields of study as well showed how creative
people in the arts and sciences recall their ways of thinking. Whether implicit or implied, specific or general, all inquiries are driven
by questions, issues, and wonderings. Over the past century, it has been implemented as a useful and definite approach to teaching
and learning. It is an approach to learning that involves a process of exploring the natural, empirical, and material world, which leads
to asking many questions, making discoveries, and rigorously testing them in the search for new understanding. Chambers (2010)

F. Within schools, inquiry highlights learning as a process that underlies curriculum across disciplines. Subject areas and age levels For
me, inquiry is a collaborative process of connecting to and reaching beyond current understandings to explore tensions significant to
learners. Inquiry is a stance that requires uncertainty and invitation. A feeling of uncertainty encourages us to wonder and question,
to move beyond current understanding and to pursue new possibilitiesInquiry is not merely a new set of instructional practices,
but a theoretical shift in how we view curriculum, students, learning and teaching. More importantly, however, a stance of inquiry
influences who learners become as human beings. Short, K. (2009: 11-25)

G. Inquiry is an approach to teaching and learning that, in essence, involves students in the exploration of questions/problems/issues
of significance. Through inquiry, we seek to develop students essential competencies as learners and equip them with a set of
transferable skills and dispositions. Inquiry is an active, learner and learning centered approach that develop deep understanding -
not surface coverage. Inquiry is as much a teaching disposition or way of being as it is a method. Inquiry goes to the heart of
how we see our role as teachers - and how we see the nature of learning itself. (Murdoch 2015)

H. For students, the process often involves open-ended investigations into a question or a problem, requiring them to engage in
evidence-based reasoning and creative problem-solving, as well as problem finding. For educators, the process is about being
responsive to the students learning needs, and most importantly, knowing when and how to introduce students to ideas that will
move them forward in their inquiry. Together, educators and students co-author the learning experience, accepting mutual
responsibility for planning, assessment for learning and the advancement of individual as well as class-wide understanding of
personally meaningful content and ideas (Fielding, (2012) in edu.gov.on.ca).

I. Inquiry isnt about the pursuit of the perfect question or the next exciting strategy. It is about being open to new learning and taking
informed actionInquiry involves design, discipline and a critical focus on evidence that matters. (As teachers) we need to take an
inquiry stance must constantly ask ourselves What difference is this making to our learners? and How do we know? Inquiry is
not a set of paint by numbers set of strategies. It is through the artistry and creativity of teams of educators that inquiry tools come
to life. Halbert and Kaser (2013) Inquiry learning : definitions and discussions. Compiled by Kath Murdoch 2016

WHAT DO WE WANT OUR STUDENTS, AS INQURERS, TO DO:


SOME ESSENTIAL COMPETENCIES

THINK DEEPLY AND BROADLY


SELF-MANAGE
COLLABORATE
COMMUICATE EFFECTIVELY
RESEARCH

Ask questions

Demonstrate curiosity and wonderment in their approach to learning

Make choices about their learning (the what, how, with whom..)

Think for themselves take a learning challenge/question and seek to understand prior to
possible input from teacher

Apply a range of techniques to investigate/research/explore issues, questions and


challenges

Transfer learning to other contexts

Identify (and make connections with) their prior learning

Reflect on their learning

Collaborate with others in the pursuit of learning

Make connections to develop conceptual understandings

Apply creative, critical and reflective thinking to learning situations

Demonstrate understanding (not just knowing/remembering)

Participate in layered or complex tasks that require higher order thinking

Manage the challenge of open ended tasks that may have multiple answers

Manage an ongoing task not simply an activity that is completed in a lessona task that
evolves over time

Plan for their own learning

Structure increasingly complex inquiries for themselves show that they know what to
do when they dont know! (in all areas)

KATH MURDOCH 2014


Traditional (teacher centred) vs inquiry (student and learning centred)
Kath Murdoch 2015


Means of learning

Traditional learning
Receiving, Memorization


Ultimate outcomes


Information/knowledge


Evidence of learning


Replication


Motivation


Attitudes

Relationships


External/rewards-based


Contexts



Compliant, passive

Dependent, one-way, arms
length


School/classroom -
inauthentic

Inquiry based learning


Investigation, analysis and
reflection

Transferable skills, learning
dispositions and conceptual
understanding

Explanation, transfer, creative
application

Personal, goal oriented,
authentic

curious, questioning, active

Connected, interdependent,
warm

community (local and global)
authentic

18 Independent learner prompt cards


Have I been an independent learner?

I made a plan.
1
2
3
4

I kept going even when


it got hard.

I checked my own
work.

I thought about
different ways to solve
my problem.

I took some risks


beyond my comfort
zone.

I stopped to think
before I acted.

I tried to understand
someone elses
feelings.

I thought up a new
idea.

ACT

STOP
I asked myself
questions.

I made links with what


I already know.

I took time to read over


my work.

I learned something
from others.

I thought about my
thinking.

I was eager and


enthusiastic.

I searched and found


resources for myself.

I set myself goals and


worked towards them.

!!
I stayed positive
even when it was
challenging.

I avoided distractions.

@
I stayed on task.

I was organised.

task
I tried useful ways to
help me get the job
done.

I managed my time
well.

I tried a new way of


doing something.

I sought feedback on
my progress.

I stopped to think
about what I was
doing.
STOP

I self-assessed.

I changed my way of
thinking/working.

I helped others.

J Wilson & K Murdoch 2008 Learning for Themselves Curriculum Corporation

9 practices that power up inquiry learning


Kath Murdoch 2016

Cultivate Curiosity

Provoke, model and value curiosity.


Curate for curiosity. Value the aesthetic
and consider the quality of the physical
and visual environment. Provide
experiences that activate the senses
and invite students to share and
explore questions that matter to them.
Wonder about your students. Stay
curious. Be intrigued. Wonder aloud. Be
the curious learner you want your
students to be.



Kath Murdoch 2016

Release

Expect the unexpected. Thoughtful


planning allows spontaneity. While
keeping the picture in mind, be
prepared to allow the learner to
lead and stay open to possibilities.
Let go of your safe ways of working
and surprise yourself. Teach more
creatively. Release more
responsibility to your students to
make decisions, choose pathways
and figure things out. Stop doing all
the heavy lifting help them learn
to think about and do it for
themselves.
Kath Murdoch 2016

Notice
Take time to notice what is
happening (as distinct from what
you would like to be happening.
Pause to observe and to listen.
Help students notice themselves as
they are learning. Share feelings,
emotions, reactions, challenges,
surprises. Use reflective moments
to help you decide where to next.
Listen more than talk. Help your
students listen to themselves and
others. Notice yourself - stay
mindful of what you are doing,
saying, thinking and feeling.
Slow down. Wait. Listen.
Kath Murdoch 2016

Make connections

Teach students how to find connections


and look for patterns and themes. Help
students uncover relationships. Resist
fragmentation and seek integration and
transfer. Teach inductively. It's all
about connection.
. It's all about connection.

Kath Murdoch 2016

Keep it real

Question

Questions are at the heart of the


inquiry classroom. Use questions to
inquire into students thinking.
Dont be afraid to ask questions to
which you dont know the answer.
Help students learn to ask great
questions. Use questions to drive
your lessons. Return to your big
questions and dig deeper. Question
yourself. Invite students to share
their questions and use them to
inform planning.



Kath Murdoch 2016

Build learning
assets

Aim for authenticity and purpose.


Emphasise the why. Ask: how does
this inquiry connect with the our
Dont get bogged down in content.
lives and our community? How might
Inquiry is about building learning
this learning make a difference to
capacity and growing independence.
our lives now and in the future? Can
Make the learning conceptual and
we embed the learning in a real
focus on the why and how as
context? Is there a real audience for much (if not more than) the what.
our students learning and actions?
Build a tool kit of skills and
Can we use the expertise of people
dispositions for learning. Learn to
in our local and global community to learn. Nurture independence. Help
inform and mentor us? Blur the lines students grow their learning power.
between the classroom and the


world.

Hands on, minds on, hearts on.
Kath Murdoch 2016

Kath Murdoch 2016

Collaborate
Use the expertise in your community:
your class, your school, your wider
community. Build understanding
together, learn how to exchange and
build on each others thinking.
Collaborate with colleagues at and
beyond school. Co-create. Co-construct.
Stay open and interestedkeep talking
with each other. Invite students to help
design for their learning.
Kath Murdoch 2016

Get Personal

Know your students as people and


as learners. Help them know you.
Provide opportunities for them to
investigate the things that interest,
intrigue and trouble them. Help
them inquire into themselves as
learners and as people. Provide
choice and acknowledge the
diversity in your community of
learners. Keep nurturing your own
interests and skills.
Kath Murdoch 2016

the

Power Inquiry
of

Kath Murdoch

S A M P L E PAG E

Whats going on?


