You are on page 1of 155

ICS 01.100.30; 91.080.

40
ISBN 0-626-10274-X

SABS
0144*

*This standard references other standards

Edition 2

1995

SOUTH AFRICAN STANDARD

Code of practice

Detailing of steel reinforcement for concrete

Published by
THE SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS

Gr 19

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

SABS 0144

ICS 01.100.30; 91.080.40

Ed. 2

SOUTH AFRICAN BUREAU OF STANDARDS


CODE OF PRACTICE
DETAILING OF STEEL REINFORCEMENT FOR CONCRETE

Obtainable from the


South African Bureau of Standards
Private Bag X191
Pretoria
Republic of South Africa
0001
Telephone
Fax
E-mail
Website

: (012) 428-7911
: (012) 344-1568
: sales@sabs.co.za
: http://www.sabs.co.za

COPYRIGHT RESERVED
Printed in the Republic of South Africa by the
South African Bureau of Standards

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Acknowledgement
The South African Bureau of Standards wishes to acknowledge the valuable assistance received from
the SAICE (Structural Division) Concrete Committee.

Notice
This standard was approved in accordance with SABS procedures on 24 April 1995.
NOTE 1 In terms of the Standards Act, 1993 (Act 29 of 1993), no person shall claim or declare that he or any other
person complied with an SABS standard unless
a) such claim or declaration is true and accurate in all material respects, and
b) the identity of the person on whose authority such claim or declaration is made, is clear.
NOTE 2 It is recommended that authorities who wish to incorporate any part of this standard into any legislation in the
manner intended by section 31 of the Act consult the SABS regarding the implications.

This standard will be revised when necessary in order to keep abreast of progress. Comment will be
welcome and will be considered when the standard is revised.

Foreword
This second edition (first revision) cancels and replaces SABS 0144:1978.
Annexes A, B, C, D and E are for information only.

Attention is drawn to the normative references given


in clause 2 of this standard. These references are
indispensable for the application of this standard.

ISBN 0-626-10274-X

ii

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Introduction
This standard is intended to cover all types of reinforced concrete. Some specialized structures, such
as silos and reservoirs, are not mentioned specifically, but the general principles apply.
The methods set out in the standard are derived from South African practice as evolved over a period
of 50 years. They are used by consulting engineers and reinforcement suppliers, and represent a good
standard of detailing. The provisions set out are not mandatory, but are intended as a guide to normal
procedures.
The object of the standard is to present those methods that will save time and effort in the drawing
office and at the same time facilitate placing of reinforcement and communication with the construction
site, and reduce the likelihood of errors.
NOTE The drawings contained in this standard have been derived from various sources, and do not necessarily comply
with the ISO requirements for drawings. The way in which the drawings have been done, is therefore not prescriptive.

In writing the standard, it has been found impossible to separate design considerations from detailing
rules because of their interdependence. To avoid confusion, therefore, the reasons for some of the
rules have been included.
The standard is intended to be in accordance with the provisions of SABS 0100-1 but note has been
taken of overriding recommendations in other similar modern standards (ACI1), CEB-FIP2), Australian,
British, German) and recent research findings. Adjustments based on the experience of members of
the committee who prepared this standard have also been made.
It must be emphasized that with the new limit-state approach, the stress in the reinforcement under
normal or even self-weight load conditions is considerably higher than was usual. As a result, good
detailing has become extremely important.

1) ACI: American Concrete Institute.


2) CEB-FIP: Comit Europen du Bton Fdration Internationale de la Prcontrainte.

iii

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Blank

iv

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Contents
Acknowledgement

Page
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii

Notice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ii
Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii
Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix
1

Scope

Normative references . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Detailing considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10

2
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4

Placing drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Referencing of bars and placing instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Revisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Preferred spacing of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Scheduling of bar reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12


5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
5.8
5.9

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bending schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Placing and wiring in position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Support of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preassembly of cages and mats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Concreting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Openings, pockets, other trades and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Measurement of quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Economical use of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Detailing of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

.................................................................. 1

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Paper sizes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Title panel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Numbering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Drawing and dimensioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bending details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cutting and bending tolerances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods of expressing quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combined placing drawings and bending schedules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

General requirements for all components


6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5

12
12
12
13
13
14
14
14
15

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Cover to reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
The maintenance of cover and position of reinforcing bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splicing of reinforcing bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bends and anchorages for reinforcing bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bundling of bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
16
21
23
24

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Contents (continued)
Page
7

Component detailing Beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25


7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
7.10
7.11
7.12
7.13
7.14
7.15
7.16

25
25
25
28
33
40
41
43
43
44
48
48
52
52
53
57

Component detailing Slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
8.9
8.10
8.11
8.12

Numbering of beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of detail . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Preferred methods of detailing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Practical requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Beams of depth exceeding 750 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Intersections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintaining bars in position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum reinforcement requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curtailment of bars in beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bent-up bars for shear reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corbels and halving joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splicing of tension bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Prefabrication of beam cages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corners and cranked beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deep beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Minimum reinforcement in slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Spacing of bars in slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Diameters of bars in slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Maintenance of position of steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Openings and corners in slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cantilever slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Curtailment of top tension reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Corner reinforcement in two-way slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Slabs of other types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Flat slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

61
61
62
63
63
63
64
66
71
71
71
71

Component detailing Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75


9.1
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detailing method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stirrups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splicing of column reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Large change in column size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

75
75
75
78
82
84

10 Component detailing Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


10.1
10.2
10.3
10.4
10.5
10.6
10.7

vi

General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detailing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinforced and plain concrete walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kickers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cranking of vertical bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Layers of reinforcement in thin walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Layers of reinforcement in thicker walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

84
84
84
84
84
87
87

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Contents (continued)
Page
10.8
10.9
10.10
10.11
10.12
10.13
10.14
10.15
10.16
10.17
10.18
10.19
10.20

Prefabrication of reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Vertical stages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Clips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pockets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splices at top of wall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Splices to slabs and beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walls with nominal reinforcement or plain concrete walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walls in which the required area of vertical reinforcement exceeds 0,4 % of the
plan area of concrete . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walls constructed by means of sliding or climbing shuttering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retaining walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walls, other than retaining walls, contributing significantly to horizontal stability
of a structure, for example tank walls, silo walls, shear walls, core walls . . . . . . .
Walls with corners subject to horizontal bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Walls subject to bending forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88
88
88
88
90
91
92
92
92
93
96
97
98

11 Component detailing Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99


11.1
11.2
11.3
11.4
11.5
11.6
11.7
11.8
11.9

Detailing methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Main reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Combined bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pile caps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Raft foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Wall foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Machine foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Strap beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Column starter bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

99
99
102
103
103
103
103
103
105

12 Staircases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
12.1
12.2

Diagrammatic details . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107


Re-entrant corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

13 Welded steel mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110


13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6
13.7
13.8

Use of mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Types of mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mesh placing drawings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Scheduling of mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Bending of mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Galvanized mesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Lapping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110
110
110
112
114
118
118
118

14 Detailing with respect to aqueous liquid retaining structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120


14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5

General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Causes of cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detailing to minimize effects of cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

120
120
120
123
123

vii

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Contents (concluded)
Page
15 Detailing of steel reinforcement for post-tensioned concrete slabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
15.1
15.2
15.3
15.4
15.5
15.6

General principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Causes of cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Detailing to minimize effects of cracking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tendon profiling and positioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

125
125
125
127
128
129

Annexes
A Shape codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
B Additional information on corners and cranked beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
B.1
B.2
B.3
B.4
B.5
B.6
B.7
B.8
B.9

Changes in angle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods of reinforcing opening corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Methods of improving strength of opening corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinforcement less than 1 % . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Reinforcement more than 1 % . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Looped reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Junction of beams and columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Cranked beams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Closing corners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

131
132
133
135
135
135
136
137
139

C Steel reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140


C.1
C.2
C.3
C.4

Steel bars for concrete reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Size and availability of steel bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Deformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Welded steel mesh for concrete reinforcement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

140
140
140
141

D Table of bond and lap lengths for fully stressed bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
E Tables of the area and mass of reinforcing bars . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143

viii

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Committee
SABS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

VJ Woodlock
(Chairman)
AT Brownhill
(Standards writer)
E Coetzee
(Committee clerk)

Concrete Society of South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

M McEwan

CSIR
Boutek . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BG Lunt

Department of Public Works and Land Affairs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

CJ Jacobs
MG Knoetze

Eskom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

BP Hill
DF van Tonder

Institute of Concrete Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

J Kellerman

Metricomp Programmes (Pty) Limited . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

SG Stoch

Natal Provincial Administration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

D Le Voy

Portland Cement Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

GRH Grieve
P Taylor

South African Property Owners' Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

KM Wood

South African Reinforced Concrete Engineers' Association . . . . . . . . . . . . .

B Doyle
GJG Griffiths

The South African Association of Consulting Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

RJ Snowden
C Vidulich

The South African Institution of Civil Engineers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

AE Goldstein
RS Stamm
MF Yawitch

ix

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Blank

CODE OF PRACTICE

SABS 0144
Edition 2

Detailing of steel reinforcement for concrete

1 Scope
1.1 This standard recommends methods for detailing steel reinforcement for concrete and is
applicable to most reinforced concrete.
1.2 The detailer is not expected to make decisions based on design aspects and should always seek
instructions from the designer if there is any doubt as to methods of detailing.
NOTES
1 In this standard, stirrups and ties are measured externally.
2 The word "rebar" (meaning "reinforcing bar") is being used overseas and it is possible that in time it will become
common usage in this country.
3 The attention of users of this standard is drawn to annex A, recommended shape codes, annex B, additional
information on corners and cranked beams, annex C, details of steel reinforcement, annex D, a table of bond and lap
lengths for fully stressed bars and annex E, tables of area and mass of reinforcing bars.

2 Normative references
The following standards contain provisions which, through reference in this text, constitute provisions
of this standard. All standards are subject to revision and, since any reference to a standard is deemed
to be a reference to the latest edition of that standard, parties to agreements based on this standard
are encouraged to take steps to ensure the use of the most recent editions of the standards indicated
below. Information on currently valid national and international standards can be obtained from the
South African Bureau of Standards.
BS 8007, Code of practice for design of concrete structures for retaining aqueous liquids.
SABS 82, Bending dimensions of bars for concrete reinforcement.
SABS 920, Steel bars for concrete reinforcement.
SABS 1024, Welded steel fabric for reinforcement of concrete.
SABS 0100-1, The structural use of concrete Part 1: Design.
SABS 0100-2, The structural use of concrete Part 2: Materials and execution of work.
SABS 0143, Building drawing practice.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

3 Detailing considerations
3.1 General
In preparing drawings and bending schedules, bear the following factors in mind:
a) the designer's design requirements;
b) that the quantity, location, and cover of steel reinforcement should be simply, correctly and clearly
shown;
c) that the placing drawings and bending schedules should be adequately cross-referenced, easily
read and capable of easy checking in the drawing office and on site;
d) that it should be possible to locate a detail readily, should a query arise;
e) that one detailer should be able to take over from another with a minimum of delay and supervision;
f) the cutting and bending of the reinforcement;
g) the sequence of the placing and wiring in position of reinforcement;
h) maintaining the position of reinforcement;
i) the preassembly of cages;
j) the effects of the concreting operation;
k) the accommodation of other trades and services;
l) the measurement of quantities;
m) economy in the use of steel; and

n) the position of construction joints.

3.2 Design
The designer should ensure that the detailer is informed of special considerations for secondary
stresses caused by items such as (but not limited to) support conditions, shrinkage, temperature
variations, bursting effects of laps and splices, and stress concentrations arising from hooks and
bends.

3.3 Bending schedules


Prepare bending schedules on standard size sheets that are small enough to facilitate handling by
clerical, fabrication and placing personnel.
Ensure that bending details are simple and easy to read. Large structural units should be broken up
into components as dictated by construction joints or into readily identifiable units such as "Floor",
"North (East/South/West) wall", "Roof at level xxxx", etc. So compile the schedules that delivery of the
required reinforcing for each component can be effected without the need to abstract from schedules.
Ensure that the system of bar-referencing is coherent and systematic, and lends itself to easy
identification and to use in computer systems.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
3.4 Placing and wiring in position
Ensure that drawings are simple, pictorially clear and adequately detailed to enable the steel fixer to
place bars where required. Avoid crowding drawings with information by detailing by components.
Ensure that reinforcing steel that connects elements to be cast at different times is so detailed that it
is included with that portion to be cast first, for example splice bars for columns, and continuity
reinforcing for beams and slabs to be cast in portions. If the order of casting is not clear, use suitable
cross-references to detail splices in one of the sections. Where the complexity of the detail is such that
an out-of-the-ordinary sequence is required to place the reinforcement, ensure that the sequence is
shown on the detail.
Give consideration to detailing reinforcement that occurs in different layers (for example top and
bottom steel in slabs, and near and far face steel in walls), on separate views if the readability can be
improved by reducing the crowding of information.

3.5 Support of reinforcement


3.5.1 Reinforcement that is placed at cover distances from formwork will be maintained in position
by suitable lifting or spacer units provided for in the main specification. Ensure that adequate space
is allowed for such units by the correct dimensioning of stirrups and clips, taking required tolerances
into consideration.
3.5.2 Top reinforcement in slabs and other components could become displaced as a result of its
own mass or by construction traffic normally expected before or during the placement of concrete.
Provide bracing bars or stools (or both) of suitable rigidity and at suitable spacings with or without
supporting bars of a similar nature, to make it difficult for the reinforcement to be displaced. This is
particularly important where the spacing of bars is so close as to make it difficult or inconvenient to
avoid standing on the reinforcement. Bear in mind that the contractor could raise an objection
regarding the adequacy of the stools provided.

3.6 Preassembly of cages and mats


In components such as columns, foundations, beams and walls, give consideration (when dictated
by specific requirements or to allow the economic use of reinforcement) to so detailing reinforcement
that it can be conveniently preassembled (see 7.14) before it is placed in position. Ensure that
assembled units are sturdy enough to stand up to handling, erection and construction loads, and that
they are not too heavy to be lifted by the men or equipment available for the work.

3.7 Concreting
Ensure that the reinforcement is so spaced as to allow the placing and the efficient consolidation of
the concrete.

3.8 Openings, pockets, other trades and services


Consider holes and openings of significant proportions as permanent features of the structure and
detail the reinforcement to suit. Do not use detailing instructions such as "cut to suit on site"
(see 17.4.4 of SABS 0143).
Take note of the positions of down pipes (especially inlets and outlets), sleeves, pipes and electrical
conduits, whether shown on the structural layout or not. To avoid site difficulties, show them on the
reinforcement details where necessary.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 1

3.9 Measurement of quantities


It is important to be able to compute the mass of steel used at any stage in a contract. Bending
schedules prepared in accordance with 3.3 will assist in meeting this requirement. Ensure that placing
drawings and bending schedules are adequately cross-referenced and that all revisions are suitably
recorded. If, in the case of a revision, there is any possibility of doubt regarding the alteration, prepare
separate schedules showing only the revision, with adequate cross-referencing. (For methods of
expressing quantities, see 5.8.)

3.10 Economical use of reinforcement


Economy in the use of reinforcement can be achieved if both the type of steel used and the labour
involved in cutting, bending and placing are considered. When considering the types of steel, bear the
following in mind:
a) that where high tensile steel (HT) is used instead of mild steel (MS), considerable savings can be
achieved;
NOTE The consent of the designer should be obtained before MS is substituted for HT.

b) that for stirrups, the difference in the bend radii of high tensile and mild steel should be considered
with regard to the effect that the larger radius required for high tensile bars will have on the position
of corner bars and the resultant reduction in the available space for other bars; and
c) that reinforcement costs can be reduced:
1) when larger diameter bars are used, since fewer bars would be required; this also saves labour
costs;
2) by the use of maximum lengths (stock lengths) up to 13 m; and
3) possibly by the use of mechanical splices (instead of lapped splices) for larger diameter bars.
Labour costs could be further reduced by the minimum usage of bends in bars, reducing the number
of bars and providing clear unambiguous reinforcement details.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

4 Detailing of reinforcement
4.1 Placing drawings
4.1.1 Paper sizes
Prepare reinforcement placing details on sheets of size A0 or smaller. Combined placing drawings and
reinforcement bending schedules (see 5.9) should preferably be on sheets of size A3 or A4.
Alternatively, larger sheets may be used, provided that they are so subdivided that they can be cut
down to A3 or A4 size for use in the workshop or on site.

4.1.2 Title panel


To facilitate reference when prints are filed or folded, place the title panel in the bottom right-hand
corner of the sheet.
4.1.2.1 In the title panel, put the following information:
a) the drawing number and the revision suffix;
b) the project number;
c) the scale, the date of drawing, and the names or initials of the persons who design, draw and check
the drawing;
d) the project title;
e) the drawing title; and
f) the name, address and telephone number of the organization.
4.1.2.2 In the title panel or in a notes panel, put the following information:
a) the revision details, including the date;
b) the reinforcement cover; and
c) the reinforcement abbreviations.
Update the revision suffix each time the drawing is issued after revision.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
4.1.3 Drawings and details
Draw bars in thick lines to ensure that they stand out clearly in relation to structural outline and
dimension lines (see SABS 0143). The recommended methods of indicating bars are shown in
figure 2, and either method may be used. Bars with right angle bends are not normally shown with a
radius.

Figure 2
Ensure that, for ease of understanding, details are clear and legible and that the different bars in an
arrangement are shown diagrammatically and in correct relationship with one another (see figure 3).

Figure 3
Give enough information to enable the bars to be correctly placed, including any dimensions that are
required to position ends of bars; these dimensions should be given from a fixed object, such as a side
shutter. When bars are superimposed on others of different lengths, indicate the ends of the bars by
means of the bar mark (see figure 4). On all placing drawings, indicate clearly the numbers of the
related bending schedules. If drawings are to be reduced for issue by photocopy methods, the
reduction should not be such as would impair the readability.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 4

4.1.4 Numbering of components


Ensure that each component, such as a slab, panel, beam, column and foundation, has a unique
distinguishing number or other identification, irrespective of whether reinforcement details are identical
in two or more components; for example identical panels could be numbered A1, A2, etc.

4.2 Referencing of bars and placing instructions


4.2.1 Identification and labels
When referencing bars, consider the identification labels or tickets. The labels or tickets are attached
to the bars after they have been cut to length and remain on the bars until they are ready to be placed
in position. For positive identification at each stage, give the following information so as to enable the
correct generation of labels or tickets:

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Type/size

Mark

Number of

Length

Bending

Sorting on site

Component/
location

It can thus be seen that the bar mark need not be unique; every beam can have an A bar.

4.2.2 Placing and bar notation


When bars are to be placed in position, the essential information required is the number of bars in the
set, the type and size, the mark, the spacing, the location, and, if needed, comment. Typical examples
of the way this information should be indicated on placing drawings are as follows:
a) 14 Y16-08-200 T, which describes fourteen bars type Y of 16 mm diameter, mark 08 at 200 mm
centres, in top of member (see figure 5);
b) 25 R8-Q-150 B ABR, which describes twenty-five bars type R of 8 mm diameter, mark Q at 150 mm
centres in bottom of member, with alternate bars reversed; and
c) 7 Y16-09 and 7 Y16-10 ALT at 200, which describes seven bars type Y of 16 mm diameter, mark
09, and seven bars type Y of 16 mm diameter, mark 10, placed in order 09, 10, 09, 10, 09, 10, etc.,
the spacing between successive bars being 200 mm.
Either of the methods shown in figure 5 may be used to show bar placing requirements.

Figure 5

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
4.2.3 Type of steel
Use the following symbols to refer to the type of steel (see SABS 920 and annex C) or steel mesh (see
SABS 1024 and 13.2) to be used and, where necessary, give a more detailed description in the
specification.
R

= plain round mild steel bars of strength 250 MPa;

= high yield deformed steel bars of strength 450 MPa;

= types of steel not covered by R or Y; and

SM = standard mesh )
high tensile wire of strength 485 MPa.
DM = design mesh )
Explain the meaning of Z in the specification, on the drawings and in the schedules.
Detail bars of symbol Z on separate schedules. Give the symbols and the types of reinforcement on
the bar bending schedules.
NOTE Unless specifically noted otherwise, different types of steel may be used in the same member.

