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Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam

Specific volume or volume per unit mass. h = u + Pv (dimensions: L2T-2) and the internal energy per unit mole h (ML2T-2-1) S Entropy (ML2T-2Θ-1).Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Thermodynamics Symbol/Formula Parameter M Molar mass (M/) m Mass (M) n m M E Number of moles () Energy or general extensive property e E m Specific molar energy (energy per unit mass) or general extensive property per unit mass e E  eM n Specific energy (energy per unit mole) or general extensive property per unit mole P Pressure (ML-1T-2) V Volume (L3). and the internal energy per unit mole. u (ML2T-2-1) H = U + PV Thermodynamic enthalpy (ML2T-2).  = 1/v. Internal energy per unit mass. u (L2T-2). Entropy per unit mass. x Quality U Thermodynamic internal energy (ML2T-2). v (L3M-1) and the volume per unit mole v (L3-1) T Temperature (Θ)  Density (ML-3). Enthalpy per unit mass. s(L2T-2Θ-1) and the internal energy per unit mole s (ML2T-2Θ-1-1) W Work (ML2T-2) Q Heat transfer (ML2T-2) W u : The useful work rate or mechanical power (ML2T-3) m : The mass flow rate (MT-1) .

s(L2T-2Θ-1) and the internal energy per unit mole s (ML2T-2Θ-1-1) . Internal energy per unit mass. u (L2T-2).Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam  V2 : 2 The kinetic energy per unit mass (L2T-2) The potential energy per unit mass (L2T-2) gz: Etot:  V2 The total energy = m(u + + gz) (ML2T-2) 2 Q : The heat transfer rate (ML2T-3) dEcv dt : The rate of change of energy for the control volume. h = u + Pv (dimensions: L2T-2) and the internal energy per unit mole h (ML2T-2-1) S Entropy (ML2T-2Θ-1).  = 1/v. and the internal energy per unit mole.(ml2t-3) M Molar mass (M/) m Mass (M) n m M E Number of moles () Energy or general extensive property e E m Specific molar energy (energy per unit mass) or general extensive property per unit mass e E  eM n Specific energy (energy per unit mole) or general extensive property per unit mole P Pressure (ML-1T-2) V Volume (L3). Entropy per unit mass. x Quality U Thermodynamic internal energy (ML2T-2). we also have the enthalpy per unit mass. v (L3M-1) and the volume per unit mole v (L3-1) T Temperature (Θ)  Density (ML-3). u (ML2T-2-1) H = U + PV Thermodynamic enthalpy (ML2T-2). Specific volume or volume per unit mass.

 = 1/v. v (L3M-1) and the volume per unit mole v (L3-1) T Temperature (Θ)  Density (ML-3). x Quality U Thermodynamic internal energy (ML2T-2). we also have the specific volume or volume per unit mass.Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam W Work (ML2T-2) Q Heat transfer (ML2T-2) W u : The useful work rate or mechanical power (ML2T-3) m :  V2 : 2 The mass flow rate (MT-1) gz: The potential energy per unit mass (L2T-2) The kinetic energy per unit mass (L2T-2) Etot:  V2 The total energy = m(u + + gz) (ML2T-2) 2 Q : The heat transfer rate (ML2T-3) dEcv dt : The rate of change of energy for the control volume. u (L2T-2). and the internal energy per unit mole. h = u + Pv (dimensions: L2T-2) and the internal energy per unit mole h (ML2T-2-1) . we also have the enthalpy per unit mass.(ml2t-3) M Molar mass (M/) m Mass (M) n m M E Number of moles () Energy or general extensive property e E m Specific molar energy (energy per unit mass) or general extensive property per unit mass e E  eM n Specific energy (energy per unit mole) or general extensive property per unit mole P Pressure (ML-1T-2) V Volume (L3). we also have the internal energy per unit mass. u (ML2T-2-1) H = U + PV Thermodynamic enthalpy (ML2T-2).

