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University of Connecticut

DigitalCommons@UConn
Master's Theses

University of Connecticut Graduate School

6-27-2013

Particle Image Velocimetry with Bluff Body and Jet


in Cross-Flow Flame Holder Applications
Christopher Perron
chrisp.perron@gmail.com

Recommended Citation
Perron, Christopher, "Particle Image Velocimetry with Bluff Body and Jet in Cross-Flow Flame Holder Applications" (2013). Master's
Theses. Paper 456.
http://digitalcommons.uconn.edu/gs_theses/456

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ParticleImageVelocimetrywithBluffBody
andJetinCrossflowFlameHolder
Applications

ChristopherP.Perron
B.S.RensselaerPolytechnicInstitute

AThesis
SubmittedinPartialFulfillmentofthe
RequirementsforaDegreeof
MasterofScience
atthe
UniversityofConnecticut
2013
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APPROVAL PAGE

MasterofScienceThesis
ParticleImageVelocimetrywithBluffBodyandJetinCrossflowFlameHolderApplications

Presentedby:
ChristopherP.Perron

MajorAdvisor:__________________________________________________
Dr.MichaelW.Renfro

AssociateAdvisor:________________________________________________
Dr.BakiM.Cetegen

AssociateAdvisor:________________________________________________
Dr.ZhuyinRen

UniversityofConnecticut
2013

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ParticleImageVelocimetrywithBluffBodyandJetinCrossflowFlameHolderApplications
InthisstudyParticleImageVelocimetry(PIV)wasusedtoacquireflowfieldandvelocityinformationfor
abluffbodyflameholderandajetincrossflow.Thebluffbodytrialstestedconsistedofcombustionof
apremixedairandfuelflowwiththepurposeofimprovingboundaryconditions.Thejetincrossflow
wastestedwithavarietyofjettocrossflowmomentumratios.AtutorialisgivenonusingMATLAB
programmingtousethePIVdatatocalculatefluidpropertiessuchasvelocity,vorticity,andstrainrates.
Velocityvectorfieldsareusedtodeterminethevelocityatdifferentareasofthetestsectionandto
verifyboundaryconditions.TheuncertaintyofthePIVmeasurementisfoundusingacorrelationmap,
andtheresultingerrortothefluidcalculationsisfoundusingacentraldifferencingscheme.Conditioned
ParticleImageVelocimetry(CPIV)isintroducedandusedtofindtheflameedge.Thisthesisismeantto
notonlydisplaysomeofthenewresultsacquired,butalsotoserveasareferenceforanyonedoing
researchrelatedtocombustionorPIV.

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Acknowledgements
Iwouldliketothankmyadvisor,Dr.MichaelRenfroforhisguidancethroughouttheprocess.His
patienceandsupporthasgivenmetheconfidencetobecomeabetterengineer.
ThankstoDr.BakiCetegenforallofhishelpandguidancethroughouttheresearchprocess.
ThankstoDr.ZhuyinRenforallofhishelpandforservingonmycommittee.
Iwouldliketothankmycoworkersontherig,JasonWagnerandGeorgeLapaan,fortheirhardworkand
forallofthehelpgiventomeintroubleshootingtherig,inhomework,andinMATLABcoding.
Iwouldliketothankmylabmates,KathrynGosselin,MarcSchneider,MartinHawron,andJarodLake
pastandpresentfortheirtechnicalsupportandcomicrelief.
Iwouldliketothankmybrotherforhisfriendship.
Iwanttothankmyfatherandmotherfortheirlove,andforsupportingmydecisiontogotograduate
school.Youbothareahugeinspirationtome.
IwouldliketothankJulieforherloveandhersupport.Icouldneverhaveaccomplishedthiswithout
you.

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1.1FlameHolders
Inpracticalturbulentcombustors,thereactantsenteringthecombustionchamberaretypicallymoving
athigherspeedsthanthelaminarflamespeed,soflameholdersareoftennecessarytostabilize
combustion.Flameholdersareusedtocreateaflowseparationwhichcreatesaslowerspeed
recirculationzonethatcontinuouslyignitesincomingmixturesincontactwiththerecirculationzone.
Therearedifferentwaystoachieverecirculation.Swirlcombustorsimpartatangentialvelocity.With
sufficientswirl,arecirculationzoneiscreatedduetothepressurefield.Stepcombustorstypicallyusean
expansioninareatocreatearecirculationzonethatstabilizesaflame.Bluffbodyflameholdersobstruct
theflowtoproducearecirculationzonebehindthebluffbodythatignitestheincomingreactants.
Flameholderscanbeasolidgeometricobjectsuchasthecaseofthetriangularbluffbodyandtheycan
bealsobefluidicsuchasthecaseofajetincrossflow.Thegeometricbluffbodyistypicallyusedin
secondarycombustorapplications.Inthesesecondarycombustors,hotproductsofleancombustionexit
theturbineathighspeedandrelativelylowpressure.Morefuelisthenaddedtothemixturewhich
reactswiththeexcessoxygentoproduceaflame.Ageometricbluffbodyisusedtoslowtheflowand
createarecirculationzoneforthepremixturetocombustandstabilizeaflame.Thefollowingfigure
takenfromTuttlesdissertationisrepresentedherebecauseitaccuratelyshowsthefluidflowandflame
directionintherecirculationzoneofabluffbodystabilizedflame.(Tuttle,2010)

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Figure1.1Recirculationzoneandstreamlinesforabluffbodystabilizedflame.

Becausethesecondarycombustorintheengineisnearatmosphericpressure,muchmorefuelis
neededinordertoproduceequivalentamountsofthrustastheprimarycombustor.Theinefficiencyof
fuelusageistolerablesincethesesecondarycombustorsareusedforshortperiodsoftime.Other
enginesusejetincrossflowcombustionasaflameinproductsofarichpreburn.Thesejetstypically
consistingofmostlyairareusedtoreactwithanyunburnedhydrocarbonfuel.Thefigurebelowby
Samuelsenisagoodrepresentationofatypicalengineutilizingthejetincrossflow.(Samuelsen,n.d.)

Figure1.2Engineutilizingajetflameinareactingcrossflow.

Inthediagramthefuelandairenterinanexpandedareatoallowforrichcombustion.Thehydrocarbon
radicalsproducedbyrichcombustionhelpstabilizetheflame.Richlyburningflamesalsohaverelatively
lowtemperatureswhichtendtoproducelowernitrogenoxideemissions.Ascanbeseeninthediagram
anairjetisinjectedintotheproductsoftherichpreburnmixingwiththeunburnedhydrocarbonsfrom
therichpreburn.Theadditionofoxygenisnecessarytooxidizethecarbonmonoxideandtoproducea
secondaryflame.Thegoalofthisengineistoideallyhaveonlymajorproductsofcombustionandvery
traceamountsofpollutantemissions.(Samuelsen,n.d.)Differentapplicationsofthejetincrossflow
mayrequiredifferentamountsofmixing,sodifferentjetarrangementsandsizeshavebeenresearched.

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1.2CurrentStudy
Thecurrentstudyismeanttoexplorethefluidpropertiesofcombustionapplicationswiththeuseof
ParticleImageVelocimetry(PIV)aswellasotherfluidmeasurementtechniques.

Figure1.3Singleimageofabluffbodystabilizedflameacquiredusinghighspeedcamera.
Previousworkinthislabwiththebluffbodyincludesconcentratedfuelingbeforethebluffbodywith
andwithoutpreburnedconditions.Inthisstudythebluffbodyworkisdonewithfuelingmuchfurther
upstreamtoprovideforafullypremixedairandfuelforcombustiononthebluffbody.
Variationsofthejetincrossflowexperimenthavebeenstudiedinthepastbuttheexperimenthas
neverbeenperformedinthislaboratorybefore.Theinitialgoalsoftheexperimentweretostudythe
flowbehaviorofasinglejetinapreburnedcrossflow.Theparameterstestedwerevariousjettocross
flowmomentumratiosforthejetandforthecrossflow.
PIVwasperformedonbothexperimentstoextractthevelocitymeasurementsandfluidflowproperties
suchasvorticity.Thispaperexplorestheuseofthismeasurementtechniquetofurtherunderstandthe
fluidphysicsoccurringduringthecombustionreaction.ThefundamentalsofhowMATLABcanbeused
tooutputrelevantchartsandcalculationsusingPIVdataisexplainedinatutorialfashion.The

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uncertaintyassociatedwithPIVmeasurementsisalsoexploredaswellastheuncertaintypropagation
associatedwiththecalculatedparameters.FinallyatechniquereferredtoasConditionedParticleImage
Velocimetry(CPIV)usesthedifferenceinseeddensityfromburnedandunburnedregionstofindthe
flameedge.

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2.LiteratureReview
Extensivestudiesregardingjetsincrossflowaswellasbluffbodyflameshavebeenreported.Inthis
Chapter,theseworksarereviewedtoprovidecontextfortheexperimentdescribedinChapter3.The
followingsectionsdescribedifferentstudiesreviewed.
2.1FundamentalParameterWork
Thejetincrossflowphysicsproblemhasbeenstudiedwithgreatinterestforyears.Different
combustorsweredesignedutilizingthejetincrossflowconcepttoreducenitricoxideemissions.Thejet
incrossflowtypicallyfeaturesnonpremixedfuelandairburnedrichwhichleavesunburned
hydrocarbonsaswellasCOandNOx.Thecombustorfeaturesanairinjectionforasecondaryburnto
reducetheseunwantedpollutants.Inordertounderstandthephysicsoftheproblemtherehavebeen
numerousstudiesperformedonnonreactingjetsincrossflow.A.H.Lefebvrethatrelatesthemaximum
jetpenetration.(Lefebvre,1999)
1.15

sin

2.1

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Figure2.1Jetflameinvitiatedcrossflow.TakenfromSamuelsen(Samuelsen,n.d.)
InEqn.2.1Ymaxisthemaximumradialpenetrationofthejet,Djisthediameterofthejet,Jisthejetto
crossflowmomentumratio,andistheentryangleofthejet.Thefirstfigureintheimagebelow
representsanexampleofasinglejetata90degreeangletothebottomwall.Thesecondfigure
represents=75.

Figure2.2ExampleofinEquation2.1
Thejetincrossflowmomentumratio,J,isdefinedinEqn.2.2whereJandUJarethedensityand
velocityofthejetflow,andMandUMarethedensityandvelocityofthecrossflow.

2.2

Holdemansworkisusefulinfindingtheidealnumberofjetstouseforoptimummixing.Thefollowing
equationisvalidforcircularjetsinacircularcrossflow.

2.3

Holdemanalsodevelopedarelationshipforjetspacinginarectangularcrossflow.

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2.4

InEqn.2.4,Sistheorificespacing,Histhechannelheight,Jisthejettocrossflowmomentumratio,
andCisanempiricalconstantwhichisexperimentallydeterminedforvariouscases.Hefoundthatfora
singlejetpenetration,C=2.5isoptimal,andvalueslessthanandovertheoptimumresultinunder
penetrationandoverpenetrationrespectively.Hefoundthat1.25and5.0areoptimumvaluesofCfor
inlinerowsandstaggeredrowsofopposedjets.(Holdeman,1993)Intherectangularcasethejetscan
beeitherinlineorstaggered.Samuelsenreportsonmoreexperimentswherethejetairandthecross
flowarepreheatedseparately.ItwasfoundthatNOxlevelsarehigherwhenonlythejetispreheated
comparedtowhenboththejetandcrossflowarepreheated.Samuelsenconcludedthatwhilethejetin
crossflowsetupdoesreducetheNOxemissions,moreresearchonthechemistryofcombustionmaybe
necessaryforfurtherunderstanding.(Samuelsen,n.d.)
SamuelsenhasperformedmanystudieswithHoldeman.Theyperformedanexperimentalstudyof
reactingjetsinapreburnedcrossflow.Intheirstudiestogethertheyhadafuelrichpreburnedcross
flowwithoxygenjetsinjectedaroundtheperimeter.Theydeterminedthatfortheirspecificmomentum
fluxratiothatwhenpenetrationisbeyondoptimalthejetairstaysinthemiddleofthetestsectionand
thecrossflowproductstendtostaytowardsthewall.Theyalsofoundthatincasesofunder
penetrationthejetairtendstostaybythewallandthecrossflowproductstendtopassoverit.Bothof
thesecasesareundesirablebecausetheydonotprovideoptimalmixingrequiredforthedesiredjet
combustion.(Leong&Samuelsen,1999)
2.1UnsteadyFlameWallInteractionsinaReactingJetInjectedintoaVitiatedCrossFlow
ResearchersatGeorgiaInstituteofTechnologyperformedanexperimenttodeterminetheinteraction
betweenthejetandthewalledgeofthecrossflow.(Sullivan,etal.,2013)Forlowmomentumflux
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ratiosthejetdoesnotpenetrateoutofthecrossflowboundarylayer.Thereforeintheseconditionsthe
flameisoftenstabilizedintheboundarylayerandstaysattachedtothewall.TheGITresearchersfound
thatforjetflameJratiosoflessthan20,theflameisunsteadyandinteractswiththewall.Inthesecases
thewallisanimportantfactorintheflamestabilization.Theyalsoreferenceanarticlethatdescribesthe
flamestructureathighjetmomentumtocrossflowmomentumratios.Thejetflametendstopropagate
tothewallespeciallyforveryhightemperaturecrossflows.
2.2TurbulentjetFlamesinaCrossflow:EffectsofSomejet,Crossflow,andPilotFlameParameterson
Emissions
StephenTurnsandRomaraoBandaruperformedastudyatPennsylvaniaStateUniversitycomparingjet
behaviorinacrossflowcomparedtoregularstraightjetsinnocrossflow.Intheirparticular
experimentalsetup,horizontaljetflameswereintroducedintoaverticalcrossflowofair.They
comparedflamelengthsandemissionsdatafordifferentfuelswithvaryingcrossflowvelocitiesand
varyingjetvelocities.Thefuelsusedweremethane,propane,ethylene,anda95%CO/5%H2,thecross
flowvelocitieswereeither2.3m/sor4.3m/sforeachcase,andthejetvelocitiesvariedforeachfuel.
Theyfoundthatcrossflowjetflamesarenotaslongasthestraightjetflamesofthesamevelocity.In
general,forslowercrossflowvelocitiesthejetflameisclosertothelengthofthestraightjetflame,and
forfastercrossflowvelocitiesthejetflameissignificantlyshorterthanthestraightjetflame.Thisis
mainlyfromtheincreasedmixingratesfromthehighercrossflowvelocities.Theyalsofoundthatthere
weremoreCO,NO2,andunburnedhydrocarbonsforthejetincrossflowcasethanforthestraightjet
case.Thisisbecausethereissomefuelwhichescapesnearthenozzleandisunburned.Itisalsodueto
thevorticesgeneratedwhencoldairisintroducedintothecrossflow.(Bandaru&Turns,2000)
2.4TheEffectofJetMixingontheCombustionEfficiencyofaHotFuelRichCrossFlow

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Thejetincrossflowproblemhasbeeninvestigatedforthepastyearsinanefforttofullyunderstand
thephysicsofthisphenomenon.Withabetterunderstandingofthejetincrossflowvariousgoalssuch
ashigherefficiencycombustionandpollutantreductioncanbeachieved.Tofullyunderstandthe
experimentperformeditisimperativetoinvestigatetheexperimentalsetupsandresultsofprevious
experiments.Manyresearchershavedifferentexperimentswhichalterdifferentvariablesincludingthe
contentsofthecrossflow,thenumberofjets,andjetsize.Boutazakhti,Thompson,andLightstonehad
anexperimentalsetupwhichcontainsapreburnerinacylindricaltube.Alongtheperimeterofthetube
werelotsofholestoactasthejet.Thecrossflowcontainedcombustionproductsofafuelrichreaction
betweenmethaneandair.Becausethecrossflowhadarichequivalenceratio,Mof1.5,the
combustionproductscontainedabout7.2%ofCO2,5.8%CO,and7.2%H2,aswellaswatervaporand
someunreactedmethane.Theoverallcrossflowtemperatureaveragedat1100Cwhichishigherthan
theautoignitiontemperatureofH2(500C),CO(609C)andCH4(580C).Furtherdownstreamairis
injectedintothejetswhichisthenusedtoreactwiththeunburnedfuelinthecrossflow.The
experimenterscalculatedoptimummomentumfluxratiousinganequationpresentedbyHoldeman.
Boutazahtietalperformedvarioustestswithvariednumberofjets,variousjetdiameters,andvarying
crossflowmassflowratesandjetmassflowrates.Forcertaincasesthemassflowratesoftheairjets
weresettomatchthemassflowratesoftheexhaustcrossflow.Thefollowingtablehasbeentaken
directlyfromBoutazakhtietalbecauseitisusefultoportraythevariousexperimentsperformedinthis
study.Somanyconfigurationsaretestedbecauseitwasimportanttoseeeffectsofvaryingmomentum
fluxratiosatconstantequivalenceratios.