4.2.4 Size of bars


Show the size of bars, i.e. the nominal diameter, in millimetres, as follows:
8, 10, 12, 16, 20, 25, 32, 40 or 50.
NOTE Y8 reinforcement is generally unavailable but high tensile wire of diameter 8 mm is commonly available.

4.2.5 Bar marks


NOTE The bar size is not part of the bar mark.

4.2.5.1 The bar mark could consist of one of the following:


a) a two-digit number in the range 01 to 99, with or without a letter prefix or suffix, for example B25
or 87K;
b) a three-digit number in the range 001 to 999;
c) a letter in the range A to Z or a pair of letters, AB to AZ; and
NOTE Avoid the use of lowercase letters, since they are easily confused with numbers, and do not use I or O.

d) a letter or letters as in (c) above, followed by a single-digit number, for example K5 and AL9.
4.2.5.2 No bar mark should consist of more than three characters. Ensure that prefixes or suffixes of
letters or numbers that are used to describe the location of the bars or to describe any other function
are not included in the bar mark. An example of a system that uses the bar mark to describe the bar
location is given in table 1.
4.2.5.3 When detailing by components, it is convenient to start scheduling each component with, say,
mark "A" and to rely on a component marking system to distinguish the bars on site, i.e. the same
mark may be used in different components on the same drawing or bending schedule.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Table 1 Location method of bar marking
1

Location in component

Number

Letter

01 to 29

A to F

Horizontal bars in foundations, pile caps, beams, and slabs top

30 to 49

G to L & T
(omit I)

Shaped bars in beams and, e.g., shear bars

50 to 59

U to Y

Stirrups

60 to 79

S, S1, etc.

80 to 99

M to P
(omit O)

Vertical bars in columns and walls


Stairs
Horizontal bars in foundations, pile caps, beams, and slabs bottom

Horizontal bars in walls


Spacer bars
Bars other than above
NOTE Where the allocated numbers are insufficient, use 30A, 30B, 30C, etc., or G1, G2, G3, etc.

4.2.6 Symbols Location or comment


Ensure that the location or comment relating to the placing of a bar is not ambiguous. Use only the
symbols listed below:
ABR

= alternate bars reversed

ALT

= alternately

= bottom

B1

= lowest of the bottom layers

B2

= second lowest of the bottom layers

B3

= third lowest of the bottom layers

CHC

= continuous high chair

EF

= each face

EW

= each way

FF
NF

= far face )
Ensure that the direction of viewing is made clear on the key plan
= near face )

HC

= high chair

HOR

= horizontal

NTS

= not to scale

10

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
STG

= staggered

= top

T1

= highest of the top layers

T2

= second highest of the top layers

T3

= third highest of the top layers

TOG

= together

VER

= vertical

Examples of the use of some symbols are given in figure 6.

Figure 6

4.3 Revisions
Ensure that revisions are so made that confusion, omissions and double delivery can be avoided.
When it becomes necessary to revise a previously issued placing drawing or bending schedule,
do so by crossing out (but not erasing) the letters and figures that are to be changed. Show the new

11

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
figures/letters and a revision letter set in a triangle adjacent to the correction. (This revision letter is
not necessarily related to one on a corresponding drawing or bending schedule, though it could, by
coincidence, sometimes be the same.) Ensure that, on any revised placing drawing, the number(s)
of the relevant revised schedule(s) is/are clearly stated, and vice versa.

4.4 Preferred spacing of reinforcement


The preferred spacings of reinforcement are from 75 mm to 200 mm, in increments of 25 mm, and
from 200 mm upwards, in increments of 50 mm (see 7.4.1 and 8.3.5).

5 Scheduling of bar reinforcement


5.1 General
Scheduling is the operation of listing the size, type, length and bending details for each bar (or sheet
of welded mesh) detailed on the placing drawings for the purpose of cutting, bending and bundling the
bars for dispatch to site.
A recommended reinforcing bar schedule format is given in SABS 82 and in figure 56, where the
shape code columns may be omitted. A recommended schedule format for welded mesh is shown in
figure 89.

5.2 Paper sizes


Schedules should be on sheets of size A3 or A4 and should be of one size only for any one job. The
sheets should have a clear margin of at least 10 mm all round to allow for filing, and for registration
errors during printing. Where sheets of size A0 or A1 are used, ensure that they are so subdivided that
they can be cut down to A3 or A4 size for use in the workshop or on site.

5.3 Title panel


To facilitate reference when prints are filed or folded, place the title panel in the bottom right-hand
corner of the sheet.

5.3.1 In the title panel, put the following information:


a) the schedule number and the revision suffix;
b) the project number;
c) the reference drawing number;
d) the date of the schedule and the names or initials of the persons who design, draw and check the
schedule;
e) the project title;
f) the sheet title and the section; and
g) the name, address and telephone number of the consulting engineer.

5.3.2 In the title panel or in a notes panel, put the following information:
a) the revision details, including the date;
b) the reinforcement cover;

12

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
c) the reinforcement type;
d) the reinforcement abbreviations; and
e) the reinforcement masses, if required.
Update the revision suffix each time the drawing is issued after revision.

5.4 Numbering
Ensure that the schedules have simple consecutive numbers and that they are cross-referenced to
the related placing drawing or key plan. (Similarly, ensure that the bending schedule numbers are
shown on the placing drawing or key plan.) Ensure that each schedule refers to one drawing only and
to one specific section of the job and component (foundation, column or beam).
For large projects, the schedule number may also incorporate the section identification, for example
1075/FF/27, which indicates job No. 1075, first floor slab, sheet No. 27. (Ensure that the sheet number
in this example, i.e. 27, is not used for any other sheet in the same project.) This facilitates grouping
and identification. Avoid such terms as "page number" or "sheet 2 of 14", which can be confusing.

5.5 Drawing and dimensioning


Ensure that bar shapes and dimensions are clear and unambiguous. Dimension obtuse or acute
angles for bends by using either offsets or slopes, whichever is more important. Because of the radii,
there is no point on the bar that can be identified as a "corner". Calculate the slope length as the
distance between intersection of the projections of the OUTER bar lines as seen in elevation,
measured parallel to the slope, as follows:

Only use overall dimensions where slopes are not critical but the overall dimensions are critical.
Otherwise show the slope, even if it means using a non-standard bar, but ensure that the overall
dimension is not critical. Avoid details where both slope and overall dimension are critical. Where it
is unavoidable to do so, mark the drawing to indicate critical dimensions. Indicate dimensions as
follows:

13

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

In the case of a bar that has multiple critical dimensions, it is advisable that a dimensioned section of
the component that shows the bar be included with the schedule, to enable the fabricator to draw the
section and check the bar for fit.

5.6 Bending details


Use the bar shapes shown in SABS 82 and in annex A.

5.7 Cutting and bending tolerances


The tolerance on a dimension of a bar should be the applicable value shown in table 1 of SABS 82.

5.8 Methods of expressing quantities


Express the quantity of steel reinforcement generally as follows:
a) bar reinforcement: the total mass, in kilograms, for each separate bar diameter for each type of
steel; and
b) welded steel mesh: in the case of
1) standard mesh (SM), the gross area, in square metres, of each mesh of the same reference
number (see SABS 1024), and
2) design mesh (DM), the mass, in kilograms.

14

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
NOTES
1 It is desirable but not essential to show the quantity of reinforcement on bending schedules.
2 The exact requirements for expressing quantities of reinforcement will often be prescribed by the "standard methods
of measurement" pertaining to a particular construction contract. In such cases, this can take precedence over (a) and
(b) above.

5.9 Combined placing drawings and bending schedules


It is strongly recommended that placing details and bending schedules that relate to one component
appear on the same drawing. Standardized exploded forms of placing diagrams have been developed
that serve equally well as bending schedules. The use of such techniques facilitates the work of the
detailer, the bender, the reinforcement placer, the checker and the contractor, and reduces
considerably the work in the drawing office. If complicated details necessitate more specific description
than is normally provided, make special sketches or drawings, done to scale, on the same size
drawing sheets. In such cases, provide a key plan that locates and identifies the components.
All the principles set out with regard to placing drawings (see 4.1) and bending schedules apply to the
combined placing and bending schedules.

6 General requirements for all components


6.1 Cover to reinforcement
6.1.1 Nominal cover
Nominal cover is the dimension used in the design. Ensure that it is indicated on the reinforcement
drawings. This cover is to the outside steel (for example, in beams and columns, it is to the outside
of the stirrup).
The extent of the nominal cover should be the highest value determined on the basis of the following:
a) the size of the reinforcement (The cover to any bar should be at least equal to the diameter of the
bar or, in the case of a bundle of three or four bars, at least equal to the diameter of the equivalent
single bar (see 6.5 for information on bundling).);
b) the degree and nature of exposure of the finished structure (The cover required to protect the
reinforcement from corrosion is reduced if higher quality concrete is used.); and
c) the fire rating of the structure, i.e. the protection required to prevent excessive temperature increase
in the reinforcement during a fire.

6.1.2 Cover required for various exposure conditions


The cover for particular conditions of exposure is given in SABS 0100-2.

6.1.3 Special cover


If surface treatment of the concrete is required, for example to produce a bush-hammered or exposed
aggregate finish, ensure that the cover is increased by the expected effective depth of the treatment.
Additional cover might also be needed if chases are formed in the concrete surface, and porous
aggregates, such as slag, are used or if low-density concrete is specified.

15

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
6.1.4 Cover for fire protection
6.1.4.1 Values for fire resistance of various components are given in SABS 0100-1.
6.1.4.2 Other factors that should be considered in relation to fire protection are as follows:
a) cover for fire protection that has a thickness exceeding 30 mm might have to be bound in with wire
mesh;
b) special plasters can be used to reduce the cover that would otherwise be required;
c) careful attention should be given to special type floors (see tables 45 and 46 of SABS 0100-1);
d) the cover for beams can be reduced if there is more than one layer of steel (see SABS 0100-1); and
e) in low-rise buildings of high fire risk, it is necessary to establish the required fire rating.

6.1.5 Bar dimensions


When determining the dimensions on the bending schedule in cases where reinforcement is to fit
between two concrete faces, use the values for deductions given in column 5 of table 2. The
recommended deductions apply to reinforced concrete construction where the tolerances on the size
of the member are as specified in column 4 of table 2. Where tolerances are in excess of these,
increase the values of the deductions accordingly.
Table 2 Deductions from bar dimensions
Dimensions in millimetres
1

Distance between
concrete faces

Type of bar

0 - 1 000
1 001 - 2 000
Over 2 000
Any length

4
Tolerances

Reinforcement

5
Deductions

Formwork

Total1)

Stirrups and other


bent bars

+5
+5 -10
+5 -25

5
5
10

10
10
15

Straight bars

25

10

35

1) Based on limit of each "plus" tolerance (see 5.7).

6.2 The maintenance of cover and position of reinforcing bars


6.2.1 General
Steel reinforcement should be properly supported or stayed in order to ensure that correct cover and
position are maintained during the placing of concrete.

16

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
6.2.2 Spacing of supports
6.2.2.1 Horizontal bars
The spacing of supports for horizontal bars should conform to the appropriate values given in table 3.
Table 3 Spacing of supports for horizontal bars
Dimensions in millimetres
1
Nominal diameter of bars
8
10 and 12
16 and 20
25 and 32

Minimum spacing of supports


High tensile steel
500
600
1 200
1 800

Mild steel
400
500
1 000
1 500

6.2.2.2 Vertical bars


Support bars at the vertical forces of components in at least two positions over both width and height,
the positions being not more than 1 m apart in the case of bars of nominal diameter up to 12 mm and
1,5 m apart in the case of bars of nominal diameter 16 mm and more.

6.2.3 Methods of support


The cover and position of bars should be maintained by the use of
a) bar supports and cover blocks, and
b) steel stools and high chairs.

6.2.4 Bar supports and cover blocks


Bar supports and cover blocks are not usually of height exceeding 75 mm. A number of types are
available and the choice of the one to be used depends largely on whether the reinforcement is to
bear on the device or lean against it. In the latter case, the device should be positively attached to a
vertical or horizontal bar or to the formwork, to ensure that it is not displaced during the erection of
reinforcing steel or formwork or during the placing of concrete. Ring-type cover devices should be
used to support column bars.
Cover devices can be made of mortar, fibre cement, plastics or steel. Considerations that affect the
choice of the type to be used (other than steel) are given in table 4.
Mortar cover blocks for bottom bars are often made on site and could contain a projecting wire with
which to attach the steel bar being supported. The mortar cover blocks should be dense and made
from a 1:1 cement and coarse sand mix and cured for seven days; they should be of thickness at least
20 mm and should be placed under the upper layer of a bottom reinforcement mat. Plastics devices
should be strong enough to withstand crushing.

17

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Table 4 Suitability of different types of cover device
1

Consideration
Appearance of
finished
concrete

Weathering of
finished
concrete

Fire resistance

Steam curing

Corrosion of
reinforcement

Mortar blocks

NS

WC

Rings of mortar

WC

Fibre-cement blocks

Type of device

WC

WC

Plastics rings1)

WC

WC

WC

Plastics chairs1)

WC

WC

WC

Key: S = suitable;
WC = suitable with care; and
NS = not suitable.
1) Care should be taken in the choice of the shape of the spacer.

6.2.5 Steel stools and high chairs


6.2.5.1 General
Steel stools and high chairs are used to support the top reinforcement of suspended slabs and
foundations. Determine the height of the supports from the cover required and from the diameter of
bars used, and specify the height in multiples of 10 mm.
6.2.5.2 Steel stools
Steel stools should be bent to shape code 83 (see annex A). They are detailed and priced as
reinforcement. The dimensions of steel stools should conform to the appropriate values given in
table 5.
Table 5 Size of steel stools
1

Diameter of stools
Feature of stools

Height range, mm
Top length, mm, max.
Length of feet, mm1)
Bars supported

mm
10

12

16

100 - 300
300
100
2

310 - 500
450
150
2 or 3

510 - 1 000
600
250
2 or 3

1) When the stools are supported on the bottom reinforcement, the length of the feet are to be equal to
1,5 times the bar spacing plus 100 mm (see figure 7).

In general, specify stools to support the lower layer of the top mat, two bars at a time and at the
spacing recommended in 6.2.2.
Depending on the diameter and spacing of the bars in the lower layer of the top mat, one or two lines
of bars may be left unsupported (see figure 7). In this event, ensure that the lower layer of the top mat
is well tied to the upper supported reinforcement. It may be acceptable for stools to stand on the
formwork or foundation blinding direct, but where this is not permitted, the feet of the stools may be

18

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
extended and the height adjusted to allow them to be supported on the bottom reinforcement, two bars
at a time. Care should then be taken to ensure that the cover devices to the bottom reinforcement are
of adequate strength to support the extra mass.

Figure 7
6.2.5.3 High chairs (HC)
High chairs are factory made and support one bar at a time (see figure 8). They stand on the formwork
or blinding direct, and the legs may, if so required, be fitted with plastics ferrules (paint is not
satisfactory). Positioning and spacing follow the same rules as for bottom cover devices.
High chairs are not reinforcement items and are measured separately.

19

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 8
6.2.5.4 Continuous high chairs (CHC)
Continuous high chairs are usually of length at least 2 m. The diameter of the top bars and the
diameter and spacing of the legs will vary according to heights and details of design (see table 6), and
for this reason, continuous high chairs are usually specified by height and are paid for by length. They
are not scheduled as reinforcement. The chair legs stand on formwork or blinding direct and may, if
so required, be fitted with plastics ferrules.
Continuous high chairs of acceptable strength can be made from bar reinforcement by welding (see
figure 9).
Table 6 Dimensions of continuous high chairs
Dimensions in millimetres
1

3
Dimension

Features of continuous high chairs

Height range
80-150

160-200

8
10
400
10
2

10
10
400
10
2

Diameter of leg
Top bar diameter
Spacing of legs
Height increment
Length of chair

Figure 9

20

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
6.3 Splicing of reinforcing bars
6.3.1 General
Splicing is the method of transferring force from one bar to another. Methods of splicing include
lapping, welding, and mechanical means.

6.3.2 Lapping splices


6.3.2.1 The following are two methods of lap splicing:
a) placing or cranking one bar next to the other with a lap of a bond length (see figure 10 and 7.13.3);
and
NOTE Cranking of bars should be avoided as far as possible since it causes bursting forces and tends to induce
cracking.

Figure 10
b) butting two bars and providing a splicing bar to cover the butting point over a bond length on each
side. With the use of this method, in a series of adjacent bars, butts can be provided at points that
are at least a bond length apart. A single splicing bar extending over all the butting points is then
provided (see figure 11).

21

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 11
6.3.2.2 Where bars are in tension, the question of crack control has to be considered and the
maximum distance between the bars on either side of a spliced bar should not exceed 300 mm for
reinforcement of nominal tensile strength 250 MPa, or 180 mm for reinforcement of nominal tensile
strength 450 MPa (see figure 11).
Outer corner bars of beams should generally be spliced in positions of least stress. Where such a
splice is essential, so place the nearest effective bar that the distance between its outer face and the
corner does not exceed 150 mm for mild steel (MS) reinforcement or 90 mm for high tensile (HT) steel
reinforcement (see SABS 0100-1 and figure 11). Because cracks induced by sudden changes in
section can induce premature shear failure and because laps induce bursting forces in the concrete,
not more than the greater of one bar and one-fifth of the steel area should be lapped or stopped off
at any one section except at ends of beams, and splices should be staggered by at least one bond
length.

6.3.3 Welded splices


Welded splices are not generally recommended but, if required, should be carried out in accordance
with an appropriate specification (see SABS 0100-1). High tensile steel reinforcing bars that comply
with SABS 920 (appendix D) are not weldable unless especially so specified.

6.3.4 Mechanical splices


There are a number of types of mechanical splices available, all of which use sleeves or devices that
fit over bars to be joined. When the use of mechanical splices is being considered, specialist advice
should be obtained and the splice detailed accordingly.

22

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
6.4 Bends and anchorages for reinforcing bars
6.4.1 Standard radii
The minimum standard internal radii for bends in reinforcing bars and for anchorages at the ends of
reinforcing bars are two bar diameters for mild steel bars and three bar diameters for high tensile steel
bars.

6.4.2 Large radius bends


Where larger than standard radii are required to control bearing stresses such as for bent-up bars in
beams or slabs and for bars that are to be continuous around corners in connections between beams
and columns, and at junctions of retaining walls and foundations, each bar should be bent around a
former to a radius of at least 7,5 times the nominal diameter of the bar. Large diameter highly stressed
bars in poor concrete will require a larger radius. (See also 7.11.3.) Generally, reinforcement
fabricators use formers of the following sizes for bending bars of nominal diameter:
a) 8 mm and 10 mm: a former of radius 100 mm;
b) 12 mm: a former of radius 150 mm;
c) 16 mm and 20 mm: a former of radius 200 mm; and
d) 25 mm and 32 mm: a former of radius 250 mm.
Formers of larger radii are not generally available.

6.4.3 Bar scheduling


Ensure that the required radius of bend is clearly indicated on bending schedules. In the case of bars
that are to be bent to standard shapes, insert on each bar line a suitable note calling attention to any
special radii (see SABS 82).

6.4.4 Effective anchorage values of hooks and bends


The effective value of an anchorage at the end of a bar, measured from the start of the curve of the
bend or hook (see figure 12) to four diameters beyond the curve, is the lesser of 24 bar diameters and,
a) in the case of a bend, four times the internal radius of the bend, and
b) in the case of a hook, eight times the internal radius of the hook.

23

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 12

6.5 Bundling of bars


6.5.1 General
Bundled bars are groups of two, three or four bars that are tied together and that are in contact side
by side (see figure 15).

