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INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE & DESIGN

PORTFOLIO

RESIDENTIAL DESIGN

Bhavika Goyal
1ST Year Diploma
&
B.Sc. Interior Design

Dezyne Ecole College,India


www.dezyneecole.com

Project Report On
Residential Design
Submitted To
Dezyne Ecole College
Towards The Partial Fulfillment For
The Award Of Diploma In
Interior Design As
Technical Knowledge Development Of
Residential Space Planning
Included With The
Bachelor Degree Program Of Interior Design

By
Bhavika Goyal

Dezyne Ecole College


Civil Lines, Ajmer, India
Www.Dezyneecole.Com
2014-2017

Dezyne Ecole College


Civil Lines, Ajmer, India
www.dezyneecole.com

The Project of Ms. Bhavika Goyal has been checked and has been graded as

Thanking You
Principal
(Seal & Signature)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The Project Residential Space Planning has enlightened me about various aspects of
planning a residential building.
I give my sincere thanks to Dezyne Ecole College and to my Mentors who gave me the
opportunity to know about the various aspects of Residential Space Planning and
helped me in preparing the project.
Last but not the least thanks to God for keeping me in good health because of him I
was able to submit my project on time.
Bhavika Goyal
B.Sc.- Interior Design

INTRODUCTION
To Be Creative Is A Part Of Human Psyche. It Is One Of Those Traits That Set Us Apart From Other
Animal Species And We Have Practiced It For Millennia. Even When Our Prime Need Was To Find
Food And Shelter, We Felt A Desire To Leave Our Mark On The Environment That We Inhabited.
Whether This Was To Satisfy Some Deep Spiritual Calling Or A Method Of Passing On A Vital
Knowledge To Fellow Group Members, Or Whether It Was Simply A Way For An Individual To
Satisfy An Urge To Leave His Mark For Future Generations, We Will Never Know. For Just As Long,
People Have Turned Inquisitive Minds To Ways Of Solving Problems Such As How To Work More
Efficiently, How To Live More Comfortably And How To Be Safe From Danger.
Today, These Primitive And Fundamental Indicators Of Human Nature May Be Expressed In More
Sophisticated And Developed Ways, But The Primal Simplicity Of Our Human Desire To Make A
Better And More Comfortable World For Ourselves Is Evidenced Through, Amongst Other
Things., How We Organize The Space That We Inhabit, And The Aesthetic That We Make For Them.
As We Have Become More Affluent And Blessed With More Leisure Time, Style Has Become More
Important To Us And Is Something With Which We Want To Imbue Our Homes. But Style Is A Very
Personal Notion, So Why Should Anyone Look To Employ Someone Else, An Interior Designer, To
Tell Them What Is Right? Why, For That Matter, Should We As A Designer Presume To Impose Our
Ideas Upon A Space That Isnt Our Own?

The Answer Of This Interior Design Is All About So Much More Than What Looks Right. It Is About
Taking Holistic View Of The Way That Individuals Use And Enjoy The Spaces That They Inhabit. It Is
About Finding And Crating A Cohesive Answer To A Set Of Problems And Dressing The Solutions So As
To Unify And Strengthen Our Experience Of The Space. Many People Understand This And That They
Do Not Have The Necessary Skills To Tackle The Job Themselves. And So There Is The Need For
Professional Interior Designers.
Good Interior Design Adds A New Dimension To A Space. It Can Increase Our Efficiency In The Way We
Go About Our Daily Lives And It Adds Depth Understanding And Meaning Of The Built Environment.
Thoughtful And Well-crafted Design Makes A Space Easier To Understand And Experiencing Such A
Space Lifts The Spirit. It Is, Therefore, Not Just About Aesthetic, It Is A Practical And Philosophical
Design.
Beautiful Spaces Betray A Logical And Rational Questioning Of The Status Quo And Can Be An Honest
Attempt To Find New And Exciting Way To Lead Our Lives. Planners Are Often Asked To Make
Estimates Of Space Needs Before Having An Opportunity To Make Policies Or Detailed Plans For
Operations. Here The Interior Designer Studies About The Space And Its Surrounding Influences On It ,
Like Orientation Of The Space ,Day Lighting, Ventilation, HVAC ,Lighting, Landscaping All Depending
On The Personality Of The Space. These Then Lead To Development Of The Structural Features Of The
Building As It Influences The Utilization Of The Space.

Interior Decorators On The Other Hand Generally Work With Existing Spaces That Do Not Require
Physical Alteration. Through The Use Of Color ,Light And Surface Finish , They Will Transform The Look
Of The Space, Perhaps Making It Suitable To Function In A Different Way From That For Which It Was
Originally Designed , But With Very Little Or No Change To The Structure Of The Building. The Scope
Of The Projects Undertaken Will Vary From The Purely Decorative . To Ones Where A Great Deal Of
Structural Change Is Required To Meet The Brief. An Interior Designer Will Completely Handle The
Space Planning And Creation Of Decorative Scheme At The Same Time As Considering Major
Structural Changes.

Lets Understand The Work Of An Interior Designer.


1. Interior Design As A Skill Branch:
Building Engineering Was A Pioneer Design Field Out Of Which Many Specialties Like Architecture,
Civil Engineering And Interior Designing Have Separated . All These Skills Deal With Buildings Using
Many Common Materials And Techniques . Interior Design As A Result Has Certain Affinity To
Architecture . In Recent Years Many Other Design Skills Like Urban Design, Town Planning, Mass Or
Public Housing, Landscape Architecture Etc. Have Merged From Architecture . In Future Many Other
Skills May Also Emerge From Interior Design.