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Diamete
Configuration Number rofJets
Name
ofJets
(mm)

Optimum
J
predicted

4RJ

9RJa

3.18

26

9RJb

3.97

26

9RJc

2.05

26

9RJd

2.64

26

9RJe

2.37

26

9RJf

2.85

26

9RJg

2.5

26

Rangeof
Reynolds
Rangeof
number
Reynolds
ofthe
exhaust numberof Range
thejets
ofJ
flow
7,200
4,000
13,800
10,700
212
7,300
4,000
13,000
10,000
487
7,400
3,200
52
13,300
8,300
456
7,300
6,000
53
13,300
16,100
525
7,300
4,700
16
13,300
12,500
156
7,300
5,200
23
13,300
13,900
315
7,300
4,300
13,300
11,600
1287
7,300
4,800
25
13,300
13,100
313

Measurements
takenforthe
modules
COandH2at
x/D=48
COatx/D=48
COatx/D=48
COatx/D=48
COatx/D=48
COatx/D=48
COatx/D=48

COatx/D=48
COandH2at
x/D=48,andCO
andCO2at
6,000
1,900
20
x/D=1.5
18RJ
18
1.59
104
13,000
13,000
309
Table2.1JetincrossflowconditionstestedbyBoutazakhtietal.(Boutazakhti&Thomson,2000)
MolarfractionsofCO,CO2,andH2weredeterminedusinggasanalyzers.Withthesemolar
concentrationsitwaspossiblefortheresearcherstodeterminetheunmixednessforeachmomentum
fluxratio.Thefollowingequationisusedtodeterminetheunmixedness,wheretheisthe
unmixedness,isthestandarddeviationofthecarbonmolarfraction,andisthemeanvalueofthe
carbonfraction.

2.5

BytakingmeasurementsoftheCOlevels,achartwascreatedshowingpresent[CO]/[CO]Dversusthe
overallequivalenceratio.Inaway,theconcentrationratioofCOisameasureofthecombustion

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efficiency.ItwasfoundthatcombustionconcentrationofCOdecreasesforuntilanequivalenceratio
betweenabout0.8,untilitcontinuestoincrease.Theconfigurationwith4jetshadthelowest
concentrationofCOatanequivalenceratioslightlylessthan0.8.For9jetsthelowpeakwasabout0.8
andfor18jetsthelowpeakwasabout0.85.Thissuggeststhatforrichercrossflows,havingagreater
numberofjetsincreasesthecombustionefficiency,therebygivingalowerCOconcentration.The
interestingpartofthisfindingisthatfornonpremixedsystemsthecombustionefficiencyisnotrelated
toequivalenceratio.Theauthorsofthepaperconcludethattheremustbesomepremixingoffueland
airbeforethechemicalreactiontakesplace.
Anothertestwasdonewithallofthe9jetmodules.EachmodulehasthesameJOPTtheauthors
presentedearlierfromHoldemanetal,buthavejetdiametersrangingfrom2.05mmto3.97mm.TheCO
concentrationwasmeasuredforeachofthesecasesforvaryingmomentumfluxratios.

Figure2.3Combustionefficiencyvs.momentumratioforvariousjetdiameters.
Ingeneral,asthemomentumfluxratioincreases,thecombustionefficiencyincreasesuntilamaximum
peak,whichthentheefficiencydecreasesforincreasingratios.ThepeaksrangefromJ=20toJ=180,
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andingeneralthelargerjetshavethemaximumcombustionefficiencyatlowermomentumfluxratios.
Howeverofallofthecasesonlyoneofthemhasthegreatestcombustionefficiencyatoptimum
momentumfluxratiopredictedfromtheequationusedpreviously.

Figure2.4Combustionefficiencyvs.equivalenceratioforvariousjetdiameters.
Howeverwhenthecombustionefficiencyforthesamejetdiametersaretestedagainstoverall
equivalenceratioinsteadofmomentumfluxratio,theyallseemtohaveapeakbetweenratiosof0.75
to0.85.Thissuggeststhattheequivalenceratioismoreofadominatingfactorforcombustionefficiency
thanthemomentumfluxratio.Toprovethepointfurther,theresearchersdidanothertestwherethe
equivalenceratioisfixedat0.80,theratiowheremostofthejetshadthehighestefficiency.TheJratio
foreachofthejetdiametersisplotted.ItisshownthatthehigherJratioshavehighercombustion
efficiencyandadecreaseinemissions.Itisalsoshownthatthecombustionefficiencyincreaseswith
increasingnumbersofjets.(Boutazakhti&Thomson,2000)
2.5StratifiedjetFlamesinaHeated(1390K)AirCrossFlowwithAutoignition

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JamesDriscollandDanielMickaperformedasimilarjetincrossflowstudy,butwithdifferentobjectives.
Theyperformedastudywithapreheatedleanmixturecrossflowandautoignitionofjetflames.The
researcherswantedtodiscovertheanswertothreequestionsinparticular.Theywantedtoknowifthe
jetflameisaffectedifthecrossflowtemperatureishotterthantheautoignitiontemperatureofthejet
flamesfuel.Theywerespecificallyconcernedwiththeeffectofthetemperatureontheautoignition
delay.Thesecondissuetheyweretryingtoresolveisthehowtheflamestructureisaffectedwithfaster
crossflowvelocities.Lastlytheymeasuredflamelengthsanddeterminedthatflamelengthincreases
withincreasingfuelmassflowrate.Fromthisfindingtheydeterminedairvelocity,notfuelvelocity,is
thedominatefactorinmixing.(Micka&Driscoll,2012)
2.6SimultaneousMeasurementsofVelocityandCHDistribution.PartII:DeflectedJetFlames
Manytimesthejetisperpendiculartothecrossflow,butthisisnotalwaysthecase.HanandMungal
performedastudyatStanfordUniversitywhichobservedjetincrossflowbehaviorwithangledjets.
Theirexperimentalsetupconsistedofaverticaltestsectionwithacrosssectionalareaof50cmx50cm.
Theyusedtwoconcentrictubesforthejet,onetubetoprovidethefuelandonetubetoprovidepilot
fueltostabilizetheflameifneeded.Thegoverningequationforatransversejetpenetratingintoa
crossflowisasfollows.

2.6

Inthisequationristhesquarerootofthemomentumratio,whichisthejetdensitytimesjetvelocity
squaredovercrossflowdensitytimescrossflowvelocitysquared.TheconstantsAandBare
experimentalfits,andaregenerallyacceptedtobeaboutbetween1.5and2.0and0.25to0.38
respectively.Inadditiontoaperpendicularjetcase,theyperformedanexperimentwiththejettilted
+45and45fromtheperpendicularcase.Inallcasesthejethadamolefraction0.25ethyleneand

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0.75nitrogen,thesquarerootofthemomentumratiowas10,andthecrossflowvelocitywasbetween
1.7and1.8m/s.Interestinglyenoughthejetat45(aimingtowardsthecrossflow)doesnotneeda
pilottokeepastableflame.TheresearchersusedsimultaneousCHPlanarLaserInducedFluorescence
(PLIF)andParticleImageVelocity(PIV).Thesestudieswereusedtocompareimagesandcalculatestrain
rates.Thestrainratesarecalculatedhereusingthetraditionalfluiddynamicsequations.
1

2.7

Thereweresomeconclusionsthatcouldbemaderegardingthejetangles.Itwasfoundthatthe+45jet
hadamuchlongerflamethanthe45.Itcanbeconcludedthatnegativelyangledjetshavebetter
mixingthanpositivelyangledjetsandneutraljets.Anotherconclusiontomakeistheprinciplestrains
ratesintheCHlayerdecreaseforincreasingdistancesawayfromthejet.(Han&Mungal,2003)
2.7MixingCharacteristicsandEmissionsofStronglyForcedNonPremixedandPartiallyPremixedJet
FlamesinCrossflow
K.C.Marr,N.T.Clemens,andO.A.Ezekoyeperformedastudywherepulsedjetflamesinanunheated
crossflowtodeterminetheeffectpulsinghasonemissionslevelsandmixingbetweenfuelandair.Their
experimentconsistedofasquarecrosssectionalareaof0.16m2andalengthof1m.Theairblowerin
thecrossflowwasusedtoproduceacrossflowvelocityrangingfrom1.5m/sto2.0m/s,1.7m/sinmost
cases.Thetestsectionconsistedofasinglecircularjet6.35mmindiameterwhichwascapableof
injectingnonpremixedfuelaswellasapremixtureoffuelandair.Thejetwasalsoequippedwitha
270Hzspeakerwhichwasusedtosendpulsesintothejetflow.Theresearchersfirstconductedacontrol
experimentusinganunforcednonpremixedjetflame,whichproducedabrightsootyflame,as
expected.Theexperimentwasnextperformedforpulsednonpremixedflames.Itwasfoundthatthe
introductionofthepulsingspeakercreatedflameswhichwerelessbrightandalsohadlessorange

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emissionfromsootradiationthantheunforcednonpremixedflame.Thereductioninsootwas
quantifiedbymeasuringtheluminosityandobservingthecoloroftheflame.Theresearchersdiscovered
thatwithstrongerpulsesthereisanincreasedreductioninsoot.Forlargerpulses,airfromthecross
flowcanoftenbesuckedintothejet,partiallypremixingthefuelandair.Whenthepartialpremixtureis
releaseditresultsinanonsootyflamewhichacceleratesturbulentmixingnearthejetexit.Theyalso
foundforhigheramplituderatiosinthejetspeaker,thejetflamestendtoliftasymmetricallyduetothe
momentumofthecrossflow.Inadditiontheresearchersperformedemissionstestingontheunforced
nonpremixedjetflames,theforcednonpremixedjetflames,andtheunforcedpartiallypremixedjet
flames.Theemissionstestsagreedwiththeaboveresults.Emissionsresultswerereportedintheform
ofanEmissionsIndextermwhichessentiallyistheratioofthemassofemissionsproducedcomparedto
themassofthefuelburned.TheNOxemissionsdecreasedastheamplitudeofthepulseswas
increased.Theyalsofoundthatthepulseamplitudesneedtobehighenoughsothatthecombustion
residencetimeissmallenoughtotakecareofthethermalNOxincrease.Itwasalsodeterminedthat
fuelsthatproducemoresootneedhigherpulseamplitudes.TheemissionsresultsfortheCOand
unburnedhydrocarbons(UHC)wereverydifferent.Foraspecificamplituderatioof5,theyfoundthat
theCOemissionswere3timesgreaterthantheunforcedcaseandtheUHCwere7timesgreater.The
researchersconcludedthattheCOemissionsincreasedduetothevortexstructuresproducedwiththe
pulsing.Withhigherpulsing,thevortexstructureshaveamorerapidmixingofcoldairandfuel,which
tendstorapidlycooltheflow.Theunburnedhydrocarbonslevelincreaseswithhigherpulseamplitudes.
Thisisbecausewithhigherpulseamplitudesthejetflametendstoliftandunburnedfuelcanescape
throughthebottomoftheflame.Thetakeawayfundamentalsfromthestudyarethatwithapulsedjet
flameitisoftenpossibletoreduceNOxemissionsandincreasepremixing,butthereisasacrificewith
increasedCOemissionsaswellasunburnedhydrocarbonemissions.Itismuchmoreeffectivetopremix

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thefuelandairbeforecombustion,howeverduetodangersofflashbackandblowoutitisnotalways
practical.(Marr&Clemens,2012)
2.8AutoignitionofHydrogen/NitrogenJetsinVitiatedAirCrossflowsatDifferentPressures
J.MFlecketalperformedastudywheretheyobservedtheautoignitionpropertiesofhydrogen/nitrogen
jets.Theydeterminedthatautoignitionofthejetwasprohibitedbythelowertemperaturestested.
Ignitiondelaytimeisinfluencedbytemperature.Theyalsofoundthatathigherpressures(about15bar)
thejetwouldnotautoignite.Atlowercrossflowvelocitiesthepressureseemedtohavenoimpacton
theautoignition.Theyfoundthatturbulenceandpressurehaveaffectsrelatedtotheignitionchart.
Turbulentcrossflowhelpsautoignitioninthesecondignitionlimithoweverdoesnotabovethesecond
limit.Theyalsodeterminedthatforhigherpressuresignitionjumpfromthefirstlimittothesecond
occursathighertemperatures.(Fleck,etal.,2012)
2.9CombustorFlowfieldMeasurementsofaTransverseJetHolder
KareemAhmedandDavidForlitiperformedastudyexaminingthereactingandnonreactingflowofthe
jetincrossflow.Theyconcludedthatthereactingcasehashighervelocitiesandashearregioncreated
bytheheatreleasefromthecombustionproducts.Theyfoundthathighermomentumratiosresultin
moreheatreleased.(Ahmed&Forliti,2009)
Recentlytherehasbeensomeinterestincomparingthebluffbodystyleflameholdertothejetincross
flow.Thebluffbodyisreferredtoasasubmergedflameholderwhilethejetisreferredtoasafluidic
flameholder.KareemAhmedandDavidForlitiperformedanexperimentalstudyattheStateUniversity
ofNewYorkinBuffalowheremeasurementsweretakenforthejetincrossflowcaseandcomparedto
resultsforabluffbodyflameholder.Asingleslotjetwasusedwithadimensionof0.279mmtoinject
methanefuelataflowratetomakeanequivalenceratiobetweenthejetandcrossflow=1.The

20|P a g e

resultswerecomparedtothatofawallboundedbluffbody.Theresearcherscomparedsidebyside
instantaneousPIVimagesofthebluffbodyflameholderandthejetincrossflowflameholder.The
vorticesresultingfromthebluffbodypushthereactantsdownwardsresultinginupwardspropagating
flame.Theresultisthatthereactionstaysinthelowerpartofthecombustionchamber.Theflame
eventuallypropagatesupwardsandintothemainflow.Thevorticesproducedbehindthebluffbody
seemtobeperiodicrotatingstructures.Inthejetdifferentobservationsweremade.Thejetinteracting
withthecrossflowinitiallyproducessmallregionsofpositivevorticityintheflowabovethejetand
negativevorticityintherecirculationzoneofthejet.Thepositivevorticityhelpstocreatefasterflame
speedandpushthereactionuptowardsthetopwall.Thevorticesinthejetseemtobemuchmore
randomincomparisonwiththeperiodicvorticesproducedbythebluffbody.Theresearchersnoticed
thattheflameholderefficiencyandareacoveredismuchgreaterforthejetflameholderthanthebluff
body.Theresearchersalsousevorticitytoexploreflamewrinklinganditseffects.Theconclusionwas
thatflamewrinklingincreasesthesizeoftheflameandtheflamereactionrate,whichtherefore
increasestheflameefficiency.Thematerialderivativeofthevorticityvectorcanbeexpandedinto
separatecomponentswhichareusedtodescribeflamebehavior.
1

2.8

Inthisequationthefirstcomponentontherighthandsideisthebaroclinictorque,followedbythegas
expansionterm,thevorticitystretchingterm,andthevorticitydiffusionterm.Anexaminationof
probabilitydensityfunctionplotsforvorticityforeachflameholdershowedwhethereachflameholder
hadapositiveornegativevorticitybias.Themainconclusionstodrawfromtheinvestigationarethat
thejetincrossflowcreatedpositivevorticityintheflamewhichallowedtheflametopropagatetothe
topwall.Thisdiffersfromthebluffbodywhichcreatednegativevorticity.Throughthevorticitystudies,

21|P a g e

theyconcludedthatthejetincrossflowflameholderallowedformoreefficientcombustion.(Ahmed&
Forliti,2010)
2.10BasicDescriptionofBluffBodyStabilizedFlames
Turbulentflamesareoftenstabilizedwiththeuseofageometricobjectcalledabluffbody.Theprinciple
behindthebluffbodythecreationofarecirculationconsistingofcombustionproductsnearadiabatic
flametemperature.Thehotproductscirculatingbehindthebluffbodyactasanignitionsource
continuouslyburningthereactants.Flameblowoffoccurswhentheflameisunabletostabilizeitselfon
thebluffbodyandextinguishes.(Turns,2000)