6.5.2 Advantages
Because bundled bars provide more reinforcement in less space than do single bars, it is possible to
reinforce a member more heavily and still get good compaction of concrete. In this way, beam widths
can often be reduced, with a corresponding saving in cost.

6.5.3 Disadvantages
6.5.3.1 The bond strength of a bundle is less than the sum of the bond strengths of the individual bars.
This is owing to the smaller perimeter in contact with the concrete, and to the bursting forces
developed, which are a function of the total force transferred by bond.
6.5.3.2 Because of the effect referred to in 6.5.3.1, cover should be increased to that required for a
single bar of the same cross-sectional area as that of bundled bars. The bond reduction factors given
in SABS 0100-1 and other standards take these effects into account.
6.5.3.3 Not more than one bar at a time in bundled bars may be curtailed or spliced, except at the end
of a beam. Ensure that a full lap (tension or compression) is provided between points of curtailment
or splicing.

24

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
6.5.4 Columns
Unless patented splices are used, the bundling of bars in columns is not recommended, since all joints
have to be staggered at 40 bar diameters. However, even when patented splices are used, the
necessary staggering of splices makes assembly difficult and prefabrication impossible. It is
recommended, therefore, that a splint splice be provided for each joint or, alternatively, that an
additional bar be provided for each bundle.

7 Component detailing Beams


NOTE This clause deals generally with the detailing of beams for which the assumption that plane sections remain
plane in bending applies. Empirical rules for the detailing of stirrups and longitudinal side bars in beams of depth
exceeding 750 mm, are given in 7.6. These beams are not to be confused with deep beams for which the above
assumption does not apply and which are not covered in SABS 0100-1. Guidelines for the design of deep beams are
given in annex D of SABS 0100-1. Recommendations for the detailing of deep beams are given in 7.16.

7.1 Numbering of beams


Number all beams with unique numbers, even if they are otherwise identical. A recommended system
is as follows: starting in one corner of the structure, number the beams in one direction from 1 up to
100, and number the beams at right angles to those, starting from 101. If there are more than 100
beams in one direction, start numbering the beams at right angles at 201 or 301, etc.

7.2 Types of detail


There are two main types of detailing for beams that have shear reinforcement, namely with stirrups
only and with bent-up bars and stirrups. Although bent-up bars used for top and bottom reinforcement
in continuous beams are economical, where special anchorage lengths have to be detailed, stirrups
are more economical and easier to bend and fix. Bent-up bars are hardly ever used in building
construction.

7.3 Preferred methods of detailing


7.3.1 General
Beams can be detailed by means of exploded views or by full detailed elevations which should be
drawn to scale. These methods are often used for civil engineering structures. (See also 7.3.2.)
7.3.1.1 Exploded views
In an exploded view, show the main bars in their relative positions diagrammatically but not
necessarily to scale. Place top bars towards the top of the diagram, and straight bottom bars towards
the bottom of the diagram. Insert stirrup-placing details below the information that relates to
longitudinal bars (see figure 13).
7.3.1.2 Types of exploded views
Two types of exploded view detailing that could be used are as follows:
a) the placing drawing is combined with bending information; the same reinforcement schedule is
used for bending and for placing the reinforcement (see figures 13 and 14); and
b) the placing drawing is separate from the bending schedule. (For building construction, they are
often printed on the same sheet of paper.)
In either case, ensure that the order of scheduling is the same as the order of representation of the
bars (from top to bottom see figures 13 and 14).

25

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 13

26

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 14

27

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
7.3.2 Drawing to scale
Whether or not drawing to scale is necessary will depend on the complexity of the detailing and the
skill and experience of the detailer. However, in the case of beams of length exceeding 12 m, beams
that have more than two types of bent-up bars, cranked beams, and non-prismatic beams, consider
detailing exploded views to scale.

7.3.3 Identification
Indicate and identify beam supports, for example column 36A, and give dimensions and the clear span
between consecutive supports. Give the identification of adjacent beams where continuity occurs. Bar
marks should start from 01 or A for each beam, depending on whether a numerical or an alphabetical
system is used (see 4.2.5). Alternatively, a location system of numbering may be used, but this too
should start afresh for each beam, for example bottom bars may be marked 01, 02, 03, etc., and
stirrups 60, 61, etc., or A, B, C, etc., and S, S1, etc. (see table 1).
Ensure that an adequate number of sections is drawn to facilitate the wiring of reinforcement in
position. The sections should show the reinforcement cages at critical points along the length of the
beam. It is not necessary to show the outline of the concrete unless this is needed to clarify the placing
requirements, but it is desirable where features such as nibs occur.
Dimension the position of the starts or ends of bars and stirrups from the face of the support, or from
the centre-line of beams or columns.
Show continuity bars consistently on the same side of all beams, usually on the right-hand side. Bars
detailed elsewhere, that project into the beam, should be shown as a heavy broken line, and a note
should be given on the drawing.

7.4 Practical requirements


7.4.1 Minimum spacing
Recommendations for minimum spacing (and cover for normal exposure) of bars in beams are given
in table 7 and in figure 15. For beams that have one layer of reinforcement, the arrangement with the
use of pairs of bars enables the greatest number of bars to be used. The numbers of bars given in the
table are the maximum numbers and might have to be considerably reduced at intersections.
The numbers given for bundles in the table refer to the bars in the bottom layer only. An odd number
given for pairs or bundles indicates that there is not enough room for an extra pair or bundle and only
one bar can be fitted in, for example the number 5 in column 7 or column 10 of table 7 means two sets
of two bars and one single bar.

7.4.2 Maximum spacing


In order to control crack widths, the clear distance between bars should not exceed 300 mm for
reinforcement of tensile strength 250 MPa and 125 mm for reinforcement of tensile strength 450 MPa
in the top of the beam at continuous supports, and 175 mm for reinforcement of tensile strength
450 MPa in the bottom of the beam (see SABS 0100-1).

28

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Table 7 Beam reinforcement, maximum number of bars per layer
Dimensions in millimetres
1
Beam
width

2
Bar
dia.

Outside dimensions of
stirrups

Number of bottom bars


per layer (maximum)

10

11

12

Number of top bars per layer


(maximum)

13

14

Spacing of bars

Single

Pairs

Bundles

Single

Pairs

Bundles

Single

Pairs

Bundles

Single

Pairs

Bundles

100
100
100
80

100
100
80
60

1
1
1
1

2
0
0
0

2
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

150

16
20
25
32

100
100
100
100

200

16
20
25
32

150
150
150
150

150
150
150
130

150
150
130
110

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
2

2
2
2
0

1
1
1
10

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

220

16
20
25
32

170
170
170
170

170
170
170
150

170
170
150
130

2
2
2
2

4
3
3
2

3
3
2
2

2
2
1
1

2
2
0
0

2
2
0
0

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

250

16
20
25
32

200
200
200
200

200
200
200
180

200
200
180
160

3
3
3
2

4
4
4
2

4
4
3
2

2
2
2
2

4
3
2
0

4
3
2
0

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

300

16
20
25
32

250
250
250
250

250
250
250
250

250
250
230
210

4
4
3
3

6
5
3
3

6
5
4
3

3
3
3
2

5
4
4
3

5
4
3
2

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

330

16
20
25
32

280
280
280
280

280
280
280
260

280
280
260
240

5
4
4
3

6
6
5
4

6
6
4
3

4
4
3
3

6
5
4
3

6
5
4
3

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

350

16
20
25
32

300
300
300
300

300
300
300
280

300
300
280
260

5
5
4
4

7
6
6
4

6
6
5
4

5
4
4
3

6
6
5
4

6
6
4
3

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

400

16
20
25
32

350
350
350
350

350
350
350
350

350
350
350
310

6
6
5
5

8
8
7
5

8
7
6
4

6
5
5
4

8
7
6
4

8
6
6
4

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

450

16
20
25
32

400
400
400
400

400
400
400
380

400
400
380
360

7
7
6
5

10
9
8
6

10
8
7
5

7
6
5
5

9
8
7
6

9
8
6
5

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

500

16
20
25
32

450
450
450
450

450
450
450
430

450
450
430
410

8
8
7
6

12
10
9
7

10
10
8
6

8
7
6
5

10
10
8
6

10
9
8
6

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

550

16
20
25
32

500
500
500
500

500
500
500
480

500
500
480
460

9
9
8
7

12
12
10
8

12
11
9
7

9
8
7
6

12
10
10
7

12
10
8
6

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

600

16
20
25
32

550
550
550
550

550
550
550
530

550
550
530
510

10
10
9
7

14
12
11
8

14
12
10
8

10
9
8
7

14
12
10
8

13
12
10
7

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

650

16
20
25
32

600
600
600
600

600
600
600
580

600
600
580
560

11
11
10
8

16
14
12
10

14
13
11
8

11
10
9
8

15
13
12
9

14
12
10
8

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

29

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Table 7 (concluded)
Dimensions in millimetres
1
Beam
width

2
Bar
dia.

Outside dimensions of
stirrups

Number of bottom bars


per layer (maximum)

10

11

12

Number of top bars per layer


(maximum)

13

14

Spacing of bars

Single

Pairs

Bundles

Single

Pairs

Bundles

Single

Pairs

Bundles

Single

Pairs

Bundles

650
650
650
630

650
650
630
610

12
11
10
9

17
15
14
10

16
14
12
9

12
11
10
8

16
14
12
10

16
14
12
9

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

700

16
20
25
32

650
650
650
650

750

16
20
25
32

700
700
700
700

700
700
700
680

700
700
680
660

14
12
11
10

18
16
14
11

18
16
13
10

13
12
11
9

18
16
14
10

17
15
12
10

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

800

16
20
25
32

750
750
750
750

750
750
750
730

750
750
730
710

15
13
12
10

20
18
16
12

18
16
14
11

14
13
12
10

19
17
15
12

18
16
14
10

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

850

16
20
25
32

800
800
800
800

800
800
800
780

800
800
780
760

16
14
13
11

22
19
17
13

20
18
15
12

15
14
12
11

20
18
16
12

20
18
14
11

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

900

16
20
25
32

850
850
850
850

850
850
850
830

850
850
830
810

17
15
14
12

22
20
18
14

22
19
16
12

16
15
13
11

22
20
17
13

21
18
16
12

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

950

16
20
25
32

900
900
900
900

900
900
900
880

900
900
880
860

18
16
15
13

24
22
19
14

22
20
17
13

17
16
14
12

24
21
18
14

22
20
16
13

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

1 000

16
20
25
32

950
950
950
950

950
950
950
930

950
950
930
910

19
17
16
13

26
23
20
16

24
22
18
14

18
17
15
13

25
22
20
15

24
21
18
14

30
30
30
32

35
35
35
45

40
40
43
55

NOTES
1

The parameters used to calculate the table are as follows:

a) minimum clear space allowed between bars (with the use of 20 mm or 25 mm aggregate):
single bars : 30 mm or effective diameter;
pairs of bars: 35 mm or effective diameter ( dia. 2 );
3 bar bundles
: 40 mm or effective diameter ( dia. 3 );
b) side cover to main bars is greater of (25 mm + stirrup diameter) and effective diameter fire or corrosion risk could require an increase;
c) 100 mm allowance for vibrator (top bars only) could be reduced if small vibrator is available; and
d) 10 % of diameter allowed for ribs and 10 mm tolerance on stirrups.
2

30

Allowance should be made in bottom cover if pairs or bundles are used. Radius of three times stirrup diameter allowed for corner bars
(bottom only) stirrup dia. 10 mm.

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 15

31

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
7.4.3 Spacing of top reinforcement at supports for concrete placing
7.4.3.1 Top reinforcement at columns or beam intersections should have a clear space of width at
least 100 mm for the placing of concrete and to permit compaction with a vibrator (see figure 16).
7.4.3.2 Where the thickness of a slab that is supported by a beam is sufficient and the stirrup spacing
is at least 100 mm, it is possible to insert a vibrator at the side of the beam (see figure 17), and in this
case, for beams of width less than 900 mm, it is not necessary to leave the space required in terms
of 7.4.3.1. Table 7 can be used for such cases, but make allowance for the space occupied by stirrup
carrier bars.
7.4.3.3 In order to obtain enough space for the insertion of a vibrator, some tension zone continuity
bars could be placed in the slab. Although this helps to reduce cracking in the slab caused by the
flexure of the beams, this should not, however, be done without the consent of the designer, who
should consider the ability of the slab to transfer shear forces.

Figure 16

Figure 17

7.4.4 Bond
Tests have shown that top bars in beams have a lower bond strength than bottom bars. This is largely
because of better compaction in the bottom section and because of settlement of the concrete after
compaction.
Tech. corr. 2 1997

Annex D gives required bond lengths for different grades of concrete and reinforcement. These lengths
should be increased for top bars, a suggested value for the increase being 50 % for top bars of nominal
diameter exceeding 20 mm.

32

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
If additional anchorage is required, use square bends in preference to round hooks, since square
bends interfere less with the placing of steel and concrete. Where such additional anchorage is
required and in the absence of other instructions from the designer, the radius of the right angle bend
should not be less than 7,5 bar diameters.

7.4.5 Side cover


To reduce the possibility of spalling of the concrete because of compressive stresses in the bend
(apart from the requirements for corrosion and fire protection), place tension bars that have bends of
radius at least three bar diameters from the side face.

7.5 Stirrups
7.5.1 Diameter and spacing
Stirrups should generally all be of the same diameter, their spacing being varied to suit design
requirements. Spacing should preferably be in 25 mm increments from 75 mm to 150 mm and in
50 mm increments above 150 mm (see table 8).
Table 8 Cross-sectional area of stirrups at various spacings
1

10

11

12

13

450

500

Cross-sectional area of stirrups

Stirrup
type

Nom.
dia. of
bar

Stirrup spacing

mm

mm

mm2

75

100

125

150

200

250

300

350

400

Single
(2 legs)

8
10
12
16

1 340
2 094
3 015
5 361

1 005
1 570
2 261
4 021

804
1 256
1 809
3 216

670
1 047
1 507
2 680

502
785
1 130
2 010

402
628
904
1 608

335
523
753
1 340

287
448
646
1 148

251
392
565
1 005

223
349
502
893

201
314
452
804

Double
(4 legs)

8
10
12
16

2 680
4 188
6 031
10 723

2 010
3 141
4 523
8 042

1 608
2 513
3 619
6 433

1 340
2 094
3 015
5 361

1 005
1 570
2 261
4 021

804
1 256
1 809
3 216

670
1 047
1 507
2 680

574
897
1 292
2 297

502
785
1 130
2 010

446
698
1 005
1 787

402
628
904
1 608

Triple
(6 legs)

8
10
12
16

4 021
6 283
9 047
16 084

3 015
4 712
6 785
12 063

2 412
3 769
5 428
9 650

2 010
3 141
4 523
8 042

1 507
2 356
3 392
6 031

1 206
1 884
2 714
4 825

1 005
1 570
2 261
4 021

861
1 346
1 938
3 446

753
1 178
1 696
3 015

670
1 047
1 507
2 680

603
942
1 357
2 412

7.5.2 Types of stirrups


7.5.2.1 Open stirrups
Use open stirrups with clips where beam reinforcement is to be assembled in position and where
closed stirrups are not required by the designer for resisting torsion. (Normal practice is to use one clip
at every second stirrup or set of stirrups, or at 600 mm centres, whichever is the lesser spacing.) In
regions of hogging moment where there is heavy reinforcement (reinforcing equivalent to more than
three Y32 top bars), use clips at every stirrup. In regions of heavy shear (exceeding 1,2 MPa) where
more than two legs of stirrups are used at a section, use clips at every stirrup group. Stirrups that have
the tops bent outwards (such as shape code 53) have a considerably reduced capacity where
anchored in thin slabs.

33

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Open stirrups with or without clips (as in shape codes 72 and either 35 or 85) should always be
detailed and drawn as follows:

Clips of the same diameter as the main steel should be provided at every stirrup position in cases
where there is no top slab steel.
7.5.2.2 Closed stirrups
Use closed stirrups (shape code 74) where so required by the designer, for resisting torsion.
7.5.2.3 Multiple stirrups
Use double or multiple stirrups as instructed by the designer or where restraint against the buckling
of bars in compression is required. If there is any doubt regarding bars being in compression, consult
the designer. Multiple stirrups should also be used where they are required to control splitting forces
associated with high bond stresses at the ends of main bars or at splices or laps in main bars. This
applies where the equivalent of more than one Y32 bar is stopped off or spliced (see 7.13.4).
7.5.2.4 Bars in compression
Because the rules for stirrups where reinforcing steel is in compression are the same as those for
columns (see 9.4.1 and 9.4.2), provide stirrups such that the legs are at centre-to-centre spacing not
exceeding:
a) 300 mm across the beam; and
b) the lesser of 12 times the diameter of the smallest bar included in the tying and 300 mm along the
beam.
Stirrups used for tying bars in compression should have a diameter not less than one-quarter of the
diameter of the largest bar included in the tying. So arrange stirrups that every alternate bar or group
of bars in the outer layer of reinforcement is restrained by a stirrup with an included bend angle that
does not exceed 135. If any unrestrained bar is separated from a restrained bar by a clear distance
that exceeds 150 mm then such unrestrained bar shall also be restrained as above.

7.5.3 Transverse spacing of stirrups


The transverse spacing of vertical legs should not exceed 0,75 times the effective depth of the beam.

34

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Where multiple stirrups are used, especially in wide beams, one of the stirrups should cover the full
width of the cage (see figure 18).

Figure 18

7.5.4 Force not applied to top of beam


Where a load is applied to the bottom or side of a beam (for example where one beam frames into
another), ensure that there is sufficient suspension or "hang-up" reinforcement in the form of stirrups
to transfer the force to the top of the beam. If the load is large, bent-up bars can be used instead of,
or as well as, stirrups (see figure 19).

Figure 19

7.5.5 Beam of varying depth


Detail stirrup sizes individually where beams have varying depths and a range of stirrup sizes has to
be detailed.
The number of different stirrup sizes can be reduced by using concertina stirrups (see figure 20) with
the legs lapped at least one bond length (see annex D). The difference between the lengths of
successive groups should be at least 50 mm. In order to maintain the size of the member, use stirrups
of shape code 72 or 60 at centre-to-centre distances of at least 1 000 mm.

35

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Ensure that concertina stirrups are adequately stiffened with clips.
Schedule the reinforcement as shown in figure 21.

Figure 20

36

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 21

37

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
7.5.6 Effect of intersection on stirrup sizes
Ensure that stirrup sizes take into account the width at beam-column intersections, the depth and top
and bottom cover at beam-beam intersections, and the size and cover of slab reinforcement.
Where beam-beam intersections result in the beam top steel's being too low to support the slab top
steel at the correct level, provide stools to support the slab reinforcement.

7.5.7 Minimum stirrup requirements


If the maximum shear stress in the beam exceeds half of the permissible value, the ratio of the total
area of all the legs of the stirrups in a given length to the plan area of the web over the same length,
expressed as a percentage, should be at least 0,12 % for high tensile steel stirrups, or 0,2 % for mild
steel stirrups. Where the shear stress in the beam nowhere exceeds half of the permissible value, it
is recommended that the percentages be not less than 0,12 % and 0,1 % respectively.
Guidance on minimum stirrup requirements is given in tables 9, 10, 11 and 12.

7.5.8 Anchorage
A stirrup is considered to be effectively anchored if it has a standard bend around a bar of at least its
own diameter.
Table 9 Minimum stirrup requirements
Percentage 0,12 % Minimum spacing 0,75d
Dimensions in millimetres
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

800

850

900

950

1 000

Type, size and spacing of stirrups


Width of
beam

Depth of beams
250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

150

Y8S
140

Y8S
180

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
150

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


150
500
550
600
600
600

Y12S
600

200

Y8S
140

Y8S
180

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
400

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


450
500
550
600
600
600

Y12S
600

250

Y8S
140

Y8S
180

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


150
500
500
600
600
600

Y12S
600

300

Y8D
140

Y8D
180

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
250

Y8S
250

Y8S
250

Y8S
250

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


400
400
400
400
600
600
600

Y12S
600

350

Y8D
140

Y8D
180

Y8D
200

Y8S
200

Y8S
200

Y8S
200

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


350
350
350
350
350
350
500
500
500

Y12S
500

400

Y8D
140

Y8D
180

Y8D
200

Y8D
250

Y8S
200

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450

Y12S
450

450

Y8D
140

Y8D
180

Y8D
200

Y8D
250

Y8D
300

Y8D
300

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


250
250
250
250
250
250
400
400
400

Y12S
400

500

Y8D
140

Y8D
180

Y8D
200

Y8D
250

Y8D
300

Y8D
300

Y8D
300

Y12S
350

NOTES
1 Y8 bars are not always available.
2 S: Single (2 legs) D: Double (4 legs).