2.Building And Design Interventions:


A Building Once Constructed Is Initially Readied For Occupation By The Original Designer . However
Buildings Last For Ages And During The Lifespan , Must Be Altered And Updated Several Times.
Architects Or Building Engineers Are Unavailable , Or Have No Income Incentive For Such Frivolity.
During Early Middle Ages Or Perhaps Even Earlier , Low-skilled Art-painters Were Hired To Paint And
Decorate Old Buildings Inside And Outside . The Painters Known As Decorators , Worked Along With
Associates , To Not Only Paint But Undertake Repairs, Make Furniture And Update Furnishings. Many
Crafts-persons Like , Iron-smiths, Guilders, Glass Blowers , Weavers, Embroiders, Rug And Carpet
Makers, Sculptors, Mural Makers Were Associated With The Decorator As Jobbers And Suppliers .
Later All These Services Were Handled By A Person , The Interior Decoration Was A Service For The
Building But Always Was Distinct From The Architect From The Architecture Or Building Engineering.
Interior Decorator Was Neither A Variant, Nor Subservient To The Architect.
3. Interior Decorator To Interior Designer:
Interior Decorator Worked As A Facilitator, Scheduling And Coordinating The Activities While
Supervising The Quality Of Various Vendors. The Interior Decorator Now Even Offered Comprehensive
Design Solutions With Alternative To Their Clients. Interior Decoration Became A Well- Documented
Strategy, Serving Two Basic Purpose.
It Helped Creation Of A Functional System By Coordinating Skills, Materials And Objects Sourced
From Different Agencies.

It Showed The User Of Client, In Advance, The Solution, In A Respective Form A Surrogate

Once The First Objective Was Achieved Without Being Continuously Present On The Site It Was
Possible For The Interior In Charge Person To Devote More Tome And Attention To The Second
Objective. The Interior Decorator Began To Play A Very Active Role Of A Professional Interior Designer
Rather Than Being Simply A Site Bound Interior Contractor.
4. Design StudioThe Interior Designer Now Operated From A Design Office Or Studio, Usually Located In An Urban
Area. The Studio Was Used For Creating Drawings, Sketches, Other Presentations, Models, Prototypes,
Dummies, Cartoon (Replicas Of Artwork In Full Size), Samples Etc. It Contained Samples Of Materials
And Catalogues. The Studio Was A Fixed Location Facility Where Interior Designer Was Able To Meet
Clients, Suppliers And Crafts- Persons.
5. Design+ Execution PracticeSchematic Documentation Of Design Has Been Very Difficult. And The Most Irritating Aspect Of
Business. Amateur Interior Designers ( Formally Untrained Hobbyists) Lack The Capacity To Document
Their Design Intentions, So Prefer To Work On The Site, Providing Oral Instructions To Contractor Or
Their Workers. Many Interior Designers, Even Today Where Practicable Would Like To Execute Their
Work By Themselves. The Tradition Of Combining Design+ Execution Persists For Many Reasons.

Interior Components Require Complex Details And Materials For Their Sensorial Qualities. These
Are Difficult To Present Through Formal Design Documentation, And Must Be Effected Only
Through Personal Involvement.
Interior Designing Involves Improvisation. The Coordinated Effect Can Be Achieved Only When
Components Or Systems Are Substantially Produced By The Designers Themselves.
Amateur Or Untrained Interior Designers Do Not Have Such Proficiencies.

6. Forms Of Interior Design Practices:


Today Many Different Forms Of Interior Design Practices Exist Ranging From:
PURE DESIGN (Design Only).
DESIGN + SUPPLY.
DESIGN + SUPPLY + EXECUTION.
7. Interior Design and other Design Professions:
Interior Design Like Any Other Design Profession, Is An Interdependent Profession. Interior Designers
Work In Conjunction With Other Design Professionals, Who Need Interior Design Contribution In Their
Work, Such As Architects, Building Engineers, Landscape Designers , Furniture And Product Designers,
Exhibition And Event Managers. Interior Designers Also Use Expertise Of Other Professionals For Their
Work. These Include Environmental Engineers, Ecologists, Furnishing Experts, Textile Designers,
Painters, Sculptors, And An Array Of Crafts Persons.

8. Specialization in Interior Design:


Interior Designers Like Other Professionals Also Face A Dilemma, Should They Specialize Or Be A
Generalist? To Become A Specialist One Needs To Limit The Work To Projects Of Particular Nature. But
It Is Very Difficult To Get Projects To Suit A Predefined Field Of Specialization. In Reality, As And When
Opportunities Arise, A Designer Preferences Project That Builds Up The Specific Sphere Of Experience.
The Refined Capability Can Then Be Used For Handling Similar But Complex Jobs.
Acute Specialization In A Particular Field Also Leads To Generalization, As One Handles Only One Or
Few Types Of Projects. Interior Designers By Handling Only Specific Projects Achieve An Expertise In
The Field, But Gradually Lose The Capacity To Handle Other Projects. Whereas A Generalist , By
Handling All Sorts Of Projects, Perhaps Gains A Wider Experience, Economics Of Scale (Turnover), But
At Compromised Quality.
Some Degree Of Specialization Is Becoming Apparent In Interior Design. Some Of The Major Fields To
Have Distinct Identities Within The Ambit Of Interior Designers Beyond Their Role Of Furnishers Are
Also Ideal As Maintenance, Persons And Operators Of Buildings.
Large Organizations (Hotels, Guest Houses, Corporate Head Offices, Museums, Showrooms,
Departmental Stores) Have Estates, Substantially Consisting Of Buildings, Furniture, Furnishings,
Plants, Equipment, Utilities, Gardens And Landscaped Lands.

Interior Design Turning Today Includes Design Drafting And Presentation Technologies In Digital
Media. Interior Designers With Competence In Computerized Drafting (AUTOCAD) 3D Modelling,
Animation, Walk Through, Rendering, Etc. Find Employment In Many Other Design Fields. Interior
Design Training Consists Of Color, Rendering, Graphics And Presentation Techniques, Preparing Them
For The Diversion To Graphics Related Fields, Like Artworks, Advertising, Cinematography, Exhibitions,
Publicity, Etc.

WHAT IS A HOUSE?
A House Is A Place Of Communication For The Family For Domestic Activities, For Living, Working,
Eating And Sleeping. It Is A Place Where Family Goes To Be With Each Other.
A Home Means Different Things To Different People , For Some It Is A Comfort Zone And A Secure
Heaven Where The Mind, Body And Soul Is At Peace And Rest; For Others Its An Expression Of Their
Creativity, Aesthetics And Individuality; And For Yet Others Its A Showcase Of What They Have
Achieved In Life.
Whatever Your Temperament Or Aspirations ,Your Home Reflects Your Familys Signature And Is
Unique In Its Own Way. A House Says A Lot About The People Who Live In It.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERIOR DESIGNING AND DECORATING

Many People Use The Terms Interior Design And Interior Decorating Interchangeably, But These
Professions Differ In Critical Ways.
Interior Design Is The Art And Science Of Understanding Peoples Behavior To Create Functional
Spaces Within A Building. Decoration Is The Furnishing Or Adorning Of A Space With Fashionable Or
Beautiful Things. In Short, Interior Designers May Decorate But Decorators Do Not Design.