Figure2.DChemiluminescenceImageofabluffbodystabilizedflame.Flowislefttoright.(Tuttle,et
al.,2013)

Figure2.6Exampleimageofbluffbodystabilizedflameusedinthepresentexperiment.Flowisleftto
right.(KoppVaughan,2011)
22|P a g e

2.11EarlyBluffBodyWork
In1953Spaldingpublishedanarticlewhichdescribesflamestabilizationbyarecirculatingwake.He
describesthattheblowoffvelocityisrelatedtothegasdensity,theflameholderdiameter,andthe
flamepropagationvelocity.(Spalding,1953)

2.9

In1955,ZukoskiandMarbleperformedworkonbluffbodyflamesandprovedtheinfluenceofwake
transitiontobluffbodyflamestabilization.Theytestedgasolineairsystemsaswellasmethaneair
systemsonacylindricalrodbluffbody.Fromtheblowoffcurvestheyfoundthatmaximumblowoff
velocitiesoccurwhenthefueltoairmixtureisclosetostoichiometric.Temperatureisagreatinfluence
onreactiontime,andbecausestoichiometricequivalenceratiosyieldthehighestflametemperature,
theflamestendtostabilizeathighervelocitiesatthestoichiometriccondition.Theydeterminedthat
forReynoldsnumbersbelowthetransitionregionthebluffbodyflameispredominatelystabilizedby
moleculartransportofthefuelandair.TheyalsofoundthatforveryhighReynoldsnumbersthe
maximumblowoffvelocitycorrespondstothesquarerootofthebluffbodydiameter,buttheydidnot
comeupwithaclearexplanationastowhythatistrue.(Zukoski&Marble,1955)
2.12SyngasFuelCompositionSensitivitiesofCombustorFlashbackandBlowout
Lieuwenetal.performedanexperimentwheretheytesteddifferentfuelcombinationsofH2,CO,and
CH4atdifferentinletpressuresandtemperaturestotrytoconfirmtheequivalenceratioblowoutlimit
ascalculatedusingaDamkhlernumber.Theworkisnotspecificallyaboutbluffbodyflamestabilization
butitisimportantbecausetheconceptsstudiedregardingblowoutcanbeappliedtobluffbodystudies.
Thechemicalreactiontimescalewasestimatedusingequation2.10,whereisthethermaldiffusivity
andSListhelaminarflamespeed.
23|P a g e

2.10

TheDamkhlernumberwasusedtoestimatetheblowoutequivalenceratioofthesystemusingEqn.
2.11,wheretheresidencetimeisthed/Uref(characteristiclengthdividedbyareferencevelocity).

2.11

Usinganadjustedequivalenceratiodefinedasthelocalequivalenceratioplusaconstantrelatedtothe
ratioofmassdiffusivitiesoffueltooxygen,theycalculatedDamkhlernumbersfortheirdatasetsof
differentsyngasfuelswhichhadavalueof2.1,asseeninFig.2.7.Fig.2.8showsthepredicted
equivalenceratioversustheactualequivalenceratioforthedatasetstested.Theresearchersconcluded
thattheDamkhlernumbercanbeusedtoaccuratelypredicttheblowoutequivalenceratiowithin10%
accuracy.

Figure2.7Damkhlernumberversus%H2.ExperimentshadU0=6m/s(approachvelocity),inlet
temperatureandpressureof300Kand1.7atm.(Noble,etal.,2006)

24|P a g e


Figure2.8Predictedequivalenceratioversusactualequivalenceratioforexperimentstested.
ExperimentshadU0=6m/s(approachvelocity),inlettemperatureandpressureof300Kand1.7atm.
(Noble,etal.,2006)
2.13BlowoffDynamicsofBluffBodyStabilizedTurbulentPremixedFlames
Flamestabilityfromabluffbodyisatopicthathasbeenresearchedformanyyears.Particularlymuchof
thepreviousresearchhasbeenbasedaroundflamedynamicsjustbeforeandduringblowoff.Thegoal
ofstudyingtheflameblowoffbehavioristopreventenginefailure.MichaelRenfroandBakiCetegen
haveextensivelystudiedthisphenomenon.Theyusedaroundconicalshapedburnerwhichsupporteda
verticalflame.Theflamewasstabilizedonadiskshapedbluffbody10mmindiameter.Theairflowrate
testedinthiscasewas10m/sandwasverifiedbyahotwireanemometertest.AlongwithChaudhuri
andKostka,theyperformedparticleimagevelocimetrytoseethevelocityvectorfieldsalongtheflame
andflameedge.Fromthevelocityfieldsvorticityandstrainratewerecalculated.Vorticity()is
calculatedasthecurlofthevelocityvector.

25|P a g e

2.12

Consideringflowinonlythexandydirections,vorticityispresentaroundonlythezdirection.

2.13

TheyalsousedOHplanarlaserinducedfluorescencetofindtheflameedge.Theyfoundthatthelocal
strainratesexceedextinctionstretchrateswhichleadtoextinctionoftheflameintheshearlayer.After
extinctionthenewreactantsmixintheshearlayersandreactintherecirculationzone.Withthe
reignitionofthereactants,theshearlayerscanoftenreignite,andsometimesthisignitesthewhole
flameagain,ifonlymomentarily.Usingthehighspeedchemiluminescencetheresearchersestablished
thatbeforeblowoffthereisoverlappingofKelvinHelmholtzvortices.(Chaudhuri,etal.,2010)
TheseresearchersalongwithKristinKoppVaughanandTrevorJensenperformedmoreblowoff
measurements,thistimeinvitiatedflow.Theyfoundthatforlowerequivalenceratiosatthebluffbody
flamethereisanincreasingamountofsmallsectionsofextinctionintheflame.TheyperformedPIVand
usedthedatatofindtheaerodynamicstretchratesontheflamesurface.Theyfoundthatflameblowoff
occursatmuchlowerequivalenceratioswheninthepresenceofavitiatedcrossflowthaninanon
vitiatedcrossflow.Inhottercrossflowsthecombustionreactionrateatthebluffbodyisincreased
whichhelpskeeptheflamelitforlowerequivalenceratios.Itwasfoundthatequivalenceratioscloseto
blowoffhadanincreasedflamestretchrateandalsoincreasedflameinstability.Theyfoundthatwhen
underavitiatedcrossflowtheflamesBenardvonKarmancausedtheinstabilityrelatedwithblowoff.In
nonvitiatedcrossflowtheflamehadKelvinHelmholtzinstabilitieswhichcausedblowoff.
2.14DynamicsofaLongitudinallyForced,BluffBodyStabilizedFlame
TimLieuwensresearchgroupatGeorgiaInstituteofTechnologyperformedextensiveresearchofbluff
bodystabilizedflames.Inthisparticularexperimentaflamewasproducedundercrossflow
temperaturesrangingfrom297to870Kwithvelocitiesfrom38to170m/s.Highspeedvideosofthe
26|P a g e

flameweretakenandanalyzedtocomeupwithamathematicalmodeltodescribetheflame.They
definedanxandyordinatesystemwherethepositivexaxisisinthecenterofthebluffbodyand
pointinginthedirectionoftheflow.Theyaxisspreadsineitherdirectionperpendiculartothexaxis.
, ,

0 2.14

Inthisequation,L(x,t)isafunctionthatdescribesthehowfartheflameextendsontheyaxisasa
functionoftimeandthedistanceawayfromthebluffbody.Ingeneraldistancesfurtherfromthebluff
bodyhavelargervaluesfortheLfunction.TheG(x,y,t)functionisdefinedforconveniencetoexpress
thesizeandshapeoftheflamedependingonthethreevariables.Theresearchersderivedadifferential
equationtorelatetheflameshapetothevelocitiesinthexandydirections.

1 2.15

Inthisequationuistheflamevelocityinthexdirection,vistheflamevelocityintheydirection,andSL
isthelaminarflamespeed.Lastlytomodelthefluctuationsoftheflame,theydefinedL,u,andvinterms
oftemporalmeanandfluctuationparts.Theyconcludedthattheflamebecomeslargerwithincreasingx
value,thenpeaksanddecayswithincreasingxvalue.Theincreaseinflamesizeisduetothebluffbody
anchoringaswellasflamewrinklescreatedbyvelocityoscillations.Thepeakanddecayareattributedto
theflamepropagationoutwardsatlocalflamespeeds.(Shin,etal.,2001)

27|P a g e

3.ExperimentalSetupandFundamentalBackgroundInformation
Backgroundinformationforthebluffbodyexperiment,thejetincrossflow(JICF)experiment,Particle
ImagingVelocimetry(PIV),andmeasurementuncertaintycalculationsarediscussed.
3.1BluffBodyExperimentalSetup

Figure3.13Dmodelofthebluffbodyexperiment.

Figure3.2Cutawaydrawingoftheinsidegeometryofthebluffbodyexperiment.
Intheexperimenttheairfromacompressorentersthroughthebackandentersthepreburnersection,
asseeninFigs.3.7,3.8,and3.9.Thefuelisinjectedinthebottomoftheoldpreburnerandmixeswith
theairbeforeenteringthesettlingsection.Thepreburnerinthisexperimentisnotusedforburning.
Thesettlingsectionmeasures6in.tallby12in.wideand20in.longwasusedtoallowthefuelandair
28|P a g e

topremixonthewaytothecombustionchamber.Thesettlingsectionaswellastheconvergentsection
containedKASTOLITE97LpurchasedfromANHRefractories/A.P.GreenIndustriestoreduceheatloss
totheatmosphere.Afterthesettlingsectionaconvergentsection(Figs.3.133.17)wasusedtoreduce
theflowareatotheareaofthetestsectionandtoincreasethereactantsspeed.Measuring12in.long,
theconvergentsectionreducestheareafrom6in.tallby12in.wideto1.5in.tallto3in.wide.A1in.
outerdiameter(OD)tubeweldedtothesideoftheconvergentsectionwasusedtoinjectthealumina
particleswhenperformingPIV.Aftertheconvergentsectionasmallersettlingsectionwasused,ascan
beseeninFigs.3.183.21.Inthepastthesmallconvergentsectionwasusedmainlyforfuelinjection
nearthebluffbody,butinthecurrentexperimentitservesmainlyasextradistanceforthemixingofthe
reactantsbeforecombustion.Fromthesmallsettlingsectionthereactantsenterthetestsectionwhich
happenstobetheonlypartwheretheflowisvisible,asseeninFigs.3.223.24.Thetestsectionhasa
crosssectionalareaof3in.by1.5in.and8in.long.Thefrontandbackwallsareremovablesteelplates
withthedimensionsshowninFigs.3.5and3.6.Thetopandfrontwallsareremovablequartzwindows
madefromS1UVfusedsilicaorderedfromESCOProductswiththesamedimensionsseeninFigs.3.5
and3.6.ThequartzwindowsallowforcameraandlaseraccesswhenperformingPIV.
Thetestsectioncontainsthebluffbody(Fig.3.4)whichisshapedlikeanequilateraltrianglewithaside
lengthof9.6mm(about0.38in.).Thefrontofthebluffbodyislocated0.5in.fromthefrontedgeofthe
quartzwindow.Apilotjetflamelocatedwithinaninchbehindthebluffbody(notshownindiagrams)
wasusedtolighttheflame.Afterthetestsectionisthecoolingsectionoftherig.Theroundsectionon
therightsideofFig.3.22isthecoolingsectionwhichallowsmultiplewatertubesandadraintubetobe
connectedtodousetheflamebeforeenteringtheexhaustsection.Itisimportanttonotopenthewater
valveallthewayopenwhenusinglowairflowrates,aswatermayspilloverintothetestsection.When
performinganexperimentitisrecommendedtoopenthewatervalveveryuntilwaterisseeninthetest

29|P a g e

section(iffitisseenatall).Theexhaaustsection(FFigs.3.25andd3.26)allowssforthecombustionproducts
toflowup
pwardsandoutaventlocaatedonthero
oofofthebu ilding.
Inpreviou
uswork,theb
bluffbodyflamehadanon
nuniformvellocityprofilewhichmadecomparisonm
make
amoreun
niformvelocittyprofiletheexperimenth
hadtobechaanged.Itwasdecidedtoallowforamu
uch
greaterdiistancefortheairandfueltomixbeforrecombustio n,effectivelyyincreasingth
hetimeallow
wed
formixingg.Theexperim
mentwasadaaptedsothatinsteadoffuuelingthrough
hairfoilsatth
hebluffbodythe
fuelwasintroducedth
hroughtheold
dpreburnerssectionasseeeninFigs.3.77,3.8,and3.9
9.Becausethee
erenotbeinggusedtheywereremovedtopreventuunnecessaryo
obstructionoffthebluffbody.
airfoilswe
Thevelocityprofile(Figg.3.3)hasvelocitydeficitsswhichcorre spondtothelocationsoftheairfoils.

3Oldbluffbo
odyvelocityp
profiles.
Figure3.3
Intheexp
perimentdesccribedinthisthesis,theup
pstreamairppressurefrom
mthecompresssorwas50p
psi,
whichresultedinabou
ut15m/saveragevelocityinthetestseection.Theexxperimentalcconditionsaree
showninTable3.1.

Experime
entalConditio
ons
Eq
quivalenceRatio
30|P a g e

0.76

AirDensity[kg/m^3]
1.1614
FuelDensity[kg/m^3]
1.7858
TestSectionVelocity[m/s]
15
TestSectionMassFlowRate[kg/s] 0.0518336
AirMassFlowRate[kg/s]
0.0494234
FuelMassFlowRate[kg/s]
0.00241026
AirVolumetricFlowRate[SLPM]
2553.30
FuelVolumetricFlowRate[SLPM]
80.9810
Table3.1Chartdisplayingconditionsforbluffbodyexperiment.

Figure3.4Bluffbodydiagram.

Figure3.5Opticalwindowlocatedonthefrontandbackofthetestsection.Dimensionsareininches.

31|P a g e


Figure3.6Laserwindowlocatedonthetopandbottomofthetestsection.Theholeshownisonlyfor
theJICFexperimentanddoesnotexistonthewindowsusedforthebluffbodyexperiment.
Dimensionsareininches.

32|P a g e


Figure3.7Frontviewofpreburnersection.Preburnerusedforfuelinjectiononly.Dimensionsarein
inches.

Figure3.8Cutawayviewofpreburner.Dimensionsareininches.
33|P a g e


Figure3.9Bottomviewofsettlingsection.Fuelisaddedthroughholeonthebottom.Dimensionsare
ininches.

34|P a g e


Figure3.10Settlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

35|P a g e


Figure3.11Cutawayviewofsettlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

36|P a g e


Figure3.12Sideviewofsettlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

37|P a g e


Figure3.13Frontviewofconvergentsection.Dimensionsareininches.

38|P a g e


Figure3.14Cutawayviewofconvergentsection.Flowisfromlefttoright.Dimensionsareininches.

39|P a g e


Figure3.15SideViewofconvergentsection.Flowisintothepage.Dimensionsareininches.

40|P a g e


Figure3.16SideViewofconvergentsection.Flowisoutofthepage.Dimensionsareininches.

Figure3.17DetailviewofexitshowninFig.3.16.Thehorizontalseedtubeaswellastheseedtube
exitcanbeseen.Theairandfuelmixtureflowsaroundthetube.Flowisoutofthepage.Dimensions
areininches.

41|P a g e


Figure3.18Frontviewofsmallsettlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

Figure3.19Cutawayviewofsmallsettlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

42|P a g e


Figure3.20Topviewofsmallsettlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

Figure3.21Sideviewofsmallsettlingsection.Dimensionsareininches.

43|P a g e


Figure3.22Dimensionsofthebluffbodytestsection.Dimensionsareininches.

44|P a g e


Figure3.23Cutawayviewofthebluffbodytestsection.Dimensionsareininches.

Figure3.24Sideviewsofthebluffbodytestsection.Dimensionsareininches.
45|P a g e

Figure3.25Exhaustsystemdiagram.Exhauststackis129.5in.Theleftplateconnectstotheexitofthe
testsection.Flowisleftright.Dimensionsareininches.

46|P a g e


Figure3.26Cutawayviewofexhaustsystem.Flowisleftrightandup.

47|P a g e

3.2ExperimentalSetupJICF
Aslightlyalteredexperimentalsetupwasusedforthejetincrossflowexperiment.Someofthe
componentsremainedthesame,butothershadtoberemovedorreplaced.