Before we continue, lets take a moment to consider what
we might expect to see happening in the inquiry classroom.
Determining ways to create and nurture the visible, physical and
emotional space should be informed by our understanding of
how inquiry teachers and students use the space. The following
table outlines some of the key activities happening in a typical
inquiry classroom.
Students are

teachers are

working in different areas and not necessarily on the


same task
talking to each other
moving around the space
accessing technologies and other resources as needed
working in small focus groups with the teacher for short,
intensive instructional sessions
using materials
using anchor charts (and/or digital equivalents) and
other reference items to check criteria, intentions or
requirements for a task
recording and documenting their thinking in a range of
ways
working on sustained projects rather than one-off
activities
negotiating with teachers and others about learning
tasks and how they will approach them
setting and reflecting on personal goals
generating, recording and exploring questions
self and peer assessing
returning to tasks to re-work them based on teacher
feedback
offering their expertise to other students
inviting peer assistance as well as teachers
talking about their learning
expressing ideas and opinions
taking time to laugh and enjoy learning
sitting, standing, moving to different parts of the space

 orking in different parts of the space most often with


w
small groups and individuals
listening
interacting with students moving around the space
talking with individual and small groups of students
engaging in deeper dialogue to elicit thinking
questioning students to encourage deeper, challenging
thinking
modelling skills and processes
making intentions clear and explicit throughout the day
helping create visible records of learning (digital or hard
copy)
collaborating with other teachers and adults in the
learning space
using sophisticated language of learning and cognitive
terminology, e.g. classify, reflect, analyze, predict
observing and documenting student learning capturing
learning with photos, video, notes etc. to be used for
planning
listening to students
using a wide range of resources: visual, print, hands-on
etc.
conducting quick check-ins for understanding
giving specific feedback
thinking out loud modeling what it means to be an
inquirer
posing questions, providing interesting provocations
inviting students to help plan tasks, excursions and other
learning experiences
maintaining clear, shared expectations helping
students observe protocol for a safe and active
environment
encouraging full participation
referring to the anchor charts, menu and criteria lists
around the room to help build independent learning
reflecting
taking time to laugh and enjoy learning

page 31 / chapter two / Beyond Topics: Whats worth inquiring into?

Quality planning for inquiry.a few key points




1. Allow the inquiry to grow in response to assessments made of childrens needs and
interests. Planning should be ongoing and regularly reviewed.


2. Allow time for conversations to build a shared view about the conceptual
understandings underpinning the inquiry.

3. Give children voice in the design process . Engaging with students for planning and
assessment purposes results in higher engagement and powerful learning.

4. Use direct, shared experiences as a way to help students find out. Involving students in
real experiences is the key to engagement and curiosity.

5. The team needs to own the planning not one person.

6. Documentation should support quality planning conversations and assist with
accountability.

7. Where possible, inquiries into big questions should support integrative learning. We
should be helping children make connections across learning areas.

8. Inquiries should have a split screen structure where children are building learning
assets (skills and dispositions) while they are developing conceptual understandings.

9. Use the curriculum to guide the design of your big picture understandings. Find
connections between learning areas.


10.Seek authentic contexts and purposes. Use the school and local community as contexts
for investigations or audiences for actions

Kath Murdoch 2016

Teaching for conceptual understanding strategies for the classroom


Kath Murdoch 2016
When planning
Identify the concepts that are central to the unit. Remember concepts are universal, timeless and abstract
(Erickson) . Use these concepts to help you write understanding goals for your inquiry.
Avoid including too many concepts in the planning of your inquiry. 2-3 concepts will help you maintain the
essence of the inquiry in your head and as you teach.
Share the concept terms with students and encourage them to notice and name the concepts within and
beyond the unit.
Be clear about the difference between objectives that are about content knowledge vs conceptual
understanding
Clarify intentions that are about skills and dispositions as distinct from conceptual understanding

When teaching

Have students share their early thinking about how they see the concept/s have them write, draw,
make, perform, find images to represent their current way of thinking about these ideas and return to
those for re-thinking throughout the unit.

Rather than explain or define the conceptual understanding at the beginning of the unit provide
students with multiple examples/case studies that illustrate the concept and ask them to look for
patterns and connections. Use inductive rather than deductive strategies to engage students in more
independent and rigorous thinking.

Use a question as your learning intention (at unit and lesson level). Where appropriate, include a key
concept word/s in the intention. Eg: How does migrating to a new country change peoples lives?

Seek out literature (picture story books and novels) that explore the same concept in different ways
and have students make text-text and text-world connections as they analyse them. The same can be
done with film snippets/youtube clips, songs, paintings, cartoons poetry and photographs.

Use non examples to help children understand what the concept is NOT as well as what it IS. Invite
them to find examples and non-examples.

Make conceptual connections across the curriculum and make them explicit. These will be easier with
macro concepts like change, systems, diversity, pattern, evidence, relationships, cause and effect
perspective and more challenging with more subject/context-specific concepts like technology, conflict,
habitat, measurement, space - but aim for transfer as much as possible!

Have students do their own inquiry into a question/issue/example that links to the overarching
concept being explored by the class. When they share the learning from their personal inquiry help
them seek connections and patterns between their learning/experience and other students learning.

Kath Murdoch 2016




Question with conceptual understanding in mind:
Can you make a connection betweenand.
What patterns can you see?
How might you link with.?
Can you give us some more examples of this?
What is an example of this in a different context? At home? In the community?
How does your thinking/idea relate to . Idea?
Where else have we explored this idea?
What is this NOT like?
What else does this remind you of?

Promote conceptual thinking and understanding by:

Making your own connections out loud
Using metaphor and analogy (and have kids create their own)
Making forced associations between seemingly unrelated ideas/objects
Using multiple examples lots of comparing and constrasting
Creating data charts to organise information and then identify patterns within it
Using graphic organisers that cluster, classify and emphasise relationships (lotus diagrams, mindmaps,
concept maps)
Returning to the compelling question and looking at how thinking changes
Using the concept attainment strategy
Asking students to select or create demonstrations of understanding in more than one way
Encouraging students to see what they can figure out (while ensuring they have a clear
purpose/intention) - direct instruction at the point of need.
Use a concept frame (is, has, does, examples, non examples) to help children explore a concept
Have a list of concepts on the classroom wall and encourage students to make connections to them as
they learn


Some key references:
Bennet, B. and Rolheiser, C. (2001) Beyond Monet, Bookation.
Erickson, L. and Lanning, L. (2014) Transitioning to Concept Based Curriculum and Instruction. Corwin press.
Lattanzio, T. and Muller, A. (2015) Taking the Complexity out of Concepts, Hawker Brownlow
Marzano, R. (2007) The Art and Science of Teaching, ASCD
Murdoch, K. (2015) The Power of Inquiry, Seastar Education








Kath Murdoch 2016

Kath Murdoch 2016



Learning to learn through split screen inquiry



The following table summarises a selection of learning intentions I have used over
the last couple of weeks. These intentions are shared with students and at times
are constructed with the students. The intentions in the far right column were
specific to that lesson but often reflected a unit wide focus of skill building.


Overarching, unit-long
Compelling question
Yr 1
What can we learn by investigating
other cultures?

Specific Lesson focus: content

Specific Lesson focus: process


How do children live in Japan?


Researchers: How can we ask
people questions to find out
information ?

Thinkers: How can we use our
thinking to make connections?

Communicators: How can we
explain and test out our theories?

Yr 4
How does the human body work and
how can we look after it?
Yr 5
How and why is light so important
in the natural and built
environment?

Yr 5
How and why does the earth
change?

Yr 3/4
Why and how do humans explore?


What have we learned so far about
body systems?

What do we know about shadows?

Yr 5/6
How does the media influence our
choices?


What forms of media do we use?

Yr k/1
How do living things grown and
change?


What can we discover about the
lifecycle of a stick insect?

Yr 4
How do and why do we preserve
memories?


What are the purposes of museums
and how do they communicate to
the public?

Whats it like to grow up on a farm?

Year 1/2
Are we more the same or more
different?
Yr 2
Are we more the same or more
different?

Kath Murdoch October 2014


What science ideas do we think we
really understand?

What does the term exploration
mean to us?


How do people around the world
shelter themselves?


Communicators: How can we
explain a science idea clearly and
compellingly?

Thinkers: How can we use images
and symbols to make our thinking
visible?

Collaborators: What can we do and
say to effectively negotiate with
others in a group.

Researchers: How can we observe
something carefully and gather
accurate information

Self-managers: How can we plan
and manage our time when we are
working independently?

Thinkers: How can we compare and
contrast information - and show
this to others?

Researchers: How can we
effectively summarise information.

the

Power Inquiry
of

Kath Murdoch

S A M P L E PAG E

OVERVIEW OF AN INQUIRY JOURNEY


typical teacher and student activity

phase and intention


Framing the inquiry
establishing a worthwhile context and
compelling question
Identifying conceptual underpinnings
making links with the system/school
curriculum
identifying understanding goals
identifying key skills and dispositions
identifying possible indicators of
understanding

Teachers gather initial student ideas, questions and suggestions. Here,


teachers are in the initial design phase, framing up possibilities and clarifying
the big picture. They refer to curriculum standards, whole-school guidelines
and other elements that inform their programming. Students participate in
sharing, with the teacher and each other, their views on what the inquiry may
entail. Depending on their readiness and on the context for inquiry, students
may sometimes attend, or provide advice to, planning meetings. Teachers at
this stage are in dialogue about the higher purpose of the inquiry. They need to
be able to see the horizon at a conceptual level, even if the journey towards it
remains unknown.

Tuning in
provoking interest, curiosity, tension or
uncertainty
gathering data about students existing
thinking, knowledge, feeling and
understanding
helping students make connections with
the key concept/s
providing purpose, the big picture and
authenticity
motivating, exciting, engaging

In this phase of an inquiry, the teacher is essentially tuning in to the students


thinking (and so too are the students tuning in to their own thinking). The
teacher takes a very active role as inquirer with student thinking being the focus
of their inquiry! Students are typically making their thinking visible in a range of
ways, through play and structured tasks. They are producing evidence of their
early theories, possibly beginning to ask questions and they are becoming more
aware of how this inquiry links with their lives and what they will be learning
more about and learning to do. Increasingly, students are able to identify and
share their early ideas confidently and in a range of ways. They are aware that
their ideas are tentative and are likely to change through the course of the
inquiry. Depending on the nature of the inquiry itself, this may be a time when
students are challenged with a project or task that they will be working towards
or a problem that they will be addressing. Importantly, the information teachers
are gathering at this stage helps inform subsequent planning.