Interior Designers Apply Creative And Technical Solutions Within A Structure That Are Functional,
Attractive And Beneficial To The Occupants Quality Of Life And Culture. The Interior Design Process
Follows A Systematic And Coordinated Methodology, Including Research, Analysis And Integration Of
Knowledge Into The Creative Process To Satisfy The Needs And Resources Of The Client.

My Skills And Working

To Enrich My Skills And Knowledge , I Have Studied Various Topics In My Degree Program.These Are:
Elements And Principles Of Design- I Have Learnt About Seven Major Elements Of Design I.E. Line,
Shape,form,colour, Texture, Value And Pattern. And Principles Of Design I.E. Unity, Balance, Scale And
Proportion, Rthym,emphasis Etc. I Have Also Studied Color Theory.
History Of Art And Architecture- I Have Studied About Different Civilizations Including Stone Age
Civilization, Egyptian Civilization , Indus Valley Civilization, Aryan Civilization. I Have Also Studied
About The Temple Architecture Of India And About Different Painters Of India
Building Contruction I Have Studied Various Topics Including Technical Parts Of A Building I.E.
Foundation, Plinth, Roof, Floor, Ceiling, Door, Windows Etc. , Different Types Of Doors And Windows,
Different Types Of Stairs, Arches , Bricks Masonry And Stone Masonry.
Interior Materials- I Have Also Studied About The Interior Materials.
Space Planning Principles- I Have Also Learnt About Residential Space Planning Methodology And
Louis Kahns Principle
During My First Year Of Degree Program, I Have Visited A Construction Site Of A Flat. I Have Also
Participated In The Identity Exhibition On The Concept Of Smart City. In The Subsequent Slides My
Working Is Shown.

RESIDENTIAL DESIGN
The design has to be functional so that the person can feel the
space, express his self at the same time enjoy the space.

Whenever Any Planning Has To Be Done One Needs To Pay


Attention To :
Who Is The Client And What Are His/her Requirements.
Locality Of The Plot(location).
Landmarks To The Plot.
Mark Directions On The Plot.
Climatology Of That Location
1. Macro Climate
2. Micro Climate
Day Lighting And Ventilation

All These Above Features Lead To Development Of The Building Envelope As We Have To Design
A Sustainable Building Designs And At The Same Time Green Building Designs
POLICE LINES

SOME OF THE STEPS TO BE FOLLOWED FOR GOOGLE MAPS


Locate Your Site On The Google Maps
Google Maps Offer Aerial And Satellite
Views Of Many Places. It Also Provides
Detailed Information About Geographical
Regions And Sites Around The World.

POLICE LINES

It Can Help Us Locate Various Sites In A Particular Area.


We Can Also Use A Map To Find Out Nearby Facilities.
This Allows Us To Get Information In Short Span Of Time.

SITE CONTOURS
Contour Maps Provide Valuable Information About The Topography Of The Area,
Whether It Is Flat, Undulating Or Mountainoueous. The Nature Of The Ground Surface Of
An Area Can Be Understood By Studying A Contour Map.

POLICE LINES

SITE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS


Location Of The Site , Site Analysis , Site And Its Surrounding Are First Undertaken.
Site Analysis Is The Process Of Surveying Or Studying The Existing Environment And How It Will
Influence The Structural Design And Layout On The Site. Site Analysis Must Be Completed First
Before Design Development Commences.

Savitri
College

SPECIFICATIONS:
Savitri College

R.T.D.C

Road

POLICE LINES

Proposed
Site

Distance From Railway Station 1200m


Distance From Bus Stand 650m

Residential
Zone

Proposed Site
Ajmer
Hospital

Residential
Zone
Ajmer Hospital
R.T.D.C

ACCESSIBILTY TO THE SITE


The Main Entrances And The Main Road Abutting The Site Is Very Important For Any Kind Of
Project.

Proposed
Site

N
POLICE LINES

Propose
d Site

CONNECTIVITY TO MAIN ROAD AND SUB-ROADS


Connectivity Of The Site To The Main Roads And Sub Roads, To Major Landmarks Like Railway
Station, Bus Stand Etc. Must Be Check.
Distance From The Major Landmarks Such As :
Shopping Centers (1.2km)
Railway Stations (2.5km)
Hospital (350m)
Bus Stand (1km)
Dimensions Of The Site (54x50)

POLICE LINES

MAJOR LANDMARKS

Savitri
College

R.T.D.
C
Proposed
Site

Ajmer
Hospital

Residential
Zone

POLICE LINES

ORIENTATION OF THE SITE

POLICE LINES

First Of All We Need To Pay


Attention To The Direction Of
The Sun And Its Movement In
The Four Directions.
If We Pay Attention To The
Diagram Of Suns Movement We
See The Sun Rises From East And
The Color Of The Suns Light At
That Time Is Tender Yellow, The
Whole South Direction Is
Completely
Lighted
Up
Throughout The Day And Is The
Most Hot Direction But At The
Same Time The Cool Wind Blows
From West Direction Too. So It Is
Very Important To Have The
Building Oriented From East To
West Because Then The House
Will Have More Sunlight And Air.

NORTH
TOTAL SHADE
Acceptable
QUADRANT
Of Windows
orientation

Preferred
Zone For
Building
Orientation

WEST

EAST

WINTER SUN

SUMMER SUN

INTENSE SUN

SOUTH

ORIENTATION OF THE SITE

Well Oriented Buildings Maximize Day Lighting It Is


Important To Remember That The Position Of The
Sun In The Sky Is Dynamic.
If The Placement Of Doors And Windows Is Done
According To The Orientation, The House Will Be
More Lighted Up And There Will Be No Use Of Other
Energy Sources In Daytime And The Circulation Of Air
Will Also Be Better.
The Building Orientation Have An Impact On
Heating, Lighting And Cooling Costs.