Figure3.273DmodelofJICFexperiment.Flowisleftright.
Anewpreburnerhadtobedesignedinordertostabilizeaflametoproduceavitiatedcrossflow
velocityof10m/sorlower.Theoldpreburnerwasnotcapableofachievingsuchlowflowrates.The
newburnerisdesignedwithacrosssectionalareaequaltothatofthetestsection,3in.x1.5in.The
designcanbeseeninFigs.3.293.31.Airfromtheflowbenchcomesina1.25in.tubeinthebackofthe
burneratamassflowratespecifiedforthedesiredcrossflowvelocity.Thisexperimentaimstoaverage
a15m/scrossflowvelocity.Fuelwasinjectedthroughbothsidesofa0.25in.tubewithsmallholes
facingtheincomingairflow.AstandardKtypethermocouplewasusedtomonitorthecrossflow
temperature.Afterthepreburner,theconvergentsectionfromthebluffbodyexperimentwasused
48|P a g e

(Figs.3.133.17).Themainadvantageofreusingthissectionistoutilizeitsseedingcapabilities.The
smallsettlingsectionwasalsoreusedtoaddextrasettlingdistancebeforecombustion.Thesmall
settlingsectionisdisplayedinFigs.3.183.21.Thetestsection(Fig.3.32)isthesametestsectionusedin
thebluffbodyexperimentexceptthebluffbodyisremovedandthebottomplateisreplacedwitha
platethatcanholdthejetparts.AsseeninFig.3.6thejetislocated1.7in.infromtheupstreamedgeof
thebottomwindow.ThejetdesigncanbeseeninmoredetailinFigs.3.33and3.34.
Afueltubeextendsthroughthewidthoftheburner,andfuelisinjectedfrombothsides.Inorderto
maximizefuelandairmixinginthepreburner,theholesonthefueltubeinjectfueltowardstheairflow.
Asparkplugisthenusedtolightthepremixedfuelandairandstabilizeaflameonthefueltube.A
standardKtypethermocoupleinthepreburnerisusedtomonitortheflametemperature.The
equivalenceratiointhepreburneriscalculatedusingtheairflowrateandfuelflowrate.Theairflow
rateiscontrolledusingtheorificebenchandthefueliscontrolledusingasinglemassflowcontroller.
Steelwoolsandwichedinbetweentwopiecesofmeshwasusedtostraightentheflowandkeepthe
flameprofileuniform.UsingKtypethermocouplesthecurrenttemperatureachievedfromthe
preburneris1040C(1313K).ChemKinhascalculatedtheadiabaticflametemperatureofpropanefora
0.5equivalenceratiotobeabout1510K.Thedifferenceintemperaturecanbeattributedtoincomplete
mixingaswellasheatlossthroughthepreburner.Aftertheheatloss,thecrossflowtemperatureis
measuredtobe820C(1093K).
KASTOLITE97Lsectionsareusedinbetweenthepreburnerandthetestsection.Thesettlingsection
hasafewgoals.Thefirstgoalofthesectionisprovideadistancebetweenthepreburnerflameandthe
testsectionwhilekeepingthetemperatureofthecombustionproductsuniformthroughthecross
sectionalarea.KASTOLITEisusedtominimizeheatlossinthesectiontokeepthecombustionproducts

49|P a g e

temperatureasclosetotheadiabaticflametemperatureaspossible.Anotherpurposeofthesettling
sectionistoprovideatubeforseedtobeinjectedwhenperformingPIV.
Thetestsectionwasfittedwithajetsetuponthebottomplate.Thejetconsistsofain.airtube.Airin
thejetiscontrolledusingamassflowcontrollercontrolledbyaLabviewprogram.

Figure3.28CutawayofJICFexperiment.Flowisleftright.

50|P a g e


Figure3.293DmodelofJICFpreburner.

Figure3.30JICFpreburnerdrawingandcutaway.Flowisfromlefttoright.Dimensionsareininches.
51|P a g e


Figure3.31SideviewofJICFpreburner.Flowisintothepage.Dimensionsareininches.

Figure3.32JICFtestsection.

52|P a g e

Figure3.33Frontviewoftheairtube.Flowisfrombottomtotop.Dimensionsareininches.

53|P a g e


Figure3.34Detailviewofjettubesrightbeforetestsection.Thetopoftheoutsidetubeshownis
flushwithbottomsideofthetestsection.Dimensionsareininches.
3.4JICFOperatingConditions
TheoperatingconditionstestedfortheJICFsetupareapreburnerequivalenceratioof0.5and
momentumratiosof25,50,and75.Themomentumratiodependsonthecrossflowvelocity.By
selectingadesiredmomentumratioonecancalculatetherequiredmassflowratesjetairtouse.The
crossflowvelocitywasestimatedusingamassflowratebalanceandatemperatureofthecombustion
productsenteringthetestsection.
3.9
Themassflowrateintotheexperimentiscalculatedsimplybyaddingthemassflowrateoftheairand
themassflowrateofthefuelenteringthepreburner.
3.10

54|P a g e

TheaveragevelocityoftheproductsintothetestsectioniscalculatedarearrangedformofEqn.3.3.
Theareaofthetestsectionisknowntobe0.00290m2(3in.x1.5in),thedensityofthecombustion
productsisassumedtobethedensityofairasafunctionofthetemperature(Fig.3.36),andthemass
flowrateiscalculatedinEqn.3.10.

CrossFlowDensity(kg/m^3)

DensityvsTemperature
4
3.5

y=362.08x1.006
R=1

3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

CrossFlowTemperature(K)

Figure3.36CrossFlowdensityasafunctionofcrossflowtemperature.

ExperimentalConditions

Preburner
0.5
PreburnerTemperature[K]
1400
10.6
MeanVelocityTestSection[m/s]
MeanTemperatureTestSection
[K]
820
Table3.2ExperimentalConditionsforthecrossflow.

Jratio
Fluid
Diameter[in]
Density
[kg/m^3]
Velocity[m/s]
MassFlow
Rate[kg/s]
55|P a g e

25
Air
0.375

50
Air
0.375

75
Air
0.375

1.19E+00 1.19E+00

1.19E+00

3.93E+01 5.56E+01

6.81E+01

1.74E03

3.01E03

2.46E03

Volumetric
FlowRate
[m^3/s]
1.49E03 2.11E03 2.58E03
Table3.3Experimentalconditionsforthejet.
3.5ParticleImagingVelocimetry
ParticleImagingVelocimetry(PIV)iscommonlyusedtotakevelocitymeasurementsinaplanedefined
byalasersheetandtodeterminevariousflowfieldcharacteristicsinthattwodimensionalplane.
UsuallyadoublecavityNdYAGlaseriscoupledwithachargecoupleddevice(CCD)cameratotrack
seedparticlesinjectedintheflowupstreamofthetestsection.Theexperimentsdescribedinthisthesis
utilizeaFlowMaster3Spassfilter,aNewWave(SoloPIVIII)dualcavityNd:YAG,andDaVis7.0post
processingsoftware,asshowninFig.3.37.

Figure3.37PIVexperimentalsetup.(Tuttle,etal.,2013)
WhenalaserpulsehitsaseedparticlethelightspreadsinalldirectionsinaphenomenoncalledMie
scattering.Twolaserpulsesareusedtogetherseparatedbyaknowntimedifference.ThePIVcamera
containingaframestraddling1024x1280CCDchiprecordsimagesatthetwopulsesandusesacross
correlationalgorithmtodeterminetheparticlemovementbetweenthetwopulses.Fromtheparticle
56|P a g e

mentinformattionandthekknowntimed
differencebettweenthepu
ulses,velocityyfieldscanbee
displacem
computed
d(Adrian&W
Westerweel,2
2011).

Figure3.3
38RawMiescatteringimaagefromDaV
Vis
TheDaVisssoftwaredivvidestheimaggeareaintointerrogation windowscon
nsistingof32
2x32pixels.Th
he
crosscorrrelationalgorrithmlooksattalloftheparticlesinthe interrogation
nwindow,andtriesto
determine
etheparticle
edisplacemen
ntwithinthew
window.Themostcommo
ondisplacementofalloftthe
particlesinawindowisusedtodetermineasingglevelocityveectorforthattwindow.Wh
henthisproceessis
donefore
everyinterroggationwindowthetotalte
estsectionarreaisrepreseentedwithvelocityvectorss.
(Adrian&Westerweel,,2011)
Thereare
eafewfundam
mentalpiecessofequipmentnecessary forproperlyexecutingPIV
V.Thecameraa
whichusu
uallyhasfram
mestraddlingcapabilitiesissneeded.Fraamestraddlingisafastmeethodofsavin
ng
informatio
ontotheCCD
Dchipintwobacktobackimageswithoouthavingto
otransfertheinformationtoa
57|P a g e

computer.AdualcavityNdYAGlaserisrequiredtocreatethepulsesseparatedbysingletotensof
microsecondsdependingontheaveragevelocity.Opticsandmirrorsareneededtodirectthelaser
beamtothetestsection.Acylindricallensisusedtospreadthelaserbeamintoathinlasersheetwhich
isusedtoilluminatetheentirelengthofthetestsection.Quartzwindowsareneededtoallowthelaser
totransmitthroughthetestsection.Seedparticlesarealsoneededforinjectionintheflow.The
experimentsdescribedinthisthesisutilizeMicroalumina#1(Al2O3)particleswhichmeasure1micronin
diameterandhaveameltingpointhighenoughtowithstandtheflame.Theseedusedinthecrossflow
wascontainedinaTSI9310fluidizedbedaerosolgeneratorandwasinjectedinaseedtubeinthe
convergentsectioncontainedinbothexperimentalsetups,asseeninFig.3.39.

Figure3.39ConvergentSectionwhereseedwasinjectedinbothexperiments.
OncethevelocityvectorshavebeencomputedusingDaVis,asdescribedinmoredetailsubsequently,
itisconvenienttofurtheranalyzethevectorfielddatausinguserwrittenprogramsinMATLAB.Itis
possibletooutputthevelocityvectorinformationtoMATLABforfurtheranalysisusingthe
readimx(filename.VC7)andshowimxfunctions,asdiscussedlater.MATLABisusefulforeliminating
strayvelocityvectorsoutsidethesizeofthetestsection,fordisplayingcoloredvelocityvectorplots,

58|P a g e

creatingstreamlinesforthevelocityplots,calculatingstrainrate,calculatingandplottingvorticity,as
wellasanycalculationthatcanbedonewithknownvelocityfields.

Figure3.40Interrogationwindowswithinitialandfinalparticlelocations.Thebigarrowsinthe
windowsrepresentthevectorsresultingfromthecrosscorrelation.(Adrian&Westerweel,2011)
PIVsoftwarecreatespeakstodeterminepossibleendinglocationsforaparticle.Usingthecross
correlationthecorrectparticleendinglocationisdeterminedwiththelargestpeak,ascanbeseenin
Fig.3.40.

59|P a g e


Figure3.41Firstimageshowspossibleparticlemovementlocations.Secondimageshowsresulting
correlationmap.Thirdimageshowsapeakofthemostprobableparticlelocation.Takendirectlyfrom
(Westerweel&Poelma)
Apeakratioisdefinedtocomparetheheightofthehighestpeaktotheheightofthesmallerpeaksand
noise,asshowninEqn.3.11.

1 3.11

Qisthepeakratio,P1isthehighestpeak,P2isthesecondhighestpeak,andministhecommonnoise
background.Ifthepeakratioiscloseto1,thenthehighestpeakandsecondhighestpeakarethesame
height,sothereisagreatdealofuncertaintyassociatedwiththevectorproduced.Typicalpeakratios
areontheorderof1.2to1.5.IntheDaVisalgorithm,aninterrogationwindowwithonlyonepeakis
givenaQratioof100.Thisshowsthattheretheprogramisrelativelycertainthatparticlesarecorrectly
matchedbetweenthetwoimages.(LaVision,2002)
TherearedifferentrulesofthumbtobeconsideredinperformingofPIV.Generallyitisdesirableto
haveabout8particlesinasingleinterrogationwindow.(Gharib&Dabiri,2012)Toofewparticlesand
thedominantpeakinthecrosscorrelationwillnotbeaveragedoversimilarparticlevelocitiesbutwill
beofthesamemagnitudeasthepeakfromindividualparticles,leadingtolowQratios.Toomany
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particlesandnoisefloorinthecrosscorrelationcanbecomeofsimilarmagnitudetotheparticlepeaks,
againleadingtolowQratios.Itisalsodesirableforparticlestomoveapproximatelyonequarterofthe
interrogationwindowsizebetweenlaserpulses.Thisisdonetoensurethemajorityofparticlesinthe
interrogationwindowforthefirstframearealsointhesameinterrogationwindowforthesecond
frame.Ifaparticleleavestheinterrogationwindowbetweenthetwoimagesthenitcannotbeusedfor
displacementcalculation.(Gharib&Dabiri,2012)Thedistanceaparticlemovesbetweenframescanbe
alteredbychangingtheinterrogationwindowsizeorbyalteringthetimedifferencebetweenthelaser
pulses.Byincreasingtheinterrogationwindowsizetherewillbemoreparticleswindowwhichresultsin
decreaseduncertainty,howevertheamountofvectorsproducedwilldecreaseaswell.(Westerweel&
Poelma)Itisalsonecessarytodetermineproperflowconditionsfortheseedingsystem.Itisdesirableto
havetheseedasevenlydistributedthroughtheflowaspossible.AfterperformingPIV,seedcan
accumulateonthequartzwindowwhichblocksthecamerasviewoftheflow.Itisimportanttokeep
thewindowscleaninbetweenexperiments.
PIVimagescanbeusedinananalysiscalledconditionedparticleimagevelocimetry(CPIV),asdiscussed
indetailinChapter6.Thisprocessworksonthefactthatintheflame,thedensityismuchlowerthan
outoftheflame.Thedifferenceindensityreducestheamountofseedinthevolumewhichresultsina
loweredintensity.Theintensitydataneedstobecorrectedandnormalizedbythemean.Whenplotting
theprobabilitydensityfunctionoftheintensitythereshouldbetwopeaksformed.Thefirstpeak
correspondstothereactantsandthesecondpeakcorrespondstotheproducts.Thereisaminimumin
betweenthatcorrespondstotheflamelevelvalue.(Tuttle,etal.,2013).TheuseofCPIVtocondition
velocitystatisticsalongtheflamefrontisdiscussedinChapter6.
3.6MeasurementUncertainty

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Ifavariableisdependentonothervariablesthatallhaveanassociateduncertainty,itisimportantto
findhowtheerrorpropagatestothedependentvariable.FigliolaandBeasleydescribetheproper
methodforcalculatingerrorpropagation.
/

3.12

1,2 3.13

TofindtheuncertaintyinthevariableR,itisnecessarytofindthepartialderivativesofRwithrespectto
allofvariables.Theoveralluncertaintyisequaltothesquarerootofthesumofthesquaresofthe
partialderivativesmultipliedbytheuncertaintyofthatvariable.IntheexampleofthePIVexperimentit
canbeassumedthattheonlyvariablesofuncertaintyarethehorizontalandverticalvelocities.Itis
assumedthattheXandYdirectionalvectorsdescribingthepositionofeachpixelintheimageare
knownwithabsolutecertainty.Manypropertiesoffluidscanbederivedusingthevelocityinformation
suchasvorticityandstrainratecanbederivedfromthevelocityinformation.Iftheuncertaintyof
velocityisknown,thenitispossibletodeterminetheuncertaintyofthevorticityandstrainrates.
(Figliola&Beasley,2006)ThederivedequationforvorticityuncertaintyisshowinEqn.3.14.Likewise
thederivationsforstrainrateuncertaintiesareshowninEqn.3.15,3.16,and3.17.

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3.14

3.15

3.16

3.17

4.IntroductiontoParticleImageVelocimetryToolsinMATLAB
TheDaViscommercialsoftwarewasusedtoanalyzetherawMiescatteringimagepairsandcalculate
thecorrespondingvectorfields.ItispossibletodosomefurtheranalyzinginDaVis,butitismore
convenienttoperformcalculationsinMATLAB.Thischapterservesasatutorialtoanyonelookingtouse
MATLABtofurtherprocessdatafromParticleImageVelocimetry(PIV)explainsinmuchgreaterdetail.
Thereadimxandshowimxfunctionscanbeusedtoextractthevectorsshowingthehorizontaland
verticalcomponentsofvelocityforeachhorizontalandverticallocation.