Finding out
gathering new information to address the
compelling question
developing the required research skills
learning how to organize and manage the
process of finding out
having some shared experiences that will
allow us to talk and share our thinking
with others
stimulating curiosity through new
experiences and information
learning how to record information
gathered in efficient ways

Typically, students at this phase are involved in the process of planning for and
researching new information. What they do depends on the manner in which
they will be finding out. They may be experimenting, surveying, searching
the web, watching clips, emailing or Skyping experts, asking their parents
or others, making phone calls, reading texts, viewing images, listening to
podcasts, stories or speakers, examining artworks or working through a trial
and error process. They are also recording what they are finding so they can
refer back to it when they take their thinking deeper. They may also add to
their wonderings or wonder for the first time:
I think we could/should
Maybe should search for
How about we ask
I found out
Oh, now I know
This makes me wonder about

page 78 / chapter five / Finding our way: What role can frameworks and models play in scaffolding inquiry learning?

the

Power Inquiry
of

Kath Murdoch

S A M P L E PAG E

OVERVIEW OF AN INQUIRY JOURNEY (contd)


typical teacher and student activity

phase and intention

Sorting out
comprehending making meaning of the
information gathered
revealing new thinking and deeper
understanding
answering questions
reviewing/revising early thinking and
synthesizing
interpreting the information and
communicating with others

This is a critical phase in the assessment of understanding.


In this phase students are typically analyzing and sharing their discoveries.
They may use math, art, language, graphic organizers, drama, dance, music
etc to process and respond to the information they have. They are talking,
responding, sharing and processing. They are revealing a new and deeper
understanding of the concept and noticing patterns and trends. New
questions may emerge as a result of this processing of information.
Verbal evidence
I used to thinkbut now I think.
I can answer some of my questions.
I wasnt expecting to find out that.
I can connect this with.
I have learned that.
This means/I think this means.
This tells me that.
Now Im wondering.
Im learning how to.
Other forms may include:
art works
written pieces
digital products
graphic organizers
(many of these work best with an accompanying explanation)

Going Further
opportunities for students to pursue
questions and interests arising from the
journey so far
learners work more independently on
investigations

This phase typically involves teachers releasing more responsibility to


students. They may be working on projects/investigations that are more
independent and focused on aspects of the inquiry they need to find out more
about or have become most interested in.
I want to find out more about
Why/who/what/where/when/how?
Can we/I?
I think I should/could.
Im confused about.
I still need to know/do.
Students are also applying some of the skills they have been learning in the
shared inquiry to a more personalized context.

Finding our way: What role can frameworks and models play in scaffolding inquiry learning? / chapter five / page 79

the

Power Inquiry
of

Kath Murdoch

S A M P L E PAG E

OVERVIEW OF AN INQUIRY JOURNEY (contd)


typical teacher and student activity

phase and intention


Reflecting and acting
helping students apply their learning to
other contexts to put the learning to use
enabling students to reflect on what and
how they have learned and set goals for
the future
assessing final understanding and growth
in skills
(These phases are activated
throughout the cycle.)

Evaluating
reviewing the inquiry to identify strengths
and weaknesses
identifying recommendations for future
planning

Typically students are engaged in tasks that put their learning into action
in some way. This might be individual or collaborative. It might be the end of
the inquiry or during it. Students are also reviewing, revising and reflecting on
what and how they have learned. They are involved in tasks that provide some
closure to the inquiry but are also mindful that new questions have arisen
and further investigation is possible. Importantly, students are sharing their
awareness of how they are learning.
I used to thinkbut now I think.
I can use this when.
I /we should.
I/we have learned to.
I have learned more about.
Next time I need to.
I wish I had.
I have got better at.
Using feedback from students, assessments of learning and their own reflections
during the journey of inquiry, teachers now pause to review the effectiveness
of the whole. They look back over the learning and ask themselves whether
the planned understanding goals had been reached and whether the skills they
intended students to strengthen had indeed developed. Reflections on the
inquiry are recorded and many will prompt thinking ahead for the next journey of
inquiry, especially where skills have emerged as needing attention.

The cycle should inform and guide planning but, as previously


stated, it does not mean a completed cycle can or should be
devised before the learning begins. Planning emerges over the
course of the inquiry in response to teachers assessment of
students needs and the students own interests and questions.

Using the arc of inquiry in a


single lesson
When applied to planning processes, an inquiry-based
approach has most often been associated with extended units
of study. In these units, the phases of inquiry are encountered
(and re-encountered) over several weeks. The phases of an
inquiry journey can also be experienced over a much shorter
period. A cycle may be complete within a morning or even
within a lesson. When we take a more nuanced, flexible
approach to this basic process it becomes a useful way to
frame any investigation, whether short or long term.
Over the past few years, my work has increasingly involved
modelling instructional strategies in classrooms. This work has
strengthened my own understanding of inquiry as a pedagogy

and of the way my understanding of inquiry learning processes


can help me design a single lesson (which may be within a
larger inquiry). The following framework is one I find helpful
when designing or re-designing a lesson so students are more
engaged as inquirers. Essential to this structure is the emphasis
on giving students more time to see what they can find out/
work out for themselves before I step in with more direct
instruction. I want students to be actively involved in figuring
things out for themselves, and then my role becomes one of
stepping in and providing direct instruction at the point of need.

Consider a quick provocation something to spark


curiosity/raise a problem/establish a question/engage
interest.
Share the lessons intentions with students as
questions. Create a split screen set of intentions: one
that links to conceptual understanding and the other
that links to skills/dispositions.
Give students an opportunity to connect with their
prior learning and current thinking (theories/

page 80 / chapter five / Finding our way: What role can frameworks and models play in scaffolding inquiry learning?


Encouraging deeper thinking through prompts and questions
As children go about their learning it is the teachers role to observe, question, asses and document. Some
teachers opt to focus on specific children each session, ensuring they have records of each child over several
weeks. Often, the best thing a teacher can do is to listen and to show an active interest in what the child is
doing. Encouraging the child to articulate their thinking first requires confidence and a sense that what they
are doing has value and worth. The following questions can help support young childrens thinking as they
inquire:

Tell me about what you are doing


Thats interesting - tell me more about that
How do you know about that?
How did you figure that out?
Im curious about the way you
Can you explain this to me?
How could you find out more about this?
Where could you go? What could you look at?
What makes you say that?
Can you make a connection?
Have you learned something new? How do you know?
I wonder if you can make a connection to something else you know?
Is there another way of thinking about/doing this?
Where did your ideas come from?
Is there a problem with this?
Have you sorted out any problems? How?
What have you found most interesting?
How could you share/show your thinking to others?
What are you wondering?
Which part of this do you think is the most important? Why?
What are you planning to do?/Do next?
What might you need to think about before you get started?
This is what I think you are saying.is that right?
Is there something else you would like to tell me about this?
Is your thinking changing? How?
Where/when have you done this kind of thinking before?
What do you need more help with?
What might make this better?
What are you most proud of?
Is there anything bothering you about this?


Kath Murdoch 2014

DESIGNING COMPELLING QUESTIONS FOR


(A GUIDE FOR TEACHERS AND STUDENTS)
KATH MURDOCH 2015

A question about why it is significant/important/special


A question about how it has changed over time
A question about how it compares to something else
A question about how to improve it
A question about why it matters to the community
A question about how it works and how to use it
A question about perspectives/opinions on this
A question about how it influences things
A question about how to make a difference to this/with this
A question about why something is the way it is
A question about the role of this in our lives
A question about how a problem with this might be solved
A question about how to do/use this the best way
A question about caring/being responsible for something
A question about feelings or opinions about something
A question about influence/impact/cause and effect
A question about diversity/variety
A question about how to make something
better/stronger/more powerful
A question about how to change/redesign something
A question about how something came to be
A question about what something means
A question about the use of something

the

Power Inquiry
of

Kath Murdoch

S A M P L E PAG E

AN INQUIRY CyCLE for students


(May support the Going Further phase)

Tuning in
What do I already think, know and feel about this?
Do I have questions at this stage? What are they?
How can I show what I think about this already?
What am I expecting to find out/do with this?
Why is this important to do/learn about?
What else does this remind me of?
What puzzles me about this?
Evaluating
How valuable was this inquiry?
What were my strengths as a learner?
What did I do well?
What do I need to work on?
What might I have done differently?
What do I need to remember for next time?

THINKING
COLLABORATING
SELF-MANAGING
RESEARCHING
COMMUNICATING

Reflecting and acting


What have I learned about learning?
How can I use this learning elsewhere?
How has my thinking and feeling changed?
What might I do with this new understanding?
How can this learning make a difference to
my life or the lives of others?
What questions remain?
How do I feel about this learning?

Finding out
What do I need to do?
Where do I need to go?
Who could I talk to?
How could I investigate this?
How will I record/document what I find out?
What skills do I need to use to find out?
What will help me learn more?
What do I need to organize?

Sorting out
What information is useful?
What patterns and connections am I noticing?
How is my thinking growing and changing?
Are my questions being answered?
Do I have some new questions?
How could I share this with others?
Do I need to go back and find out
some new information?
What is confusing? Challenging?