38

700

750

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


250
250
250
250
250
350
350
350

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Table 10 Minimum stirrup requirements
Percentage 0,2 % Minimum spacing 0,75d
Dimensions in millimetres
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

800

850

900

950

1 000

Type, size and spacing of stirrups


Width of
beam

Depth of beams
250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

150

R8S
140

R8S
180

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
300

R8S
300

R8S
300

R8S
300

R8S
300

R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


150
500
500
600
600
600

R12S
600

200

R8S
140

R8S
180

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
250

R8S
250

R8S
250

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


350
350
350
350
350
550
550
550

R12S
550

250

R8S
140

R8S
180

R8S
200

R8S
200

R8S
200

R10S
300

R10S
300

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450

R12S
450

300

R8D
140

R8D
180

R8S
160

R10S R10S
250
250

R10S
250

R10S
250

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


250
250
250
250
250
350
350
350

R12S
350

350

R8D
140

R8D
180

R8D
200

R10S R10S
200
200

R10S
200

R10S
200

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


200
200
200
200
200
300
300
300

R12S
300

400

R8D
140

R8D
180

R8D
200

R8D
250

R10S
180

R10S
180

R10S
180

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


180
180
180
180
180
250
250
250

R12S
250

450

R8D
140

R8D
180

R8D
200

R8D
200

R8D
200

R8D
200

R10S
160

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


140
160
160
160
160
250
250
250

R12S
250

500

R8D
140

R8D
180

R8D
200

R8D
200

R8D
200

R10D
300

R10D
300

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


140
140
140
140
140
200
200
200

R12S
200

NOTE S: Single (2 legs) D: Double (4 legs).

Table 11 Minimum stirrup requirements


Percentage 0,06 % Minimum spacing 1,00d
Dimensions in millimetres
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

800

850

900

950

1 000

Type, size and spacing of stirrups


Width of
beam

Depth of beams
250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

150

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
450

Y8S
500

Y8S
550

Y8S
600

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

700

750

Y12S
600

200

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
450

Y8S
500

Y8S
550

Y8S
600

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

Y12S
600

250

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
450

Y8S
500

Y8S
550

Y8S
600

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

Y12S
600

300

Y8S
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
450

Y8S
500

Y8S
550

Y8S
550

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

Y12S
600

350

Y8D
200

Y8S
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
450

Y8S
450

Y8S
450

Y8S
450

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

Y12S
600

400

Y8D
200

Y8D
250

Y8S
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
400

Y8S
400

Y8S
400

Y8S
400

Y8S
400

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

Y12S
600

450

Y8D
200

Y8D
250

Y8D
300

Y8S
350

Y8S
350

Y8S
350

Y8S
350

Y8S
350

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


550
550
550
550
600
600
600

Y12S
600

500

Y8D
200

Y8D
250

Y8D
300

Y8D
350

Y8S
350

Y8S
300

Y8S
300

Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y10S Y12S Y12S Y12S


500
500
500
500
500
600
600
600

Y12S
600

NOTES
1 Y8 bars are not always available.
2 S: Single (2 legs) D: Double (4 legs).

39

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Table 12 Minimum stirrup requirements
Percentage 0,1 % Minimum spacing 1,00d
Dimensions in millimetres
1

10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

800

850

900

950

1 000

Type, size and spacing of stirrups


Width of
beam

Depth of beams
250

300

350

400

450

500

550

600

650

700

750

150

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
300

R8S
350

R8S
400

R8S
450

R8S
500

R8S
550

R8S
600

R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

R12S
600

200

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
300

R8S
350

R8S
400

R8S
450

R8S
500

R8S
500

R8S
500

R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

R12S
600

250

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
300

R8S
350

R8S
400

R8S
400

R8S
400

R8S
400

R8S
400

R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


600
600
600
600
600
600

R12S
600

300

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
300

R8S
300

R8S
300

R8S
300

R8S
300

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S


500
500
500
500
500
600
600
600

R12S
600

350

R8S
200

R8S
250

R8S
250

R8S
250

R8S
250

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S
400
400
400
400
400
400
400
600
600
600

R12S
600

400

R8D
200

R8D
250

R8S
250

R8S
250

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
350
550
550
550

R12S
550

450

R8D
200

R8D
250

R8D
300

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
500
500
500

R12S
500

500

R8D
200

R8D
250

R8D
300

R8D
350

R12S
450

R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R10S R12S R12S R12S
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
300
450
450
450

NOTE S: Single (2 legs) D: Double (4 legs).

7.6 Beams of depth exceeding 750 mm


7.6.1 Stirrups for deep beams
To stiffen the legs of stirrups for deep beams against buckling during construction, tie clips to the legs
and horizontal bars. Space the clips horizontally at every second or third stirrup, subject to a maximum
space of 600 mm, and vertically at alternate intersections of horizontal bars (see figure 22).

Figure 22

40

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7.6.2 Longitudinal side bars
In beams of depth exceeding 750 mm, provide longitudinal bars over two-thirds of the depth from the
tension face (the top of the beam at supports of continuous beams and the bottom of the beam for
span moments). Place these bars near the side faces and not more than 250 mm apart.
The diameter of the bars (in millimetres) should be at least
s . b/fy
where
s

is the spacing, in millimetres;

is the beam width, in millimetres; and

fy is the characteristic strength of the steel, in megapascals.


The minimum diameters that should be used, derived from the formula, are given in table 13 for steel
of tensile strength 450 MPa. At the non-continuous end of a beam, provide U-bars to correspond with
the side bars. (See also 7.7.1.)
Table 13 Minimum diameters of longitudinal side bars (450 MPa)
Dimensions in millimetres
1

10

11

Minimum diameter of longitudinal side bars


Bar
spacing
250
200
150

Beam width
250

300

350

400

500

600

700

800

900

1 000

12
10
10

12
12
10

16
12
10

16
12
12

16
16
12

20
16
16

20
20
16

20
20
16

25
20
20

25
20
20

7.7 Intersections
7.7.1 Beam-column
At beam-column intersections, ensure that the main beam bars avoid the main column bars.
If splice bars are used (as in figure 23), the beam cages may be prefabricated (see 7.14) and the
splice bars placed in position after the beam reinforcement has been dropped into place. Note,
however, that this detail requires more reinforcement because of the additional lap.

41

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Ed. 2

Figure 23
If beams do not frame into a column on all four sides to approximately the full width of the column,
ensure that stirrups are provided in the column for the full depth of the beam or, alternatively, that
special U-bars are detailed with the beam, to restrain the column bars from buckling and to strengthen
the concrete in compression. This is especially important where the slab and beam concrete is of a
weaker grade than the column concrete. In general, it is advisable to supply U-bars at the noncontinuous ends of beams of depth exceeding 600 mm.

7.7.2 Beam-beam
7.7.2.1 General
Ensure that, at beam-beam intersections, reinforcement is so arranged that layers in mutually
perpendicular beams are at different levels.
7.7.2.2 Top steel
It is good practice, for the following reasons, to pass the secondary beam steel over the main beam
steel:

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SABS 0144
Ed. 2
a) the secondary beam steel is usually of smaller diameter and requires less cover; and
b) the secondary beam top reinforcement is available to act as a support for the slab top
reinforcement.
Where the main beam is very heavily stressed, however, it might be more economical to pass the
main beam steel over the secondary reinforcement.
Whichever method is adopted, it is considered good practice to keep the top steel in each beam at
constant level, for instance in the case of beams of constant depth, make all the stirrups the same size.
7.7.2.3 Bottom steel
To accommodate bottom bars, it is common practice to make secondary beams shallower than main
beams, even if only by 50 mm (see figure 24). When beam soffits are at the same level, the secondary
beam steel should pass over the main beam steel. Unless the secondary beam span is short, bars of
diameter less than 25 mm may be draped (see figure 25). Cranking of bottom bars is usually
unnecessary.
NOTE If the secondary beam span is short, draped bars might not sag enough to reach their correct position.

Figure 24

Figure 25

7.8 Maintaining bars in position (see also section 6)


7.8.1 Spacer bars
Spacer bars required to separate layers of reinforcement are scheduled and measured.

7.8.2 Carrier bars


Ensure that top bars that act as stirrup carriers are extended to the face of the beam support. Do not
curtail light carrier bars on the assumption that the main top tension reinforcement over the supports
will support the stirrups.

7.9 Minimum reinforcement requirements


7.9.1 Bottom bars
Bottom bars should be at least 2 R12 or 2 Y10 and should constitute at least 0,25 % of the crosssectional area of the beam if of mild steel, or 0,15 % if of high tensile steel.

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7.9.2 Top bars
Top carrier bars (i.e. top bars not at supports) should be at least equivalent to the greatest of the
following:
a) 2 R10 or 2 Y8 (if available) (see 4.2.4);
b) 0,15 % of the cross-sectional area of the beam if of mild steel or 0,10 % if of high tensile steel; and
c) the reinforcement required by the design for hogging moments.
The diameter of stirrup carrier bars should be at least equal to that of the heaviest stirrup.

7.9.3 Side bars


Bars provided at the sides of a deep beam (see 7.6.2) should be at least equivalent to Y10.

7.10 Curtailment of bars in beams


7.10.1 General
The following recommendations do not take high bond stresses into account. Where bond stresses
are high, it might not be possible to curtail bars where they are no longer required for tension.
If, however, in a series of continuous beams, the spans are equal or do not differ by more than 15 %,
and the characteristic live load does not exceed the characteristic self-weight load for substantially
uniform loading, bars can be curtailed with the use of the simplified rules given in 7.10.5.
If these conditions are not met, bending moment envelopes should be provided by the designer. It
should be noted that the use of envelopes enables economies to be made in reinforcement.
Where bundled bars are used, individual bars in bundles should not be curtailed at spacings closer
than 40 bar diameters, except at the supports of beams.

7.10.2 Bending moment envelope


7.10.2.1 If a bending moment envelope is available:
a) bars in tension should extend by at least an anchorage length (see annex D) from the point at which
they are fully stressed, for example for the first bar to be curtailed, the point of full stress, in the
case of hogging reinforcement, will be at the face of the support. The remaining bars should be
considered fully stressed at the point at which any curtailed bar is no longer needed (see figure 26);
and
b) bars should extend by at least the greater of one beam depth and 12 bar diameters beyond the
point at which the continuing bars can resist the moment (see figure 26).
7.10.2.2 A bar should not be stopped in a tension zone unless:
a) it also extends by a tension lap from the point at which it is no longer needed; or
b) the continuing bars provide double the area required; or
c) the shear capacity of the section is greater than twice the shear force actually present.
7.10.2.3 If the shear diagram is not available, ensure that either 7.10.2.2(a) or 7.10.2.2(b) is
complied with.

44

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Ed. 2

Figure 26

7.10.3 Cut-off points


7.10.3.1 As it is undesirable to curtail more than one bar at any point, do not stop more than 20 % of
the reinforcement at any point when more than one bar is curtailed.
7.10.3.2 Cut-off points should be separated by at least a tension bond length.
7.10.3.3 When deciding on cut-off points, make allowance for placing errors. Errors are less likely to
occur if bars are detailed symmetrically, especially in end spans where bottom reinforcement is
needed towards the non-continuous end. There is a tendency for fixers to place bars symmetrically.

7.10.4 Anchoring bottom reinforcement


In the case of continuous beams, at least 30 % of the midspan reinforcement, other than bottom
reinforcement that serves as compression reinforcement, should be taken 12 bar diameters beyond
the centre-line of the support, and bottom reinforcement that serves as compression reinforcement
should extend by at least a compression bond length into the support.
In the case of simply supported beams and the non-continuous end of end spans of continuous
beams, anchor the reinforcement at the supports by means of one of the following (see also the note
below):
a) an effective anchorage of 12 bar diameters beyond the centre-line of the support (no hook or bend
should begin before the centre-line);
b) an effective anchorage of 12 bar diameters plus half the beam effective depth from the face of the
support (no hook or bend should begin at a distance from the face of the support equal to more
than one-half of the beam depth); and

45

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
c) if the bond stress is less than half that permissible, a straight length of bar extending for a distance
beyond the centre-line of the support equal to the greater of one-third of the width of the support
and 30 mm.
NOTE As the conditions for anchoring given in (c) above will not often be susceptible to checking, ensure that, if
(c) is applied, one of the other means is also applied.

7.10.5 Simplified rules for beams


NOTE In this subclause, L is the effective span: i.e. the lesser of
a) the clear span plus the effective depth, and
b) the distance from centre-line to centre-line of the supports.

7.10.5.1 Simply supported beams (see figure 27)


At least 50 % of the tension reinforcement at midspan of a simply supported beam should extend to
the supports and have an effective anchorage (see 7.10.4), at least 25 % should extend to within
0,08L of the support centre-line, and the rest should extend to within 0,15L of the support centre-line.
7.10.5.2 Cantilever beams
At least 50 % of the tension reinforcement of a cantilever beam should extend to the end of the
cantilever (and be turned down for bond where necessary) and the rest should extend to a distance
(from the face of the support) of the greater of 0,5L and 45 bar diameters. The extent of curtailment
of tie back bars should be determined by the designer.
7.10.5.3 Continuous beams (see figure 27)
7.10.5.3.1 At least 20 % of the top reinforcement in tension over the supports of a continuous beam
should be made effectively continuous through the spans. Of the remainder, half should extend to a
point at least 0,25L from the face of the support, and the other half to a point at least 0,15L from the
face of the support, but no bar should stop at a point less than 45 bar diameters from the face of the
support.
7.10.5.3.2 At least 30 % of the bottom reinforcement in tension at midspan should extend to the
supports. Half the remainder should extend to points within 0,2L of the centre-line of interior supports.
The remaining 35 % should extend to within 0,1L of the centre-line of supports.
7.10.5.3.3 At a non-continuous end, 50 % of the tension reinforcement should extend to the supports
and terminate in an effective anchorage as in 7.10.5.1 above and the remainder should extend to
within 0,05L of the centre-line of the support.
7.10.5.4 Continuous beams of which spans differ by not more than 15 %
NOTE In this subclause, L is the greater of the effective span and the adjacent span on the other side of the support
in the case of top bars, and L is the effective span in the case of bottom bars.

7.10.5.4.1 Of the top reinforcement in tension over supports, at least 33 % in short spans adjacent
to long spans, and at least 20 % in all other cases, should be made continuous over the whole span.
Of the remainder, half should extend to a point at least 0,3L from the face of the support, and the other
half to a point at least 0,2L from the face of the support. No bar should extend by less than a tension
bond length from the face of a support.
7.10.5.4.2 At least 33 % of the bottom reinforcement in tension at midspan (at least 50 % in the case
of simply supported ends, where the detailing should be as in 7.10.5.1) should extend to the supports.
For interior spans, half of the remainder should extend to a point that is within 0,1L of the centre-line
of supports and the remaining third to a point that is within 0,2L of the centre-line of supports.

46

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 27

47

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
7.11 Bent-up bars for shear reinforcement
7.11.1 First bend
Start the top of the first bend not more than 0,5d from the face of the support, and space subsequent
bends at distances apart equal to 0,75d (or less if so required by the design).

7.11.2 Anchorage length


Measure the anchorage length from the top bend. Annex D gives bond lengths (as recommended in
SABS 0100-1) for the shear, compressive and tensile stresses permitted in mild steel and deformed
bars of tensile strength 450 MPa. Wherever possible, give top bars an increased bond length (see
7.4.4).

7.11.3 Bend diameter


To reduce concrete compressive stresses at the bends, bends of radius at least 7,5 bar diameters are
required. It is not, however, generally practicable to bend to radii exceeding 250 mm.
Where the side cover to a bar is less than 3 bar diameters, the radius of the bend should be at least
10 bar diameters. If the radius of a bend in a fully stressed bar is less than 10 bar diameters, the side
cover should be more than 3 bar diameters. Additional clips or stirrups should be provided to prevent
lateral splitting at splices.

7.12 Corbels and halving joints


7.12.1 Corbels
A corbel is a short cantilever beam in which the principal load is applied in such a way that the
distance between the line of action of the load and the face of the supporting member is less than 0,6d
and the depth at the outer face of the bearing exceeds one-half of the effective depth at the face of
the supporting member.

7.12.2 Main reinforcement


The main tension reinforcement in a corbel should be not less than 0,4 % and not more than 1,3 %
of the section at the face of the supporting member and should be adequately anchored. Anchor the
reinforcement at the front face of the corbel either by welding it to a transverse bar of equal strength
or by bending back the bars to form loops; in either case, the bearing area of the load should not
project beyond the straight portion of the bars that form the main tension reinforcement (see
figures 28 and 29).
NOTE The limitation on reinforcement percentages is due to the limited number of tests results available.

48

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 28

Figure 29

7.12.3 Horizontal force


When a corbel is required to resist a horizontal force in the direction H applied to the bearing plate
(see figure 28) because of shrinkage or temperature changes, provide additional reinforcement to
transmit this force in its entirety. This reinforcement should be welded to the bearing plate and
adequately anchored within the supporting member.

7.12.4 Shear reinforcement


Provide shear reinforcement in the form of horizontal stirrups distributed in the upper two-thirds of the
effective depth of the corbel at the column face. This reinforcement should have an area of at least
one-half of the area of the main tension reinforcement and should be adequately anchored (see
figure 30).

49

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 30

7.12.5 Halving joints


Several recommended bar arrangements for halving joints are to be found in literature covering
practice in the United Kingdom, the United States of America and Germany. Figure 31 shows three
arrangements, each of which has its advantages, disadvantages and special requirements.

50

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 31

51

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Ed. 2
7.13 Splicing of tension bars (see also 6.3)
7.13.1 Lap splices
Whenever possible, lap splices should be staggered by one bond length (see annex D).

7.13.2 Maximum number of bars spliced


Because cracks induced at sudden changes of section can cause premature shear failure, and
because of bursting forces at lap splices (see 7.13.4), do not stop or lap more than the greater of one
bar and one-fifth of the total steel area, at any one section except at the ends of beams, or where top
reinforcement is stopped off in a region of compression.

7.13.3 Cranks at splices


Splicing bars by lapping is not desirable if it is necessary to crank one of the bars (see figure 10), since
this makes bending and placing more difficult. It is preferable to butt the bars to be spliced, and to
provide additional lapping reinforcement. If several bars are to be spliced in a beam, provide one or
more additional bars (see figure 11).
The length of lap required is given in annex D, but some codes require appreciably greater lap length.
Note that the length for a lap splice is 25 % greater than that for a tension bond.

7.13.4 Bursting forces


Because lap splices induce bursting forces in the concrete, increase the shear capacity in the region
of the splice by adding, over the length of the lap, additional stirrups of area equal to about half the
area of the bars being spliced.

7.13.5 Crack control


Where spliced bars are butted, crack control is important. Therefore, the distance between bars on
either side of the spliced bars should not exceed the appropriate value given in figure 11.
As this is especially important where corner bars are spliced, the lapping bar should be as close as
possible to the spliced bar (see 6.3.2.2).

7.14 Prefabrication of beam cages


In order to facilitate the prefabrication of beam cages, longitudinal bars may be stopped at the faces
of supports. In such cases, ensure that equivalent splices are provided for the top and bottom steel
and for the middle bars if they are assisting in resisting shear or torsion (see figure 23).
It should be noted that the arrangement shown in figure 23 requires an additional mass of
reinforcement because of the extra splices, and also that great care is needed on site to ensure that
the splices are placed in the correct position.