, , ,

; 4.1
; 4.2

4.1VelocityVectorPlots
ColorizedvectorplotsusingMATLABwerecreatedusingthevfieldfunction.
, , , ,

4.3

TheinputsX,Y,U,andVrepresentthehorizontaldirection,theverticaldirection,thehorizontal
velocity,andtheverticalvelocity.Theinputscalerepresentsthelengthofthevectorsoutput.For
exampleinputtingU/10forthescalewouldoutputvectorswithvaluesonetenththesizeoftheactual
value.Theplotsshowninthisthesisusethehorizontalvelocityvariable(U)asthescale.Thevectorsin
theplotshowthedirectionoftheflowateachspecificlocationandthecolorofthevectorscorrespond
tothevectorvelocitymagnitude,asshowninFig.4.A

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Figure4.1InstantaneousvectorplotwithJ=25,andPre=0.5.Jetlocationismarkedwithverticallines.
Thetwoverticallinesnearthe0and10mmmarksareuserenteredinMATLAB,andareusedtoshow
thelocationofthejetholeasfoundbytherawimages.Duetothenatureofturbulentflow,itisoften
convenienttoanalyzeboththeaverageandstatisticalvariationsinthevelocityimages.Theaverage
imagecanbeproducedbyMATLABorDaVis,andshowstheaveragevelocitymagnitudesanddirections
foreachinterrogationwindow.ComparingFig.4.2toFig.4.1showsthedifferencebetweenan
instantaneousimageandanaverageimage.TheaverageimagesfortheJ=50andJ=75casesare
displayedinFigs.4.3and4.4.Asimilaranalysiscanbedonewiththebluffbodyexperimentasshownin
Fig.4.5andFig.4.6.

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Figure4.2AveragevectorplotwithJ=25andPre=0.5.Jetlocationismarkedwithverticallines.

Figure4.3AveragevectorplotwithJ=50andPre=0.5.Jetlocationismarkedwithverticallines.

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Figure4.4AveragevectorplotwithJ=75andPre=0.5.Jetlocationismarkedwithverticallines.

Figure4.5Instantaneousvectorplotwith=0.76.Bluffbodylocationismarkedwithlines.

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Figure4.6Instantaneousvectorplotwith=0.76.Bluffbodylocationismarkedwithlines.
4.1ApplicationsofVelocityVectorPlots
UsingtheMATLABsoftwareitispossibletoextractlineplotsfromthevectorplotsproduced.Asan
example,ifanestimateoftheangleofjetflowwasdesired,onecouldmeasuretheangleofthejet
velocities.

cos

4.4

Inthepreviousequationistheanglewithrespecttotheverticalaxisand| |isthemagnitudeofthe
velocityforthatinterrogationwindow.Onceiscalculatedforeveryinterrogationwindow,itispossible
tomakeaplotoftheangleversusXdirectionforaconstantYvalue.Inthiscasetheanglesareexamined
foraYvalueof5.48mmfortheJ=25case.

67|P a g e


Figure4.7VelocityangleplotofJ=25andPre=0.5.Y=5.48mm.
Lookingatthevectorplot,atY=5.48mmthecenterofthejetappearstobearoundX=10mm.Atthis
valuetheanglethevelocityhaswiththeverticalaxisisabout38.Performingasimilaranalysisforthe
J=50andJ=75casetheangleswiththevertical=26and=13respectively.Whenplottingtheresults
(Fig.4.8)itcanbeseenthatincreasedmomentumratioshavemoreresistancetothecrossflow.

Figure4.8Velocityangleforvariousmomentumratios.
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Asanotherexampleasimilaranalysiscanbedoneforthevelocityfieldsaswell.Ifitweredesiredto
knowthehorizontalvelocityprofile25mmafterthebluffbody,achartofYdirectionversushorizontal
velocityforX=30mmcanbeproduced,asshowninFig.4.9.Asexpected,thehorizontalvelocityismuch
fasteraroundthebluffbodyflame,andismuchslowerinthebluffbodyflame.

Figure4.9VerticaldirectionversushorizontalvelocityprofileforX=30mm.Imageusedistheaverage
image.
4.2StreamlinesofFlow
Itispossibletousethevelocityinformationtocalculatemanyfluidproperties.Streamlinesarecurves
thatshowthedirectionoftheflowandaredefinedtobetangenttotheflowdirection.

4.5

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Figure4.10StreamlinesforaverageimageofJ=25andPre=0.5.

Figure4.11StreamlinesforaverageimageofJ=50andPre=0.5.

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Figure4.12StreamlinesforaverageimageofJ=75andPre=0.5.
MATLABhasabuiltinfunctionwhichallowstheusertocreatestreamlinesgiventheinputofvelocity
anddirectionaldata.
, , , ,

4.6

Ineqn.4.6,Xisthehorizontaldirection,Yistheverticaldirection,Uisthehorizontalvelocity,Visthe
verticalvelocity,startXisthestartinghorizontallocationofthestreamlinesandstartYisthestarting
verticallocationofthestreamlines.IfstartXandstartYarevectors,multiplestreamlinescanbe
produced.Usingstreamlinesonecannotethatthevelocityupstreamofthejettendtocurveupwards
andalignparallelwiththejet.Onecanalsonotethatinareaswithlowseeddensitysuchasrecirculation
zones,thestreamlinesaregenerallyinconclusive.Asimilarplotcanbeproducedforthebluffbody
flame,asshowninFig.4.13.

71|P a g e


Figure4.13Streamlinesforaverageimageof=0.76bluffbodyflame.
4.3VorticityPlots
Vorticityplotsareinterestingindeterminingtheamountofcirculationinthefluidtestsection.

4.7

IfvelocityisonlyconsideredintheXandYdirection,thenvorticityisdefinedasrotatingabouttheZ
axis.

4.8

OnewaytocalculatevorticityinMATLABisbyusingthecurlfunction.Ineqn.4.9,ZisthecurlintheZ
direction,CAVisthecalculatedangularvelocity,Xisthehorizontaldistance,Yistheverticaldistance,U
isthehorizontalvelocity,andVistheverticalvelocity.
,

72|P a g e

, , ,

4.9

Inthisthesishoweveracentraldifferencingmethodisusedtocalculatethederivativesofvelocitywith
respecttodistance,whicharethenusedtocalculatevorticityusingeqn.4.10.Thecentraldifferencing
methodisdiscussedingreaterdetailinChapter6.

4.10

OncethevorticityiscalculateditismosteasilyplottedusingthefilledcontourplotfunctioninMATLAB.
, ,

4.11

Ineqn.4.11Xisthehorizontaldistance,Yistheverticaldistance,andWistheparametertobeplotted
inXandY,whichinthiscaseisthevorticity.
Averagevorticityplotsareusefulformakinggeneralobservationsoftheoverallvorticitytrendsinsome
ofthetestsectionlocations.

Figure4.14AveragevorticityplotofJ=25andPre=0.5.

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Figure4.15AveragevorticityplotofJ=50andPre=0.5.

Figure4.16AveragevorticityplotofJ=75andPre=0.5.

74|P a g e


Figure4.17Averagevorticityplotofbluffbodyflameat=0.76.
Averagevorticityplotshoweverarenotusefulforobservingrandomvortexstructuresdueto
turbulence.Ifthesignofthevorticityvariesinacertainlocationformultipleimagesthentheoverall
vorticityinthatareawillnotbeaccuratelyrepresentedintheaverageimage.Itisforthispurposethatit
isworthwhilelookingatthevorticityplotsforsampleinstantaneousimages.Asampleimageisshown
belowinFigs.4.18and4.19.

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Figure4.18InstantaneousvorticityplotofJ=25andPre=0.5.

Figure4.19Instantaneousvorticityplotofbluffbodyflameat=0.76.
4.3ExtensionofVorticity

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Anadvantageofusingvorticityplotsitthattheycanbeusedtoestimatetherotationaldirectionofthe
velocityandtohelpevaluatemixing.Tofurtheranalyzemixingitcanbeconvenienttodefineanaverage
vorticityintheXdirection,theYdirection,andalsothetotalfieldaveragedvorticity.Theaverage
vorticityateachXlocationcanbecalculatedtheinthefollowingmanner.
1
,

4.12

Figure4.20AverageVorticityalongXDirectionforaverageimageofJ=25andPre=0.5.
ItcanbeseenfromFig.4.20thattheaveragevorticityispositiveupstreamofthejet,becomesnegative
downstreamofthejetandthenevensouttobeabout0.
Similarly,theaveragevorticityateachYlocationcanbecalculated.
1
,

4.13

Finally,itisconvenienttodefineafieldaveragedvorticitywhichcanbeusefulinestimatingmixing.

77|P a g e

| |

4.14

Figure4.21FieldAveragedVorticityPlot
Theplotshowsthatincreasingmomentumratiosleadtoahigherfieldaveragedvorticitywhich
promotesmixing.Thetrendappearstobelinear,butmoredatapointsatdifferentmomentumratios
arerequiredtodeterminethetruetrend.Thisisatopicofinterestwhichshouldbeexploredinthe
future.
4.4StrainRate
Anotherimportantfluidpropertyincombustionisstrainrate.Strainrateshowsthedeformationofa
fluid.Intensornotationstrainratecanbedefinedusingeqn.4.15.
1
2

4.15

Intwodimensionsthefourprimarystraintermssimplifytoeqns.4.16,4.17,and4.18.
4.16
78|P a g e

4.17
1
2

4.18

AsexplainedbyKunduandCohen,strainratecanbeseparatedintosymmetricandantisymmetricstress
tensors.(Kundu&Cohen,2008)
1
2

1
2

1
2

0
1
2

4.19
0

Usingthecentraldifferencingschemeitispossibletoestimatethestrainratevaluesfields.Againmore
detailsonthecentraldifferencingschemewillbediscussedinChapter6.

1
2

4.20

4.21

4.22

InMATLAB,thestrainrateplotscanbeplottedinasimilarfashiontovorticity.

79|P a g e


Figure4.22Contourplotofnormalstraininthexdirection.

Figure4.23Contourplotofnormalstrainintheydirection.

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Figure4.24Contourplotofshearstrain.

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5.CurrentBluffBodyStudy
Thepreviousstudiesonthebluffbodywereslightlydifferentthanthestudiesshowninthisthesis.In
thepast,thefocusoftheParticleImageVelocimetry(PIV)wasonthewakeofthebluffbodyandinthe
recirculationzone.

Figure5.1AveragevectorplotshowingformerPIVfieldofview.
ThepreburnershowninFigure3.AAand3.ABburnedfuelataleanequivalenceratioforahotvitiated
crossflowtosimulatetheproductsfromaprimarycombustor.Fuelwasaddedthroughairfoilswhich
wereinsertedinthesmallsettlingsectionshowninFigure3.AM.Theextrafuelwasadded5in.before
thebluffbodyandreactedwiththeunusedairfromthefirstcombustor.Oneoftheprimarypurposesof
theexperimentwastousethevelocityprofilestomatchwithcomputationalfluiddynamicssimulations
(CFD)toverifytheaccuracyofthesimulationsperformed.
Itwasfoundthattheinletconditionsforthepreviousbluffbodyworkwerenotsufficientlyuniformto
enablecomparisonstosomebluffbodyflamemodels.Tobetterunderstandthevelocityprofiles
enteringthetestsection,KoppVaughanperformedaPIVstudywhichincludedanarea0.5bluffbody
82|P a g e

pstreamofthe
ebluffbodylocation.SheperformedP IVforfourdiffferentupstreampressuree
widthsup
casesgrap
phedhorizontalvelocityprofileversusttheverticalddistanceattheelocation0.5
5bluffbody
widths(<in.)upstreaamoftheblu
uffbody.(Kop
ppVaughan,22011)

2Velocityalo
ongtheverticcalaxisupstre
eamoftheblluffbody.Neegativeandp
positivedistan
nces
Figure5.2
denotearreabelowandabovethebluffbody.(K
KoppVaughaan,2011)
AscanbeseeninFigurre5.2theupsstreamcondittionsarenot veryuniform
m.Thelinesap
ppeartoalmo
ost
haveanMshapehavvingaslowerrvelocityinth
heverticalloccationofthebluffbodyan
ndfastervelocities
justabove
eandbelowiit.Specificallyythe50PSIcaasereachesaamaximumveelocityofabo
out25m/sseeen
about7m
mmbelowthe
ebluffbodyandaminimumattheblufffbodylocatio
onofabout2
21m/s.Fromher
study,Kop
ppVaughann
noticedthattthesedipsinthevelocitypprofilelineup
pwiththeverrticallocation
nsof
thefuelin
njectingairfoiils.(KoppVau
ughan,2011) Atthetimetthisnonunifo
ormityinthevelocityprofile
wasaccep
ptablebecaussethemainfo
ocusoftheexxperimentwaastherecircu
ulationzoneo
ofthebluffbo
ody.
Inthecurrrentbluffbod
dystudy,changesweremadetotheexxperimenttotrytoachievemoreuniform
boundaryyconditions.FFuelandairw
wereaddedin
nthepreburnnersectiontoallowthewh
holelengthoffthe
experimentforsettlinggandmixing.Sincetheyw
werenolongeernecessary,tthefuelinjectingairfoilsw
were
removedaswellsothe
eywouldnotobstructtheflowbeforetthebluffbody.

83|P a g e

AscanbeseenfromFigure5.3,theflowstillresemblesanMshape,butitlooksbetterthanthe
previousstudy.

Figure5.3Averagehorizontalvelocityprofilesjustafterthebluffbody,inthemiddleofthetest
section,andattheendofthetestsection.Upstreampressureis50psi.
Togetabetterviewoftheinletconditions,PIVwasdonewiththebluffbodyremoved.Figure5.4shows
thataboveandbelowthebluffbodythevelocityisrelativelyconstantatabout27m/s.Figure5.5shows
avectorplotwhichappearstohaveverysmoothandconstantinletconditionsaswellasasymmetric
velocityprofile.Theimprovedinletconditionsshowninthisthesisshowprovideforbetterdatathatcan
moreaccuratelybecomparedwithCFDmodels.

84|P a g e


Figure5.4Averagehorizontalvelocityprofileswiththebluffbodyremoved.Upstreampressureis70
psi.

Figure5.5Averageimagewithimprovedboundaryconditions.

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6.ParticleImageVelocimetryUncertaintyAnalysis
ForallofthePIVexperimentsdoneinthelaboratory,itisdesirabletoknowtheerrorassociatedwith
thePIVsetup.Anyerrorassociatedwiththeexperimentalresultswillpropagatefurtherasananalysisof
theresultsisdone.Fortheresultstohaveanycredibilityitisimportanttoknowthedegreeofthe
associateduncertaintytoultimatelyseehowmuchconfidencecanbeplacedinthefinalanalysis.
6.1DeterminingParticleImageVelocimetryUncertainty
AfterDaVisperformsacrosscorrelationontheimages,apeakcorrelationpeakisformedforevery
interrogationwindow.DaViscanexportacorrelationmapsothatthepeaksforeveryinterrogation
windowareshown.Thecorrelationmapisdisplayedintermsofdifferentintensitieswithinthe
interrogationwindow.Thefollowingfigureisa2Dimageofacorrelationmapforasingleimageinthe
PIVexperiment.

Figure6.1Correlationmapofajetincrossflowimage.

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Ascanbeseen,thecorrelationmapisdividedintoboxesrepresentingeverysingleinterrogation
window.Theconceptcanbeeasierunderstoodbyzoomingintoasingleinterrogationwindow.

Figure6.2SingleinterrogationwindowfromthecorrelationmapinFigure6.1.
Thisfigurerepresentsacontourplotforasingleinterrogationwindow.Eachinterrogationwindowis
normally32pixelswideby32pixelshigh,butDaVisaddsablankcolumnattheendtomake33columns
andablankrowatthebeginningtomake33rows.Thereforetheanalysiswasdoneforinterrogation
windowsof33x33pixels.Thecontourplotshowsthattherearemanydifferentminipeaks,butonlyone
verylargepeak.Intheimagethelargepeakisinthemiddlesquareandisrepresentedbythehighest
intensityvaluesasshownbythecolorbarontheright.Forinterrogationwindowswheretherethe
particledestinationisuncertain,thecrosscorrelationwillproduceashorter,widerpeak.Onthe
contrary,crosscorrelationswithverylowuncertaintywillhaveasingletallandthinpeak.(Adrian&
Westerweel,2011)Inordertodeterminetheuncertaintyitisnecessarytodeterminethepeakthickness
andheight.Todothisaprogramwaswrittenthatfindstherownumbercontainingthepeak,andmakes
aplotoftheintensityinthatrowversusthepixelnumber.Thefollowingchartshowstheresult.
87|P a g e


Figure6.3Rowofpixelscontainingthemaximumpeak.
Ascanbeseenbythechartthereisonelargepeaksurroundedbynoiseonbothsides.Inordertofind
theuncertainty,itisnecessarytofindthehalfpeakhalfwidth.Thisisdonebyfindingtheheightofthe
peakminustheheightofthesurroundingnoise,andthenfindingwidthofthepeakathalfofthatvalue.
Theprogramdeterminesthehighestlevelofintensityintherow,anddefinesthepeakasthatpixelplus
andminus2pixels.Forexample,inthisimagethesummitofthepeakislocatedatpixel17,sothepeak
isdefinedtoexistbetweenpixels15to19.Theintensityofallofthepixelsnotinthepeakareaveraged
tofindtheaveragenoiselevel.Thehalfpeakheightisdefinedashalfofthedifferenceofthepeak
heightandtheaveragenoiseheight,plustheaveragenoiseheight.