Finding our way: What role can frameworks and models play in scaffolding inquiry learning? / chapter five / page 89

What do inquiry teachers do?


Inquiry teachers
example from daily practice
1. Create a flexible, equitable learning environment
Provide students with a range of seating
where students exercise some choice and where
possibilities Create spaces for group learning,
independence is fostered.
quiet, individual learning, etc. Help students

learn to make wise choices about where to
carry out a learning task.
2. Link investigations to authentic contexts and
- an investigation of persuasive texts in literacy
purposes. Show students how their discoveries are
may have more power if students are able to
connected to the world beyond school. Real
choose an issue/cause they wish to persuade a
audiences and real purposes drive learning. Teachers
real audience about.
with an inquiry mindset harvest what goes on in the
- Students investigate what stick insects need to
classroom, school, local and global community for
survive I order to have one to observe for a
learning contexts. By situating inquiry within such
period of time in the classroom
contexts, we show students how learning applies to
- Calculating percentages may be learned
real life right now not once schooling is finished.
through a study of household or school water

use. What percentage of overall water

consumption is used at the drinking fountain?

How could we measure this?
3. Frame their teaching around open-ended
What does long mean? How can we measure
questions or problems. This positions students as
whats long?
investigators/researchers and the question can be

returned do during and to conclude the lesson.
I wonder how many ways the long ee sound can be
Inquiry teachers are great question posers. They use made in words? How could we find out?
questions to prompt student thinking and they

question in ways that allow for pondering, theorizing, What makes a great Haiku poem?
revising and connecting. A stand alone lesson can be
driven by a rich question just as a sustained big
How could we work out the most effective way of
picture inquiry can be driven through a compelling
throwing the ball?
question. When we use questions as a driver for our
teaching, we position the learner as a researcher

the student is doing the learning rather than having
the learning done to them.

4. Provoke, model and celebrate curiosity
Share fascinating objects, images, film clips, stories,
Inquiry teachers provoke, expect and relish questions. dilemmas and ask What does this make you
Inviting students to explore authentic problems or
wonder? What questions are going around in your
meet challenges will inevitably give rise to numerous head? Make students questions visible by recording,
questions along the way Build in time for students to sorting and displaying them and return to them to
raise and explore questions meaningful to them. Help help students reflect on how their thinking is
students see that questions are a sign of great
changing
thinking not of ignorance!
An art lesson on line might begin by exposing

students to a slide show of inspiring art works

without any commentary from the teacherexposure
to works without expectationsimply allowing
students to absorb and respond then using the
questions to help build students understanding.
Kath Murdoch 2015

5. Allow time for students to figure it out for


themselves (flip the lesson): Inquiry teachers give
students time and opportunities to discover and
meaning make for themselves. That is not to suggest
that the role of the teacher is obsolete or peripheral
this is strategic.

Rather than front load at the beginning of a less/unit


present a challenge/question/problem to students
and see how much they can do and know THEN the
teaching path becomes clearer. One of the chief road-
blocks for the inquiry teacher is the lack of time to be
able to pursue an investigation deeply but we do have
some control over the time we have and how we use
it. A common pitfall in planning for inquiry is to
simply plan too many tasks - and several of the tasks
may fall more into the category of activities rather
effective learning strategies. Inquiry planning is
deliberately lean. It leaves room for refinement and
assumes that lessons will be layered and plans will be
grown over time.
6. Use probing questions and thinking prompts as
Typical questions/prompts
much as possible as their teaching tool so that

students do more thinking for themselves more of the What do you notice about this group of words?
time. Talk less, listen more. Teachers with an inquiry I wonder what kids of patterns you are seeing as I
mindset remain curious and open to what their
read these poems to you?
students are revealing to them through their actions Tell me more about how you came to this answer?
and words. This means stepping back, noticing,
Talk to each other about how you think that works. I
analyzing work samples and bringing these samples to am going to move around the room and listen in.
collaborative planning meetings. It means using what
students say and do to inform what WE say and do...It
also means saying less and listening more.

7. Invite students to raise questions/wonderings
Using strategies like see/think/wonder can build
throughout a lesson - use their questions as a
question-asking into the fabric of a lesson.
springboard for teaching. They build a culture that
Record and celebrate questions that students raise,
lets students know that questions are a sign of good come back to these and have students attempt to
thinking not a sign of ignorance.
answer as more information is gained.
8. Involve students in making some decisions about
For example: If students are to work in groups they
aspects of the learning experience even within a
might be asked to suggest the best way to organize
lesson. Student voice in decision making is one of the the groupings.
key tenets of inquiry based learning.
If students are to show their thinking/understanding
about something they might be asked to suggest how
they could do this.
Students should help design rubrics and other
assessment frameworks
9. Use a layered or split screen approach to the
As students work on a math problem in small groups
lesson. Guy Claxton (2006) has coined the phrase
you might ask them to notice the way they are
split screen teaching to describe the technique of
strengthening their collaboration skills as they give
focusing not just on what is being learned but how feedback to each other.
the learning is happening. An inquiry mindset brings
with it, a continual focus on the act of learning itself.
As students are going about a learning task (whether
it is composing a piece of writing, listening to a guest
Kath Murdoch 2015

speaker, reading through information as part of a


research task) they are mindful of how that learning
is happening and of what they are using/doing as
thinkers, collaborators, self-managers or
communicators. In an inquiry classroom we are
always inquiring into learning itself.

10. Use transferable routines and strategies within
the lesson. When students can use or apply a
strategy in different contexts - the possibilities for
inquiry are extended.

11. Help students MAKE CONNECTIONS between
ideas, between subjects, between inquiriesmaking
connections builds understandings

Eg: In a music lesson, students might practice using


the connect, extend, challenge routine to analyse a
piece of music - this can also be used in a range of
other subject areas. Make sure you are explicit about
the transfer how it works the same and differently
across subject areas.

Eg: As students are working in teams to choreograph


a simple dance, ask them to stop and make a
connection to another task they have done recently
that has required this same kind of thinking.

12. Are open to unexpected pathways for inquiry.
For example: a sudden weather event such as a hail
They remain attuned to the potential for spontaneous storm could be used for some on-the-spot science
investigations to arise and are not hesitant to work
inquiry:
with them. Teachers with an inquiry mindset are

thorough and thoughtful planners. They are,
What IS hail?
however, also open and awake to an unexpected
What causes it to happen?
moment in which quality inquiry can take place. This How do you know?
can be a challenging balance to strike on the one
How could we find out more?
hand, we need to be intentional and clear about our What questions come to mind as we watch this?
learning goals on the other hand, we need to give

ourselves permission to work towards those goals in
ways we had not anticipated.
13. Access students prior learning. and make the

process of constructing understanding as explicit as Have students identify something they already
possible. In an inquiring classroom the students are know/expect/anticipate/predict at the beginning of
BUILDING understanding for themselves with skillful the lesson then consciously stop to review and reflect
questioning, prompting and scaffolding from the
to identify new thinking.
teacher.
14. Allow some open ended exploration time
-provide time to explore manipulatives during a
inquiry involves a certain amount of play, and
math lesson
through such play, students will often make
-to skim and scan through a text before using any
discoveries for themselves which are more powerful specific strategy
than anything they might be told.
- play with equipment/space (safety considered)
during PE and use this as an opportunity to observe
skills and areas of need
-play with instruments during music lesson what can
we learn about how this instrument works through
open exploration. THEN teachers have an opportunity
Kath Murdoch 2015

to do more targeted instruction


15. Limit whole class instruction. Structure lessons so The whole-part-whole formula works well for
that the bulk of the teaching is done with small
inquiry. The trick is to keep the whole brief and
groups and individuals.
focused.
16. Encourage students to do the talking and thinking Reduce hands up conversations use strategies like
rather than having it done for them!
think-pair-share when conducting whole class
conversations.
17. Build reflective thinking into the daily routine.
Sentence starters, thumbs up/down and other quick
Teach students how to reflect and expect this as part reflective techniques can be a practical way to build
of how we do things. Reflection nurtures
reflection in without making it a time consuming part
understanding. When we stop to think about what we of the lesson.
have done, why we have done it, what we have
learned, how we feel and what we might need to do
next - we give ourselves an opportunity to clarify and
make meaning from our experiences. Teaching with
an inquiry mindset means that we, as teachers,
become habitually reflective and it also means that
we provide time and strategies for regular reflection
on their learning. It requires discipline to deliberately
stop, look back and take stock but it is critical to the
success of inquiry itself and a valuable disposition for
life.
18.Consider the tasks students are doing as learning Display the learning intentions for the lesson.
strategies rather than activities. Make sure students
know why they are doing what they are doing!
19. Provide opportunities for personal learning
Create a routine in the week such as itime that
pathways.
allows students to investigate current passions or
work on a skill they wish to develop.
20. Are inquiry learners.
The best inquiry teachers are continually inquiring
into their own practice. They show students that
THEY are learners too and bring an inquiry mindset
to their own teaching. Teaching with an inquiry
mindset comes naturally to teachers who themselves
ARE inquirers. One of the most powerful ways we
can nurture an inquiring disposition in our students is
to show them our fascination in the world, our hunger
to learn, our delight in discovery, our willingness to
find out more and our preparedness to change our
thinking. An inquiry mindset can be contagious when
we make it visible and audible to others.