POLICE LINES

CLIMATOLOGY FACTORS
Climatology Is The Branch Which Deals With
The Climate And Changes Throughout The Year
Of The Weather.

Macro Climate Of India:


Location Of India In The World Is
Northeast Direction .
Longitude Of India 88 To 90
Latitude Of India 8 To 37
The Whole India Has A Tropical Monsoon
Climate, Since The Greater Part Of The
Country Lies Within The Tropics.

1. Macro climate
2. Micro climate

POLICE LINES

Climate can be sub-divided into two


major divisions :

We have to study the micro


climate and macro climate structure .

23 N

23 N

MACRO CLIMATE

POLICE LINES

Climate And Temperature Of


Ajmer:
Ajmer Has A Typical Desert
Climate And Hot And Arid.
Summers Are Hot With
Maximum
Temperature
Near 40c While The
Minimum Is Nearly 28c.
Winters Are Chilly With
Minimum Temperature Of
5c.
Longitude Of Ajmer 7442
North.
Latitude Of Ajmer 2627
East.

MICRO CLIMATE

POLICE LINES

Setting And Site Layout Followed By Landscaping


Can Improve The Microclimate Around A Building,
Taking Advantage Of Existing Topographical
Feature, Adjacent Buildings And Vegetation For
Solar Protection. Good Site Layout Can Also Take
Grater Advantage Of Local Breezes By The
Formation Of Air Funnels And Also Aid Natural
Ventilation By Staggering Oh The Building Layout.
The Presence Of Water And Vegetation On The Site
Can Also Be Used For Natural Cooling. Good Site
Layout Can Reduce Cooling Loads Appreciably By
Optimizing Natural Solar Protection And Local
Breezes.
Elements Of Site Design That Can Be Used For
Efficient Natural Cooling Include Landscaping,
Orientation To Sun And Wind, Building Shape And
Planning And Natural Ventilation.

Micro climate zone

SUSTAINABILITY FACTORS
For any design to be efficient , we need to focus on following parameters:

Energy efficiency

Water efficiency
Material efficiency
POLICE LINES

DAYLIGHT
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Day lighting is a practice of placing windows or other openings and reflective surfaces so that
during the day natural light provides effective internal lighting.
Benefits of day lighting:
It is a full spectrum source of light.
It increases productivity and decreases sick time.
It reduce electrical consumption and reduce cavity.
Mirrors can be used to create illusion to make a room/area look big.

POLICE LINES

Principles of good daylight practice:


Level & distribution of light depends on
Geometry of space.
Location.
Orientation of windows and other openings.
Characteristics of internal surface.

DAYLIGHT

NORTH

ENERGY EFFICIENCY
The Objective To Design A Window Is To
Provide As Much Of The Indoor Lighting
Requirement With Day Lighting Without
Compromising Other Energy.
wide windows are used for viewing purpose
and tall windows are used for having suns
light inside the house.

The Whole South Direction Is Completely


Lighted Up Throughout The Day , Wide
Windows Are Used In Southern Side So That
No Glare Can Come Inside The House .

Northern Side Is A Darker Zone , It Has Less


Suns Light If We Use Tall Windows In
Northern Side maximum Suns Light Can Be
Entered Inside The House.

NORTH

VENTILATION
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
VENTILATION may be defined as supply of fresh outside air into an enclosed space or the removal
of inside air from the enclosed space. In other words, ventilation is the removal of all vitiated air
from a building and its replacement with fresh air.
Ventilation may be achieved either by natural or artificial(or mechanical) means.
In a room air exchange takes place minimum 1 time and maximum 60 times.
The rate of natural ventilation depends on two effects:
Wind effect
Stack effect
Wind

Wind
Wind
Wind
POLICE LINES

Wind

Wind

Wind

Wind

Wind

Wind
Wind
Wind

Wind

Movement of wind through windows

VENTILATION
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
Suction Zone
Suction Zone

Suction Zone

a
a

Outlet

Pressure
Zone

(a) a> 30

Pressure
Zone

(b) a<
30

Wind pressure and suction zone

Pressure
Zone

VENTILATION
ENERGY EFFICIENCY

Roof

Outlet

Outlet

Roof
Outl

Outlet

Outlet

Inlet

et

Inlet
Wall

Floor

Wall
Floor

(b)

(a)

Wind pressure and suction zone

VENTILATION
ENERGY EFFICIENCY
N

Cross Ventilation

RAINWATER HARVESTING
Water Efficiency
Rain water harvesting : It is also another important factor of building envelope. Landscaping,
water body, heat insulated material, cavity wall are use to control air and heat. Rainwater
harvesting is a technique used for collecting, storing and using rainwater for landscape irrigation
and other uses.

Water tank
rainwater

Soft floor

soil
Water table
increases

LANDSCAPING

Landscaping can improve the microclimate in both summer and


winter, providing shading, evaporate cooling and wind channeling
in summer, or shelter in winter. Vegetation absorbs large amounts
of solar radiation in summer helping to keep the air and ground
beneath cool while evapotranspiration can further reduce
temperatures.

Landscaping

BRICK AND STONE

A knowledge about building material help us to design better


houses . Presenting my learning skill in subsequent

SITE SERVICES
Study of services on site is also very important they are

Water supply
Electricity lines

Drainage lines
I have included them in later project

BUILDING BYELAWS
Building Bye Laws Consist Of Certain Rules And Regulation Framed By A Municipal Or Town
Planning Or Urban Development Board To Control The Development Of Area Under Its
Jurisdiction.

All Mandatory Plan Regulation Regarding Use, Land Use, Coverage, Set-back And Open Space.
The Minimum Set Backs To Be Leave In A Building Should Be From Front Is 10 From Both The
Side And Back 3 To 5.
Number Of Stories And Number Of Dwelling Units.
Parking Standards, Lighting And Ventilation Of Room.
Distances From Electric Lines And Structural Safety Requirement.
Size And Height Of Room And Other Requirement Of The Building.
Fire Protection Requirements Like Fire Proof Door, Emergency Alarm System, Fire Pump, Fire
Lift And Fire Resistance Materials.
Building Services Which Include Electrical Installations, Air Conditioning, Heating And Plumbing
System Etc.