52

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Ed. 2
7.15 Corners and cranked beams
7.15.1 General
Recommendations are given on various methods of reinforcing corners (for additional information see
annex B). Closing corners present no great problem, but opening corners require careful detailing (see
figures 32 and 33).

Figure 32

Figure 33

7.15.2 90 opening corners with not more than 1 % reinforcement


Where the amount of reinforcement in the beam is equal to or less than 1 %, detail the reinforcement
as shown in figure 34 or figure 35, the splay steel being equal to 50 % of the main steel.

53

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 34

Figure 35

7.15.3 90 opening corners with more than 1 % reinforcement


If the area of reinforcement exceeds 1 %, provide transverse steel as well as splay steel as in
figure 36. (The use of a splay is also strongly recommended.)

Figure 36

54

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
7.15.4 Cranked beams
The recommended methods of detailing are shown in figures 37, 38 and 39.

Figure 37

Figure 38

Figure 39

55

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
7.15.5 Beam and column junction
Where a column extends above a beam, bend the beam top reinforcement down into the column but
if it is necessary to bend the bars up, detail additional steel as in figure 40.

Figure 40

7.15.6 Closing corners


At closing corners, provide adequate radii (equal to at least 7,5 bar diameters) and some additional
reinforcement as in figure 41.

Figure 41

56

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Ed. 2
7.16 Deep beams
7.16.1 Simply supported deep beam on two supports
7.16.1.1 Longitudinal reinforcement
The main longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the ties considered in the design model should
be uniformly distributed over a depth, measured from the lower face of the beam, of the lesser of
0,12H U and 0,12L (figure 42)
where
L

is the design span;

H is the total height of the beam;


H U is equal to H C d /2
where
C is the cover to the top bar; and
d is the diameter of the top bar.
The longitudinal reinforcement should be fully extended from one support to the other.
At supports, the anchorage should be obtained by bending the bars up, by using horizontal hooks or
U-loops or by anchorage plates, unless the length between the centre of support and the end of the
beam exceeds the anchorage length (see SABS 0100-1).

Figure 42

57

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Attention is drawn to the importance of providing small diameter bars in order to limit the width and
development of cracks under service load and to facilitate anchorage at the supports. It is of particular
importance that these anchorages be adequate. Tests show that insufficient anchorage leads to rupture
under considerably smaller loads than those that could be expected from the other characteristics of
the beam. Anchorage achieved by vertical hooks is to be avoided since it tends to promote cracking
in the anchorage zone.
7.16.1.2 Detailing of the shear reinforcement
7.16.1.2.1 Direct loading (the load is applied at the top of the beam)
Under direct loading, the shear reinforcement can be made of a light mesh of orthogonal
reinforcement, consisting of horizontal stirrups surrounded by vertical stirrups.
The total percentage of the bars in each direction should not be less than 0,2 % (0,1 % in each face).
7.16.1.2.2 Suspended loading (the load is applied at the bottom of the beam)
Under suspended loading, the orthogonal mesh described in 7.16.1.2.1 should be supplemented by
introducing additional stirrups to transmit the total load between its point of application and the level
corresponding to the lesser of H U and L.
These stirrups should surround the bars of the lower reinforcement and be extended over a depth
equal to the lesser of H U and L (see figure 43).
Near the supports, the height of the stirrups may be slightly reduced (by about 20 %).

Figure 43
7.16.1.2.3 Indirect loading (or indirect supports)
Indirect loading corresponds to a load applied over the total depth of the beam by means of a
transverse perpendicular wall or by a column of large cross-section, which is extended down to the
lower part of the beam.

58

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Ed. 2
According to the chosen design model, the force transmitted to the beam should be resisted by
additional reinforcement (suspension reinforcement) made:
a) either of vertical stirrups extended without cut-off, near the common volume, over a length equal
to the lesser of H U and L (see figure 44(a)); or
b) by bent-up bars that resist about 60 % of the load, placed symmetrically to the line of action of the
load, and by complementary stirrups (see figure 44(b)).

Figure 44

59

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Ed. 2
7.16.2 Continuous deep beams
7.16.2.1 In the span (i.e. the positive moment area)
Subclause 7.16.1 applies for the main reinforcement and also for the shear reinforcement in the span
of a continuous deep beam.
7.16.2.2 Over the supports
For the main horizontal tensile reinforcement over the supports, the following applies:
a) a fraction 1 L & 1
2 H

in the range 1 < L < 3 of the total required cross-sectional area of reinforceH

ment should be placed in the upper strip which extends to the lesser of 0,2H and 0,2L (see
figure 45);
b) the remaining cross-sectional area should be uniformly distributed within the lower strip just below,
which extends to 0,6H or 0,6L (see figure 45); and
c) one bar in two may be stopped symmetrically at a distance from each face of the support equal to
0,4H or 0,4L.
Where H > L, supplementary longitudinal reinforcement should be placed near the upper face of the
beam.
The arrangement of the reinforcement in the tensile zones over the support should be such as to
control the cracking to acceptable limits since, in these regions, the maximum elastic tensile stresses
occur. It is particularly important to ensure the correct behaviour of these zones, since they lie in the
path of the stress lines from the loads to the supports; hence the forces to which they are subjected
are inescapable and can only be resisted by proper design of the structure.
It is important that the state of stress near the supports be studied, because of the considerable
intensity of shear and normal stresses that occur simultaneously in horizontal and vertical planes.

Figure 45

60

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Ed. 2
Attention is drawn to the extreme sensitivity of continuous deep beams to the various phenomena
produced by displacement of the supports. In the elastic range, even small displacements of the
supports can completely change the stress distribution and even reverse the direction of the stresses.
The satisfactory behaviour of existing deep beams, most of which have been conceived without
rigorously taking into account differential displacement of supports (elastic and plastic deformations
of supports, shrinkage, foundation settlements, etc.) proves the possibilities of adaptation of the
structure beyond the elastic range. Nevertheless, in order to avoid increasing the probability of
cracking and the risk of destruction of the beam, it is necessary to reduce as far as possible all causes
that can produce differential settlements.

7.16.3 Concentrated loads


In very deep beams, concentrated loads applied on the centre-line of the supports produce, in vertical
planes, compressive or tensile stresses which cannot be neglected. The distribution of these stresses
is similar to the diffusion of prestressing forces in the anchorage zone.

8 Component detailing Slabs


NOTE The attention of users of this clause is drawn to the following publications:
Report No. 2 on the design of pre-stressed concrete flat slabs by the Joint Structural Division of SAICE and ISE, and
British Concrete Society Technical Report No. 43 on post-tensioned concrete floors Design Handbook.

8.1 General
In general, detail slabs in plan only, using diagrammatic representation; show the bars as if they fall
towards the top of the drawing, or to the left of the drawing (see figures 5 and 53). It is good practice
to detail top and bottom bars separately (see 3.4) and where any complication occurs, to include
sections.

8.2 Minimum reinforcement in slabs


8.2.1 Main steel
The area of the main tension reinforcement in a solid slab and at continuous supports should be at
least 0,13 % of the cross-sectional area of the slab, based on the effective depth of the slab if high
tensile deformed steel is used or at least 0,24 % if round mild steel is used.

8.2.2 Secondary steel


The area of the secondary reinforcement at right angles to the main reinforcement should be at least
0,13 % of the cross-sectional area of the slab, based on the total depth of the slab if high tensile
deformed steel is used or at least 0,24 % if round mild steel is used.
Where there is top and bottom reinforcement, the area of secondary reinforcement should be the
greater of 0,06 % of the cross-sectional area of slab and one-quarter of the main steel.

8.2.3 Edges of slabs


The area of the steel that is parallel to the supports in the edge strips of two-way slabs should be at
least equal to the applicable values given in 8.2.1 and 8.2.2. (Where torsion reinforcement is added,
include this in the area computed.)

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Where reinforcement is curtailed, the sum of the top and bottom steel areas, at right angles to the
support, should be at least equal to the applicable values given in 8.2.1 and 8.2.2.

8.2.4 Special cases


Where a slab is restrained from shrinking (for example a slab restrained by concrete walls and a base
cast in rough rock) or where a slab is exposed to repetitive temperature changes or to severe weather
conditions, the minima given in 8.2.1 to 8.2.3 might be considered by the designer to be too low,
whereas in a slab that is deeper than structurally necessary, and is free to shrink, the minima might
be considered excessive.
Where a slab constitutes the flange of a beam, the designer should specify his requirements for
transmitting horizontal shear.

8.2.5 Ribbed and coffered slabs Topping


The topping steel in ribbed slabs could be provided by sheets of mesh reinforcement, of crosssectional area in each direction of at least 0,12 % of the gross cross-sectional area of the topping,
lapped by at least 60 wire diameters.

8.2.6 Ribbed and coffered slabs Ribs


With the exception of stirrup requirements, the minimum reinforcement is as for beams. If the shear
stress is less than the permissible value, no stirrups are required.

8.3 Spacing of bars in slabs


8.3.1 Maximum spacing of main tension reinforcement in solid slabs High tensile
steel (450 MPa)
8.3.1.1 For a slab of thickness not exceeding 200 mm, the maximum permissible spacing is twice the
effective depth plus the bar diameter.
8.3.1.2 For a slab of thickness exceeding 200 mm, the maximum permissible spacing is the
appropriate value given in table 14.
Table 14 Maximum spacing of bars (450 MPa)
in slabs of thickness exceeding 200 mm
1

Maximum spacing
mm
Position of
reinforcement

Amount of tension reinforcement


%, gross

Span
Support

62

Up to 0,5

0,6

0,7

0,8

0,9

1,0

350
300

300
250

250
200

250
200

200
175

175
150

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
8.3.2 Maximum spacing of main tension reinforcement in solid slabs Other types
of steel
Use the spacing recommended in SABS 0100-1.

8.3.3 Spacing of secondary steel Temperature, shrinkage and distribution steel


The spacing of secondary steel should not exceed five times the effective depth of the slab.

8.3.4 Spacing of topping steel in voided slabs


The spacing of topping steel in voided slabs in each direction should not exceed half the centre-tocentre distance between the ribs and should be such that there are at least two bars between adjacent
ribs.

8.3.5 Preferred spacing of bars in slabs


When possible, adopt the following spacings (in millimetres): 75; 100; 125; 150; 175; 200; 250; 300;
350; 400; 450 and 500.

8.3.6 Spacing of bars where curtailment occurs


The spacing of top and bottom steel on either side of a curtailed bar in a slab other than a cantilever
slab should not exceed the lesser of twice the spacing required in terms of 8.3.1 or 8.3.2 (as relevant)
and five times the effective depth.
The spacing of bars going to the end of a cantilever slab, whether or not curtailment occurs, should
not exceed the permissible maximum given in 8.3.1 or 8.3.2 (as relevant).

8.4 Diameters of bars in slabs


The diameter of main tension reinforcement should normally not exceed 15 % of the slab thickness.
For practical purposes, however, it is preferable to use bars of 10 mm or more as main top tension
steel, unless welded mesh is being used.
In cantilevers of length 1 200 mm or more, the use of bars at least equivalent to Y12 bars is
recommended.

8.5 Scheduling of steel


Ensure that all reinforcement is scheduled in specific lengths, for example 50 of 12 m (not 600 m cut
to suit on site).

8.6 Maintenance of position of steel


8.6.1 Cover requirements
Ensure that the cover requirements are stated on the placing drawing (see 6.1).

8.6.2 Maintenance of cover


See 6.2 for recommendations on the maintenance of cover and for details of cover devices for bottom
steel (see 6.2.4) and of stools and chairs for top steel (see 6.2.5).

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8.7 Openings and corners in slabs
8.7.1 Normal trimming reinforcement
Where no special loading or vibration conditions occur, the following general rules for trimming
reinforcement can be followed:
a) half of the steel intersected by the hole is detailed to lie on each side of the opening;
b) additional bars are placed in the line of the hole if the space thus created exceeds the permissible
spacing; and
c) diagonal stitching bars (see figure 46) are put across the corners of rectangular holes or so placed
as to frame circular holes. They should be placed at both the top and the bottom if the thickness of
the slab exceeds 150 mm. The diameter of these bars should be the same as that of the larger of
the slab bars, and their length should be about 80 bar diameters.

Figure 46

64

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8.7.2 Corners in slabs
Re-entrant corners should also have additional corner stitching bars as for holes (see 8.7.1). Where
the slab is restrained against horizontal movements (caused by shrinkage, creep or temperature) by
walls, stiff beams, or friction, place extra steel and diagonal bars across such corners to reduce the
crack sizes (see figure 47).

Figure 47

65

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8.8 Cantilever slabs
8.8.1 Support to top tension steel
Support the top steel of cantilever slabs at spacings (for stools and chairs) generally about 10 bar
diameters less than those recommended in 6.2.2 and ensure that a row of stools or chairs supports
every bar close to the face(s) of the member that supports the cantilever (see figure 48).
The bending of the main bars should be such that they contribute to the supporting of the steel, bars
that extend to the end should have square returns (shape code 38) and in the return there should be
two fixing bars, one at the top and one at the bottom. Unless adequate stools are provided, each
curtailed bar should have a cranked bend (shape code 41 or 42) and should have a top fixing bar at
the crank (see figure 48).

Figure 48

8.8.2 Curtailment of cantilever bars


Curtailed bars should extend by at least 20 bar diameters beyond the point at which they would be
terminated for structural purposes (see figure 48).

8.8.3 Secondary steel


So design and detail bottom steel that it is at right angles to the support that carries construction
loading in the propped condition. The total area of top and bottom distribution steel parallel to the
face(s) of the support should be between 0,25 % and 0,4 % of the gross cross-sectional area,
depending on the length of the slab between joints, the degree of end restraint by corners and the
degree of exposure to temperature changes, for example a cantilever slab in a north facing location
requires more distribution steel than does one in a shaded south facing position.

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8.8.4 Ends of cantilever slabs
Schedule main cantilever bars to go right to the ends of the slab, both next to the construction joint
and at the free end, and add an extra bar at each end. Extra distribution steel is required at corners
of cantilevers at both the top and the bottom to distribute induced cracks (see figure 49). Where the
end of a cantilever is supported by a wall (or similar structure), ensure that the bottom steel is
adequate to accept possible reverse moments (see figure 49).

Figure 49

8.8.5 Tie-backs and counterweights to cantilevers


8.8.5.1 In slab
Ensure that the support of cantilever bars in the slab from which the cantilever springs is provided in
accordance with the same rules as those that apply to the cantilever itself (see 8.8.1).
8.8.5.2 Bottom of beams
Ensure that, when a cantilever slab is at the bottom of a beam (see figure 50), the design of the
stirrups in the beam provides for moment, shear, hanging tension and, if necessary, torsion. If
possible, when detailing this steel, provide for the placing of the beam steel without the necessity of
the threading of the main beam steel through the cantilever anchorage loops. Note the special
difficulty induced by bent-up bars in the beam steel.
NOTES
1 See the alternative arrangements shown in figure 50 and also the principles applicable to opening corner details in
retaining walls and in beams given in 10.19 and 7.15, respectively.
2 Curtailed bars that go to the back of a beam could drift out of position during concrete casting.
3 Hairpin type bars should be related to the horizontal stirrup spacing and this could cause difficulties.

67

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Figure 50

68

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Ed. 2
8.8.5.3 Top of beams
Where the weathering step is 30 mm or less, crank the bars at a slope not exceeding 1 in 6 (see
figure 51(a)). Ensure that the combination of top bars and stirrups is such as to provide the required
restraints. Note that if a bar is laced over and under the beam bars, it is fully restrained, provided that
the beam top bars are heavy enough and a stirrup is within 50 mm of the bar. If the bar is not so laced,
so detail the steel as to ensure effective anchorage against bursting (see figure 51).

Figure 51

69

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8.8.6 Cantilevers around corners
Ensure that, at a corner of a cantilever slab, the detailing is such that tie-back loading and the
deflections that arise from this arrangement are accounted for. If "fan" type detailing is used, take care
to avoid congestion (see figure 52). Take particular care with drainage inlets.

Figure 52

70

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Ed. 2
8.9 Curtailment of top tension reinforcement
8.9.1 Two-way slabs
The cut-off points of the top tension reinforcement depend upon the load distribution assumed in the
analysis and should be given by the designer.

8.9.2 One-way slabs


The recommendations that cover the curtailment of top tension reinforcement in beams apply also to
continuous one-way slabs (see 7.10).

8.10 Corner reinforcement in two-way slabs


Recommendations regarding torsion reinforcement required in the corners of restrained slabs when
the main reinforcement is concentrated in central strips are given in SABS 0100-1.
It is common practice to keep the reinforcement uniform for the entire width of the slab. If this method
is adopted, schedule the bars to start not more than one space away from the edge of the support. If
this is done for both top and bottom steel, extra torsion reinforcement will not be required for slabs that
are continuous at one or two edges. Slabs that are discontinuous at both edges will require extra top
steel in the corners.

8.11 Slabs of other types


8.11.1 Composite slabs
In slabs of prestressed concrete or in slabs that have steel or similar ribs, the area of the topping steel
in each direction should be at least 0,12 % of the gross cross-section. Check with the designer to
ascertain the steelwork necessary for adequate shear connection.

8.11.2 Ribbed or voided slabs


Ensure that at least 50 % of the total main tension reinforcement in the ribs is carried through at the
bottom onto the bearing and anchored (see 7.10.4).

8.12 Flat slabs


8.12.1 General rules
Rules for the arrangement of reinforcement in flat slabs are given in SABS 0100-1 and a diagrammatic
interpretation of these is given in figure 53. Where temperature differentials are possible and for
consideration of shear, it is recommended that at least one-half of the bottom steel in slab and column
strips be anchored effectively.

71

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 53

72

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
8.12.2 Reinforcement of mushroom heads
Mushroom heads are normally cast with the columns and the detail of the reinforcement should be
such that the steel for the head can be formed into a separate cage (see figure 54).
NOTE The designer should determine the amount of steel required in the mushroom head to control cracks arising from
the out-of-balance moments.

Figure 54

73

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
8.12.3 Shear reinforcement at column heads and dropped panels
The best method of providing bar shear reinforcement for slabs at column heads is to use beam cages
in one direction and bars in the other direction, wired to the cages (see figure 55).

Figure 55

74

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

9 Component detailing Columns


9.1 General
A column is a vertical structural element the greater lateral dimension of which is not more than four
times the lesser.

9.2 Detailing method


Detail columns by means of exploded views. Show the levels of the bottom and the top of the column
(at top of slab or beam or upstand beams). Indicate on the reinforcement detail the positions of all
intermediate beams. Show each bar mark once and provide adequate sections showing all main bars
and the arrangement of stirrups (see figure 56). Consider carefully the effect of kickers on levels
(see 10.4). Note that reinforcement for columns is very often preassembled and details should allow
for this (see 3.6).

9.3 Main reinforcement


9.3.1 General
The main reinforcement (the longitudinal bars) should consist of mild steel or high tensile steel bars
of diameter at least 12 mm. Generally they are used singly, but the use of bundles and pairs is
permissible (see 6.5.4). Place a longitudinal bar (or bundle) in each corner of the section. Unless there
are bending moment considerations, arrange the main reinforcement symmetrically. Ensure that
asymmetrical arrangements are carefully detailed and orientated to avoid errors in placing.

9.3.2 Maximum or minimum amount of reinforcement


The assessment of the maximum or minimum amount of reinforcement is a function of the design.
From a practical point of view (handling of the cage, arrangement of splicing, etc.), the area of
reinforcement should be between 0,5 % and 3 % (maximum 6 % at splice). Where more than 3 % is
used, take special care because congestion can create problems. Where congestion occurs, consider
the use of mechanical splices (see 6.3.4).

9.3.3 Maximum spacing of main bars


The spacing between main bars should not exceed the lesser of twice the least dimension of the
column and 400 mm.

9.3.4 Minimum spacing of main bars


For practical reasons, the spacing between the main bars should be at least 80 mm, measured centreto-centre if not bundled, or 100 mm clear between bundles.