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6.1


Figure6.4Diagramshowingthevalueforpeakheight.
Becauseeachhalfofthepeakconsistsofonlythreepoints,thewidthofthehalfpeakheightis
estimatedusingalinearregression.TheuncertaintyofthePIVmeasurementisdefinedatplusorminus
thehalfpeakhalfwidth.ThisrepresentstheuncertaintyofthedistancethePIVparticletravelswith
distancemeasuredinnumberofpixels.Itwasfoundthatuncertaintyvariesthroughouttheimageby
0.5pixelsto1.0pixels.Forconvenience,theaverageuncertaintyof0.75pixelsisusedto
characterizethevelocityuncertaintythroughouttheimage.Byknowingthepixellengthis6.7mfrom
calibrationofthesystem,theuncertaintycanbeconvertedtometers.Thenominaldistancetheparticle
travelsiscalculatedbyusingthevelocitymagnitudefortheinterrogationwindow.

6.2

Thenominaldistancetheparticletravelsisequaltothevelocitymagnitudemultipliedbythetimein
betweenthetwoimages.Inthisexperimentthetimedifferenceis4s.

89|P a g e

6.3

Forthepurposesofvelocitycomputation,itisconvenienttodeterminethepercentageuncertaintyfor
eachinterrogationwindow.Thepercentageuncertaintyisdeterminedbydividingtheuncertainty
distancebythenominaldistance.

100 6.4

Usingthepercentageuncertaintyitiseasytofindtheuncertaintyofthevelocityintheverticaland
horizontaldirections.
%

6.5

6.6

6.2ErrorPropagationandAnalysisofUncertainty
Usingtheprogramtofindtheuncertaintyforeachinterrogationwindowitispossibletocomparethe
uncertaintyfordifferentpartsofthetestsection.Interrogationwindowsineachpartofthesection
weresampledandaveraged.Theaverageuncertaintyofthedataatthebottomofthejetis0.70pixels,
theaverageuncertaintyforthejetrecirculationzoneis0.76pixelsandtheaverageuncertaintyinthe
crossflowis0.75pixels.ItisinterestingtonotethattheuncertaintyappearstobeindependentofJ
ratio.AstatisticalanalysiswasdoneforalloftheinterrogationwindowsforasingleJ=25imagepair.In
theanalysis,thesectionswhereuncertaintyvaluesare0ornotanumberhavebeeneliminated.Alsoall
valuesthatoccuratYvaluesofgreaterthan19mmorlessthan19mmareconsideredtobeoutsideof
thetestsectionandhavebeeneliminatedaswell.Theaverageuncertaintyis0.7528pixelswitha
standarddeviationof0.1359.

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Figure6.5Contourplotofuncertaintyinpixelsforjetincrossflow.
Forthepurposesofthisanalysis,0.75hasbeentakentobetheuncertaintyforallinterrogation
windows.Theuncertaintyofadistancethataparticletravelsintheinterrogationwindowiscalculated
knowingthatapixelis6.7m.

0.75

6.7

5.025

6.7

Knowingthereis4.0sinbetweentheimagesitispossibletofindtheuncertaintyofthevelocityinthe
interrogationwindow.

5.025

1
4.0

1.256

6.8

Thiscalculatedvelocitycorrespondstothemagnitudeofthevelocityintheinterrogationwindow.Itis
desirabletoknowtheerrorindistancepropagatestothecorrespondingerrorinvelocityandother
parametersthatareafunctionofvelocity.Thevelocitypercentuncertaintyperinterrogationwindowis
acomparisonthatessentiallycalculatespercenterrorofthevelocitymagnitudeascomparedtothe

91|P a g e

velocitymagnitudeforthatinterrogationwindow.Bythisdefinition,iftheuncertaintyofthevelocity
magnitudeisassumedtobethesameforeveryinterrogationwindowthentheinterrogationwindows
correspondingtothelowestvelocitieswillhavethehighestuncertaintypercentage.Inthefollowing
contourplotthisisseentobetruewherethehighestuncertaintyfallsintherecirculationzoneofthejet
andthelowestuncertaintyisinthecrossflowandthejetitself.Amoreaccuratewaytomeasurethis
wouldbetousetheactualuncertaintyofeachinterrogationwindowinsteadofassuming0.75pixels,
butduetomissingdataandblankspotsontheuncertaintyinpixelscontourplotthisisntpossible.

Figure6.6Contourplotofpercentageuncertainty.
Oncethepercentagevelocityuncertaintyisknown,itispossibletodeterminetheUandVvelocity
uncertaintiesforeachinterrogationwindow.Iftheangleofthevelocitymagnitudeisknown,thiscan
alsobedoneusingthevelocitymagnitudeandtrigonometricrelationships.Asmentionedinthe
uncertaintyanalysisfundamentalssection,theuncertaintyofthevorticitycanbecalculatedusingan
errorpropagationtechnique.

92|P a g e

6.9

FindingthederivativeofvorticitywithrespecttotheUandVvelocitiesinMATLABrequiredtheuseof
writingaformofacentraldifferencingscheme.Inthedifferencingscheme,thederivativeofavelocity
inaninterrogationwindowisapproximatedtoequaltothedifferenceofthevelocityofthewindows
nexttoitdividedbythedifferenceinlengthbetweentheneighboringwindows.Vorticitycanbe
calculatedinthefollowingway.

6.10

ThenextstepistofindthederivativeofvorticitywithrespecttotheUandVvelocities.Againthisis
doneinasimilarfashion.
1
6.11
2

,
,

1
6.12
2

,
,

1
6.13
2

1
6.14
2

Usingtheseestimatedvaluesforthederivativeofvorticitywithrespecttoavelocityfield,the
uncertaintyinvorticitycanbecalculatedusingthepropagationoferrortechnique.

93|P a g e

,
,

,
,

,
,

,
,

6.15

Substitutinginvaluesforthederivativesallowsforasimplifiedequation.

6.16

Forconveniencethevorticitypercentuncertaintyisdefinedasthevorticityintheinterrogationwindow
dividedbythemaximumvorticityinthetestsection.Figure6.7showsacontourplotofthevorticity
percentuncertainty.Againascanbeexpecteditisshownthattheregionswithlowvelocityhavethe
mostuncertainty,andthehighvelocityregionshavethelowestuncertaintylevels.

Figure6.7Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofvorticity.
Inasimilarfashiontovorticity,theuncertaintiesassociatedwithstrainratecalculationscanbederived.

,
,

1
6.17

,
,

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6.18

6.19

1
6.20

6.21

6.22

1
6.23
2

,
,

1
6.24
2

,
,

1
6.25
2

,
,

1
6.26
2

,
,

,
,

95|P a g e

,
,

6.27


Figure6.8Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofstrainrateinthexxplane.

Figure6.9Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofstrainrateintheyyplane.

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Figure6.10Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofstrainrateinthexyplane.

Figure6.11Contourplotofuncertaintyinpixelsforthebluffbody.

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Figure6.12Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofvelocity.

Figure6.13Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofvorticity.

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Figure6.14Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofstrainrateinthexxplane.

Figure6.15Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofstrainrateintheyyplane.

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Figure6.16Contourplotofpercentageuncertaintyofstrainrateinthexyplane.

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7.ConditionedParticleImageVelocimetry
Itmanycombustionapplicationsitcanbedesirabletofindtheedgeoftheflame.Typicallythisisdone
usingOHplanarlaserinducedfluorescence(OHPLIF).WhenOHPLIFisnotreadilyavailablethena
techniquecalledConditionedParticleImageVelocimetry(CPIV)canbeused.CPIVtakesadvantageof
thefactthatinflameregionsorinhot/coldboundariesthedensityismuchlessandtheseeddensityis
loweredaswell.TheloweredseeddensityiscapturedintherawMiescatteringimagesandcanbeused
toextracttheflameedgeortheboundarybetweenahotandcoldflow.
7.1ConditionedParticleImageVelocimetryMethodandResults
TobeginaCPIVanalysis,itisnecessarytoexaminetherawimagepairtobeused.Ofthepairthefirst
imageisusuallyusedbecauseithastheleastexposuretimetothelaserpulseandthereforehasless
interferencefromchemiluminescence.Thetwoimagescanbeseparatedusingthedatafieldproduced
fromthereadimxfunction(4.1).Thevariable.Datafieldcontainsisamatrixofintensitieswhichhas
thesamenumberofrowsasasingleimagebuttwicethenumberofcolumns.Basicprogramminglogic
canbeusedtoseparatetheintensitiesfromthetwoimages,asseenintheappendix.Thematrixread
fromMATLABisinverted,invertingtheintensitymatrixwillbringitrightsideup.Ascanbeseenin
Figure7.A,theimageiseasierviewedbytrimmingthetopandbottomoftheimagesothatonlyareasin
thetestsectionscanbeseen.Thereareanumberofwaystodothis,butinthisanalysisanewmatrix
wasdefinedthatonlycontainedthetestsection.FordetailsrefertotheMATLABprograminthe
appendix.

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Figure7.ARawMieScatteringimage.

Figure7.BRawimageproducedinMATLAB.

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Duetoscattering,thelaserpowerdecreaseswithincreasingpathlength.Itisnecessarytocorrectthe
imagetocompensateforthelaserpowerdifferences.Thiscanbedonebylinearlyequalizingthemean
intensityofthebottomoftheimagesothatitisequaltothemeanintensityofthetopoftheimage.The
imagethenneedstobenormalizedbythemeanintensityvalueoftheimagetogiveconsistentvalues
foreachimagepair.Todothis,aregiononthetopoftheimageandaregiononthebottomofthe
imageneedtobedefined.Forexample,theYspanvectorscanbedefinedtobefrom1to100onthe
bottom,andfrom500to600forthetop(if600isclosetothetopoftheimage).TheXspanvectorcan
bedefinedtobefrom1tothesizeofthecolumn.Afterbothregionsaredefinedastwomatricesof
intensities,itisnecessarytofindthemeanvalueofeachone.

Figure7.CSampleselectionoftopandbottomregionsforlinearnormalization.
Inequation6.1,IntTisthemeanintensityforthetop,IntBisthemeanintensityforthebottom,Iisthe
intensitymatrix,yspanTandyspanBaretheYspansforthetopandbottomregionsdefinedearlier,and
xspanistheXspandefinedearlier.
,
103|P a g e

7.1

Oncethemeanintensitiesforthetopandbottomregionsarefound,itistimetolinearlynormalize
them.Twomorevariablesaredefinedtorepresentthecorrectedtopintensity(IcT)andthecorrected
bottomintensity(IcB),asshowninEquation7.2.

7.2

Thiswaythemeanofthetopregionisnormalizedtoequal1andthemeanofthebottomregionis
normalizedtoequalafractionbetween0and1.Thegoalfromhereistofindanequationforalinethat
connectsthesetwomeanvalues.Equation7.3calculatestheslopeandverticalinterceptofthisline.

7.3

Nowthatalinerepresentingthenormalizedmeansthroughouttheimagehasbeencreated,theline
needstobeappliedtotheoriginalintensitymatrix,effectivelynormalizingalloftheintensityvalues.
Fromtheretheresultisanimagewhichislinearlynormalizedbythetopandbottomintensities.From
theretheimageneedstobenormalizedbythemeanvalue.Thebestwaytodothisistofindthe
averagevaluesfromthetopandbottomregionsdefinedearlier,andthentoaveragethem.Everyvalue
intheintensitymatrixshouldbenormalizedbythisvalue.TheresultingimageisshowninFigure7.D.

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Figure7.DNormalizedimageproducedinMATLAB.
Nextitisimportanttodefineamatrixofintensitiestobetheregionofinterest.Thepurposeofthe
regionofinterestistocreateasmallareawhereitiscleartoseethedifferenceinintensitiesbetween
thehotandthecoldregionsoftheflow.ItisnecessaryinMATLABinordertospeedtheprogram
processingtime.Thefollowingimageshowsanexampleofaregionofinterestchosen.Figure7.Eshows
asampleregionofinterestchosenwhichcontainsbothreactingandnonreactingregions.

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Figure7.ESampleregionofinterestchosencontainingflameandnonreactingregions.
Becausetheregionofinterestcontainsbothreactingandnonreactingregions,theintensitiesit
containsshouldvaryassuch.TheyaremosteasilycomputedusingahistogramplotinMATLAB.
, #

Forconvenienceinthiscalculation,thematrixofintensitiesintheregionofinterestwasconvertedinto
avectorcontainingalloftherows.Thehistogramwasdoneusingthisvectorofintensitiesand100bins.

106|P a g e


Figure7.FHistogramproducedfromtheregionofinterest.
Fromthehistogramplotitiscleartoseethattherearetwoprominentpeaks.Thefirstpeak,athigh
intensities,correspondstoareaswithnoflameandhighdensity,andthesecondpeakatlowintensity
correspondstotheareaswheretheflameexistsandthedensityislow.Itisnecessaryfromhereto
determineanintensityvaluewhichshallbedeterminedtobetheedgeofthehot/coldboundary.The
valueisreferredtoastheglobalreactednessthreshold(GRT)andcanbedeterminedbyeitherfinding
theaverageintensitybetweenthetwopeaks,ormoreappropriatelybythevalueoftheminimum
betweenthetwopeaks.Findingtheminimumvaluebetweenthetwopeaksismosteasilyperformedby
writingacodetobeginatthemaximumvalueofthefirstpeakandtoexaminethevaluesofthe
followingpeaksuntiltheystopdecreasingandbegintoincrease.Again,formoredetailsrefertothe
MATLABcodeattachedintheappendix.OncetheGRTisdefineditcanbeusedtofurtherseparatethe
imageintoreactingandnonreactingregions.Acodeisusedtoevaluateeverypixelvalueandredefine
everyvalueabovetheGRTtobeequalto1,andeveryvaluebelowtheGRTequalto0.Fromherethe

107|P a g e

imageneedstobefilteredwithaGaussianfilter.Theeasiestwaytodothisisusingabuiltinfunctionin
MATLABasshowninEquation7.4.
,

7.4

TheequationforaGaussianfilterisdisplayedinEquation7.5(Tuttle,etal.,2013).

exp
,

exp

7.5
2

Figure7.GResultingfilteredimage.

Asimilaranalysiswasperformedforthebluffbody.Theshortenedrawimageusedinthisanalysisis
shownbelow.

108|P a g e


Figure7.IRawMieScatteringimage.
Forsimplicitythebluffbodywasremovedfromtheimageastonotinterferewiththeintensityofthe
burnedandunburnedregions.FromPDF,theGRTwasfoundandtheimageintensitieswereedited
aboutthatpoint.AftertheGaussianfilterwasperformedtheburnedandunburnedregionscanbeseen.
Theflameedgeismorevisiblyseenusingacontourplot.

109|P a g e


Figure7.JResultingfilteredimage.

110|P a g e


Figure7.KContourplotofflameedge.
7.2ConditionedParticleImageVelocimetryAlternativeFilterMethod
Againascanbeseenwiththepreviousimagesthereissomeuncertaintyastothelocationoftheflame
edgeduetotheGaussianfilterwhichchangesthebinarizedimageintoacontinuousfunctionof
intensityvalues.InanalternativemethoditcanbevaluabletoperformtheGaussianfilterbefore
continuingwiththerestoftheanalysis.Aftertheimageisshortenedtothedesiredsize,theGaussian
filterisperformedandaPDFoftheintensityisthenfound.Thefollowinghistogramisforajetincross
flowimage.