To Follow Building Bye Laws, We Can Make A Building Which Has Proper Ventilation, Good Day
lighting, Air Circulation, Open Space And Many Other Advantage.

PLOT AREA
In My Residential Space Planning, I Have Paid Attention To The Building Bye Laws Also. The
Minimum Set Backs I Have Leave In My Building Is ;From Front 10, From Both The Side And Back 3.
I Have Also Included The Parking Standards In My Residential Space Planning.

Specifications
Plot Area- 300 sq.
yards (54*50)
Parking Area- 17*15
Covered Area- 45*34
Wall 9
Pillar 16
M;
Plot Area

Parking Area

Covered Area

Wall

Pillars

PLANNING METHODOLOGY
To plan any building we need to focus is main things they are:

Space planning
Anthropometrics

Ergonomics

PRINCIPLES OF PLANNING
Every human being has a different personality that consists of one or more characteristics. Their
personalities react differently in different environment or with different people.
Consider a space as a person. Every space has its own personality with several special
characteristics that differ by project, these characteristics cause the space to interact with other
spaces in a certain manner, these characteristics can be categorized as 6 expressions of human
behavior.

Leading/ Following
Grouping
Loner
Servant
Watcher
Outreaching

LEADING/FOLLOWING

LEADING

RESIDENTIAL

ARCHITECTURAL
FIRM

BANK

THEATRE

LIVING ROOM

PRINCIPALS
OFFICE

WAITING
SPACE

LOBBY,
THEATRE

FO

POWDE
R RROM
FO
LIVING
ROOM

LEADER
FO

KITCHEN

FO

GROUPING
People gather for a certain purpose, same objective , interest or goal. By imitating this
characteristics the spaces that carry the same GROUPING character gather as a group these
spaces are related to each other
For example A living room will prefer a kitchen to be next to it because will discussing or doing
any other leisure activity a person love to eat food or drink coffee/tea. So this space needs to be
next to the living room. The kitchen is generally known as the worker space.

Gr

Gr

Gr

LONER ( BEDROOM )
This character affects the space with response to distance from group. A person who prefers more
privacy and avoids social conversation and stays away from a crowd is known as a loner(LONER) in
residential projects some clients may prefers more privacy for their master bedroom. So the Loner
can be set to be a character which keep distance away from certain spaces , living room , dining
room and other bedrooms.

L
O

SERVANT ( TOILET ZONE)


A space that serves other spaces needs to be adjacent to them but prefers not to appeal visually
which is in reality , servant needs to be near to a master while stay out of the site. As depicted in a
figure a toilet space play the role of a servant with the master bedroom.

LIVING
ROOM
SERVANT

BED ROOM

WATCHER
This type of character causes a space to locate beside a boundary of the project foe attractions in
the environment. It is based on the human nature that people like to watch or get close to certain
incidences the attraction can be different type of environmental conditions like views, parks, lakes
or parking, this character is useful for many different spaces in design.
For Example : Waiting Space, Dinning Space Or Caf.

WA

WA

WA

OUTREACHING
The space with this character locates near the entrance or corridor for meeting or activities that
relates to outreaching quality, this type of space represents an outgoing or sociable behavior like
human that can represent a welcome space in a residential unit.
For Example : Living Room.

OR
ENTRANCE

ANTHROPOMETRICS
Anthropometrics is a study of human dimension without paying attention to human body
measurement and developing or creating a design will not end up in the comfort zone for a client.
These dimension need to be considered for the following categories:
Male , female , child , teenagers , old age and handicapped.
The requirement of all these people as per the dimension varies because of which the layout of
the plan and space planning done is also different. For example if we have to design for bling
person, a person on a wheel chair, a toilet facility for an old person, a bedroom for a teenager etc.

all these points addressed have to attended as differently as all these people require different
measurement of space utilization.

ERGONOMICS
Ergonomics means designing of space with the use of anthropometrics data for useable zones.

For example : Devising of proper relaxation chairs while watching television, selection of door
handles for opening doors & selection of many other things based on anthropometric data

LIVING ROOM
Anthropometrics Planning Paper

LIVING ROOM

Living room is a room where we chores. It is a room for relaxing


and socializing. It is a part of a house where we spend maximum
time and do many activities like reading books, watching TV, it is
the place where we eat, where we entertain ourselves, where
we all get together.

The living room may have southern or south eastern aspect. The
sun is towards south during winters and as such the living room
with southern aspect would have the advantage of sunshine
during winter and obviate sun during summer.

Living Areas
Typical furniture group in the
living and or family rooms
are as follows:
1. Primary conversation group:
chairs and sofa grouped
around a fireplace, window
or view
2. Secondary
conversation
group: chairs and love seat at
the end of room or an the
corner
3. Reading
groups:
chair,
ottoman, lamp table
4. Writing or study group: desk,
lamp, one or two chairs
bookcases
5. Music group: piano, bench
storage space
6. Game group: game table and
four chairs
7. Media
group:
home
entertainment center and
seating for several people

Fig1 -Minimum Clearances , Circulation , and Conversation area for Living


Rooms.

To Kitchen

Space Function
10' diameter
conversation area

36" traffic
way

Primary
and
Secondary
Activities that usually take
place in Living Rooms or Space
are Follows:

To kitchen

To kitchen
Entrance

30" to use desk

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

To sleeping

36" for main traffic way

Main Traffic Through Living Area

Main Traffic Through Living Area

36" traffic
way
10' diameter
36" traffic
10
conversation
way
36 for traffic
area diameter
way
converse
30 for desk
section area
30" to use desk

Main Traffic by Passes Living Area

30" to use desk

Entrance

Entrance

Main Traffic Through Living Area

Fig2 -Minimum Clearances , Circulation , and Conversation area for Living Rooms

Dancing
Hobbies and craft
Eating
Sewing
Playing music
Parting
Using
home
computer internet

Secondary Activities

closet

To kitchen
and dining

Primary Activities

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Entertainment
Watching television
Listening music
Reading
Writing
Studying
Relaxing
Resting
Children's play area

Furniture Clearances
To issue adequate space for
convenient
use
of
furniture in the living
area
the
following
clearances should be
observed:
1.
2.