Kath Murdoch 2015

Understanding check-ups: Kath Murdoch 2015


The following tasks can be used as reflective pauses. They are relatively brief moments within a teaching journey but
they can provide very rich data to inform both assessment of/for/as and evaluation of teaching. Once students are
familiar with the techniques, they can be used even more efficiently. I describe them as understanding check ups. They
are a moment to stop and think and share what we are learning and how our thoughts and learning skills are evolving.
As you use these techniques, ask yourself What is this student revealing to me? And what do I need to do/say next?
Many of the techniques can be repeated throughout the inquiry and used to track progress, so the focus becomes on
assessing growth over time for each student. Use video, work samples, anecdotal notes, photos, journals etc. to keep a
record of these assessments.

1. Think Pair Share


Provide students with a question/challenge/problem related to your targeted concept/skill. For example,
What are some of the things you think we could do to help animals that are endangered?. Give students
some time to think on their own no talking to others, no hands up. They may wish to jot some ideas down.
Now have them turn to a partner and share their thinking. I often suggest that they look for
patterns/connections as they share. Finally, select a few pairs to share with the group. Or have pairs share
with another pair and again look for connections. Move amongst students and listen to students as they share.
2. I used to think, but now I think
A simple structure for helping students think about how their understanding of something has changed. It can
be done at any stage in an inquiry. Students can stand in a circle and take it in turns to share their thinking, for
example. Changes in thinking may also be written and displayed throughout the inquiry.
3. 1st/2nd/3rd thinking
At the beginning of a lesson or unit have the students record a snapshot of their thinking about the concept.
This may be written, by way of a graphic organizer or an oral recording that can be reviewed later. Students
repeat the task two or three times during the unit and reflect on the growth in their thinking or understanding
as they do.
4. CSI
This technique stands for colour, symbol, image. Ask students to think about the concept or topic you are
working on. They then choose a colour, symbol and image (or picture) to represent that idea. There are
obviously no right answers to this; rather, it is an opportunity for students to share and explain their thinking
using a very visual technique. As students share and discuss their CSI with each other, further insight into their
understandings is possible. This technique has added value when repeated later in a unit to show changes in
thinking. A final CSI can also act as a useful, brief summative task.
5. Confidence continuum
Create a continuum along the wall/board/ground. At one end, place a sign that reads very confident; at the
other end, one that reads not at all confident or something to that effect! At the beginning of a lesson/unit,
share the learning intentions with students. Have them stand/place their names along the continuum
according to how confident they feel about their understanding of these intentions. A quick scan of the
continuum will help you adjust questioning and differentiate more effectively as you teach. Return to it during
and at the end of the lesson/unit and have students re-position themselves if appropriate.
6. 5 whys
A powerful thinking strategy that helps students dig deeper into their understanding and demonstrate their
grasp of a concept along the way. Give students a why question that is central to your teaching focus. For
example, Why is water such a precious resource?. Students then work with a partner to ask and answer a
further four why questions that stem from this first one. The conversation pathway can be recorded and
shared. Always ask students to reflect on what they noticed about their questions, their responses and their
thinking during the strategy.


7. See, think, wonder


This can be done in response to a text or some specific experience or may be a more general reflection on a
topic at any given time in the unit. The students may write, draw or say their response to the questions What
did I see?, What did this make me feel?, What did this make me wonder?.
8. Make a connection
The ability to connect one idea or experience with another is fundamental to understanding and is an
excellent way to assess the development of thinking. When students can make connections, they are more
likely to have a deeper and more sustained grasp of the concept. Making connections can be prompted
through simple teacher questions such as Can you tell me something else that this reminds you of?, How is
this like what we have just been learning about in?, Can anyone make a connection to s idea?. Students
can share their connections orally, or show the way they make connections through diagrams.
9. Forced association
This is a more creative way of making connections. Have students consider how a concept they are learning
about is like something that might seem completely unrelated. For example, How is the human body like this
apple?. The ensuing discussion quickly reveals understanding. As the unit progresses, have the students come
up with their own metaphor for the topic/concept and share it with others.
10. Speed teach
This can be a fun and energizing task within a lesson and is a great way to get a quick glimpse of how students
understand something. Simply ask students to form pairs or small groups. One student is the teacher. In a
short period of time (2 minutes) ask them to explain something they have learned to the others as clearly as
they can. As students speed teach each other, their own understanding develops and there is an opportunity
to listen in to their thinking and assess accordingly.
11. Agree/disagree
Provide students with some controversial statements about which they need to form an opinion They can
form a line, make a human graph, go to corners of the room or use any other means by which they can
identify and then justify their point of view (e.g. do they agree or disagree?). Their justifications can give you
an important insight into their understandings and their misconceptions.
12. 3-2-1
Ask students to write down three words that are important to them about the topic. They then work in pairs
to reduce the list of six words they have together to two. Pairs then join to make groups of four and reduce
their combined four words to one. The words can then be chanted around the class, performed as a freeze
frame or written on signs to be posted around the room.
13. Stand by me
In this strategy, understanding goals or skills intentions are written up on posters around the room. Ask the
students to walk around the room and read them. They then move to the one they believe they understand
the best and explain the reason why they have chosen to stand by that statement to others around them. The
technique can be repeated, asking students which statement/concept/word they least understand. They then
share their questions/uncertainties with others.
14. Thumbs up/down/sideways
This quick-check strategy simply asks students to use hand signals to identify how confident they are with
what they have learned.
o Thumbs up: I understand!
o Thumb sideways: I get some of it but need help on other things.
o Thumbs down: I don't get it!




15. How is your thinking shaping up?


In this strategy, shapes represent a particular way of reflecting on a task/unit. Students can be given their own
shapes to write in or a class set can be made as a prompt.
o Square What do you agree with? What did you already know?
o Triangle What is new learning for you?
o Heart How are you feeling about this/your learning?
o Circle What questions do you have?
16. Ticket of leave
This is a very quick way to check understanding. At the end of a session, give students two Post-it notes each.
On one they write an important thing they have learned and on the other, they write a question or something
they are still confused about. On the way out the door, they post the questions on charts or the whiteboard
and they can be encouraged to loosely group them with others as they do so. This is their ticket out the door!
Use the comments and questions at the beginning of the next session to help students see more connections
in their learning.
17. Intention/reflection
This is a similar technique to the ticket of leave but it is something done at the beginning of a lesson/series of
lessons. Using various sentence starters, students identify something they hope they will understand more
deeply or a question they believe they need answering. This intention is verbalized or written. The intentions
are specifically returned to at the end of the session and students consider and share how well they have
achieved that intention.
18. Sentence starters
Make a set of laminated sentence starters that prompt students to articulate their thinking and learning: for
example An important thing I have learned is., Something I could teach someone else about is., I have a
better understanding of.. Distribute the sentence starters. They can be used for a round-the-circle share or
in many other ways.
19. Return to the question
Encourage students to regularly return to the compelling question and consider what they can add to the
response they made to it at the beginning of the unit. Keep some records of the new thinking that is evident as
the inquiry unfolds. I describe this process as looping throughout a unit of study. We loop back to the original
question and, each time, pick up more understanding along the way.
20. Metaphors and analogies
When students can create a metaphor to explain something, it generally suggests a deeper understanding of
the concept. There are many ways to encourage students to work with metaphors. Having pictures or objects
around the room to stimulate their thinking can be very powerful. Simply ask students to brainstorm all
features that they believe the concept and their selected metaphor have in common. Students can also be
presented with an analogy and can brainstorm the connections in groups. For example How is the brain like
the engine of a car?.
21. Tic-tac-toe
This can be a very quick but powerful way to check in on understanding. Prepare a grid with 9 squares. The
word in the center of the grid is the main topic/idea/concept you are working on. Students can quickly draw
up their own, tic-tac-toe style. Teachers or students fill the remaining squares with relevant terms connected
to the central concept. Students then draw a line through any three words, always including the central one.
They must then create a statement connecting all three words. This is made more fun/challenging when there
is a time limit applied to the creation of the statement.
22. Rocket write
Give students 1 minute to write down everything they think of when they think about this
topic/concept/skill/idea. After one minute, they can share with others or post and do a gallery walk to
compare and contrast.

23. Speed teach


Students find a partner. Give them a challenge they need to teach their partner in one minute, then swap
over with either the same or a new challenge. For example, Ok, I want you to teach your partner what you
understand about how a narrative text differs from a persuasive textgo!. As you rove amongst students you
will quickly hear a snapshot of where their thinking is at.
24. One-word summary
At the end of a lesson or teaching sequence ask students to identify one word that best captures what they
have learned. They can say it or write the word on a Postit note and share.
25. Six-word stories
This is fun, creative and challenging. Ask students to sum up their learning by creating a six-word story. For
example, a six-word story at the end of an inquiry into refugees might be: Displaced people may risk their
lives..
Examples of six-word stories can be found at http://www.sixwordstories.net.
26. Pipe-cleaner gallery
Give each student a pipe cleaner. Ask them to create a symbol that represents what they understand. Have
them hold up their pipe cleaners to make a pop-up gallery. Call upon students to explain why they made
what they made.
27. Collaborative quiz
If you need to assess students recall or knowledge of something, then a quick, collaborative quiz can be
energizing and effective and much better than a tedious pen-and-paper test. Organize students into small
groups. Read out the questions and ask them to collaborate and agree on an answer. The team with the most
correct answers wins each round. You can assess individuals by listening in and observing while they
negotiate. Invite students to come up with their quiz questions for sections of the quiz.
28. ABC summary
Have students pick a letter out of a hat. They then have 2 minutes to come up with a word that has some
connection to what they have been learning that begins with that letter. Quickly move around the room
hearing each word.
29. Question me the answer
Provide small groups or individuals with a key word associated with what they have been learning. Small
groups come up with a question to which that word is an answer. They then put the question to the class to
see whether the response is their allocated word.