75

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 56

76

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
9.3.5 Number of main bars
9.3.5.1 Figure 57 gives a guide to the number of bars if bundling is not used and also indicates typical
bar arrangements.

Figure 57

77

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
9.3.5.2 The use of bars restrained direct by stirrups (see 9.4.1.1) alternating with loose bars gives
adequate access for vibrators (see figure 58).
Dimensions in millimetres

Figure 58

9.4 Stirrups
9.4.1 Horizontal configuration
9.4.1.1 So arrange stirrups as to contain all of the corner bars and to restrain each bar effectively. A
bar is considered to be effectively restrained in the horizontal plane if it is:
a) enclosed by a stirrup of internal angle not exceeding 135;
b) between two bars, each restrained as in (a) above, and at a centre-to-centre distance not exceeding
150 mm from each such bar;
c) enclosed by helical stirrups; or
d) surrounded on all four sides by beams or slabs or both.
9.4.1.2 Stirrups of rectangular columns should generally be closed and hooks should be square (shape
code 60). Avoid the use of shape code 81 for column stirrups. Dimension stirrups and clips externally.
9.4.1.3 To facilitate placing and compacting of concrete, stirrups should as far as possible leave the
centres of the columns free of crossing steel. Provide for, and show on sections, built-in items such
as rainwater pipes and particularly inlets and outlets (see figure 56).

9.4.2 Vertical spacing of stirrups


Ensure that the horizontal restraints of a bar are not further apart vertically than the least of the
following:
a) the lesser lateral dimension of the column;
b) 12 times the diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar; and
c) 300 mm.

78

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9.4.3 Diameter of stirrups
Ensure that the diameter of each stirrup is at least 0,25 times the diameter of the largest longitudinal
bar and at least 0,01 times the average of the cross-sectional dimensions of the column. Subject to
design requirements, the nominal diameter of bars for stirrups should normally be 8 mm, 10 mm or
12 mm.

9.4.4 Edge column stirrups


Where columns are not restrained at a floor (see figures 59 and 60), provide horizontal reinforcement
clips, open stirrups or U-bars. This reinforcement is best detailed with the beam. If the concrete mix
in the floor is of a lower grade than that in the columns, check for possible requirements for extra steel,
particularly in edge columns.

Figure 59

79

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
9.4.5 Temporary fixing stirrups
Provide at least two temporary fixing stirrups to hold splices in position (see figure 60) or to stiffen
helically bound columns during fabrication, and ensure that such stirrups are detailed and scheduled.
NOTE If columns are detailed as in figure 62, a note should be included in the detail, alerting the fixer to the fact that
the stirrups above the floor may not be removed.

Figure 60

80

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
9.4.6 Large columns
Where the reinforcement for very wide columns is to be fabricated in separate cages and erected in
sections, it should be held together by bars of diameter 12 mm, at double the stirrup spacing (see
figure 61).

Figure 61

81

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Ed. 2
9.5 Splicing of column reinforcement
9.5.1 General
Splicing is normally accomplished by the lapping of bars. The lengths of laps in the main bars should,
unless otherwise required by the designer, comply with the applicable values given in annex D. The
bottoms of bars are normally at floor level unless concrete kickers are permitted.

9.5.2 Continuity of column bars


The continuity of column bars can be achieved by:
a) so continuing the bars that they lap with the bars of the upper columns either:
1) with the lower bars cranked into a position inside the upper bars (see figure 62(c)); or
2) with the upper bars cranked into a position inside the lower bars (see figure 62(a));
NOTE In case (1) above, double sets of stirrups or additional stirrups are required to restrain the crank when the height
of set exceeds the depth of the relevant intersecting and restraining member. Where there is an adequate restraining
member, the slope of crank should not exceed 1: 6 (see figure 62(b)). In case (2) above, a double set of restraining
stirrups is required at the crank (see figure 60) and the crank slope should not exceed 1:10.

b) terminating all or some of the bars below floor level and introducing separate splices to start the
column above;
NOTE Where the relative displacement of the column faces exceeds 100 mm, this principle should be applied (see
figure 62(d)).

c) using mechanical splices (see 6.3.4) to a specification approved by the designer;


d) using welded splices (see 6.3.3) to a specification approved by the designer.

82

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Ed. 2

Figure 62

83

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Ed. 2
9.6 Large change in column size
Where a large reduction in column size occurs, the upper column could require more steel than the
lower column and additional splices could be required.

10 Component detailing Walls


10.1 General
A wall is a vertical structural element the greater lateral dimension of which is more than four times
the lesser.

10.2 Detailing methods


Detail walls in panels or sections to suit the construction procedure (see figures 63 and 64). They may
be detailed on elevations or diagrammatically as in the case of slabs (see 8.1).

10.3 Reinforced and plain concrete walls


10.3.1 For a wall to be considered as a reinforced concrete wall, the area of vertical reinforcement
should be at least 0,4 % of the plan area of the wall.

10.3.2 A wall that has less reinforcement than that specified in 10.3.1 is considered as a wall with
nominal reinforcement, or as a plain concrete wall. A plain concrete wall could require a certain
minimum area of reinforcement (see 10.14).
NOTE For fire resistance purposes, unless the vertical reinforcement content of a reinforced concrete wall is at least
1 %, the wall is classified as a plain concrete wall.

10.4 Kickers
It is not common practice to provide kickers in building construction but it is common in civil
engineering construction. If kickers are used, the required lap in the reinforcement should be provided
above the kicker.

10.5 Cranking of vertical bars


Do not crank vertical bars except where the wall changes in section. Heavy corner bars might,
however, have to be cranked.

84

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 63

85

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 64

86

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Ed. 2
10.6 Layers of reinforcement in thin walls
Ensure that the reinforcement is detailed in such a way that the concrete can be thoroughly
compacted. For walls of thickness not exceeding 170 mm, where the insertion of a vibrator could lead
to difficulties, a single layer of vertical and horizontal bars may be provided at the centre of the wall
and an external vibrator may be used (see figure 65(a)).

10.7 Layers of reinforcement in thicker walls


For walls of thickness exceeding 170 mm but less than or equal to 220 mm and also for walls of
thickness exceeding 220 mm but that have a reinforcement content greater than nominal, provide two
layers of reinforcement in both the vertical and the horizontal directions, the former layer being placed
on the inside of the latter (see figure 65(b)). Provide clips to restrain the vertical bars against buckling
or displacement prior to and during the construction of the wall. The bending, spacing and size of the
clips should be in accordance with the requirements relating to stirrups in columns (see 9.4). In walls
of thickness exceeding 220 mm and that have nominal reinforcement, horizontal steel can be placed
inside the vertical steel to reduce the possibility of the coarse aggregate's being "hung up" on the
horizontal bars (see figure 65(c)). However, in this case ensure that sufficient space is left between the
inner layers in order to allow for the placing and vibration of the concrete. This space should be the
greater of at least 100 mm and at least 75 mm greater than the largest size aggregate. The alternative
method of placing horizontal steel inside vertical steel also applies to retaining walls (see 10.17).

Figure 65

87

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Ed. 2
10.8 Prefabrication of reinforcement
Reinforcing mats should be prefabricated wherever possible. This can be achieved by any of the
following methods:
a) the detailing of mats as reinforcement for walls, with loose splice bars provided at corners, columns
and counterforts (this enables the contractor to erect complete wall sections);
b) the detailing at intervals along the wall of stiff "column cages", with the remaining horizontal and
vertical bars placed in between (this method involves more site work than does (a) above but is
often quicker than erecting the whole wall reinforcement in situ); and
c) the use of large cages as described in 9.4.6.
NOTE The substitution of welded mesh for the reinforcement described in (a) and (b) above is often beneficial. See
table 15 for available and transportable mesh sheet and roll sizes.

10.9 Vertical stages


Walls should be detailed in vertical stages (lifts) to suit construction. The height of a stage should
generally not exceed 6 m. Vertical reinforcement should have a diameter of at least 10 mm for stages
of height not exceeding 3,5 m. A diameter of at least 12 mm should be used for stages of height up
to 6 m, and also for reinforcement in "column cages". Where mesh is used as in 10.8, the size of wire
may be less than 10 mm if "column cages", as described in 10.8(b), are provided.

10.10 Clips
Provide clips to maintain the spacing of bars and space them at a maximum centre-to-centre distance
of 1 m in each direction. Detail the clips (which are best detailed as shape code 35 or 85) to connect
the two inner layers of steel (see figure 64 and see also 10.15 for heavily reinforced walls).

10.11 Pockets
10.11.1 Small pockets
A small pocket to be left in a wall can be formed by means of expanded polystyrene that should be
anchored to prevent it from floating. If the wall is to support a beam or a slab, insert one or more
reinforcing bars into the polystyrene block (see figure 66), to ensure a strong, rigid splice connection.
Ensure that the width of the pocket exceeds the length of the bend at the end of the future splice bar
(see figure 66).

10.11.2 Large pockets


A large pocket can be formed by means of timber. Slope the top of the pocket to facilitate concreting
operations (see figure 66).

88

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 66

89

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Ed. 2
10.12 Splices at top of wall
Where a slab is to be cast at the top of a wall, detail the continuity steel into the top of the slab with
the wall reinforcement:
a) if Y10 or lighter, as straight bars to be bent into the slab (see figure 67(a)); and
b) if heavier than Y10, as L bars extending at least a lap length below the soffit of the slab (see
annex D and figure 67(b)). Alternatively, use the double U-bar detail shown in figure 67(c).

Figure 67

90

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Ed. 2
10.13 Splices to slabs and beams
Where a section of wall is common with a slab or beam and is cast as part of the slab or beam, detail,
with the wall, any splices that are required to be cast into the wall and cross-reference them on the
slab or beam reinforcing details. Where the wall is to be cast through, the connection with the slab or
beam can be achieved by means of:
a) pockets of sufficient depth to ensure adequate bond of reinforcement (see 10.11); or
b) a rebate in the wall, with splice bars bent into the rebate in the wall and later bent out (see
figure 68).
It is normally preferable to provide pockets, since the rebending of reinforcing bars usually causes
them to kink. Also, the level of the rebate is critical, since a small inaccuracy in levels will cause a
considerable weakening in the connection, whereas an out-of-level pocket can easily be enlarged.
Bars larger than Y10 or R16 should not be detailed to be bent, but mild steel bars are recommended
if bending is unavoidable. If greater strength is required, welded or mechanical splices can be used
(see 6.3.3 and 6.3.4).

Figure 68

91

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10.14 Walls with nominal reinforcement or plain concrete walls
10.14.1 Reinforcement could be required:
a) to control tension caused by eccentricity or horizontal forces;
b) to distribute vertical loads; or
c) to control shrinkage and temperature cracking.

10.14.2 In those areas where reinforcement is required, provide high tensile steel reinforcement in
accordance with the following:
a) except as recommended in (b) below, so distribute steel in both faces together that, in walls of
thickness not exceeding 400 mm, there is a total of at least 0,25 % vertically and at least 0,2 %
horizontally of the cross-sectional area of the concrete, both reducing linearly (for thickness
exceeding 400 mm) to 0,12 % at 800 mm, after which the areas of reinforcement, both vertically
and horizontally, remain constant at 480 mm2 per metre of face;
b) for external walls and walls exposed to the weather, provide steel of area at least 0,25 % of the
cross-sectional area of the concrete in the exposed face, both vertically and horizontally, up to a
maximum of 480 mm2 per metre of face;
c) ensure that the spacing of vertical and horizontal reinforcement does not exceed two wall
thicknesses, subject to a maximum of 500 mm; and
d) provide reinforcement as trimming around openings (see 8.7).

10.15 Walls in which the required area of vertical reinforcement exceeds 0,4 %
of the plan area of concrete
10.15.1 The spacing of vertical and horizontal reinforcement should not exceed two wall thicknesses,
subject to a maximum of 500 mm.
10.15.2 Ensure that clips are provided for vertical bars at a horizontal spacing not exceeding two wall
thicknesses.
10.15.3 The vertical bars are placed inside the horizontal bars.
10.15.4 Vertical bars that are not fully restrained are placed within a centre-to-centre distance of
200 mm from a bar that is fully restrained.
10.15.5 Vertical spacing of clips should not exceed the lesser of 15 times the diameter of the vertical
reinforcement and 300 mm.
10.15.6 Preferably, clips of shape code 85, alternately reversed, should be used.

10.16 Walls constructed by means of sliding or climbing shuttering


Detailing of walls that are to be constructed by sliding or climbing shuttering is affected by construction
techniques that are often unique to the system involved. These techniques, for example, include the
use of jacking rods and spacers, are reliant on casting cycles, have separation problems and depend
upon a variety of factors that require special detailing and should therefore be planned in conjunction
with the contractor. In general, connections to slabs and beams are by means of chases or pockets
(or both), since it is not generally feasible to leave splice bars protruding from the walls. Tolerances
are such that it is very difficult to ensure that splice bars are fixed at the correct level. Splice bars that

92

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are to be bent out should therefore be not larger than Y10 or R16. If heavier splices are required and
it is not possible to provide pockets of adequate size, consider the use of mechanical splices or casting
in anchored steel plates of adequate size to allow for tolerances, to which splice bars can be welded
(see figure 69).
When sliding shuttering is used for walls, vertical splices should preferably be staggered to ease
placing problems and to prevent the displacement of reinforcement during sliding. Placing details
should call attention to the adequate wiring together of upper and lower reinforcement.

Figure 69

10.17 Retaining walls


There are different types of retaining walls, for example cantilever walls with L, T and reversed L
bases, counterforted walls, crib walls and propped and semi-propped walls, each one requiring its own
individual reinforcing technique (see figures 70 to 73). However, the same general principles apply
to all, the more important of which are as follows:
a) so detail the reinforcement as to keep the placing as simple as possible and to minimize difficulties
on site, which are often compounded by the conditions under which the work is carried out. In
particular, walls should be detailed to suit the method of construction;
b) so arrange the distribution of reinforcement (which is governed by design) as to allow for adequate
continuity, and stagger laps to avoid abrupt termination of reinforcement;
c) carefully control the cover to reinforcement on faces adjacent to earth. This applies especially to
faces where concrete is to be cast against excavation, for example in footings where the use of
blinding is recommended;
d) so detail expansion joints in the walls as to ensure that relative movements of contiguous sections
are minimized by the transfer of shear across joints;
e) ensure that, at joints, detailing caters for the incorporation of water-bars when required;
f) extra reinforcement could be required to meet additional stresses induced by heavy earth
compaction and by shrinkage in the wall against the restraint of such compacted earth, especially
between counterforts;

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g) provide an area of reinforcement in the compression face of the wall (both vertically and
horizontally) of 0,12 % to 0,25 % of the plan area of the wall, depending on exposure. This
reinforcement (indicated by a dotted line in figures 70 to 72) facilitates the maintenance in position
of main bars during concreting;
h) take account of the reduction of effectiveness of reinforcing at corners, especially at re-entrant or
opening corners. The inclusion of fillets and splay bars in the case of reversed L bases is
recommended;
i) in the case of cantilever walls, place the vertical reinforcement in the outer layer to take maximum
advantage of the available lever arm;
j) ensure that provision is made for the structure above or beyond the wall, where the required
information relating to the continuity of the reinforcing has to be provided;
k) the radius of bends for the main tensile bars is critical and should be at least 7,5 bar diameters; and
l) if problems are encountered in the accommodation of bars at the intersection of the base and wall,
consider reducing the bar diameters and increasing the member thickness.

Figure 70

94

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Figure 71

Figure 72

95

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Ed. 2

Figure 73

10.18 Walls, other than retaining walls, contributing significantly to horizontal


stability of a structure, for example tank walls, silo walls, shear walls, core walls
Each component requires individual detailing, depending on the relevant design criteria. Generally,
however, the methods recommended in the preceding subclauses apply. Because of the effect of
horizontal and bursting forces, pay careful attention to the horizontal reinforcement, in particular to
bond and lap lengths, lap positions and the staggering of laps, distribution of reinforcement and cover.

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10.19 Walls with corners subject to horizontal bending
10.19.1 Attention is drawn to the fact that the formwork arrangements can affect the reinforcement

details.

10.19.2 A distinction should be made between:


a) opening L corners;
b) closing L corners; and
c) T junctions.

10.19.3 In the case of opening corners, detail the steel as indicated in figure 74 or 75, use diagonal
bars equal in area to half that of the main reinforcement and incorporate splays wherever possible
(see annex B).
NOTE Vertical U-bars could clash unless detailed to have different heights.

Figure 74

Figure 75

10.19.4 In the case of closing corners, provide an external L bar (see figure 76). Alternatively, use
the arrangement recommended above for opening L corners, except that no splay bars are required.

97

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10.19.5 In the case of T-junctions, use the arrangement shown in figure 77.

Figure 76

Figure 77

10.20 Walls subject to bending forces


In the case of walls that will be subjected to bending forces, apply the rules for minimum amounts of
reinforcement and for spacing that apply to slabs (see 8.2.3, 8.2.4 and 8.3).

98

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11 Component detailing Foundations


11.1 Detailing methods
Foundations should normally be detailed diagrammatically in
a) plan (see figure 78), or
b) elevation (see figure 79).
In the case of (a) above, provide a diagrammatic plan that shows the location of the foundation
reinforcement as for slabs, and also provide a plan of the starter bars and stirrups, as for columns.
Column and wall starter bars and the foundation reinforcement are to be shown on the same placing
drawing. In the case of (b) above, provide a diagrammatic elevation that shows the location of the
foundation reinforcement, as for beams.
NOTE Cover requirements for foundations are more stringent than for other elements (see 6.1.2).

11.2 Main reinforcement


11.2.1 Minimum diameters
For all types of foundations, the diameter of reinforcement other than mesh should be at least 10 mm.

11.2.2 Minimum areas


If the projection of the foundation beyond the face of the column or wall exceeds two-thirds of the
depth of the foundation, ensure that the foundation is reinforced. The area of high tensile steel
reinforcement should be at least 0,1 % of the foundation area in both directions. In the case of
continuous foundations where control of shrinkage is important, increase this value in the longitudinal
direction to at least 0,25 % of the area of the foundation.

11.2.3 Anchorage
It is normal practice to provide at least a nominal square bend (shape code 35) at each end of the
main reinforcement. However, in small or shallow foundations, or where high founding pressures
develop, the bend length might have to be increased for anchorage purposes.

99

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Figure 78

100

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 79

101

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Ed. 2
11.2.4 Columns on edges of foundations
To prevent a corbel-type failure (i.e. a shear failure along an inclined plane) if a column is located on
the edge of a foundation, it is advisable to provide horizontal U-bars around the starter bar cage, these
bars being designed for every such column (see figure 80).

Figure 80

11.3 Combined bases


For combined bases, detail both the longitudinal and transverse bars in accordance with the
recommendations for beams (see clause 7), but apply more rigorous cover requirements (see 6.1.2).

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11.4 Pile caps
Relatively high stresses (especially punching shear and bursting) are normally generated in pile caps
because of the high localized forces involved. Depending upon the spacing and layout of the pile
group and the thickness of the pile cap, the reinforcement is placed in a combination of a "banded"
arrangement (i.e. the reinforcement is concentrated over the piles direct) and a uniformly distributed
grid. Provide tension bond lengths at both ends of main bars past the outer edges of the piles.
Mechanical anchorage of bars can be incorporated, where advantageous, by the positioning of heavy
bars at the inside of bends. Square bends should be held in position vertically by two or three
horizontal stirrups of diameter at least 12 mm. Because of difficulties in assembly, closed stirrups
should normally not be used in the vertical plane.
Detailing should be flexible to allow for the large tolerances inherent in pile construction (i.e. allow
generous laps and tolerances).

11.5 Raft foundations


For raft foundations, detail both the longitudinal and transverse bars generally in accordance with the
rules for slabs and beams. (See also the recommendations regarding cover and stools in 6.1 and 6.2.)
In the case of large raft foundations, special consideration might have to be given to the means of
support and the maintenance of stability of the top reinforcement.

11.6 Wall foundations


11.6.1 Axially loaded walls
Detail foundations and starter bars in the same way as column bases. Starters are commonly in the
form of U-bars.