Fig5 Recommended Clearances for general

Fig6 Recommended Clearances for limited

access (2 to 10 Feet) and Limited Access ( 2 Feet)

access between a table and furniture(2 feet)


There should be no through circulation in
this area

3.
4.
5.

60 inches
between
facing seating
24
inches
where
circulation
occurs
between furniture
30 inches for desk area
36 inches for main
circulation
60 inches between home
entertainment
center

and seating

windows should not be in this direction

Fig7 Recommended Clearances for grouping of


seats for social interaction(8to 10 feet)

Fig8 space for television viewing. The television set


should be place where the section will not reflect
light and where it can be seen from the main seating
group

Seating arranged around a 10foot diameter circle fig no. 1


makes a comfortable grouping
for conversation. Fig no. 2
indicates
clearances,
circulation and conversation
areas.

KITCHEN
Anthropometrics Planning Paper

KITCHEN

kitchen is the room that is used for cooking and preparing food.
A Kitchen should as far as possible have eastern aspect so that
rising sun would purify and refresh the air and the kitchen
would remain cool during the remaining part of the day.

Height 66 1/2
Eye Level 62

Maximum
upward reach 78
Comfortable
upward reach 75
Shelves visible
from eye level 62

Shoulder Level 54

Waist Level 421/2


Outward Reach
Left Hand 33
Knee Level 20

Ironing board 35
bottom of sink 32 1/2
Reach downward 28
(one hand)

The height of a kitchen workcounter, the proper


clearance between cabinets or appliances for
circulation, the accessibility to overhead or
undercounter storage, and proper visibility are
among the primary considerations in the design of
cooking spaces. All must be responsive to human
dimension and body size if the quality of interface
between the user and the components of the
interior space are to be adequate. In establishing
clearances between counters, the maximum body
breadth and the depth of the user of large body size
must be taken into account as well as the
projections of appliances. Refrigerator doors,
cabinet drawers, dish washing machine doors and
cabinet doors all project to some degree in their
open position into the space within which the user
must circulate and must be accommodated.
Standard kitchen counter heights manufactured are
all about 36 or 91.4cm.

Figure 1
provides some general anthropometrics data for
establishing basic height of cabinetry and appliances
above the floor.

Fig1 Standard dimensions of kitchen area.

Min. counter space


required for either
side of range

48 Min.

121.9 Min

40

101.6

15

38.1 min.

21-30

53.3-76.2

1-3

38.1 Min

15 min.

121.9 Min

19.5-46

49.5-116.8

12 min.

30.5 Min

17.5 max.

44.5 max.

96-101.5

243.8-257.8

24-27.5

61.0-69.9

24-26

61.0-66

30

76.2 Min

Min. clearance between appliances

60 Min.

152.4 min.

36-36-25

88.9-92.1

24 Min.

61.0 Min

35 Max.

88.9 MAX.

Min. counter space


required to one
side of Oven

Line of Hood above Range

Min. counter space


required for either
side of range

Standard Width

Range

Standard Width

Wall Oven Work zone


B

Line of wall cabinets above

Fig:3- Range Center

Wall Oven

Standard Depth

Min. clearance between appliances


B

B
Ventilation
Hood

Standard Depth

Wall Oven Work zone

Range Work zone

Storage for rarely


Used items only.

Circulation clearance

Fig:3- Range Center (Side View)

Boiler

48 Min.

121.9 Min

40

101.6

15

38.1 min.

21-30

53.3-76.2

1-3

38.1 Min

15 min.

121.9 Min

19.5-46

49.5-116.8

12 min.

30.5 Min

17.5 max.

44.5 max.

96-101.5

243.8-257.8

24-27.5

61.0-69.9

24-26

61.0-66

30

76.2 Min

60 Min.

152.4 min.

36-36-25

88.9-92.1

24 Min.

61.0 Min

35 Max.

88.9 MAX.

Standard height

Range
O

Wall Oven

STORGED W

S
LS
DW

Perimeter 18
Perimeter 23

Range

R
MW
D and C

P
T and C

T and C

P
P

D and C

L kitchen.

U kitchen.
S

DW
MW
DW

S
MW

Perimeter 20

DW

Perimeter 18

T and C
T and C

R
CT

OV

P
EatingEating
bar Bar

Corridor kitchen.
FIG. Different types of kitchen plans.

Broken U kitchen.

zero bedroom kitchenette.

Two bedroom living unit kitchens.


FIG. minimum frontage for various kitchens.

Two bedroom living unit kitchens.

Two bedroom living unit kitchens.

One bedroom kitchenette.

Four bedroom unit.


FIG. minimum frontage for various kitchens.

Three bedroom unit.

Minimum edge distance.

Minimum Distances from appliances


To inside corners of base cabinets.

Kitchen for small single family houses or apartment units.

Typical cabinet dimensions

Flow of work in food preparation.

Range

Mix

Serve

At either .
side

Sink

Refrigerator
Left side
At Opening
side

Fig- Minimum counter width dimensions

Dishwasher
(Front opening)

Right side

9 either side
(if storage nearby)

Planning
Desk

Maximum reach for


Vertical storage

Mix center counter

Bottom of
sink

Wall Oven

Fig. Comfortable working heights

Lap Table

Maximum height
of
Window for
supervision of
yard

Counter

Sink

Counter

Counter

Adjacent to Sink

Space in front drawer

Space for one worker

Sink

Sink

Counter

Minimum clearance
Wherever 2 people
May be working at same time.
Range

Counter

Range

Minimum width of passes

Fig: Minimum clearance-vertical and horizontal

RANGE

Sink

Above range

Above sink

Base-cab

Kitchen lighting

Above base cabinet

Fig Storage and Cabinets

BEDROOM
Anthropometrics Planning Paper

Bedroom

Bed side table

Space for dressing


Double dresser

Single dresser

Single bed

Double bed

Space functionPrimary and secondary activities


that usually take place in bedrooms
are as follows:
Primary Activities:
Sleeping
Dressing
Storing Clothes
Personal Care
Secondary Activities:
Reading
Writing
Studying
Working
Watching Television
Home computing/ Internet
Listening to music
Childrens play
Caring for infants
Ironing
Telephoning
Drawing and Painting
Sitting and Entertaining
Exercising
Resting and convalescing
Hobbies and craft
Storing bulky items and seasonal
clothes

Furniture
Requirement :
There are minimum
requirements for
furniture and space if
occupants are to able
to carry out their
normal bedroom
activities .
There are two basic
types of bedrooms:
Fig. Space for making beds

Fig single occupancy bedroom(netarea 8.5metres).The most likely


occupants of this bedroom are elderly people, adults, teenagers and
preadultchildren(i.e.school age children 9 to 12 years).