s(L2T2 -1 Θ ) and the internal energy per unit mole s (ML2T-2Θ-1-1) W Work (ML2T-2) Q Heat transfer (ML2T-2) W u : The useful work rate or mechanical power (ML2T-3) m :  V2 : 2 The mass flow rate (MT-1) gz: The potential energy per unit mass (L2T-2) The kinetic energy per unit mass (L2T-2) Etot:  V2 The total energy = m(u + + gz) (ML2T-2) 2 Q : The heat transfer rate (ML2T-3) dEcv : dt The rate of change of energy for the control volume. o 1 J = 1 N·m. o T(K) = T(oC) + 273. o 1 Pa = 1 N/m2.15. For engineering units . o giga(G) – 109. o 1 L (liter) = 0. o micro() – 10-6. o 1 W = 1 J/s. o kilo(k) – 103. Others: o 1 kPa·m3 = 1 kJ.Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam S Entropy (ML2T-2Θ-1). o mega(M) – 106.001 m3. o 1 m2/s2 = 1 J/kg. Prefixes (and abbreviations): o nano(n) – 10-9. o A metric ton (European word: tonne) is 1000 kg. (ml2t-3) Unit conversion factors For metric units    Basic: o 1 N = 1 kg·m/s2. o milli(m) – 10-3. we also have the entropy per unit mass.

67. Pressure: o 1 psia = 1 lbf/in2 = 144 psfa = 144 lbf/ft2.1 Mpa Specific Volume Density Static Pressure Variation Absolute Temperature 1 atm  101325 Pa V v m m 1    V v   . Others: o T(R) = T(oF) + 459.15 m3 / kg kg / m3 Pa Properties of a Pure Substance Formula Quality x mvapor (vapour mass fraction) mtot mliquid 1 x  mtot (Liquid mass fraction) Specific Volume v  v f  xv fg Average Specific Volume v  (1  x)v f  xvg Ideal –gas law P  Pc  Equations Pv  RT Units m3 / kg T  Tc (only two phase mixture) Z 1 PV  mRT  nRT m3 / kg .037 lbm·ft2/s2.14 = (1 hp·h )/2544.Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam    Energy: o 1 Btu = 5.    P   gh T ( K )  T (C )  273. o 1 ton of refrigeration = 200 Btu/min.5 = 25.169 ft·lbf = (1 kWh)/3412.174 lbm·ft/s2.40395 psia·ft3 = 778. Concepts & Definitions Formula Pressure  Units Units Pa F A 1 Pa  1 N / m2 P 1 bar  105 Pa  0. o 1 lbf = 32.

k =conductivity Q  kA dx Q  hAT .3145 R M R M kJ / kmol K kJ / kg K = molecular mass Pv  ZRT Pr  P Pc . h =convection coefficient W2  J 1  n=1 Adiabatic Process Conduction Heat Transfer Convection Heat Transfer Radiation Heat Transfer 4 Q   A(Ts4  Tamb ) Terminology: Q1 = heat Q2 = heat transferred during the process between state 1 and state 2 J W W W . Tr  T Tc Work & Heat Formula Displacement Work 2 J W   Fdx   PdV 1 Integration Units 2 1 W   PdV  P (V2  V1 ) J W (work per unit mass) m W  FV  PV  T  V  r T  Fr n n PV n  Const  PV 1 1  PV 2 2 J / kg 2 1 Specific Work Power (rate of work)  Velocity  Torque Polytropic Process ( n  1)  Polytropic Exponent  n=1 Polytropic Process Work w W rad / s Nm Pv n  C P ln  2  P1  n  V ln  1   V2  PV  Const  PV 1 1  PV 2 2 1 ( PV n 1 2 2  PV 1 1) 1 n  V2   1W2  PV 2 2 ln   V1  Q0 dT .Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam  Universal Gas Constant  Gas Constant Compressibility Factor Z Reduced Properties R  8.