Some strategies adapted from Richharts Visible Thinking Routines

Kath Murdoch 2015

Strategies we may use in todays workshop.

Kath Murdoch 2016

Using an inquiry approach to teaching means we need to build a repertoire of strategies and techniques that position
students as active, responsible, curious connected learners. A work sheet just won't do it. A novelty colour-cut and
paste task wont do it either. We need our teaching strategies to work hard for us. Good strategies are layered,
transferable and open ended. Whether micro or macro techniques, they are all about helping kids learn to be
powerful learners. During this workshop, several of the strategies below will be used. This list is to help you keep a
record of those strategies so you can try them out back in your classroomwith your own twist of course

Circle games (to build trust and strengthen dispositions)

Mini inquiries (eg: what is the story of your name? What brought you here?)

Line ups (to group, get learners talking, change positions)

Personal goals/my intentions (sentence starters)

Speed teaching

Jigsaw/expert groupings

Where do you stand? (agree/disagree.most/lest confident)

Walk n talk (directed sharing while walking with a partner)

Jigsaw/expert grouping

Blind sequencing

Split screen learning intentions

Flat chat thinking routine

Creating symbols (or sourcing them) to illustrate thinking

Wonderings - as a ticket of leave, wonder wall, wonder box

Forced associations (how is .. like a .) or any of Tony Ryans thinkers keys

Round Robin sharing

Full circle technique to build ideas and work collaboratively

5 whys

Think, Ink, Link routine

I used to think but now I think

Traffic light reflections (stop, keep, start)

Creative challenges (eg: circle transformation, pipe cleaner creations)

Fishbowl demonstrations

Think aloud

Diamond ranking

1-2-4 consensus strategy

Teaching for conceptual understanding strategies for the classroom


Kath Murdoch 2016
When planning
Identify the concepts that are central to the unit. Use these concepts to help you write understanding goals
for your inquiry. These understanding goals will tend to include a macro concept (eg change, systems,
relationships) and a more specific discipline/context concept (immigration, energy, habitat).

Avoid including too many concepts in the planning of your inquiry. 2-3 concepts will help you maintain the
essence of the inquiry in your head and as you teach.

Share the concept terms with students (as appropriate age level and the nature of the inquiry will impact on
how you do this) and encourage them to notice and name the concepts within and beyond the unit.
Be clear about the difference between objectives that are about content knowledge vs conceptual
understanding

Clarify intentions that are about skills and dispositions as distinct from conceptual understanding. (think split
screen)

Discuss, as a team, what the concepts mean to you. Gaining clarity and exploring the big ideas as adult
learners helps us clarify our expectations and better frame out questions when we work with students.

Rememberconcepts help us connect with the why of our teaching. They give exploration of specific, lower
order content a more purposeful context. Concepts are all about helping students navigate their way around
and organize new information. They help us see the bigger picture, make connections and continue to grow
and deepen our understanding of the world and our experience within it.

When teaching.
The constructivist view of learning that underpins inquiry beautifully supports the development of conceptual
understanding in students. Inquiry encourages students to gather information, look for patterns, make connections and
formulate generalisations. Because the learner goes through this process in a highly active, involved way the learning
is more robust. It is the teachers role to facilitate these connection-making opportunities. If inquiry is simply about
finding out information without processing, analysising, organizing and synthesizing conceptual understanding is
compromised. There are a number of key strategies that teachers can use to build conceptual understanding.

Have students share their early thinking about how they see the concept/s have them write, draw,
make, perform, find images to represent their current way of thinking about these ideas and return to
those for re-thinking throughout the unit. Revisiting or looping back the big ideas helps students see
how their understanding is growing and deepening over time.


Kath Murdoch 2016

Rather than explain or define the conceptual understanding at the beginning of the unit provide
students with multiple examples/case studies that illustrate the concept and ask them to look for
patterns and connections. Have students seek out their own examples. Use inductive rather than
deductive strategies to engage students in more independent and rigorous thinking.

Use a question as your learning intention (at unit and lesson level). Include a key concept word/s in the
intention. Eg: How does migrating to a new country change peoples lives?

Have students identify examples of the concept in contexts that go beyond the unit itself. For example,
you may be exploring the way changes to substances can be irreversible or reversible . Have students
find examples of reversible and irreversible changes in other contexts (life decisions, daily actions,
historical incidents)

Seek out literature (picture story books and novels) that explore the same concept in different ways
and have students make text-text and text-world connections as they analyse them. The same can be
done with film snippets/youtube clips, songs, paintings, cartoons poetry and photographs.

Use non examples to help children understand what the concept is NOT as well as what it IS. Invite
them to find examples and non-examples.

Make conceptual connections across the curriculum and make them explicit. These will be easier with
macro concepts like change, systems, diversity, pattern, evidence, relationships, cause and effect
perspective and more challenging with more subject/context-specific concepts like technology, conflict,
habitat, measurement, space - but aim for transfer as much as possible! Specialist and generalist
teachers can enable this integration by co-planning for deliberate concept connections.

Have students do their own inquiry into a question/issue/example that links to the overarching
concept being explored by the class. When they share the learning from their personal inquiry help
them seek connections and patterns between their learning/experience and other students learning.


Question with conceptual understanding in mind:
Can you make a connection betweenand.
What patterns can you see?
How might you link with.?
Can you give us some more examples of this?
What is an example of this in a different context? At home? In the community?
How does your thinking/idea relate to . Idea?
Where else have we explored this idea?
What is this NOT like?
What else does this remind you of?
Kath Murdoch 2016


Promote conceptual thinking and understanding by:
Making your own connections out loud
Using metaphor and analogy (and have kids create their own)
Making forced associations between seemingly unrelated ideas/objects
Using multiple examples lots of comparing and constrasting
Creating data charts to organise information and then identify patterns within it
Using graphic organisers that cluster, classify and emphasise relationships (lotus diagrams, mindmaps,
concept maps)
Returning to the compelling question and looking at how thinking changes
Using the concept attainment strategy
Asking students to select or create demonstrations of understanding in more than one way
Encouraging students to see what they can figure out (while ensuring they have a clear
purpose/intention) - direct instruction at the point of need.
Use a concept frame (is, has, does, examples, non examples) to help children explore a concept
Have a list of concepts on the classroom wall and encourage students to make connections to them as
they learn

Specific strategies that enhance conceptual understanding


Concept attainment
Concept mapping (graphic organizer)
Finding symbols, objects and images to illustrate ideas
Data charts to record information from multiple instances/case studies around the same concept
Concept frame (characteristics, examples, non examples)
Metaphors and analogies
Forced association
Bundling (discrete information, bundle create groups, connect groups to create generaisations)
Writing generalisations using concept words


Some key references:
Bennet, B. and Rolheiser, C. (2001) Beyond Monet, Bookation.
Erickson, L. and Lanning, L. (2014) Transitioning to Concept Based Curriculum and Instruction. Corwin press.
Lattanzio, T. and Muller, A. (2015) Taking the Complexity out of Concepts, Hawker Brownlow
Marzano, R. (2007) The Art and Science of Teaching, ASCD
Murdoch, K. (2015) The Power of Inquiry, Seastar Education




Kath Murdoch 2016

Creating more opportunities for real inquiry within a lesson


The following framework can be used to design or re-designing a lesson so students are more engaged as
inquirers. While the teaching is always explicit, essential to this structure is the emphasis on giving students
more time to see what they can find out/work out for themselves before I step in with more direct instruction.
I want students to be actively involved in figuring more things out for themselves, and then my role becomes
one of stepping in and providing direct instruction at the point of need.
Consider a quick provocation something to spark curiosity/raise a problem/create tension/establish a
question/engage interest.
Share the lessons intentions with students as questions. Create a split screen set of intentions: one
that links to conceptual understanding and the other that links to skills/dispositions. (this is vital as it
ensures students know the purpose of the learning)
Give students an opportunity to connect with their prior learning and current thinking
(theories/predictions/hypotheses/current views/wonderings). Share it with each other and record it.
Provide an opportunity for exploration this challenge may be open-ended or quite scaffolded. The key
is to give students a chance to figure out what they can do on their own/in small groups, using
resources/texts/materials. Use this time to prompt, question, scaffold and observe. Try to use
strategies that can be used again (such as thinking routines, visual organizers). Invite students to raise
questions/wonderings (Create success criteria if appropriate. What should we all be looking
for/doing?)
Ensure there is some element of choice in the lesson (about what, where, with whom, howetc.).
Pause to reflect during the lesson notice and name the learning and link back to intentions.
Provide input/scaffolding as required (to individuals and small groups) to help students strengthen
understanding, go deeper, and address misconceptions.
Reflect on both the content and process.
CONNECT to other learning (how is this useful in other contexts? What else have we done that is like
this?) Clarify the purpose and relevance.
Re-visit prior learning and/ predictions. - how did thinking change?
Identify new questions.