Fig Double occupancy bedroom(netare a 160sq.ft). The most likely


occupants of this type of bedroom are adults , school-age children of
the
space(net
area5 square meters). Adults are most likely to be found in this type same gender , children of differentgenders who are less than 9 years
old
of
, and preschoolers.
bedroom.
Fig

single occupancy bedroom in combination with another

1.Single-occupancy
bedrooms, which
will accommodate
on single bed.
2.Double-occupancy
bedrooms ,which
will accommodate
on double beds.

fig .Access between bed and dresser and between bed and desk

Fig

Clearances:
Clearances should be
provided in front of
and around furniture
of bedrooms so that
primary activities can
take place effectively
comfort (fig. 1 to
11). In some cases,
greater clearances
are required to
satisfy the needs of
elderly people,
wheelchair users,
Fig .Access between bed and closet and between beds and and with disabilities.
walls

Double occupancy bedroom(netare a 160sq.ft). The most likely

occupants of this type of bedroom are adults , school-age children of the


same gender , children of differentgenders who are less than 9 years old ,
and preschoolers.

Fig .Access between beds

DINING AREA
Anthropometrics Planning Paper

Space Function
Primary and Secondary Activities that
usually
take place in Living Rooms or Space are
Follows:

21-29
25 recommended

Primary Activities
1.Setting the table
2.Serving food
3.Eating
4.Cleaning up after meals
5.Storing dishes

Fig. 1. Size of place eating

Fig. 2. Passage behind chairs

Fig. 3. leaving the table

Secondary Activities
1.Childrens play
2.Reading
3.Writing
4.Studying and homework
5.Entertainment
6.Board games

The principal factors to be considered in


planning the dining
Area are as follows:
Number of persons to be seated
Space for chairs and for passage behind them
Space used at the table.
Storage space for china, glassware silver ,
and linen.

Fig. 4. limited access behind a chair in corner

Fig. 5. Access behind a chair in through

circulation space

circulation space

Size of place setting :


The minimum width needed for each place
setting is 21 inches. How ever a width of up of
29 inches is desirable for greater freedom of
movement. A 25- inch width is usually adequate;
this permits chairs 19 inches wide to be placed 6
inches apart. The minimum depth for place
setting is 14 inches. These dimensions allow
space for china, glassware, silver, and elbow
extension(
see Fig:1)

Fig6 Access behind the table and wall

Fig7 Access behind a chair and cabinets or


appliances

Size of Table:
The minimum width recommended is 36
inches: a satisfactory width is 36 inches to 44
inches. If 25 inch-wide place settings are
provided and if one person is seated at each
end of the table, then minimum and
recommended lengths are as follows:

Passage Behind Chairs:


The minimum space recommended for passage
behind chairs in 22 inches, a satisfactory range
is 22 to 25 inches. If passage behind the chairs
is not required, a minimum of 5 inches plus the
depth of the chair must be provided for
pushing back chair when leaving the table( see
Fig; 2 to 4)

Fig8 Recommended net area for 2- persons


household( 8.84 square meters)

Fig8 Recommended net area for 8 persons


household( 13.87
square meters)

To kitchen

Minim
um
inches

Recomm
ended,
inches

54

60

79

84

104

108

10

129

132

12

154

156

To kitchen
42 for serving

42 for serving
32
for
Chairs
plus
access

38
for
Chairs
plus
access

Pers
ons

38
for
Chairs
plus
access

To living room

If no one is seated at either end of


the table, the length may be
reduced by approximately 4 inches.

38 for chairs plus passage

Fig5 Dining room for 6 person household

42 for
Serving
behind
chairs

Fig6 Dining room for 8 persons household

42 for serving behind


chairs
42 for
Serving
behind chairs

To living room
To living room

32 for
chairs
Plus access

To kitchen

Fig7 Minimum clearances for dining areas(A) one of the Fig8 Minimum clearances for dining areas(A) one of

table against wall (b) serving from one end and side of the the table against wall (b) serving from one end and side
table
of the table

Space for total dining area


With the same conditions noted
previously and with an ample 42
inch space for passage on all sides
of a 42 inch wide table, required
sizes are as follows:

Per
so
ns

W X L,
Feet

=Area,
Square
Feet

10 X 12

=126

10 X 14

=147

10 X 16

=168

10

10 X 18

=189

12

10 X 20

=210

BATHROOM
Anthropometrics Planning Paper

IN

CM

48

121.9

30

76.2

19-24

48.361.0

27 MIN

68.6
min

18

45.7

37-43

94109.2

72
MAX.

182.9
max

32-36

81.391.4

69
MAX.

175.3
max

16-18

40.645.7

36-32

66.081.3

32

81.3

20-24

50.861.0

A
C
B Activity zone
Mirror and
Circulation zone
medicine
cabinet

D
Activity zone

C
Mirror and
medicine
cabinet

Lavatory

Fig1- lavatory male anthropometric considerations.

Light fixture

Mirror and
medicine
cabinet

Mirror

Lavatory

Lavatory

J
Vanity
storage

C
Vanity
storage

Fig:2- lavatory female and child anthropometric considerations.

