MA GLOBAL BUSINESS CORE COURSE IN HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IN THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT Academic year 2007 - 2008

Training and Development
Objectives After studying this unit, you should be able to:

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

Conduct a needs assessment. Evaluate employees’ readiness for training. Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of presentation, handson, and group training methods. Design a training session to maximize learning. Choose an appropriate evaluation design Develop a cross-cultural preparation program.

7. 8. 9.

Discuss the steps in the development process. Explain the employees’ and company's responsibilities in the development planning process. Explain what companies are doing for management development issues, including planning, melting the glass ceiling, and helping dysfunctional managers.

Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Training and Learning Organization
TRADITIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Training refers to a planned effort by a company to facilitate the learning of job related knowledge, skills, or behavior by employees.

BROADER PERSPECTIVE (creation & sharing of knowledge)
High-leverage training is linked to strategic business goals and objectives, is supported by top-management, relies on an instructional design model to ensure the quality of training and to contain costs, and is compared or benchmarked to programs in other organizations.
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Designing Effective Training Systems
1. 1.

Assessing needs Assessing needs

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The Needs Assessment Process
Training Pressure Points

Person Analysis
- Who needs training? - Is training the solution for the observed performance deficiency?

Organizational Analysis
- Support for training? - Sufficient resources? - Fit with strategic objectives?

Task Analysis
-Select the job to be analyzed -Develop a list of tasks -Verify the importance of tasks -Identify knowledge, skills, abilities needed to perform each task

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Designing Effective Training Systems
1. 1. 2. 2.

Assessing needs Assessing needs Ensuring employee readiness for training Ensuring employee readiness for training

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Motivation to learn can be increased by ensuring that employees … believe they can learn training content believe they can learn training content understand the benefits of training understand the benefits of training are aware of their career interests, training needs and are aware of their career interests, training needs and goals goals understand the effects of work environment understand the effects of work environment
situational constraints (are there proper tools, equipment, materials, situational constraints (are there proper tools, equipment, materials,
budgetary support,…?) budgetary support,…?)

Ensuring Employees’ Readiness for Training

social support (are managers/peers willing to provide feedback and social support (are managers/peers willing to provide feedback and
reinforcement?) reinforcement?)
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possess basic (literacy) skills possess basic (literacy) skills

Designing Effective Training Systems
1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3.

Assessing needs Assessing needs Ensuring employee readiness for training Ensuring employee readiness for training Creating a learning environment Creating a learning environment

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Creating a Learning Environment
Needs of employees to enhance learning
Know training objectives Know training objectives Link own experiences to training Link own experiences to training Opportunities to practice Opportunities to practice Feedback Feedback Learn by observing others Learn by observing others Coordinated training programs Coordinated training programs
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Designing Effective Training Systems
1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.

Assessing needs Assessing needs Ensuring employee readiness for training Ensuring employee readiness for training Creating a learning environment Creating a learning environment Ensuring transfer of training Ensuring transfer of training

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Ensure Transfer of Training
Climate for transfer Climate for transfer Make self-management a part of Make self-management a part of training training Opportunities to use training Opportunities to use training Peer and manager support Peer and manager support Technological support Technological support
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Designing Effective Training Systems
1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5.

Assessing needs Assessing needs Ensuring employee readiness for training Ensuring employee readiness for training Creating a learning environment Creating a learning environment Ensuring transfer of training Ensuring transfer of training Selecting training methods Selecting training methods

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Training Methods
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Presentation Techniques Presentation Techniques classroom instruction classroom instruction distance learning, and audio visual distance learning, and audio visual Hands-on Techniques Hands-on Techniques on-the-job training (OJT) on-the-job training (OJT) self-directed learning self-directed learning apprenticeship apprenticeship simulations simulations business games, case studies business games, case studies behavior modeling behavior modeling interactive video interactive video Group-building methods Group-building methods adventure (wilderness) learning adventure (wilderness) learning team training, and action learning team training, and action learning

Designing Effective Training Systems
1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4. 5. 5. 6. 6.

Assessing needs Assessing needs Ensuring employee readiness for training Ensuring employee readiness for training Creating a learning environment Creating a learning environment Ensuring transfer of training Ensuring transfer of training Selecting training methods Selecting training methods Evaluating training program Evaluating training program

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Evaluating Training Programs
Four levels of evaluation include:
Level 1: Reaction Were the participants pleased? What do they plan to do with what they learned? What skills, knowledge, or attitudes have changed? By how much? Did the participants change their behavior based on what was learned in the program? Did the change in behavior positively affect the organization?

Level 2: Learning

Level 3: Behavior

Level 4: Results

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1959). “Techniques for evaluation training programs”. Journal of American Society for Training Directors, Vol. 13, pp. 28-32; (1960) Vol. 14, pp. 13-32.
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Evaluating Training Programs
Four levels of evaluation include:
Level 1: Reaction
Evaluating the satisfaction of the participants with contents, teaching staff, methodologies, equipment,… Evaluating how many and which kind of knowledge, abilities and attitudes have been transferred to participants (traditional “exams” to check participants’ knowledge) Evaluating the way of working and behaviours of participants after the training program. Pay attention to the fact that maybe it is necessary to add more actions to allow behavioural change. Evaluating if training has been accompanied by improvements in productivity, sales figures, quality, customer satisfaction, labour climate,…

Level 2: Learning

Level 3: Behavior

Level 4: Results

Kirkpatrick, D. L. (1959, 1960). “Techniques for evaluation training programs”. Journal of American Society for Training Directors, 13, pp. 28-32.
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Reasons for Evaluating Training

Determine if program met objectives Determine if program met objectives Determine trainee’s reaction to program Determine trainee’s reaction to program content and administration content and administration Determine benefits costs of program Determine benefits // costs of program Help select the best program Help select the best program

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Factors in Choosing an Evaluation Design
Size of program Size of program Purpose Purpose Implications if program fails Implications if program fails Company norms Company norms Costs of conducting evaluation Costs of conducting evaluation Speed needed in obtaining data on Speed needed in obtaining data on program effectiveness program effectiveness
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Three Phases of Socialization
•Anticipatory socialization: development of expectations about the company, job, working conditions, and interpersonal relationships (realistic job preview) •Encounter: individuals beginning new jobs will always experience shock and surprise •Settling in: employees begin to feel comfortable with their job demands and social relationships
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Cross-Cultural Preparation
Educating employees (expatriates) and their families who are to be sent to a foreign country

PHASES •Predeparture Phase: language training, info
about new country’s culture & customs

•On-site training: continued orientation •Repatriation: preparing expatriates for return to parent company and country
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Comparison between Training and Development
Training - Designed to provide the knowledge and skills needed for a particular job. Development - Involves learning that goes beyond today's job. It has a more long-term focus

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Comparison between Training and Development
Training Focus Use of work experience Goal Participation Current Low Preparation for current job Required Development Future High Preparation for changes Voluntary

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Career Management Process
Action Plans

Goal Setting Reality Check SelfAssessment
- determine career interests, values, aptitudes
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- feedback on skills, knowledge

- devise shortand long-term developmental plans

Employee Development Experiences
Lateral moves - job rotation - lateral transfers

Promotion

Vertical assignments - delegation of more significant tasks

Job Rotation

Enlargement of current job experiences

Transfers

Downward move

Temporary assignment with another organization

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Special Issues

Melting the Glass Ceiling Melting the Glass Ceiling Succession Planning Succession Planning Dysfunctional Managers Dysfunctional Managers

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