3 & A. so v=constant C  Cc  C p (Tables A.4) u2  u1  C (T2  T1 ) h2  h1  u2  u1  v( P2  P1 ) J kJ / kg kJ / kg .5V 2  gZ H  U  PV h  u  Pv Pv  RT and u  f (T ) h  u  Pv  u  RT u  f (t )  h  f (T ) h  (1  x)h f  xhg U 2  U1  h  h f  xh fg 1  Q  1  U    u         m   T v m   T v   T v  (ue  ui )  Cv (Te  Ti ) Cv  1  Q  1 H   h         m  T p m  T p  T p  (he  hi )  C p (Te  Ti ) Cp  Incompressible.5mV 2 Internal Energy U  Uliq  Uvap  mu  mliqu f  mvapug Specific Internal Energy of Saturated Steam (two-phase mass average) Total Energy u  (1  x)u f  xu g Specific Energy Enthalpy Specific Enthalpy For Ideal Gasses   Enthalpy R Constant Specific Enthalpy for Saturation State (two-phase mass average) Specific Heat at Constant Volume Specific Heat at Constant Pressure Solids & Liquids PE  mgZ  PE2  PE1  mg (Z 2  Z1 ) Units J J J J kJ / kg u  u f  xu fg m(V22  V12 )  mg ( Z 2  Z1 )  1Q2  1W2 2 e  u  0.Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Q = rate of heat transfer W = work 1W2 = work done during the change from state 1 to state 2 W = rate of work = Power. 1 W=1 J/s The First Law of Thermodynamics Total Energy Formula E  U  KE  PE  dE  dU  d ( KE )  d ( PE ) Energy dE   Q   W  E2  E1  1Q2  1W2 Kinetic Energy Potential Energy KE  0.

V .V . m W w  C .   me htot e (in = out)  First Law   Q   mi (hi  1 V 2  gZ i )  W   me he  1 V 2  gZ e 2 2 QC .V .V .V . m q  htot i  w  htot e (in = out) q Change in mass (storage) such as filling or emptying of a container.V . with all properties constant with time mC .V . Transient Process V (using average values) v m V W  mCv T v htot  h  1 V 2  gZ 2 mC .V . EC .V .   mi htot i  WC .   mi   me EC.  WC.  0.  QC.  kJ / kg kJ / kg .   mi htot i   me htot e  First Law dE  Q   mi (hi  1 V 2  gZ i )    me he  1 V 2  gZ e  W 2 2 dt   A steady-state has no storage effects.V .  0 m  m i e (in = out) QC .Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Ideal Gas h  u  Pv  u  RT u2  u1  Cv (T2  T1 ) h2  h1  C p (T2  T1 ) Energy Rate E  Q  W (rate  in  out )  E2  E1  1 Q2  1W2 (change  in  out ) First-Law Analysis for Control Volume Formula Units Volume Flow Rate V   VdA  AV (using average velocity) Mass Flow Rate m   VdA   AV  A kg / s Power W  mC p T W Flow Work Rate W flow  PV  mPv Flow Direction  Total Enthalpy From higher P to lower P unless significant KE or PE Instantaneous Process  Continuity Equation  Energy Equation Steady State Process  No Storage   Continuity Equation Energy Equation  Specific Heat Transfer  Specific Work  SS Single Flow Eq.

Q can also be rates W . Q Heat Engine  Thermal efficiency  Carnot Cycle  Real Heat Engine Heat Pump WHE  QH  QL  HE  WHE Q  1 L QH QH Thermal  1   HE  QL T  1 L QH TH WHE T  Carnot HE  1  L QH TH WHP  QH  QL  Coefficient of Performance    HP QH QH  WHP QH  QL  Carnot Cycle    HP QH TH  QH  QL TH  TL  Real Heat Pump  HP  QH TH   Carnot HP  WHP TH  TL Refrigerator WREF  QH  QL  Coefficient of Performance  REF   Carnot Cycle   Real Refrigerator  REF  Absolute Temperature QL QL  WREF QH  QL QL TL  QH  QL TH  TL QL TL   Carnot REF  WREF TH  TL TL QL  TH QH Units .V . 2 2   C .V .   mi htot i   me htot e  m h i tot i    E2  E1  m2 u2  1 V22  gZ 2  m1 u1  1 V12  gZ1 2 2   me htot e  m2 u2  1 V22  gZ 2  m1 u1  1 V22  gZ1   WC .     The Second Law of Thermodynamics Formula All W .V .Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam   m2  m1   mi   me Continuity Equation Energy Equation  QC .V  E2  E1  QC.V  WC.