11.6.2 Walls with transverse bending


Apply the relevant recommendations given in 10.17 for retaining walls.

11.7 Machine foundations


Take special note of the machine maker's specifications. Vibration waves induce tension stresses.
Such stresses can occur in unusual directions and places. Therefore ensure that all bond lengths, laps
and steel areas are generous.

11.8 Strap beams


Because of the high localized loadings involved, the anchorage of the main top reinforcement in a
strap beam is critical. Consideration of the possibility of a corbel-type failure as described in 11.2.4
is important and special reinforcement might be needed to prevent its happening. Ensure that the
radius of the bend of the top bar is large enough to prevent overstressing of the concrete. For
maximum economy, curtail the top steel towards the counterbalancing base.
Pay special attention to the problem of accommodation of the reinforcement in the region where the
column projects from the base and the resultant difficulties associated with the placing of concrete.
Take care to ensure that the main top bars can be fixed, since it is common for the base to be
constructed against unexcavated material or against an adjacent structure so preventing the threading
in of a top bar that has a return bend at the bottom of its vertical leg.
For the method of detailing, see figure 81.

103

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Ed. 2

Figure 81

104

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Ed. 2
11.9 Column starter bars
11.9.1 General
Detail column starters generally in accordance with the rules for columns, with due allowance for
increased cover underground (see 6.1.2 and 9.5). The number of starter bars need not be the same
as the number of column bars (subject to 9.3.3 and 9.3.4).

11.9.2 Positioning
Ensure that starter bars are so positioned as to allow the column cage to fit into or over the starter
cage (see figure 82). Clearly indicate the relative positions of starter bars and main column
reinforcement on the detailing drawings. Take special care where congestion of reinforcement occurs
(i.e. if the area of the starter bars is 2 % or more of the area of the column) or where the arrangement
of the bars is not symmetrical.
Ensure that bars are caged rigidly enough to enable them to retain their shape and position during
concreting.

Figure 82

11.9.3 Lengths of starter bars


So detail the vertical starter bars as to ensure that a full bond length is provided into the base (see
annex D for bond lengths). The effectiveness of a bar in compression that is further than

105

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Ed. 2
approximately four bar diameters beyond the bend is limited. In shallow bases, special details are
required to provide the necessary bond.
The length of the starter bar projecting into the column should be at least equal to the value for the
appropriate bond length given in annex D.
Ensure that each vertical bar has a square bend on the bottom to assist in site placing, except in the
case of an extremely deep base where the starters can be suspended in position, in which case it is
essential to provide adequate support. Where a square bend is provided, the length of the bend
should be at least 100 mm or enough to enable the bar to rest on the base mat when so required, and
to be tied to the foundation reinforcement. Alternatively, U-bars could be used for starters.

11.9.4 Stirrups
Ensure that there are at least three stirrups to maintain starter bars in position. The stirrups can be
spaced at 300 mm within the foundation, since the foundation provides adequate restraint, but ensure
that temporary stirrups above the base suit the requirements of the column detail (see 9.4).
As they interfere with the subsequent positioning of the main cage, it is essential that the temporary
stirrups be removed after the base has been cast. Ensure also that the size of the starter cage allows
for the specified bending and placing tolerances.

11.9.5 Columns with large moments


If the columns will be subjected to predominating moments, the bars can be crossed (see figure 83).

Figure 83

106

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12 Staircases
12.1 Diagrammatic details
Staircases are normally detailed diagrammatically in plan or section. This is best done by arranging
the placing detail and bending schedule adjacent to each other on one sheet (see figure 84).
Soffits for flights of stairs are often not erected at the same time as floors. In such cases, detail stair
splices from floor landings and intermediate landings up and down into the flight, and so dimension
their positions that they can be correctly wired into position. The detail should suit construction joints.
Two types of stairs are shown diagrammatically detailed in figures 85 and 86, as follows:
a) the flight spanning from inner edge to inner edge of landings (figure 85); and
b) the flight, together with its landings, spanning from outer edge to outer edge of landings (figure 86).

12.2 Re-entrant corners


When tensions in bars meeting at a corner produce a resultant force resisted only by the concrete
cover, the bars should be crossed over and anchored on either side of the crossover by a bond length
adequate for the stresses in the bars (see bars D and E in figure 84).
NOTE Where the percentage of steel exceeds 0,5 %, refer to corners and cranked beams (see 7.15).

107

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Ed. 2

Figure 84

108

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Ed. 2

.....
Figure 85

Figure 86

109

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Ed. 2

13 Welded steel mesh


13.1 Use of mesh
Welded steel mesh is generally used for slabs on fill and in roads. It is also used for suspended slabs,
walls in buildings, culverts, retaining walls and in any component for which a suitable mesh is
obtainable. Major advantages are that site placing time is reduced and good bond characteristics are
obtained.

13.2 Types of mesh


There are two types of mesh available:
a) the standard range in sheets or rolls, as set out in table 15; and
b) design mesh, where requirements for wire sizes and spacings could be varied and staggers and
bent shapes introduced.
Manufacturers might be able to supply mesh of varying sizes and spacings. Wires can be plain or
indented. When in doubt as to the best approach, consult a manufacturer before proceeding with
details.

13.3 Specifications
The requirements for steel mesh are given in annex C and in SABS 1024.

110

6,3
5,6
4,0

4,0
4,0
4,0

312
246
126

042
042
042

1) See SABS 1024. The reference number is the nominal mass of the mesh, in kilograms per square metre 100.
2) These meshes are also available in standard rolls of 60 m 2,4 m, but see also 13.5.6.

NOTE The standard sheet size of all mesh is 6 m 2,4 m.

300
300
300

2,45
1,93
1,00

0,33
0,33
0,33

1,22
0,96
0,96

2,78
2,26
1,33

4,33
3,41
2,89

100
100
100

6,3
5,6
5,6

3,11
2,45
1,93

2782)
2262)
1332)

7,1
6,3
5,6

156
123
123

100
100
100

433
3412)
2892)
396
312
246

7,72
6,55
5,17
1,55
1,55
1,22
6,17
5,00
3,95
197
197
156

786
636
503

7,1
7,1
6,3

10,0
9,0
8,0

200
200
200

100
100
100

772
655
517
200
200
200

3,11
2,45
1,93
1,00
1,55
11,22
0,96
0,50
1,55
1,22
0,96
0,50

197
156
123
063

197
156
123
063

7,1
6,3
5,6
4,0

7,1
6,3
5,6
4,0

200
200
200
200

6,17
5,00
3,95
3,08
2,50
1,97

3,08
2,50
1,97

393
318
251

393
318
251

200
200
200
200

10,0
9,0
8,0

311
2452)
1932)
1002)

10,0
9,0
8,0

200
200
200

200
200
200

kg/m2

Cross

Longitudinal

Cross

Longitudinal

Total
nominal
mass per
unit area

10

617
500
395

Cross

kg/m2

mm2/m of width

8
Nominal mass of wires per
unit area

Nominal cross-sectional area


of wires

Cross

Longitudinal

mm

mm

4
Nominal diameter of wires

Centre-to-centre spacing of
wires

Longitudinal

Mesh reference1)

Table 15 Standard meshes (see also annex C)

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

111

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Ed. 2
13.4 Mesh placing drawings
13.4.1 Slabs
To indicate the placing of sheets in position, represent each sheet on the plan layout by a single-line
rectangle with one diagonal line on which the sheet mark is shown (see figure 87). The size of the
rectangle is the overall size of the sheet, and, since the sheets normally overlap, so do the rectangles.
The lap should be dimensioned or stated in the notes. Where a sheet might be placed the wrong way
round (e.g. a square sheet with longitudinal wires and cross-wires of different diameters), show the
direction, diameter and spacing of the longitudinal wires on the sheet concerned.
The direction of the longitudinal bars is indicated by the symbol:

So detail sheets that a minimum number of layers occur at laps and at the intersection of sheet
corners. Show the sheet placing sequence to achieve this. The detail is best achieved by using
overhangs (flying ends) or loose bars.
To avoid confusion, show top and bottom mesh on separate layouts. Top mesh marks should be
prefixed by the letter T, and bottom by the letter B. Bear in mind that bottom mesh is generally placed
before, and top mesh after, the electrical contractor has positioned his conduit.
In two-way slabs where both dimensions exceed the maximum width of the available sheets, in order
to avoid lapping of mesh in one direction, use two layers so placed that the main longitudinal wires of
each layer are at right angles to each other (see figure 87).
Do not use draped sheets except in the topping of ribbed slabs where the centre-to-centre distance
between ribs does not exceed 1,2 m (see figure 88).

13.4.2 Walls and other components


Show mesh for walls and other components in plan or elevation by a rectangle and diagonal line as
in figure 87. Use separate layouts for mesh in different faces if the arrangement of the sheets in the
faces is different.

13.4.3 Mesh as stirrups for column and beam cages


The assembly details of mesh as stirrups for column and beam cages are normally incorporated in
a combined assembly/bending schedule on a component basis.

112

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Ed. 2

..

Figure 87

Figure 88

113

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Ed. 2
13.5 Scheduling of mesh
Examples of schedules for mesh are given in figure 89.

13.5.1 Tolerances
Manufacturers' tolerances on sheet and roll sizes are 25 mm on lengths and widths not exceeding
6 m, and 5 % in all other cases.

13.5.2 Drawings
Where possible, do not list mesh on the same schedule as bar reinforcement.
Where mesh and bars occur in a single component (for example slabs with holes to be stitched;
column and beam cages), the schedule should cover all the reinforcing steel for the component. It is
to be noted that mesh and reinforcing bars are often fabricated in different workshops.

114

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Ed. 2

Figure 89

115

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Ed. 2
13.5.3 Standard mesh (see table 15)
Ensure that the following information is given on each schedule that covers standard mesh:
a) the number of sheets;
b) the length of the longitudinal wires;
c) the length of the cross-wires;
d) whether in sheets or in rolls (see also 13.5.5 and 13.5.6); and
e) whether the wires are to be plain round or indented.
NOTE Indented wire is available down to a nominal diameter of 5,6 mm.

13.5.4 Non-standard mesh (see figure 90)


Ensure that the following information is given on each schedule that covers non-standard mesh:
a) the number of sheets;
b) the diameter, number and spacing of wires in direction L;
c) the diameter, number and spacing of wires in direction B;
NOTES
1 Wires in direction L can be spaced in steps of 50 mm from a minimum spacing of 100 mm.
2 Wires in direction B can be spaced in steps of 50 mm from 100 mm to 300 mm.
3 Spacing can vary in both directions within any one sheet such that the spacing is either the normal value or twice
the normal value.
4 The diameter of the larger of the wires should not normally exceed twice that of the smaller.

d) the length of the wires in direction L;


e) the length of the wires in direction B;
NOTES
1 Dimension B should not exceed 2,4 m.
2 It is recommended that dimensions L and B be exact multiples of the relevant spacing, since sheets of these
dimensions are the most economical to produce.

f) whether in sheets or in rolls (see also 13.5.6);


g) whether the wires are to be plain round or indented;
NOTE Indented wire is available down to a nominal diameter of 5,6 mm.

h) whether the ends are to be staggered or not, and, if relevant, the extent of the stagger; and
NOTE Wires should be staggered in direction L only.

116

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Ed. 2
i) the overhang (flying ends).
NOTE Unless otherwise specified, the wire ends will project by one-half of the spacing module beyond the outer
intersection wire. This projection is referred to as "overhang". Ensure that any overhang that is specified is in 25 mm steps
and is at least 25 mm. At laps, specify enough overhang to avoid clashing of transverse bars and also to achieve
adequate bond.

Figure 90

13.5.5 Sheet size


Because of transportation and handling difficulties, sheets should not exceed a final width of 2,4 m
and an overall length of 6 m. Manufacturers might be able to supply wider and longer sheets.

13.5.6 Rolls
Heavy mesh that has main wires of diameter exceeding 5,6 mm should not be ordered in roll form
since it is difficult to lay flat after unrolling. In general, the use of rolls causes problems in straightening
and rolls should therefore be specified with caution (see table 15).

117

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13.6 Bending of mesh
13.6.1 Preferred shapes
Because of the volume they occupy, do not bend mesh sheets into large, hollow core shapes. For
transportation purposes, L-shaped or V-shaped sheets can be nested. Column cages have their bars
inserted in the yard and are therefore suitable for transporting. Beam cages can be assembled in two
ways:
a) as open stirrups, the clips being added on site (and the cages delivered nested); and
b) as closed cages with bars in position, designed to fit clear between column faces, the splice bars
being added on site (see figure 23).

13.6.2 Permissible shapes


Mesh can be bent in one direction only and should be bent only to simple shapes. As bending of mesh
is a factory operation, do not specify site bending.
Shapes that could be used are the following (see annex A): shape codes 34; 35; 37; 38; 41; 45; 48;
49; 52 (open); 54; 55; 60; 73. The length of a bend or of a hook is normally at least 100 mm.

13.6.3 Limitations of bending


The maximum width of the average bending machine is 5 m.
Bending on the weld is permissible, provided that the cross-wire is inside the bend. For other positions
of the bend relative to adjacent cross-wires, where the cross-wire is within 100 mm of the bend,
consult the manufacturers. Closed shapes such as shape code 60 are not always practicable but this
should be checked with the supplier. For any U-shape, the parallel legs of the U should not be closer
than 100 mm.

13.7 Galvanized mesh


It may be desirable to use galvanized mesh in precast work. Before specifying it, check the size
limitations of the galvanizing plant and also whether passivation of the zinc will be necessary.

13.8 Lapping
Use the same lap distances as for reinforcing bars, with no reduction in the bond distance for the
cross-wires. The lap distance will normally not be less than the cross-wire spacing. Do not lap mesh
at points of maximum stress. Nominal reinforcement to control cracking should have full tension laps
(see table 16 for bond and lap distances).

118

1
2
3

43

20

28

30

40

40

36

30

34

46

20

30

36

40

54

20

42

38

40

30

44

or 25 d + 150 mm, or 300 mm, whichever is the greatest.

140

170

220

150

180

230

4,0

160

190

240

170

200

260

200

240

300

210

250

320

180

210

270

190

230

290

230

260

340

240

280

370

6,3

200

240

310

210

260

330

260

300

380

270

310

410

7,1

mm

220

270

340

240

290

370

290

340

430

300

350

460

Diameter of mesh wire

11

360

420

540

380

440

580

250

310

390

270

320

410

280

340

430

300

360

460

36

42

54

38

44

58

44

52

68

47

56

72

Length required
(in diameters)1)

Plain wire or bars

10

10

Indented wire or bars

320

380

490

340

400

520

300

300

300

300

300

300

4,0

12

13

14

15

300

300

300

300

300

320

300

300

380

300

310

400

5,6

16

310

310

310

310

310

370

310

330

430

310

350

450

6,3

330

330

380

330

330

410

330

370

480

330

400

510

7,1

mm

350

350

430

350

350

460

350

420

540

380

450

580

Diameter of mesh wire

mm

mm

7
Minimum lap length

6
Minimum bond length

5,6

Figures for "length required (in diameters)" have been rounded off, as have equivalent bond and lap lengths derived from those values.
The table is based on mesh of characteristic strength 450 MPa except for link reinforcement, which has a characteristic strength of 425 MPa.
The mesh is assumed to be of
a) smooth round bars or wire, or
b) indented round bars or wire (25 % increase in bond stress).
No reduction in bond lengths has been allowed for in the table for the anchorage values of bends and hooks. (These values are given in 6.4.4.)

NOTES

1)

Shear (mesh in the


form of stirrups)

Tension

Shear (mesh in the


form of stirrups)

58

30

Length required
(in diameters)1)

20

Concrete
class

Stress classification

Tension

Table 16 Minimum bond and lap lengths for fully stressed mesh

380

380

490

380

400

520

400

470

610

420

500

650

17

400

420

540

400

440

580

440

520

630

470

560

720

10

18

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

119

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Ed. 2

14 Detailing with respect to aqueous liquid retaining structures


14.1 General principles
In addition to all normal requirements, aqueous liquid retaining structures should be designed to have
a low probability of leakage.
Great care needs to be taken with detailing, to ensure that dense solid concrete can be placed. Any
congestion of steel that prevents this should be avoided.
The specification and detailing of all expansion, contraction and construction joints are necessary to
prevent leakage at joints and special attention should be given to intersections of joints.

14.2 Causes of cracking


14.2.1 In immature concrete
Setting of concrete is associated with a rise in temperature caused by cement hydration. With a
subsequent fall in temperature, the concrete shrinks, setting up internal tensions in concrete where
freedom of movement is restrained, leading to cracking in the hardened concrete structure. Further
shrinkage takes place as the concrete dries out, adding to the internal tensions.

14.2.2 In mature concrete


14.2.2.1 Loading of the structure causes tensile stresses because of bending or axial tension.
14.2.2.2 Temperature and moisture changes, both seasonal and diurnal, can cause additional tensile
stresses.

14.2.3 Other causes


Other causes of cracking include
a) any abrupt change in thickness of structure,
b) free ends of reinforcement within a structure,
c) re-entrant corners in elements such as the slab and the walls, and
d) penetrations through structure by pipes and access hatches.

14.3 Detailing to minimize effects of cracking


14.3.1 Minimum reinforcement
Direct tension cracking caused by thermal and shrinkage movement differs radically from the
mechanism that causes flexural cracking. After the formation of the initial crack, all further cracks are
influenced by the reinforcement. Provided that the reinforcement across the cracks does not yield, the
contraction of the concrete at both sides of the crack is restrained by the reinforcement.

120

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BS 8007 recommends the minimum cross-sectional area of reinforcement to ensure that the steel
does not yield at a crack, as being 0,35 % using grade 450 steel or 0,64 % using grade 250 steel
based on 35 MPa concrete. Where closely spaced movement joints (typically at 5 m to 6 m centres)
allow for complete freedom of movement, this minimum steel can be reduced to two-thirds of the
above figure. Note that freedom of movement can differ in different directions.
If reinforcement does not yield, the crack width is a function of the diameter of bar and the total amount
of steel. Therefore, unless small diameter bars at close centres are used, more steel than the above
minimum might be necessary.
The amount of steel mentioned above is related to a "surface zone" and only the surface zone needs
to be reinforced. For definition of surface zones, see figures 91 and 92. In walls of thickness less than
200 mm, the minimum steel for both zones can be placed in one layer.

14.3.2 Reinforcement to counter the effects of external loading


Reinforcement size, spacing and cover will be specified by the designer, taking into account the loads
and design crack widths. The detailer should be aware that ultimate anchorage bond stresses for
horizontal bars in direct tension according to BS 8007 are 0,7 times the values obtained for nonaqueous liquid retaining structures. The bond and lap lengths required will be 1,43 times the values
in annex D for bars stressed to the maximum allowable. In order to maintain small crack widths, the
designer might have worked to lower stresses in the steel than the maximum allowable, in which case
some lesser anchorage and lap lengths could be applicable. The detailer should agree with the
designer what lap and anchorage lengths are applicable.

14.3.3 Openings and corners in slab or walls


The rules applicable to openings should be modified by allowing 1,5 times as much trimming steel as
that given in 8.7. Care should be taken in thin walls, to ensure that diagonally placed bars do not
interfere with the placement of concrete in the very critical position below openings.
If the diagonal bars cannot be placed without interfering with concreting, use additional framing steel
parallel to the sides of the opening. Stagger discontinuous trimming bars to avoid causing a stress
raiser where all bars stop at one position.

Figure 91

121

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 92

14.3.4 Junctions of walls with other walls or with floor slabs


Junctions of walls with other walls or with floor slabs are typically opening corners and normally occur
at the most highly stressed places in the wall. The detail of figure 74 or 75 is to be used, depending
on the reinforcement layout of the member in which the starter bars are to be anchored. In all cases,
bars should be anchored as deeply as possible into the anchoring structure. Therefore, in a junction
of two walls with vertical bars placed inside horizontal bars, the detail of figure 74 is preferable while
with vertical bars placed outside of horizontal bars, the detail of figure 75 is preferable.
The detail of figure 77 is acceptable only in the case where the horizontal steel in the through-wall is
placed outside the vertical steel. If the through-wall horizontal steel is inside the vertical steel, then a
detail using vertical U-bars for the intersecting wall starters is preferable.
Starter bars for walls off floor slabs are different in the two orthogonal directions, depending on the
relative positions of the floor slab reinforcement to enable starter bars to be anchored in the bottom
layer of the slab reinforcement.
All of the above give rise to stress raisers at the end of the starters and splicing bars. Consideration
should be given to staggering laps by half of the lap length, to reduce the effect of the stress raiser.

