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of self-defence Garment

Development of self-defence Garment

A dissertation submitted in partial Fulfilment of
the requirement for the award of Degree in

Bachelor of Fashion Technology (Apparel Production)

Submitted By
Pratik Nilay Minj
Ajay Sangwan
Under the Guidance of
Dr.Prof.Noopur Anand

Department of Fashion Technology

National Institute of Fashion Technology, NEW DELHI
May, 2015

I, Pratik Nilay Minj, do hereby declare that the project titled Development of Self Defence Garment For
Women is my original work. The contents of this project report reflect the work done by me during for partial
fulfilment of Bachelor of Fashion Technology degree at National Institute of Fashion Technology, Delhi.

Place: New Delhi

B.F.Tech VII
NIFT Delhi

Pratik Nilay Minj

I,Ajay Sangwan, do hereby declare that the project titled Development of Self Defence Garment For
Women is my original work. The contents of this project report reflect the work done by me during for partial
fulfilment of Bachelor of Fashion Technology degree at National Institute of Fashion Technology, Delhi.

Place: New Delhi

B.F.Tech VII
NIFT Delhi

Ajay Sangwan

This is to certify that Development of Self Defence Garment For Women is a bonafide research
work of Mr. Ajay Sangwan and Mr.Pratik Nilay Minj of Department of Fashion Technology, National
Institute of Fashion Technology, New Delhi. No part of this work has been copied from other source.
Material, however borrowed has been acknowledged.

Ajay Sangwan
Pratik Nilay Minj

Project guide
Dr. Prof. Noopur Anand
Mr.N.A. Khan



An undertaking of work life - this is never an outcome of a single person; rather it

bears the imprints of a number of people who directly or indirectly helped us in completing
the present study.
We express our deep sense of gratitude to Dr. Prof. Noopur Anand and Mr. N.A Khan
for the opportunity rendered by them to work on this project. They helped all time when we
needed and gave right direction toward completion of project.
Our sincere thanks to Mr.Nishant Priya our industry mentor for the continuous support and
guidance provided by him during the project.
We would like thank our parents who supported us financially and morally in this project.

Chapter 1: Introduction
Chapter 2: Review of Literature
2.1: Report and Statistics of sexual crimes against
2.2: The deterring devices (other than garments)
which already exist
2.2.1: Pepper Spray
2.2.2 Anti-Molestation wrist band


Materials and techniques

2.5.1 Introduction to electro-textiles

2.5.2 Techniques of making the intended garment

Outcome of Review of Literature

2.7 Development of Software for Tracking

Chapter 3: Methodology

2.3 Existing deterring devices in the form of garment

3.1 Research methodology

3.2 Product Development stages for Garment
3.3 Patterns of the Intended Garment
3.4 Garment after embroidery and Cutting
3.5 Final Garment after Stitching

2.3.1 Protective Shield

Chapter 4: Product Description

2.3.2 No Contact Jacket

2.4.2 Electrical Circuit

4.1 Product description

4.1.1 Special Features of Jacket
4.2 Costing
4.2.1 Costing for Jacket
4.3 Weight of Jacket
4.4 About the circuit
4.5 Comparison Between Current Garment and Anti
molestation Jacket developed at NIFT DELHI, 2011
4.6 Source Code of the Application Used in the mobile phone
4.7 Legality of the garment

2.4.3 Electrical Network

Chapter 5: Scope of further study

2.4.4 Types of electrical Connections

Chapter 7: Conclusion

2.4.5 Dc-Ac Inverters

Chapter 8: References

2.2.3 Stun Gun/Teasers

2.3.3 Camouflage Dress

2.3.4 Anti Molestation Jacket

Why electricity

2.4.1 Impact of electricity on human body

2.4.6 Electrical Transformers

Development of self-defense garment which gives shock to intruder and send SOS message to pre-defined
phone number.
Development of mobile phone application to track wearers location.



uman civilization has come a long way from the Stone Age. Yet man continues to be violent in his
conduct. In fact, violence has increased today. We cannot walk on the street without looking over our shoulder
because of fear of assault. Top leaders of the nation are attacked in broad daylight. The roads are spilled with
human blood. Firearms, bombs, swords, are frequently flourished and used. Even though violence is not gender specific, there has been a spurt in violence against women of which physical violence tops the chart. It is a
serious problem plaguing the world; the sexual crimes against women remain still a cause of deep concern not
only in developing but in the developed world also. According to the World Banks 2012 World Development
Report1 on Gender Equality and Development, around one in every three women in the world experience
physical or sexual abuse at some point in their life. According to the rape statistics released by the National
Crime Records Bureau (NCRB), in the year 2012 approximately 80,000 cases of rape and molestation of
women were registered in India. Many devices and gadgets have been created in attempt to provide women
with self-defense mechanism.
The current project deals with the design and development of a protective clothing which will help the
wearer to ward off unsolicited physical contact. The idea is to give the assaulter a shock when he touches the
body of the intended person. This would catch him by surprise and deter him from approaching further while
giving the victim time to escape. It is a known fact that, when human body interacts with an element of mild
physical shock it taken by surprise and takes time to regain senses.
The mild shock would be given using electricity. Nerve cells communicate to each other by acting
as "transducers:" creating electrical signals (very small voltages and currents) in response to the input of certain chemical compounds called neurotransmitters, and releasing neurotransmitters when stimulated by
electrical signals. If electric current of sufficient magnitude is conducted through a living creature (human
or otherwise), its effect will be to override the tiny electrical impulses normally generated by the neurons,
overloading the nervous system and preventing both reflex and volitional signals from being able to actuate
muscles. Muscles triggered by an external (shock) current will involuntarily contract, and there's nothing the
person can do about it. Even when the current is stopped, the person may not regain voluntary control over
their muscles for a while, as the neurotransmitter chemistry has been thrown into disarray. Another important
aspect of this project is the development of an application which will communicate with the garment and
which will send a message to the close ones of the wearer so that the wearer can be tracked and help provided.
This garment has been designed in such a way that both aesthetics and functionality are harmonized.