Some key elements of an inquiry based lesson

Students raise questions


Teachers use questions to drive the learning
There is substantive talk between students
Teacher questioning encourages making connections, reflection and transfer
There is choice
Links are made to previous and future learning
Teachers and students are using the meta language of inquiry
Students are challenged to discover/problem solve/make connections/find out
Tasks are open ended

Some resources for inquiring into inquiry


Compiled by Kath Murdoch 2016
(Note: this list is only the beginning - theres a WORLD of inquiry out there!)
A sm all sam ple of BLOGS w ith a focus on inquiry
http://inquiryblog.wordpress.com/ (INQUIREWITHIN excellent global site with quality posts
http://whatedsaid.wordpress.com/ (Melbourne based blogger high quality conte
http://www.justwonderingblog.com (yours truly go to my website www.kathmurdoch.com.au and subscribe)
http://timespaceeducation.wordpress.com/ (popular blog that explores both practical classroom ideas as well as
reflecting on bigger picture learning issues)
https://lindybuckley1.wordpress.com/ (Lindy is a teacher at Nanjing International School many of her entries are
wonderfully practical reflections on using inquiry across the curriculum
http://bie.org/blog (project based learning) http://www.inquiry-based.com/blog.html (teacher based in Canada
some good practical examples)
http://www.thinkinginmind.com/category/inquiry-based-learning/ (one section of a very engaging blog)\
http://atelierista-anna.blogspot.com.au (early childhood, art and inquiry)\
http://www.heidisiwak.com/ (Canadian based, award winning inquiry teacher with good classroom examples)
http://thestylinglibrarian.com/ (library teacher in inquiry school)
http://authenticinquirymaths.blogspot.com.au (inquiry based maths an Australian teacherfantastic blog)
http://feedingmyeddiction.blogspot.com.au Steve Box a principal of an inquiry (PYP) school in QLD
http://primaryschoolmusings.wordpress.com (Mary Collins at Bandung International School a thoughtful and
comprehensive blogger on inquiry)
https://sites.google.com/site/inquirymaths/ (secondary maths teacher who uses an inquiry approach)
http://www.pyppewithandy.com/index.html (PE teacher/consultant who blogs about inquiry)
http://acultureofthinking.weebly.com (GREAT) link for early years teachers http://wordsinbogor.blogspot.com.au
(inquiring into language spelling and word study structured inquiry approach to spelling)
http://stevemouldey.wordpress.com (secondary school teacher and blogger inquiry educator)
http://www.traintheteacher.me (Singapore based PYP teacher)
http://inquiry-based.blogspot.co.id/ (Canadian based inquiry educator)
https://inquirylearningblog.wordpress.com/ Australian academic with a keen interest in inquiry based learning
great for analysis and updates on latest research
http://morecuriousminds.blogspot.com.au/ Archived posts from American Inquiry Educator John Barrell
http://blogs.yis.ac.jp/cowdyt/ : this is an archived blog but has many lovely posts from Tasha about her experience
of running an inquiry based classroom in the early years.
http://www.maggiehosmcgrane.com/ (excellent inquiry teacher (in a PYP setting) who writes broadly on learner
centred education often with a tech focus.)
And a handful of b logs that focus m ore generally on student centred learning
http://www.thelandscapeoflearning.com
http://larryferlazzo.edublogs.org (incredibly prolific blogger with a focus on resources that teachers can use so
often find something useful here!
http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/
http://stumpteacher.blogspot.com.au/
http://willrichardson.com/ http://helloliteracy.blogspot.com.au/ (Jennifer Jones American reading specialist with
some very useful, practical ideas)
http://www.kleinspiration.com: prolific blogger with some lovely stuff on classroom organisation and set ups for
inquiry and tech tools
http://biancahewes.wordpress.com This blogger works with year 7/8 students and is passionate and generous
about her work she is a problem/project based learning expert
http://missspinkontech.global2.vic.edu.au Melbourne based blogger with great tech know how and practical
examples from work with her 5/6 students
http://langwitches.org/blog/ (strong tech focus, great for documentation ideas and some great materials)
A tiny m orsel of the m any w ebsites with a focus on inquiry
http://www.inquirypartners.com
http://www.inquiringmind.co.nz/ (Jan Kallow is a NZ based inquiry based educator with lots of great, practical

Kath Murdoch 2016

resources on her site)

http://www.bie.org/ (problem based learning institute excellent resources)


http://www.inquirypartners.com/blog/ (excellent resources and posts on inquiry learning)
http://www.schoollibrarymonthly.com/index.html (Barbara Striplings site - she has developed quite a well known
model of inquiry)
www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/inquiry (general info on inquiry)\
http://www.inquiryhub.org/ (general info on inquiry)
www.nzcurriculum.tki.org.nz (NZ website lots of great stuff on inquiry here)
http://big6.com/ (an information literacy framework compatible with inquiry some useful templates
http://www.inquiry-based.com (teacher-curated website from Canada)
http://www.inquiryschools.net/ (not updated since 2009 but some great video footage of inquiry in action)
www.kathmurdoch.com.au (my own website general information)
http://rightquestion.org/ (focuses on questioning)
www.inquiryschools.net (includes clips of different schools in action)
http://www.galileo.org/tips/inquiry.html (general inquiry information and support)
http://earlylife.com.au/info/ (Kathy Walker play based learning)
http://www.playbasedlearning.com.au/ (excellent early years resource)
http://www.reggioaustralia.org.au/ (Australian site for Reggio Emilia (student centred early childhood approach)
similar sites around the world)
http://www.challengebasedlearning.org/pages/welcome (Apple promoted idea that offers some useful scope for
inquiry with a strong digital focus)

A drop

of the ocean of websites about student-centred learning


http://www.studentsatthecenter.org/home (as the title suggests!)
http://www.teachthought.com/category/learning/ (great resource for articles etc on contemporary learning)
www.edutopia.com (great for project based learning and many other resources)
www.mindsetonline.com (all about Carol Dwecks mindset work)
www.yoramharpaz.com (essential questions, thinking, inquiry)
http://learningcurveplanner.com.au/home.html (very comprehensive, user friendly list of thinking tools)
http://biepbl.blogspot.com/ (problem based learning)
http://www.authenticeducation.org/index.lasso (Understanding by design)
http://www.p21.org (21 C skills)
www.newhorizons.org (for articles and links - contemporary practice)
http://www.personalizelearning.com/ (great for voice and choice info.)
http://www.clerestorylearning.com/ (great contemporary learning stuff!)
http://www.tonyryan.com.au/home/ (thinkers keys)
http://blogs.kqed.org/mindshift/
http://www.greatlearning.com/lfl/\
http://www.teachthought.com

A taste of the m any sites that w ill help you nurture curiosity
- www.wonderopolis.com (great resource for generating wonder AND for researching interesting questions)
www.literacyshed.com (excellent collection of videos and teaching ideas)
- http://thekidshouldseethis.com (fantastic collection of videos to ignite curiosity)
- www.exploratorium.edu
- www.teded.com (videos created to explore a range of issues/topics)
- http://thekidshouldseethis.com (fantastic collection of videos to ignite curiosity)
- http://thekidshouldseethis.com (fantastic collection of videos to ignite curiosity)
- http://taggalaxy.de/
- http://education.skype.com/projects/2751
- http://www.nationalgeographic.com
- http://www.101qs.com/ (for generating questions)
- https://sites.google.com/a/gapps.uwcsea.edu.sg/researchhub/ (a site to help kids with research)
- http://www.mos.org (Museum of science loads of amazing resources)
- http://sylviashow.com (young girls own blog with a design and make focus great videos!)
http://www.meetmeatthecorner.org (lots of great short videos on a range of topics)
- https://www.smore.com/0ruh-taking-student-genius-global (global action projects)
- http://www.did-you-knows.com (a great compilation of intriguing facts that could spark further inquiry)

Kath Murdoch 2016

http://learnitin5.com/_TaggedPages?tag=Lesson%20Starters Lots of videos that can be used as provocations


and lesson starters
http://kidworldcitizen.org/ (great resources for global ed)
www.enchantedlearning.com
http://agoogleaday.com/ (to help practice search skills AND generate curiosity)
http://www.stumbleupon.com/ (great way to locate resources/sites but not recommend for kids to access on their
own good for teachers)
http://www.trycuriosity.com/ (focus on books that can support your program)

A fraction of the vast reso urce based for play and inquiry-based early years
education
An Everyday Story: Child-Led Homeschooling/Reggio Emilia Inspired Living & Learning (Kate)
Atelierista: Stories from the Studio (Anna Golden)
Crayons, Wand & Building Blocks; A Journey Through Inquiry-Based Play
Designing Early Childhood Australia: Planning, PD & Provocation (Paulette)
Early Learning @ ISZL (International School Zug & Luzern)
Extraordinary Classroom (Tiziana Ciccone)
Fairy Dust Teaching (Sally Haughey)
Interaction Imagination (Suzanne Axelsson)
Investigating Choice Time: Inquiry, Exploration & Play (Renee Dinerstein)
Irresistible Ideas for Play-based Learning (Sherry Hutton & Donna Ridley)
Journey into Early Childhood (Debra)
Journey Together in Full Day Kindergarten (Caroline Thorton & Shirley Silva)
Let the Children Play
Marla McLean, Atelierista School Within School
Play Based Inquiry
Playful Learning (Mariah Bruehl)
Technology Rich Inquiry-Based Research (Louise Jupp & Diane Kashin)
The Compass School (Cincinnati, USA)
This Kindergarten Life (Laurel Fynes)
Tinkerlab (Rachelle Doorley)
TransformEd: Transforming our Learning into a Space of Possibilities (Joanne Babilis)
Under 3 Roofs (Peabody Terrace Childrens Center)
Wonders in Kindergarten (Anamaria Ralph)
Yokohama International School Early Learning Centre
Zella Said Purple (Jeanne Zuech)
http://www.reggioaustralia.org.au/ (Australian site for Reggio Emilia (student centred early childhood approach)
similar sites around the world)
http://www.discoverytime.co.nz
http://www.playbasedlearning.com.au (GORGEOUS examples)
http://pinterest.com/camtown/play-based-learning-ideas/ (a pinterest board)
http://www.galileonetwork.ca/earlylearning/
http://pinterest.com/kidsplayspace/kids-loose-parts-play-inspiration/
http://acultureofthinking.weebly.com
A scattering of TW ITTER HANDLES TO FOLLOW there are m any m ore!
@whatedsaid
@kjinquiry (thats me! Check out those I follow most connected to inquiry in some way)
@capitanoAmazing
@curiosityTV
@ibpyp
@Saigon_Craig
@DwyerTeacher
@jennysfen
@edutopia
@ronritchhart
@LindyBuckley1
@mumbaimaggie
@sherattsam