 dSsurr    S gen  0 s2  s1  c ln Reversible Process: ds gen  0 Adiabatic Process: dq  0 T2 T1 .m.Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Entropy Formula Inequality of Clausis  Q T Units 0 Entropy  Q  dS     T rev kJ / kgK Change of Entropy  Q  S 2  S1     T  rev 1 s  (1  x)s f  xsg kJ / kgK Specific Entropy 2 kJ / kgK s  s f  xs fg Entropy Change  Carnot Cycle 2 Isothermal Heat Transfer: S 2  S1  Q 1 Q  1 2  TH 1 TH  Q    T rev Reversible Adiabatic (Isentropic Process): dS    Q  3 Q4   T rev TL 3 4  Reversible Isothermal Process: S4  S3   Reversible Adiabatic (Isentropic Process): Entropy decrease in process 3-4 = the entropy increase in process 1-2.  Reversible HeatTransfer Process Gibbs Equations Entropy Generation 2 2 h q 1  Q  1 s2  s1  s fg     Q  1 2  fg    m 1  T  rev mT 1 T T Tds  du  Pdv Tds  dh  vdP Q dS    S gen T Wirr  PdV  T Sgen 2 2 S 2  S1   dS    1 S 2 gen T Entropy  in  out  gen 1 Entropy Balance Equation Principle of the Increase of Entropy Entropy Change  Solids & Liquids Q 1 dSnet  dSc.

Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam  Ideal Gas 2  Constant Volume: s2  s1  Cv0 1 dT v  R ln 2 v1 T 2 dT P  R ln 2 P1 T 1 T v Constant Specific Heat: s2  s1  Cv0 ln 2  R ln 2 T1 v1 T P s2  s1  Cp0 ln 2  R ln 2 T1 P1  Constant Pressure: s2  s1  Cp0 Standard Entropy T sT0   T0 Change in Standard Entropy C p0 T kJ / kgK dT s2  s1   sT0 2  sT01   R ln Ideal Gas Undergoing an Isentropic Process P2 kJ / kgK P1 s2  s1  0  Cp0 ln T2 T1  R ln P2 P1 R T  P  Cp 0  2  2  T1  P1  C p 0  Cv 0 k  1 R but .   C p0 C p0 k k C p0 Cv 0 = ratio of specific heats T v   2  1  T1  v2  k 1 . v  const 2 2 1W2   PdV  const  n 1 . s  const Isentropic Process: n  k . P2  v1    P1  v2  k k Special case of polytropic process where k = n: Pv  const n n PV n  const  PV 1 1  PV 2 2 Reversible Polytropic Process for Ideal Gas  Work  Values for n n P V   2  1  . T  const Isothermal Process: n  1. P1  V2  T2  P2    T1  P1  n 1 n V   1   V2   PV mR (T2  T1 ) dV PV  2 2 1 1 n V 1 n 1 n 1 1 P  const Isobaric process: n  0. Isochronic Process: n  .

 S gen C .Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Second-Law Analysis for Control Volume Formula nd 2 Law Expressed as a Change of Entropy Entropy Balance Equation dSc.V . Steady State Process dSC ..   mi si   me se   C.V . q m e  T  se  si    he  hi    vdP i Units . T  m( se  si )   mi  me  m se  si  s gen  si Q d  ms C.  S gen dt T t Q   m2 s2  m1s1 C .V .  C .V .V .V .  S gen dt T  where SC.V . 0 dt   Continuity equation  Adiabatic process Transient Process QC .V . Q   mi si   me se   C .v.   sdV  mc.  S gen C .V . Q    S gen dt T rate of change  in  out  generation  dSC . dt  1 S2 gen T 0 Reversible Steady State Process If Process Reversible & Adiabatic se  si e he  hi   vdP i Vi 2  Ve 2  g (Zi  Z e ) 2 e V 2  Ve 2    vdP  i  g (Zi  Z e ) 2 i w   hi  he   If Process is Reversible and Isothermal m  se  si   Q 1 QC .   mi si   me se   C ..m.V . s  mA sA  mB sB  .V ..V . T or T  se  si   QC .V .B  .V .V .  T C .  and S gen   sgen dV  S gen. T m s  m s   e e i i QC .V .. A  S gen.