111|P a g e


Figure7.12Histogramproducedfromregionofinterest.
Thehistogramproducedisnotascleanastheoneproducedbefore,butitcanbeseenthatthereisa
minimumvalueatabout1.2,whichistheminimumvalueselectedinthepreviousanalysis.Whenusing
thisastheGRTandredefiningtheintensitiesbelowandabovethatthreshold,theplotlooksmuch
cleanerandhasamoredefinedflameedge.
Whenthesameplotisappliedtothebluffbodyimagetheresultsaresimilar.Thehistogramagain
showsaminimumbetweenthetwopeaksofabout1.2.

112|P a g e


Figure7.14Histogramproducedfromregionofinterest.
Theproducedcontourplothasadefinedflameedge,butisnotveryclean.Theredvaluesinthe
unburnedregioncanbeattributedtopossibleunevenseedingconditionsorseedbuilduponthewall.

Figure7.15Resultingcontourplotshowingtheflameedge.

113|P a g e

ItcanbeconcludedthatCPIVisausefultechniqueforestimatingtheflameedge,butasTuttle
describes,itisnotasaccurateasplanarlaserinducedfluorescence.(Tuttle,etal.,2013)Nonetheless,
itsconveniencemakesitanimportanttechniquetoconsiderforstudieswherethelocationoftheflame
edgeisdesired.

114|P a g e

8.ConclusionsandFutureWork
8.1Conclusions
ParticleImageVelocimetry(PIV)wasperformedonabluffbodyflameholderandajetincross
flowflameholder.AtutorialonhowtouseMATLABsoftwaretoprocessthePIVdataisgiven
forthebenefitoffuturestudents.Thebluffbodyexperimentwasmodifiedtoimprovethe
boundaryconditionswhichwereverifiedusingPIV.
AnuncertaintyanalysiswasperformedonthePIVimagesanditwasfoundthatthetypical
uncertaintyinthecrosscorrelationpeakwasabout0.75pixels.Thisresultsina10%velocity
errorinthecrossflowofabout10%,anerrorlessthan10%inthejet,andanerrorof80%or
aboveintherecirculationzone.Thehigherrorcorrespondstonotenoughseedenteringthe
flowinthearea.Thepropagationoferroranalysisshowedthevorticityandstrainrate
uncertaintiesaswell.Theuncertaintiesweredividedbythehighestvorticityorstrainrate
value,whichexplainswhythepercenterrorforvorticityandstrainrateislowerthanthatfor
velocity.Vorticityerrorwasfoundtobeabout7%inthecrossflow,jet,andsomeareasofthe
recirculationzone.Theuncertaintyofstrainrateinthexxdirectiontendstobeabout14%in
thecrossflowandabout4%inthejetandpartsoftherecirculationzone.Theuncertaintyof
strainrateintheyydirectiontendstobeabout2%inthecrossflowandupto20%inthejet
andpartsoftherecirculationzone.Theuncertaintyinthexyplanetendstobeabout12%for
thecrossflow,thejetandtherecirculationzone.
AMATLABcodeforConditionedParticleImageVelocimetry(CPIV)wasusedtofindtheedgeof
aflameinthecaseofbluffbodystudiesorahot/coldboundaryinthecaseoftheairjetin

115|P a g e

crossflow.Thecodewaswritteninauserfriendlyfashionsuchthatfuturestudentsshouldbe
ableperformCPIVanduseittofindfluidpropertiesattheflameedge.

8.2FutureWork
Therearemanyareasoffutureworkthatarerecommendedtofurthertheknowledgeofthese
particularflameholders.ItwouldbeinterestingtoperformPIVmeasurementswithdifferently
shapedbluffbodyflameholders.Inpracticethegeometricflameholderisoftenshapedlikean
ellipticalwithalongtrailingedge.
Muchofthedesireddatafromthebluffbodyflameholderislocatedintherecirculationzone.
Unfortunatelyduetothelowdensityofthefluidsintheflameitisverydifficulttoproperly
seedtherecirculationzone.Arecommendationwouldbetodevelopageometricflameholder
thatiscapableofseedingfromthetrailingedge.
Alsointhispaperonlyonesingleroundjetconfigurationwastested.Therearesomany
differentjetincrossflowcombinationsthathavenotbeentestedinthislaboratory.Thiscould
alsobedonewithcrossflowsofdifferenttemperaturestoseehowtemperatureandexcessair
affectthejet.
ItwouldalsobeinterestingtoperformPIVsimultaneouslywithOHPLIF.Thiswouldallowthe
researcherstoseethevelocityprofilesoftheflameandtoalsotoseetheflameedge.CPIVcan

116|P a g e

beperformedinthemeantimetoroughlyestimatetheflameedge,PLIFisafarbetter
measure.

117|P a g e

Works Cited

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Ahmed,K.&Forliti,D.,2009.CombustorFlowfieldMeasurementsofaTransverseJetHolder.Orlando,
Florida,AmericanInstituteofAeronauticsandAstronautics.
Ahmed,K.&Forliti,D.J.,2010.OntheFlameandVorticityCharacteristicsofaFluidicallyStabilized
PremixedTurbulentFlame.Orlando,FL,AmericanInstituteofAeronauticsandAstronautics.
Bandaru,R.V.&Turns,S.R.,2000.TurbulentJetFlamesinaCrossflow:EffectsofSomeJet,Crossflow,
andPilotFlameParametersonEmissions.CombustionandFlame,pp.137151.
Boutazakhti,M.&Thomson,M.L.M.,2000.TheEffectofJetMixingontheCombustionEfficiencyofa
HotFuelRichCrossFlow.CombustionScienceandTechnology,pp.211228.
Chaudhuri,S.,Kostka,S.,Renfro,M.W.&Cetegen,B.M.,2010.Blowoffdynamicsofbluffbody
stabilizedturbulentpremixedflames.CombustionandFlame,pp.790802.
Figliola,R.S.&Beasley,D.E.,2006.TheoryandDesignforMechanicalMeasurements.s.l.:JohnWiley&
Sons,Inc.
Fleck,J.M.etal.,2012.AutoignitionofHydrogen/NitrogenJetsinVitiatedAirCrossflowsatDifferent
Pressures.Proc.Combust.Inst..
Gharib,M.&Dabiri,D.,2012.DigitalParticleImageVelocimetry.In:FlowVisualization:Techniquesand
Examples.London:ImperialCollegePress,pp.143166.
Han,D.&Mungal,M.,2003.SimultaneousMeasurementsofVelocityandCHdistribution.PartII:
DeflectedJetFlames.CombustionandFlame,pp.117.
Holdeman,J.D.,1993.MixingofMultipleJetswithaConfinedSubsonicCrossflow.ProgressEnergy
CombustionScience,pp.3170.
KoppVaughan,K.M.,2011.ExperimentalInvestigationofSomeFlameBehaviorsExhibitedin
Afterburners.s.l.:UniversityofConnecticut,Ph.DDissertation.
Kundu,P.K.&Cohen,I.M.,2008.FluidMechanics.Boston:Elsevier.
LaVision,2002.FlowMasterManual.Gottingen:LaVision.
Law,C.K.,2006.CombustionPhysics.NewYork:CambridgeUniversityPress.
Lefebvre,A.,1999.GasTurbineCombustion.
Leong,M.&Samuelsen,G.,1999.MixingofJetAirwithaFuelRich,ReactingCrossflow.Journalof
PropulsionandPower,pp.617622.126

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Marr,K.&Clemens,N.O.E.,2012.MixingCharacteristicsandEmissionsofStronglyForced
NonPremixedandPartiallyPremixedJetFlamesinCrossflow.CombustionandFlame,pp.707721.
Micka,D.J.&Driscoll,J.F.,2012.StratifiedJetFlamesinaHeated(1390K)AirCrossFlowwith
Autoignition.CombustionandFlame,pp.12051214.
Noble,D.R.,Zhang,Q.&Lieuwen,T.,2006.SyngasFuelCompositionSensitivitiesofCombustor
FlashbackandBlowout.Pittsburgh:23rdInternationalPittsburghCoalConference.
Samuelsen,S.,n.d.RichBurn,QuickMix,LeanBurn(RQL)Combustor.In:s.l.:s.n.
Shin,D.H.etal.,2001.DynamicsofaLongitudinallyForced,BluffBodyStabilizedFlame.Journalof
PropulsionandPower,pp.105116.
Spalding,D.,1953.TheoreticalAspectsofFlameStabilization.AircraftEngineering,pp.264268.
Sullivan,R.etal.,2013.UnsteadyFlameWallInteractionsinaReactingJetInjectedintoaVitiated
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Turns,S.R.,2000.AnIntroductiontoCombustion.Boston:McGrawHill.
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Tuttle,S.G.etal.,2013.LeanBlowoffbehaviorofAsymmetricallyFueledBluffBodyStabilizedFlames.
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Tuttle,S.G.etal.,2013.LeanBlowoffBehaviorofAsymmetricallyFueledBluffBodyStabilzedFlames.
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AppendixA1PIVProcessor
%This code is used to find the vector plots, streamlines and vorticity
%plots for a .VC7 image from DaVis. It also finds average vorticity stats
%Clear Command Window***************************************************
clear
clc
close all
%**********************************************************************
%Read PIV Image*******************************************************
JJ=0; %1 for sample
J=25;
liney1=-17;
liney2=-20;
if J==25
linex=5.56;
elseif J==50
linex=10.4496;
elseif J==75
linex=10.857;
end
if J==25
if JJ==1
[A]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J25_Phi1.65\Trial_5\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\B00010.VC
7');
else
[A]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J25_Phi1.65\Trial_5\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\TimeMeanQ
F_Vector\B00001_Avg V.VC7');
end
elseif J==50
if JJ==1
[A]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J50_Phi1.65\Trial_3\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\B00005.VC
7');
else
[A]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J50_Phi1.65\Trial_3\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\TimeMeanQ
F_Vector\B00001_Avg V.VC7');
end
elseif J==75
if JJ==1
[A]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J75_Phi1.65\Trial_3\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\B00050.VC
7');
else
[A]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J75_Phi1.65\Trial_3\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\TimeMeanQ
F_Vector\B00001_Avg V.VC7');

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end
end
[X,Y,U,V] = showimx(A);
%*************************************************************************
%Resize Image to size of test section and Invert**********************
[rowsize,colsize]=size(X);
K=1;
for i=1:colsize
if Y(1,i) > 19 || Y(1,i) < -19
remove(K) = i;
K=K+1;
end%end if
end%end for
X(:,remove)=[];
Y(:,remove)=[];
U(:,remove)=[];
V(:,remove)=[];
X=X'; Y=Y'; U=U'; V=V';
%*******************************************************************

%PLOT VECTOR FIELD*************************************************


figure
vfield(X,Y,U/10,V/10,U);
xlabel('mm')
ylabel('mm')
c=colorbar;
ylabel(c,'m/s')
title('J=25 Average')
line([linex;linex],[liney1;liney2])
line([linex-9.525;linex-9.525],[liney1;liney2])
%*********************************************************************
%Plot Streamlines*****************************************************
figure
vfield(X,Y,U/10,V/10,U);
xlabel('mm')
ylabel('mm')
title('J=25 Average')
line([linex;linex],[liney1;liney2])
line([linex-9.525;linex-9.525],[liney1;liney2])
startx=-10.*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
h=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
startx=10*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
i=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
startx=20*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
j=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);

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startx=25*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
k=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
startx=30*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
l=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
startx=35*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
m=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
startx=40*ones(1,7);
starty=-15:5:15;
n=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
startx=0:2:4;
starty=-15*ones(1,3);
o=streamline(X,Y,U,V,startx,starty);
%*******************************************************************
%Calculate Derivatives**********************************************
X=X/1000;
Y=Y/1000;
[rowsize,colsize]=size(U);
delx=X(1,2)-X(1,1);
dely=Y(1,1)-Y(2,1);
%Calculates the derivative of U and V WRT Y*************************
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if i==1
dUdY(i,j)=(U(i+1,j)-U(i,j))/delx;
dVdY(i,j)=(V(i+1,j)-V(i,j))/delx;
elseif i==rowsize
dUdY(i,j)=(U(i,j)-U(i-1,j))/delx;
dVdY(i,j)=(V(i,j)-V(i-1,j))/delx;
else
dUdY(i,j)=(U(i+1,j)-U(i-1,j))/(2*delx);
dVdY(i,j)=(V(i+1,j)-V(i-1,j))/(2*delx);
end
end
end
%This calculates the derivative of U and V WRT X
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if j==1
dUdX(i,j)=(U(i,j+1)-U(i,j))/dely;
dVdX(i,j)=(V(i,j+1)-V(i,j))/dely;
elseif j==colsize
dUdX(i,j)=(U(i,j)-U(i,j-1))/dely;
dVdX(i,j)=(V(i,j)-V(i,j-1))/dely;
else

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dUdX(i,j)=(U(i,j+1)-U(i,j-1))/(2*delx);
dVdX(i,j)=(V(i,j+1)-V(i,j-1))/(2*delx);
end
end
end
%*********************************************************************
%Calculate and Plot Vorticity****************************************
W=dVdX-dUdY; %Calculate Vorticity (1/s)
X=X*1000;
Y=Y*1000;
figure
contourf(X,Y,W)
line([linex;linex],[liney1;liney2])
line([linex-9.525;linex-9.525],[liney1;liney2])
c=colorbar;
ylabel(c,'1/s')
title('J=75 Sample')
xlabel('mm')
ylabel('mm')
%**********************************************************************
%Average Vorticity and Vield Average Vorticity*************************
%Average Vorticity Along X-Direction
sum=0;
delY=Y(1,1)-Y(2,1);
[rowsize,colsize]=size(W);
for k = 1:colsize
for L = 1:rowsize
sum=sum+W(L,k);
end
wx(1,k) = sum*delY;
sum=0;
end
figure, plot(X,wx)
title('Average Vorticity Along X-Direction')
xlabel('X mm')
ylabel('Vorticity (1/s)')

%Average Vorticity Along Y-Direction


sum=0;
delX=X(1,2)-X(1,1);
[rowsize,colsize]=size(W);
for k=1:rowsize
for L=1:colsize
sum=sum+W(k,L);
end
wy(1,k)=sum*delX;
sum=0;
end
figure, plot(Y,wy)
title('Average Vorticity Along Y-Direction')
xlabel('Y mm')

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ylabel('Vorticity (1/s)')

%Field Averaged Vorticity


sum=0;
for j=1:colsize
for i=1:rowsize
sum = sum+abs(W(i,j));
end
end
FAV=delX*delY*sum;
Xvec = X(1,:);
Yvec = Y(:,1);
Wvec= trapz(Yvec,W);
Wbar = trapz(Xvec,Wvec);
%*********************************************************************

figure
plot(U(:,8),Y(:,8))
xlabel('U m/s')
ylabel('Y mm')
title('JICF, X=-9.6mm')
averageaverage=mean(U(:,8))

%Strain Rate Equations and Plots**************************************


exx=dUdX;
exy=0.5*(dUdY+dVdX);
eyx=exy;
eyy=dVdY;
figure
contourf(X,Y,exx)
c=colorbar;
ylabel(c,'1/s')
title('J=25 Average e_x_x')
xlabel('mm')
ylabel('mm')
figure
contourf(X,Y,eyy)
c=colorbar;
ylabel(c,'1/s')
title('J=25 Average e_y_y')
xlabel('mm')
ylabel('mm')
figure
contourf(X,Y,exy)

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c=colorbar;
ylabel(c,'1/s')
title('J=25 Average e_x_y')
xlabel('mm')
ylabel('mm')
%**********************************************************************

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AppendixA2Uncertainty
%This code takes an .IM7 image from DaVis and finds the uncertainty
%in the measurement for each interrogation window.
%Clear Command Window***************************************************
clc
count=0;
close all
%***********************************************************************
%Import Images**********************************************************
CorrelationMap=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\Correlat
ion\J75Trial3Image1\CorrelationMap\B00001.im7');
count=count+1; figure(count), [xp,yp,I]=showimx(CorrelationMap);
[rowsize, colsize]=size(I);
count=0;
[B]=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seede
d_jet_J75_Phi1.65\Trial_3\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\B00001.VC
7');
[X,Y,U,V]=showimx(B);
X=X'; Y=Y'; U=U'; V=V'; X=X/1000; Y=Y/1000;
%***********************************************************************
%Define Correlation Map into Individual Interrogation Windows***********
%Row 1-8 are blank
%Row 61-64 are blank
unpix=zeros(60,80);
for b=1:80%5:10
column=b;
for a=1:64%14:1:54
count=count+1
row=a;
istart=1+33*(row-1);
iend=33*row;
jstart=1+33*(column-1);
jend=33*column;
a=0; b=1;
IW=zeros(33,33);
for i=istart:iend
a=a+1;
b=1;
for j=jstart:jend
IW(a,b)=I(i,j);
b=b+1;
end
end
%***********************************************************************
%Make A Contour Plot for************************************************
x=zeros(1,1); y=zeros(1,1);
%Make Contour Plot
for i=1:33
%defines x variable [X1 X2 X3; X1 X2 X3; X1 X2 X3]
for j=1:33
x(i,j)=j;