A
B

Temporary storage

Horizontal
grab bars

Seat

Shower
head
controls

Vertical
grab bars

G
Circulation
access/zone

Double lavatory clearances

Minimum shower clearances

In

cm

15-18

38.1-45.7

28-30

71.1-76.2

37-43

94.0-109.2

32-36

81.3-91.4

26-32

66.0-81.3

14-16

35.6-40.6

30

76.2

18

45.7

21-26

53.3-66.0

In

cm

54

137.2

12

30.5

42 min

106.7 min

18

45.7

36 min

91.4 min

30

76.2

24

61.0

12 min

30.5 min

15

38.1

40-48

101.6-121.9

40-50

101.6-127.0

72 min

182.9 min

Soap holder

Varies

shelf

Line of wall of
obstruction

Varies

A
Varies

Varies

Varies

Toilet paper
dispenser

Towel bar
bidet
Activity circulation
zone
zone
Varies

WC

C
Activity zone

Water closet

Bidet and water closet

In

cm

12 min

30.5 min

28 min

71.1 min

24 min

61.0 min

52 min

132.1 min

12-18

30.5-45.7

12

30.5

40

101.6

18

45.7

30

76.2

1.

Shower curtain rod: keep within inside


of tub or shower.
1a.
Enclosure doors: if swinging
doors are used, place hinges on the side
opposite control valves.
2.
Shower head: see elevation of tub and
shower stall for recommended heights.
3.
Grab bars shall be manufactured of
shatter- resistant material, free from
burrs, sharp edges and pinch points.
Knurling or slip-resistant surface is
desirable.
4.
Recessed soap dish shall be free from
burrs and sharp edges where grab bar
is an integral part of the soap dish, it
may have minimum length of 6 inches.
5.
Faucet shall be manufactured of
shatter-resistant material, free from
burrs and sharp edges. All faucet sets
in showers, tubs and lavatories shall be
equipped with the water mixing valve
delivering
a
maximum
water
temperature.
6.
Showers stall light: shall be of a vapor
proof fixture with the electrical light
switch a minimum of 72 inches away
from shower stall.

D
C

C
PLAN

Elevations

Fig. Minimum half bath.


16 sq. ft is about minimum for standard fixtures; 4-6 X 46 gives a more spacious feeling.

Fig Generous half bath.


22.5 sq. ft is a generous half bath. A wall hung lavatory
instead of a vanity squeezes into 2-6 width and 16.3 sq. ft.

Activities commonly performed in


the bathroom include washing of
hands, face and hair, bathing,
elimination and grooming, and
also such activities as hand
laundering and infant care. Often
it is also used as a dressing room.
Major problems in bathroom
design includes planning for
optimum convenience and privacy
of all bathroom functions for all
members of the household,
adequate provision for storage of
supplies and equipment, and ease
of cleaning.
Some general planning guides are
as follows:
Arrangement
Facilities should be conveniently
arranged, with special attention
given to clearances. The room
arrangement should permit more
than one family member to use its
facilities at a same time.

Fig. Corner toilet in a half bath.


A corner toilet and a small lavatory fit 13.5 sq. ft. consider
this idea for installing a half-bath in a closet or under a
stairway.

Fig. Corner shower.


A corner shower, toilet and lavatory fit in 33 sq. ft. very little
storage space available.

Illumination
Lighting should be adequate
for all of the activities
performed. For grooming,
direct sources of light are
essential in order to
illuminate the face from all
angles. High strip windows,
clearstory windows and
skylights provide excellent
over all illumination in the
day time while still affording
privacy.
Fig. small,3-fixture bathroom.
A small 3-fixture bathroom with limited storage in a built-in vanity meets
basic bathroom requirements in a space 37.5 sq. ft. The door is 32 wide for
a person with a cane or crutches. This bathroom is too small for a
wheelchair.. c

Fig. separate tub and shower.


This plan also includes a bidet. Storage is in the
48 long vanity. Area:75.3 sq. ft.

Fig. Two lavatory bathroom.


A 2- lavatory bathroom with adequate room at the toilet and
each lavatory . Note storage space under the lavatories and in a
floor-to-ceiling unit. Area:63 sq. ft..

Fig. large shower.


A generous 33x 48 shower is featured in this 32 sq. ft
bathroom. Storage is under the 30 vanity and on shelves
over the toilet.

Ventilation
Good ventilation is essential
in bathroom, both to reduce
humidity and dispel odors. If
a window is relied upon as
the sole means of
ventilation, care should be
taken in its selection and
placement to minimize drafts
and to permit easy access.
Exhaust fans in the wall or
the ceiling are often used to
supplement natural
ventilation. In interior
bathroom spaces, a
mechanical exhaust is
essential and required by
code.

Fig. Corner square tub.


Although not usually a space saver, a square tub fits some
situations better than a rectangular one. This 3-fixture bathroom
has excellent storage but is only 59.5 sq. Ft.

Fig. Large 3-fixture bathroom


With fixtures in separate compartments, this layout can replace a
second bath by accommodating more than one person at a time. It
is a large as two bathrooms but costs less because of fewer fixtures
and less plumbing. Area:106 sq. ft. plus hallway storage.

Fig. Four-fixtures, two compartments


Three people can use this bathroom at the same time. Consider a
pocket door between the compartments. Even with generous
storage space it takes only the same space as many noncompartmented bathrooms, about 80.5 sq. ft.

Fig. Five fixtures, three compartments


This bathroom serves as two full bathrooms in 87sq. Ft. two
doors to each compartment are undesirable. Limited storage
space available.

Sound Control
Lack of acoustical privacy is one of
the most common complaints
with regard to bathrooms. Noise
can be reduced by proper
placement of the bathroom in
relation to other spaces, by the
use of closets and storage walls as
sound barriers between it and
adjacent spaces, and by the use of
soundproof partitions and tightly
fitted doors. Acoustical treatment
of the ceiling makes the room
more comfortable to use and
reduces somewhat the amount of
sound transmitted through the
walls.
Storage
Adequate storage should be
provided for current and reserve
supplies. Articles in current use
should be located near their place
of first use. A closet opening from
bathroom and hallway or laundry
is convenient for such items as
bathroom linen and cleaning
supplies.
Medicine
cabinets
should be large enough to hold a
number
of
toiletries
and
medicines. Hamper space is
desirable for soiled linen and
clothes. Install a cabinet with a
self-contained hamper, or, in two
story houses, install a chute from
the second floor to the laundry.