work . 2 e w    vdP and Pv n  const  C n i e e i i w    vdP  C  dP P 1 n n nR  Peve  Pv Te  Ti  i i n 1 n 1 e e Pe dP w    vdP  C    Pv i i ln P Pi i i  Isothermal Process (n=1) Principle of the Increase of Entropy dS net dSC .V .32) x (5/9) °K = °C + 273 Q = mC∆T thermal energy = mass x specific heat x change in T Q = mHf thermal energy = mass x heat of fusion Q = mHv thermal energy = mass x heat of vaporization ∆L = αLi∆T change in length = coefficient of expansion x initial length x change in T ∆V = βVi∆T change in volume = coefficient of expansion x initial volume x change in T ∆U = Q – W internal energy = heat energy . dS surr     S gen  0 dt dt dt Efficiency Turbine  wa hi  he  ws hi  hes Turbine work is out Compressor (Pump)  ws hi  hes  wa hi  he Compressor work is in Cooled Compressor  wT w Nozzle 1 V2 e  2 2 1 V 2 es Kinetic energy is out Note: °F = (°C x 9/5) + 32 °C = (°F .Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Incompressible Fluid Reversible Polytrophic Process for Ideal Gas v  Pe  Pi   Ve2  Vi 2  g  Z e  Z i   0  Bernoulli Eq.

PV = Const PV/T = Const P V Up T Down Up Down Up Down Up Fixed Up Down Fixed Down Fixed Up Up Fixed Down Down Up Down Fixed Down Up Fixed ? ? ? ΔEth Q Ws W nCvΔT > 0 0 -nCvΔT < 0 nCvΔT > 0 nCvΔT < 0 0 -nCvΔT > 0 nCvΔT < 0 nCvΔT > 0 nCvΔT >0 0 0 nCvΔT < 0 nCvΔT <0 0 0 nCvΔT > 0 nCpΔT >0 PΔV > 0 -PΔV < 0 nCvΔT < 0 nCpΔT <0 PΔV < 0 -PΔV > 0 nCvΔT = 0 nRT*ln( Vf/Vi) <0 nRT*ln(Vf/ Vi) < 0 -nRT *ln(Vf/Vi) >0 nCvΔT = 0 nRT*ln( Vf/Vi) >0 nRT*ln(Vf/ Vi) > 0 -nRT* ln(Vf/Vi) < 0 nCvΔT ΔEth + Ws ∫PdV = ± area under curve in PV diagram -∫PdV = ± area under curve in PV diagram ALL THE BEST for GATE 2016 Exam!!! .Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam Plausible Physical Situations Insulated Add weight sleeve to or push or rapid down on process piston Insulated Remove sleeve or weight from rapid or pull up process on piston Heat gas Locked piston or rigid container Cool gas Locked piston or rigid container Heat gas Piston free to move. load unchanged Immerse Add weight gas in to piston large bath Name State Variables Adiabatic compression PVγ = Const. VαT Isothermal compression T fixed at temperature of bath. TVγ-1 = Const Adiabatic expansion PVγ = Const. TVγ-1 = Const Isochoric V fixed. VαT Isobaric compression P fixed. PαT Isobaric expansion P fixed. PV = Const T fixed at temperature of bath. load unchanged Cool gas Piston free to move. PαT Immerse gas in large bath Remove weight from piston Isothermal expansion Unknown Unknown No Name Isochoric V fixed.

Mechanical Engineering – GATE Exam .