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end
end
for j=1:33
%defines y variable [Y3 Y3 Y3; Y2 Y2 Y2; Y1 Y1 Y1]
for i=1:33
y(i,j)=34-i;
end
end
%figure(4), contour(x,y,IW) %makes contour plot
% colorbar %adds colorbar
% grid on %grids
% grid minor %minor axis grids
% xlabel('Pixels')
% ylabel('Pixels')
%***********************************************************************
%Find column and row of maximum value***********************************
IW(33,1)=0; %This needs to be set to zero, Davis Makes it 1
MX=max(max(IW));
[num idx] = max(IW(:));
[rowmax colmax] = ind2sub(size(IW),idx);

%
figure(5), plot([1:33],IW(rowmax,:))
%
xlabel('Pixels')
%
ylabel('Intensity')
%
%***********************************************************************
%Find Half Peak Width***************************************************
%find Half Peak
%Define Baseline
%Define Baseline as every pixel not within 2 pixels of peak.
var=5; %Used to create row with less terms
varpeak=2; %Used to define +- terms of peak
xx=x(rowmax,:);
y=IW(rowmax,xx);
%Finds the Peak baseline
yy=y;
[size1,size2]=size(x);
if colmax < varpeak+1
unpix(row,column)=0;
unpix2(row,column)=0;
else
for i=colmax-varpeak:colmax+varpeak
yy(1,i)=0;
end
peakbase=sum(yy)/(size2-2*varpeak-1);
%Peak Height
HP=0.5*(max(y)-peakbase);
PeakHeight=max(y);
%Location of HP
HPYLoc=HP+peakbase;

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%Linear Regression may help us estimate x value for HPY


%First Line Linear Reg using interp1 function
xbeg(1,1)=x(1,colmax-1);
xbeg(1,2)=x(1,colmax);
ybeg(1,1)=y(1,colmax-1);
ybeg(1,2)=y(1,colmax);
HPXLoc(1,1)=interp1(ybeg,xbeg,HPYLoc,'linear');
%Second Line Linear Regression using interp1 function
xbeg(1,1)=x(1,colmax+1);
xbeg(1,2)=x(1,colmax);
ybeg(1,1)=y(1,colmax+1);% ybeg(1,2)=y(1,colmax);
HPXLoc(1,2)=interp1(ybeg,xbeg,HPYLoc,'linear');
%**********************************************************

%Calculate the Uncertainty in Pixels***********************


Unc(1,1)=colmax-HPXLoc(1,1);
Unc(1,2)=HPXLoc(1,2)-colmax;
unpix(row,column)=Unc(1,2);% + or - uncertainty in pixels
unpix2(row,column)=Unc(1,1);
%**********************************************************
end
end
end
figure
contourf(X,Y,unpix)
c=colorbar;
title('Uncertainty in Pixels')
xlabel('meters')
ylabel('meters')
ylabel(c,'Pixels')

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AppendixA3PropagationofError
%This code takes a .VC7 image from DaVis and calculates the corresponding
%error in velocity and vorticity.
%Clear Command Window**************************************************
clc
clear
close all
%**********************************************************************
%Read in Vector Image**************************************************
B=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seeded_
jet_J25_Phi1.65\Trial_5\Diff\PIV_MP(32x32_50%ov_ImgCorr)_PostProc\B00004.VC7'
);
figure, [X,Y,U,V]=showimx(B);
X=X'; Y=Y'; U=U'; V=V'; %Invert to align vectors with interrogation windows
X=X/1000; Y=Y/1000; %Convert X&Y from mm to meters
%*********************************************************************
%Determine Percent Error of Velocity***********************************
unpix=.75; %Uncertainty in Pixels
dtime=4*10^-6; % Time between images (seconds)
velmag=sqrt(U.^2+V.^2);%m/s
%Velocity Magnitude
distance=velmag*dtime;% meters % Distance Particle Travels in IntWindow
pixdistance=6.7*10^-6; %meters/pixel % FROM DAVIS
undistance=unpix*pixdistance; % uncertainty distance in meters
uncvelmag=undistance/dtime;
[rowsize,colsize]=size(U);
uncpercent=100*undistance./distance;
%Eliminate Percentages over 100
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if uncpercent(i,j)>100
uncpercent(i,j)=100;
end
end
end
uncU=uncpercent.*U/100;
uncV=uncpercent.*V/100;
%**********************************************************************
%Use Central Differencing Scheme to find Derivatives of velocity*******
[rowsize,colsize]=size(U);
delx=X(1,2)-X(1,1);
dely=Y(1,1)-Y(2,1);
%Calculates the derivative of U and V WRT Y
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if i==1
dUdY(i,j)=(U(i+1,j)-U(i,j))/delx;
dVdY(i,j)=(V(i+1,j)-V(i,j))/delx;
elseif i==rowsize
dUdY(i,j)=(U(i,j)-U(i-1,j))/delx;
dVdY(i,j)=(V(i,j)-V(i-1,j))/delx;
else

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dUdY(i,j)=(U(i+1,j)-U(i-1,j))/(2*delx);
dVdY(i,j)=(V(i+1,j)-V(i-1,j))/(2*delx);
end
end
end
%This calculates the derivative of U and V WRT X
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if j==1
dUdX(i,j)=(U(i,j+1)-U(i,j))/dely;
dVdX(i,j)=(V(i,j+1)-V(i,j))/dely;
elseif j==colsize
dUdX(i,j)=(U(i,j)-U(i,j-1))/dely;
dVdX(i,j)=(V(i,j)-V(i,j-1))/dely;
else
dUdX(i,j)=(U(i,j+1)-U(i,j-1))/(2*delx);
dVdX(i,j)=(V(i,j+1)-V(i,j-1))/(2*delx);
end
end
end
%**********************************************************************
%Calculate Vorticity (1/s)***********************************************
W=dVdX-dUdY;
%***********************************************************************
%Error Propagation*****************************************************
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if i==1 || j==1 || i==rowsize || j==colsize
uncW(i,j)=0;
else
uncW(i,j)=sqrt((uncV(i,j+1)/(2*delx)).^2 +...
(-1*uncV(i,j-1)/(2*delx)).^2 ...
+ (uncU(i+1,j)/(2*dely)).^2 + (uncU(i-1,j)/(-2*dely)).^2);
end
end
end
%************************************************************************
%Strain Rate Calculations************************************************
%Calculate e'xx
exx=dUdX;
uncexx=zeros(1,1);
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if i==1 || j==1 || i==rowsize || j==colsize
uncexx(i,j)=0;
else
uncexx(i,j)=sqrt((uncU(i+1,j)/(delx)).^2 + (uncU(i-1,j)/(delx)).^2);
end
end
end
%Calculate e'yy

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eyy=dVdY;
unceyy=zeros(1,1);
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if i==1 || j==1 || i==rowsize || j==colsize
unceyy(i,j)=0;
else
unceyy(i,j)=sqrt((uncV(i,j+1)/(dely)).^2 ...
+ (-1*uncV(i,j-1)/(dely)).^2);
end
end
end
%Calculate e'xy
exy=.5*(dUdY+dVdX);
uncexy=zeros(1,1);
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if i==1 || j==1 || i==rowsize || j==colsize
uncexy(i,j)=0;
else
uncexy(i,j)=sqrt((uncV(i,j+1)/(2*delx)).^2 + ...
(-1*uncV(i,j-1)/(2*delx)).^2 + (uncU(i+1,j)/(2*dely)).^2 ...
+ (uncU(i-1,j)/(-2*dely)).^2);
end
end
end
%***********************************************************************
%Propagation of Error
%Eliminates Outliers
%PercentW=100*abs(uncW./W);
%PercentW=100*abs(uncW./(max(max(abs(W)))));
% PercentW=100*abs(uncW./abs(W));
%
for i=1:rowsize
%
for j=1:colsize
%
if PercentW(i,j)>100
%
PercentW(i,j)=0;
%
end
%
end
%
end

%Calculate and Plot Percent Uncertainty of Vorticity***************


PercentW=100*abs(uncW./(max(max(abs(W)))));
figure
contourf(X,Y,PercentW)
c=colorbar;
title('Vorticity Percent Uncertainty')
xlabel('meters')
ylabel('meters')
ylabel(c,'Percent')
%*****************************************************************

%Strain Rate Equations**********************************************

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PercentExx=100*abs(uncexx./(max(max(abs(exx)))));
figure
contourf(X,Y,PercentExx)
c=colorbar;
title('e_x_x Percent Uncertainty')
xlabel('meters')
ylabel('meters')
ylabel(c,'Percent')
PercentEyy=100*abs(unceyy./(max(max(abs(eyy)))));
figure
contourf(X,Y,PercentEyy)
c=colorbar;
title('e_y_y Percent Uncertainty')
xlabel('meters')
ylabel('meters')
ylabel(c,'Percent')
PercentExy=100*abs(uncexy./(max(max(abs(exy)))));
figure
contourf(X,Y,PercentExy)
c=colorbar;
title('e_x_y Percent Uncertainty')
xlabel('meters')
ylabel('meters')
ylabel(c,'Percent')
%***********************************************************************
AA=uncpercent(:,:)~=Inf;
uncpercent=uncpercent.*AA;
% for i=1:rowsize
%
for j=1:colsize
%
if uncpercent(i,j) > 100
%
uncpercent(i,j)=100;
%
end
%
end
% end
% figure
% contourf(X,Y,uncpercent)
% xlabel('meters')
% ylabel('meters')
% c=colorbar;
% ylabel(c,'Percent')
%Plot Velocity Percent Error******************************************
figure
contourf(X,Y,uncpercent)
title('Velocity Percent Error Per Interrogation Window')
xlabel('meters')
ylabel('meters')
c=colorbar;
ylabel(c,'Percent')
%*********************************************************************

Appendix A4 CPIV

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%This code takes a .IM7 image from DaVis and uses the CPIV technique to
%determine the Flame Edge
%Clear Command Window**********************************************
clc
clear
close all
%********************************************************************
%Read in the Image to be used***************************************
A=readimx('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\ThesisPIV\JICF\reacting\Seeded_
jet_J25_Phi1.65\Trial_5\Diff\B00020.IM7');
%******************************************************************
%This code separates the first image from the second image*********
[rowsize,colsize]=size(A.Data);
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:0.5*colsize
I1(i,j)=A.Data(i,j);
end
end
for i=1:rowsize
a=i; b=0;
for j=0.5*colsize+1:colsize
b=b+1;
I2(a,b)=A.Data(i,j);
end
end
%*********************************************
%Define the Intensity Matrix as first image and invert******
I=I1;
I=I';
%*********************************************************

%shorten the image**************************


[rowsize,colsize]=size(I);
a=1;b=0;
for i=300:900
b=0;
for j=1:colsize
b=b+1;
W(a,b)=I(i,j);
end
a=a+1;
end
[rowsize,colsize]=size(W);
for i=rowsize:-1:601
W(i,:)=[];
end
I=ones(1,1);
I=W;
[rowsize,colsize]=size(I);
%******************************************

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%Gaussian Filter***********************************************
% Gauss=imfilter(I,fspecial('gaussian',19,3));
% figure, imshow(Gauss)
% Gauss2=imfilter(Gauss,fspecial('gaussian',19,3));
% I=Gauss2;
%*******************************************************************
%This code makes power corretion from top to bottom*****************
[rowsize,colsize]=size(I);
yspanT=1:100;
yspanB=500:600;
xspan=1:rowsize;
IntT=Mean(Mean(I(yspanT,xspan)));
IntB=Mean(Mean(I(yspanB,xspan)));
IcT=IntT/IntT; % determines top mean to be 'correct', adjust bottom
IcB=IntT/IntB;
Icm=(IcT-IcB)/(Mean(yspanT)-Mean(yspanB)); %calculates slope
Icb=IcT-Icm*Mean(yspanT); %calculates vertical intercept
Ic=Icm*(1:rowsize)+Icb;
ImgIc=Ic'*ones(1,colsize).*double(I);
%*******************************************************************
%normalize by mean value**********************************************
ImgIc= ImgIc./Mean(Mean([ImgIc(yspanT,xspan); ImgIc(yspanB,xspan)]));
I=ones(1,1);
I=ImgIc;
x1=1; x2=colsize;
y1=1; y2=100;
y3=500; y4=600;
figure, imshow(I)
line([x1,x2],[y1,y1])
line([x1,x2],[y2,y2])
line([x1,x1],[y1,y2])
line([x2,x2],[y1,y2])
line([x1,x2],[y3,y3])
line([x1,x2],[y4,y4])
line([x1,x1],[y3,y4])
line([x2,x2],[y3,y4])
%********************************************************************
%********************************************************************

%Define a Region of Interest (ROI)************************************


yspan=1:200;
xspan=101:200;
ROI=I(yspan,xspan);
%*******************************************************************
%Make a PDF to find Min and Max Peaks********************************
[rowsize,colsize]=size(ROI);
a=0;
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
a=a+1;
PDFLine(1,a)=ROI(i,j);

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end
end
bins=100;
figure, hist(PDFLine,bins)
ylabel('Frequency')
xlabel('Intensity')
title('Histogram Plot of Pixel Intensity')
[N,X]=hist(PDFLine,bins);
%******************************************************************
%Find GRT**********************************************************
[rowsize,colsize]=size(N);
j=1;
w=0;
while w==0;
a=N(1,j);
b=N(1,j+1);
if a<b
j=j+1;
else
firstmax=j;
w=1;
end
end
w=0;
a=0; b=0;
j=firstmax;
while w==0
a=N(1,j);
b=N(1,j+1);
if a>b
j=j+1;
else minimum=j;
w=1;
end
end
GRT=X(1,j)
%****************************************************************
%GRT, set values to 1 and 0**************************************
[rowsize,colsize]=size(I);
for i=1:rowsize
for j=1:colsize
if ge(I(i,j),GRT) %ge => greater or equal to
I(i,j)=0;
else
I(i,j)=1;
end
end
end
%*********************************************************************
%Gaussian Filter******************************************************
Gauss=imfilter(I,fspecial('gaussian',19,3));

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figure, imshow(Gauss)
Gauss2=imfilter(Gauss,fspecial('gaussian',19,3));
I=Gauss2;
%********************************************************************

%Flip Image Upside Down**********************************************


[rowsize, colsize]=size(I);
Iflip=zeros(rowsize,colsize);
a=0;
for i=rowsize:-1:1
a=a+1;
b=0;
for j=1:colsize
b=b+1;
Iflip(a,b)=I(i,j);
end
end
I=Iflip;
figure
%*********************************************************************
contourf(I)

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AppendixA5HighSpeedImages
%This code takes in an AVI file from a high speed camera and
%seperates the images for further processing
%Clear Command Window************************************************
clc
clear
close all
%********************************************************************

%Bring in movie***************************************************
mov =
aviread('C:\Users\cpp05001\Documents\MATLAB\HighSpeed\03_19_13\J30_Ph0.8_300C
HJ_920CCF_Trial_1.avi');
%*****************************************************************
%Find number of frames in the movie******************************
numberofframes=size(mov,2)
%**************************************************************
%Define Variables Used********************************************
% %[Variable,map] = frame2im(move(frame#))
%Find the size of an individual frame
[image1,map]=frame2im(mov(1));
[sizeY,sizeX]=size(image1);
%Initialize imagesum variable and set it to zero
imagesum=zeros(sizeY,sizeX);
%***************************************************************
%Begins a loop to define image variables, and to add the image*******
for counter=56:57
string='image';
imvar=[string,int2str(counter)];
[imvar,map]=frame2im(mov(counter));
for x=1:sizeX
for y=1:sizeY
imagesum(y,x)=imagesum(y,x)+imvar(y,x);
end
end
end
aveimage=imagesum/counter;
im2double(aveimage);
imshow(aveimage)
colorbar
colormap(map)
%*********************************************************************

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