Kath Murdoch 2016

@hurleyinchina
@graemeAnshaw
@tombarrett
@heidiSiwak
@sugatam
@fullonlearning
@namastececi
@naturlcuriosity
@gallit_z
@craigkemp
@geomouldey
@jjuliani
@inquirypartners
A w hiff of the world of relevant TED Talks about student-centred learning
http://www.ted.com/talks/sugata_mitra_shows_how_kids_teach_themselves
http://www.ted.com/talks/ramsey_musallam_3_rules_to_spark_learning
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LFt15Ig64Yg (The Power of Ummm)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BlvKWEvKSi8 (Dan Meyer)
And a sliver of facebook pages to like
Kath Murdoch consulting
Lisa Burman
Inquiry Partners
Visible thinking
Walker Learning
Edutopia
Natural Curiosity
Finally a sam ple of a huge array of useful books about inquiry
Barell, J.(2003) Developing more curious minds. ASCD
Barrell, J.(2007) Why are school buses always yellow? Teaching for inquiry K-5. ASCD
Barrell, J. (2008) Problem based learning: an inquiry approach, Hawker Brownlow
Bennet, B. and Rolhesier, C. (2001) Beyond Monet Bookation Inc Toronro
Blythe, T. and associates (1998) The Teaching for Understanding Guide Jossey Bass San Fransisco
Bransford, John, Ann Brown, and Rodney Cocking, eds. How people learn. national research council,
Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999.
Brooks, J. and Brooks, M. (1999) In search of understanding: The Case for Constructivist Classrooms, ASCD
Behrenbruch, B. (2012) Dancing in the Light, Essential Elements for an Inquiry Classroom. Sense Publishing,
Melbourne.
Claxton, G. (2011) The Learning Powered School: Pioneering 21st Century Education TLO LTD
Claxton, G. Educating Ruby: What Our Children Really Need to Learn. Crown House Publishing, Carmathen
Couros,G. (2015) The Innovators Mindset: Empower Learning, Unleash Talent and Lead a Culture of Creativity,
Dave Burgess Consulting
D Acquisto, (2006) L. Learning on Display: student-created museums that build understanding, ASCD
Daniels and Harvey (2009) : Comprehension and collaboration Inquiry circles in Action, Heinneman
Dweck,C. (2007) Mindset: The New Psychology of Success Random House Publishing Group
Elder, Z. (2012) Full on Learning : Involve Me and Ill
Understand. Crown House Publishing, UK.
Erickson, L. (2002) Concept Based Curriculum and Instruction: teaching beyond the facts. Corwin Press
Gardner, H. (1993), Multiple Intelligences: the theory in practice , Basic Books, New York.
Gallas, K. (1995) Talking their way into Science. Teachers College Press
Gillon, K. and Pope, J. (2012) INquiry! Inquiry learning for any classroom. Hatbox publications NZ
Glover, M. (2015) The Teacher you Want to be: Essays about Children, Teaching and Learning, Henneman.
Hamston, J. and Murdoch, K. 1996, Integrating Socially: units of work for social education, Eleanor Curtain,
Melbourne
Harvey and Goudvis (2000) Strategies that work (comprehension) Stenhouse.
Johnston, P. (2004) Choice words: how our language affects childrens learning. Stenhouse.
Johnston, P. (2012) Opening Minds: using language to change lives Stenhouse
Juliani, Aj. (2014) Inquiry and Innovation in the Classroom:using 20% Time, Genius Hour and PBL to Drive

Kath Murdoch 2016

Student Success. Routledge, London.


Katz, L. Engaging Childrens Minds: the project approach.Ablex Publishing Association.
Kuhlthau, C., et al. (2007) Guided Inquiry: Learning in the21C. Libraries Unlimited, Santa Barbara, CA.
Kruse, D. (2009) Thinking Strategies for the Inquiry Classroom, Curriculum Corporation
Kruse, D. (2009) Thinking Tools for the Inquiry Classroom, Curriculum Corporation
Kuhlthau, Carol. (2007) Et al Guided Inquiry: learning in the 21C. Libraries Unlimited
Littkey, D. and Grabelle (2004) The Big Picture : education is everyones business ASCD
Marzano, R, et al. (2001) Classroom Instruction that Works ASCD
Milller, D. (2002) Reading with Meaning, teaching comprehension in the primary grades Stenhouse
Miller, D.(2008) Teaching with Intention : defining beliefs, aligning practice, Taking Action Stenhouse
Murdoch (2015) The Power of Inquiry: teaching and learning with curiosity, creativity and purpose in the
contemporary classroom. Seastar Education (available OCTOBER 2015)
Murdoch, K. (2006) Take a moment: forty frameworks for reflection, Seastar Education, Melbourne (available
through seastar@netspace.net.au)
Murdoch, K. (1988) Classroom Connections: strategies for integrated learning, Eleanor Curtain.
Murdoch, K. and Hamston, J (1999) Knowing Me, Knowing You: Units of work about identity and difference ,
Dellasta/Eleanor Curtain
Murdoch and Wilson (2004) Learning Links,: strategic teaching in the learner centred classroom, Curriculum
Corporation, Melb.
Mraz, K. and Hertz, C. (2015) A Mindset for Learning: Teaching the Traits of Joyful, Independent Growth,
Henneman.
Perkins, D. (2014) Future Wise: Educating our Children for a Changing World. Jossey-Bass San Francisco, CA.
Ricchart, R. (2011) Making Thinking Visible: How to Promote Engagement, Understanding, and Independence for
All Learners Jossey Bass
Ricchart, Ron.(2015) Cultures of Thinking: The 8 Forces We Must Master to Truly Transform Our Schools.
Jossey-Bass,
San Francisco, CA.
Rothstein, D. and Santana, L. (2011) Make Just One Change:Teach Students to Ask Their Own Questions.
Harvard Education Publishing Group, Cambridge, MA.
Short, K., Schroeder, J., Laird,J., Kauffman, G. , Ferguson, M. and Crawford,K. 1996 Learning Together through
Inquiry: from Columbus to integrated curriculum, Stenhouse, York, Maine.
Kathy G. Short and Jerome Harste (1996) Creating Classrooms for Authors and Inquirers, Heinemann
Short, K. (1997) Literature as a Way of Knowing , The Galef Institute
Swan, C. (2009) Teaching strategies for literacy in the Early Years, ALEA, melb
Tomlinson, C. and McTighe, J. (2006) Integrating Differentiated Instruction and Understanding by Design , ASCD
Vietri, Debbie (2008) The Essentials: Units of work for the integrated Curriculum, Pearson
Ward, C. and Daly, J. learning to Learn (NZ publication)
Wells, G. (2001). Action, talk & text: Learning & teaching through inquiry. New York, NY: Teachers College Press
Wiggins, G. and McTighe, J. (1998) Understanding by Design, ASCD
Wilson (2013) Activate Inquiry Education Services Australia
Wilson, J. and Murdoch, K. Learning for themselves. Curriculum Corporation
Wilson, J. and Wing Jan L.(2003, 2009) Focus on Inquiry Curriculum Corp
Wilson, J. and Wing Jan,(1998) L. Self Assessment for Students, Eleanor Curtain.
Wilson,J. and Wing Jan, L. (1998) Integrated Assessment, Oxford
Wilhelm, J. and Edmiston, B. 1998 Imagining to learn: inquiry, ethics and integration through drama. Heinemann
Portsmouth
Wolfe, P (2001) Brain Matters: Translating Research into Classroom Practice, ASCD

Little Books of Big Ideas (most of these are now out of print but may be in your school library)
How to Succeed with Thinking (Jeni Wilson and Kath Murdoch)
How to Succeed with learner-centred assessment (Wilson and Murdoch)
How to Succeed wit Questioning Robyn English and Jeni Wilson
How to Succeed with Cooperative Learning Kath Murdoch and Jeni Wilson
How to Succeed with Creating a Learning Community - Kath Murdoch and Jeni Wilson
Great Resources for Prep-2 play based Inquiry;
Cadwell, L. Bringing Learning to Life. Teachers College Press
Reggio Children: Everything has a shadow expect Ants (Reggio Emilia Publishing)
Jabion, J. The Power of Observation, Teaching Strategies
Katz, Lillian. Engaging Children s Minds: the project Approach, Ablex Publishing Association
Walker, K. (2008) Play Matters: a play and project based philosophy ACER press
Just Imagine

Kath Murdoch 2016

Just Investigate
Just Improvise
Just Discover (All published by Tertiary press) EXCELLENT ideas for discovery centres
Curtis, Deb. Designs for Living and learning, Redleaf Press
(All these resources are available through the Lady Gowrie Centres online book shop):
www.gowrie-melbourne.com.au/bookshop

Kath Murdoch 2016