122

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14.4 Cover
The nominal cover of concrete for all steel, including stirrups, link, sheathing and spacers, should not
normally be less than 40 mm. Greater cover might be needed at a face in contact with aggressive soils
or if subject to erosion or abrasion. In thin sections where it is not possible to achieve a 40 mm cover,
a higher cement content or special reinforcement should be used.

14.5 Joints
The position of all joints, whether movement or construction joints, is to be shown on the drawings.

14.5.1 Construction joints


Full structural continuity is assumed in design at a construction joint. Reinforcement across the joint
is fully continuous, and cracking at the joint is controlled by the use of reinforcement. Vertical joints
should be cast against stop ends. The concrete in the earlier pour should be properly prepared prior
to casting of the later pour in accordance with the requirements of BS 8007. It is not necessary to
incorporate waterstops in properly constructed joints but these should be considered where
supervision of construction cannot be guaranteed.

14.5.2 Movement joints


Typical movement joints are shown in figure 93. The details of interconnections of different types of
waterstops at joint junctions should be clearly indicated on the drawings.

123

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 93

124

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

15 Detailing of steel reinforcement for post-tensioned concrete slabs


15.1 General principles
Post-tensioned concrete slabs can comprise either concrete slab panels supported on walls or beams
or concrete flat slabs supported on columns.
In both cases, the normal requirements for reinforcement detailing apply, the principal differences
being:
a) the relatively small amount of reinforcement required;
b) the thinness of slabs relative to spans;
c) the importance of accurately profiling post-tensioning tendons and the requirement of maintaining
them in position; and
d) the detailing at post-tensioning anchors to counteract bursting forces.

15.2 Causes of cracking


The causes of cracking in post-tensioned concrete slabs are similar to those outlined in 14.2. Further
causes of cracking are as follows:
a) greater likelihood of cracking in immature concrete because of low amounts of reinforcement;
b) restraint cracking arising from the restraint to movement offered by a stiff vertical support structure
under the action of both shrinkage, creep, temperature and elastic shortening;
NOTE The effects of elastic shortening can be largely eliminated by disconnecting the slab from rigid vertical
supports during stressing of the slabs.

c) cracking arising from the termination of post-tensioning tendons at positions internally in the slabs;
and
d) cracking owing to concentrated forces at anchorages.

15.3 Detailing to minimize effects of cracking


15.3.1 Minimum reinforcement for flexure
Minimum reinforcement is specified by the designer to counter the effects of tensile stresses that are
in excess of the tensile capacity of the concrete, particularly in zones of peak tensile stress such as
the negative moment regions over column supports.
The limits of concrete tensile stress and the corresponding areas of reinforcement required are
specified in the relevant codes of practice. In addition, some codes of practice specify minimum areas
of reinforce-ment to counteract the possibility of catastrophic collapse arising from the loss, from
whatever cause, of post-tensioning tendons.

15.3.2 Reinforcement for shrinkage


In post-tensioned flat slabs, tendons are provided in both directions and will override the normal
minimum percentage of reinforcement required for counteracting shrinkage and thermal stresses.

125

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
Consequently, minimum levels of reinforcement or mesh (or both) provided in post-tensioned slabs
are frequently below 0,12 % unless otherwise required, as mentioned in 15.3.1.

15.3.3 Shear reinforcement


Shear reinforcement is frequently required in post-tensioned flat slabs at internal and external column
positions. It most often takes the form of stirrup reinforcement, which should be carefully detailed and
positioned in a manner similar to that for shear reinforcement in reinforced concrete slabs.
Structural steel cruciform beams, specially welded reinforcement cages or patented type shear
reinforcement studs recently developed in the USA, are sometimes also used for shear reinforcement
purposes at column heads.
Careful detailing is particularly necessary because of the presence of post-tensioning tendons and the
occurrence of anchorages at external column supports (see figure 94).

Figure 94

126

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
15.3.4 Reinforcement at external anchorages
Reinforcement is required at external anchorages, to withstand localized bursting forces. The
recommended minimum amounts and distribution of the reinforcement are illustrated in figure 95. This
is the recommendation of the Post-tensioning Institute in the USA and has been derived from tests.
NOTE In figure 94, detailers should check that the detail is consistent with specialist design.

Figure 95

15.4 Tendon profiling and positioning


Tendon profiling is a detailing function in that tendons are supported on reinforcement stools similar
to stools used for reinforced concrete. Accurate detailing of stools is necessary for the following
reasons:
a) accurate maintenance of the profile is critical for realizing the assumptions made in design;
b) the difficulty of profiling and retaining the tendon in position within the depth of a thin slab; and
c) the tendency for tendons to be disturbed during the concreting process. Stools are more effective
when designed and detailed to be anchored to the bottom mat of reinforcement.

127

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
In post-tensioned flat slabs, tendons are invariably banded in one direction and distributed evenly in
the other. This positioning of tendons should also be considered by the reinforcement detailer. See
figure 96.

Figure 96

15.5 Cover
The requirements of minimum cover for reinforcement and tendons are the same as those applicable
to reinforced concrete for both corrosion and fire protection.
The inter-relationship of draping tendons in two directions together with fixing reinforcement in two
directions should be considered. A recommended fixing system is illustrated in figure 97, where the
lower-most tendon is fixed in the B2 layer and the uppermost tendon is in a third layer above it. Similar
layering applies in the areas of top reinforcement.

128

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure 97

15.6 Joints
Specifying and detailing of control joints and construction joints are necessary because of the greater
sophistication of the system and its corresponding lesser degree of flexibility in construction
operations.

129

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Annex A

(informative)

Shape codes

130

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Annex B
(informative)

Additional information on corners and cranked beams


B.1 Changes in angle
Because a change in direction of a force requires the application of an equilibrating force, special
attention is required in detailing changes in angle in members (see figures 32 and 33).
It can be seen that, in the case of an opening corner, the forces needed for equilibrium cause tension
across the member (see figure 32), whereas in the case of closing corners, compression is caused (see
figure 33).
Concrete is able to resist compressive stresses, but even in the case of closing corners, the
compressive stresses could be excessive and the radii of tension bars should be at least 7,5 bar
diameters.
Tests have shown that the strength of opening corners can be very low. This is owing to the fact that
some common details do not provide for the equilibrium of the joint, and even where the primary
forces are taken care of, secondary stresses can cause premature failure.
Figure B.1 shows that, for an elastic model, tensile stresses tend to cause splitting in two places as
shown in figure B.2. Tests on reinforced specimens have shown similar cracks. To prevent failure, it
is therefore necessary to provide reinforcement across the cracks.

Figure B.1

131

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure B.2

B.2 Methods of reinforcing opening corners


Figure B.3 shows four methods of reinforcing opening corners.
Figure B.3(a) shows a standard method of reinforcing square corners. This method is, however, only
40 % efficient; in other words, the joint will fail at a load of less than 40 % of the load that will cause
the member to fail. The method shown in figure B.3(b) is not much better.
A slightly better method of reinforcing square corners than that shown in figure B.3(c) is the use of
several tie bars as in figure 36. However, it can be seen that, unless a splay is provided, the cover at
the corner becomes very small for a reasonable radius of bar.

132

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure B.3

B.3 Methods of improving strength of opening corners


There are three methods of improving the strength of opening corners, it being necessary to use more
than one method in certain cases. The methods are:
a) the provision of additional splay reinforcement as in figure B.4;
b) the provision of additional splay reinforcement as in (a) above, and a splay corner (see figure B.6);
and
c) the provision of extra reinforcement across the corner as in figure B.5.
The methods shown in figure 35 and in figure B.6 have been strongly recommended by Swedish
authors, the splay steel area being one-half of the main steel area.

133

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure B.4

Figure B.5

Figure B.6

134

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

B.4 Reinforcement less than 1 %


Where the area of reinforcement is less than 1 % of the beam area, the use of a detail as shown in
figure 34 (the splay steel being equal in area to 50 % of the main steel) is probably quite adequate.

B.5 Reinforcement more than 1 %


If the area of reinforcement is more than 1 % of the beam area, transverse steel as well as splay steel
should be provided, and the provision of a splay is very desirable.

B.6 Looped reinforcement


Where U-bar reinforcement is used, as in figure 36, it should be noted that very high crushing stresses
inside the loop can cause premature failure. The CEB-FIP recommendations state that the radius of
the loop be not less than
(0,35 + 0,70 Db/Da) Fy/Fcu Db (see figure B.7)
where
Db

is the bar diameter, in millimetres;

Da

is the distance from the plane of the loop to the surface, in millimetres;

Fy

is the characteristic steel strength, in megapascals; and

Fcu

is the concrete cube strength, in megapascals.

For a class 25 concrete with a 50 mm cover, the required diameters of loops are given in table B.1.
Table B.1 Required loop diameters
Dimensions in millimetres
1

Bar diameter

Loop diameter

20
25
32
40

455
600
920
1 310

NOTE Class 25 concrete, 50 mm cover.

135

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure B.7

B.7 Junction of beams and columns


B.7.1 Single junction
A junction of a single beam with a column can be considered as a combination of an opening corner
and a closing corner. For this reason, the detail shown in figure B.8 is poor since it is similar to that
shown in figure B.3(b), which is quite inefficient. If it is essential to use this detail, extra steel should
be provided (see figure 40).
If the steel is bent down, care should be taken. A full tension lap bond length should be provided below
the end of the curved section, and below half-beam depth, especially at haunches of portal frames
(see figure B.9).

Figure B.8

136

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Figure B.9

B.7.2 Double junction


At a double junction of beams with columns, it is common practice to carry the beam steel through and
not to bend it down into the columns. This is perfectly satisfactory when the characteristic live load
does not exceed the characteristic self-weight load.
However, where considerable moments (say more than 33 % of the total) are transmitted into the
columns, it might be necessary to bend reinforcement from the column into the beam (see
figure B.10). Because the bars pass through the column, this requires very careful detailing.

Figure B.10

B.8 Cranked beams


B.8.1 Deflection angle less than 30
Where the deflection angle at a corner is less than 30, the method of detailing should be as shown
in figure B.11.

137

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
To make placing of reinforcement easier, it is common practice to use an odd number of bars on one
side and an even number of bars on the other side.
Conditions at the corner are such that the compressive forces in the beams are not balanced, and
therefore stirrups should be provided to balance, say, 50 % of the resolved force. The total area of
stirrups required is then equal to the main steel area multiplied by sin (A/2), where A is the deflection
angle.

Figure B.11

B.8.2 Deflection angle between 30 and 45


Where the deflection angle is between 30 and 45, a splay with splay reinforcement should be used,
as for 90 corners (see figure 37). However, in such a detail, the congestion of the reinforcement at
the corner is considerable. For this reason, the detail shown in figure B.12 could be considered, but
this detail can be dangerous if the stirrup reinforcement is displaced or inadequately bonded. It should
be noted that the stirrups at the corner are required to take all the force component from the main
reinforcement and that the cover at the corner is reduced because of the large radius of the
reinforcement.
Because the stirrups in figure B.12 could be difficult to hold in position during concreting, it might be
better to use the detail shown in figure 38. Here the stress condition at the corner is less severe than
for figure B.12 because the stirrups are smaller, and bond is less of a problem. There is no problem
with cover, and the dimensioning of the stirrups is easier.

Figure B.12

138

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
B.8.3 Deflection angle between 40 and 90
Where deflection angles are between 40 and 90, the detail used for 90 corners can be used. The
recommended detail is a splay with stirrups and splay reinforcement (see figure 36).

B.9 Closing corners


Although closing corners are stronger than opening corners, main tension bars should have adequate
radii to reduce compressive stresses.
In addition, extra reinforcement should be supplied in the corners where the stirrups of the beam and
column are stopped off (see figure 41).
If stresses are high, steel should be provided across the potential crack which runs from the inside of
the bend in the reinforcement, as shown in figure B.13. The section should be checked to ensure that
the steel can be accommodated.

Figure B.13

139

SABS 0144
Ed. 2

Annex C
(informative)

Steel reinforcement
C.1 Steel bars for concrete reinforcement (see also SABS 920)
C.1.1 Mild steel
Hot rolled mild steel bars of plain round cross-section, minimum yield stress 250 MPa. The yield stress
of the bar should not exceed 400 MPa.
Hot rolled mild steel deformed bars (not generally available), of minimum yield stress as above.

C.1.2 High tensile steel


Hot rolled high tensile steel deformed bars, of minimum yield stress 450 MPa, or of a minimum 0,20 %
proof stress. The ultimate tensile strength of the bar should be at least 15 % greater than the yield
stress or 0,2 % proof stress determined by the test.

C.2 Size and availability of steel bars


C.2.1 Generally available ex stock
Round mild steel: 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm.
High tensile steel deformed bars (450 MPa): 10 mm, 12 mm, 16 mm, 20 mm, 25 mm, 32 mm.

C.2.2 Available but not generally held in stock


Round mild steel: 6 mm, 40 mm, 50 mm.
High tensile steel: 8 mm wire (that does not comply with SABS 920).

C.2.3 Length
The maximum length of reinforcing bars available ex stock is 13 m.

C.3 Deformations
C.3.1 High tensile steel deformed bars manufactured in South Africa have the following patterns:
a) two diametrically opposite longitudinal ribs, with "herring bone" pattern deformations on either side
of the ribs; and
b) two diametrically opposite longitudinal ribs in a spiral form, with inclined deformations in the same
direction on either side of the ribs (cold twisted bars).

140

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
C.3.2 Mild steel deformed bars manufactured in South Africa have the following patterns:
a) two diametrically opposite longitudinal ribs, with inclined deformations in the same direction on
either side of the ribs; and
b) herring bone pattern as in C.3.1(a).
NOTE Mild steel bars can also be patterned. Deformations are not necessarily indicative of high tensile steel.

C.4 Welded steel mesh for concrete reinforcement (see also SABS 1024)
C.4.1 Proof stress and tensile strength
When tested in accordance with 6.2.2(a) of SABS 1024, the proof stress (at 0,43 % total elongation
under load) of the wires in the mesh should be at least 485 MPa and the tensile strength should be
at least 510 MPa. In addition, either the tensile strength should be at least 5 % higher than the yield
stress recorded during the tensile strength test or the elongation should be at least 12 % when
measured on a gauge length of 5,65 So , where So is the initial cross-sectional area of the test piece.

C.4.2 Indented wire


Indentations should be as described in BS 4482, Hard drawn mild steel wire for the reinforcement of
concrete.

141

142

Compression

Tension

Compression

31

27

24

20

46

39

37

29

33

29

26

22

30

40

20

25

30

40

20

25

30

40

29

40

25

34

30

20

39

25

10

10

175 215

210 260

235 290

265 330

230 290

290 365

315 390

365 455

160 195

190 235

215 265

245 305

235 290

270 340

315 395

360 445

12

260

310

350

395

345

435

470

545

235

285

320

365

350

405

470

535

345

415

465

525

460

580

625

725

315

375

425

485

465

540

630

715

16

mm

430

520

580

655

575

725

780

910

390

470

530

610

580

675

785

890

20

Diameter of bars

25

625

750

845

970

925

1 080

1 255

535

645

725

820

720

910

975

685

830

925

1 050

920

1 160

1 245

1 135 1 450

490

585

660

760

720

845

980

1 115 1 425

32

11

12

13

14

16

17

18

27

33

36

41

43

55

59

68

25

30

33

38

38

44

51

58

Length
required (in
diameters)
8

3001)

1)

410
360
325
3001)

3001)
3001)
3001)

430

545

585

330

345

435

470

545

680

3001)

3001)
300

380
330

305

375

440

510

580

10

3001)

300

355

410

465

20

25

320

390

435

495

515

655

700

32

390

470

530

610

600

705

490

585

660

760

750

610

735

825

950

940

880 1 100

430

520

580

655

690

535

645

720

670

810

900

820 1 025

860 1 075

870 1 090 1 360

935 1 165 1 460

855

1 035

1 155

1 310

1 375

1 740

1 865

2 175

780

940

1 060

1 215

1 200

1 05

815 1 020 1 275 1 630

925 1 160 1 450 1 850

16

820 1 090 1 360 1 700

3001)

355

400

455

450

530

615

695

12

mm

Diameter of bars

19

Technical corrigendum 1, Dec. 1995


15

1 The values of lap lengths for top bars are valid for elements of depth exceeding 300 mm (see table 24 of SABS 0100-1).
2 In the case when concrete cover is less than twice the bar size, 4.11.6.6.3 (increased lap lengths) of SABS 0100-1 applies.
3 Extra stirrups might be required for laps in compression (see 4.11.4.5.1 of SABS 0100-1).

NOTES

1) The minimum required value.

Plain round
mild steel
(250 MPa)

High yield
deformed steel
(450 MPa)

Tension

mm

mm

6
Lap lengths for top bars and compression laps

Anchorage and lap lengths for bottom bars

Length required
(in diameters)

45

Concrete
class

Stress
classification

Steel type

20

Table D.1 Minimum bond and lap lengths for fully stressed bars

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
(Technical corrigendum December 1995)

(informative)

Annex D

Table of bond and lap lengths for fully stressed bars

SABS 0144
Ed. 2
(Technical corrigendum June 1998)

Annex E
(informative)

Tables of the area and mass of reinforcing bars


Table E.1 Area
1

Tech. corr. 3 1998

10

11

12

13

300

350

400

450

500

Area of steel per metre


mm2

Bar
diameter

Bar spacing

mm

mm
75

100

125

150

175

200

250

8
10
12

672
1 048
1 508

503
785
1 131

402
628
908

336
524
754

288
488
646

251
393
565

201
314
452

168
262
377

144
244
323

126
196
283

112
175
251

101
157
226

16
20
25
32

2 680
4 188
6 344
10 724

2 011
3 142
4 909
8 042

1 608
2 514
3 926
6 434

1 340
2 094
3 272
5 362

1 148
1 796
2 804
4 596

1 005
1 571
2 454
4 021

804
1 257
1 963
3 217

670
1 047
1 636
2 681

574
898
1 402
2 298

503
785
1 227
2 011

447
698
1 091
1 787

402
628
982
1 608

8 & 10
10 & 12
12 & 16

860
1 276
2 096

644
958
1 571

516
766
1 256

430
638
1 048

368
548
898

322
479
785

258
383
628

215
319
524

184
274
449

161
240
393

143
213
349

129
192
314

16 & 20
20 & 25
25 & 32

3 436
5 368
8 636

2 576
4 025
6 476

2 060
3 220
5 180

1 718
2 684
4 318

1 472
2 300
3 700

1 288
2 013
3 238

1 030
1 610
2 590

859
1 342
2 159

736
1 150
1 850

644
1 006
1 619

572
894
1 439

515
805
1 295

Table E.2 Mass and area


1

Bar
diameter

Mass per
unit length

mm

kg/m
1

8
10
12

0,395
0,617
0,888

50
79
113

101
157
226

151
236
339

201
314
452

251
393
565

16
20
25

1,58
2,47
3,85

201
314
491

402
628
982

603
942
1 473

804
1 257
1 963

32
49
50

6,31
9,86
15,40

804
1 257
1 963

1 608
2 513
3 927

2 413
3 770
5 890

3 217
5 027
7 854

10

302
471
679

352
550
792

402
628
905

1 005
1 571
2 454

1 206
1 885
2 945

1 407
2 199
3 436

1 608
2 513
3 927

4 021
6 283
9 817

4 825
7 540
11 781

5 630
8 796
13 744

6 434
10 052
15 708

Area
mm2
Number of bars

sabs pta
(pdf)

143