2.1 Report and Statistics of sexual crimes against women

A women is Raped every 18 hours in National Capital as per an India Today report New Delhi has turned
against women making the target of assault each day. The crime graph is heading north. The cases of molestation have increased drastically.
Official police data comes from the National Crime Records Bureau:
The number of reported rapes in Delhi more than doubled between 2012 and 2013 in the aftermath of the
December 16, 2012 gang rape, a phenomenon the police attribute to better reporting. (The far bigger leap was
in the reporting of molestation). As of mid-November this year, 1879 cases of rape had been registered in the
city, but the increase between 2013 and 2014 was far smaller.

How does Delhi do in comparison to other cities?

In 2013, the most recent year for which comparable data exists, Delhi did have a higher rate (proportionate to
its population) of reported rape than Mumbai or Chennai, but cities in Madhya Pradesh do even worse.

Why women in Delhi dread its public spaces?

Narrow roads, unlit stretches and a far-from-safe public transport system these are just some of the infrastructural problems Delhis women face, a survey conducted by the women and child development
department has revealed. Widening of roads has eaten into footpaths, making them narrow. This, women
say, makes them more vulnerable to being teased or groped. Making their way home from the Metro station
is also a difficult task. One has to either ask a family member to pick up or rely on cycle rickshaws, which are
not safe. While there are now laws in place to deal with sexual harassment at the work place and
domestic violence, the public space that women use the bus stop, the public transport system, pavements, etc.
There is a need to make that safe.

The real problem

Sadly though, women are made responsible for their own safety and if something happens to them, they alone
are made responsible. This restricts women's freedom and autonomy, it affects their mobility and their ability
to work and participate in social activities. Such an attitude erodes women's self-confidence and increases their
dependence on others. Therefore, they become only more vulnerable and less capable of realizing their full
capacity. The Constitution guarantees to every citizen the right to move freely throughout India.
Neither the State nor the society appears to acknowledge that the womans right to move freely is her fundamental right. The right to move freely means the right to move safely too. But it looks as if the girl cannot
move freely even within her own city.
Any discourse on gender politics needs acknowledgement to the fact that the social structures and arrangements are so built that they give automatic advantages to the man or result in undeserved disadvantages to the
woman, and must address the removal of the systemic discrimination which attends on the woman. It follows
that the womans right to exercise her options can be guaranteed only by a violence-free atmosphere. The guarantee of her fundamental right must not be disguised as a curfew on her movements. Instead of putting curbs
on womens freedom, empowerment would be a more tenable and socially wise approach. This empowerment
should reflect in the law enforcement strategies of the state as well as law formulation done in this behalf.

2.2 The deterring devices (other than garments) which already exist:

Pepper Spray
Shock generating wrist band
Stun Gun

2.2.1 Pepper Spray:

Pepper spray 1 , used in self-defense against human attackers, comes in an aerosol form and its active ingredient is OC (oleoresin capsicum) - a term used in reference to chili peppers. The heat of a chili pepper is measured by the amount of capsaicin it contains - the more capsaicin, the hotter the bite.
The Scoville scale rates capsaicin heat in peppers:
a bell pepper gets a rating of zero Scoville units, while a habanero (hottest of the hot peppers) is rated at 300,000
units. Pure capsaicin is rated at 15,000,000 and most pepper sprays would be rated around 2-5,000,000. OC
(oleoresin capsicum) is an inflammatory agent. Contact with mucous membranes like eyes, nose, throat and
lungs causes instant capillary dilation.
This results in major tearing of the eyes, if not temporary blindness, and breathing restriction. Sprayed into
an attacker's face, pepper spray is an excellent self-defense product - the assaulter will be incapacitated long
enough for the victim to get away or get help and the effects are not long lasting 2.
Generally, women carry the spray in their handbag and so it requires time to be taken out of the bag and operated. Since most of the assaults are out of the blue and the response time which a victim has is very less, the
efficacy of such a device becomes limited.

Oleoresin capsicum: Pepper Spray as a force alternative; National Institute Of Justice; Technology
Assessment Programme;1994 (URL: https ://www.ncjrs .gov/pdffiles 1/nij/grants /181655.pdf )

2.2.2 Anti-Molestation wrist band:

According to a BBC report 3 , a school boy in Delhi has developed a device which can be worn like a wrist
band and it delivers an electric shock when touched. Capable of monitoring pulse rate and nerve impulse
(which is bound to occur when one is in trouble), the devices gets activated and delivers a mild jolt of 0.01
ampere to the attacker. The device is also fitted with a camera to take photograph of the attacker.

Photograph 2.1: Photograph of the Anti-Molestation wrist band.

The device has its obvious limitation in being very small. Moreover the person has to ensure that the dial of
the device comes in contact of the attacker's skin 4 , the chances of which are less given the small size of the
dial (similar to one rupee coin). In cases when the attacker touches the victim from behind, the effectiveness
of the device would be further reduced.

India: Delhi boy invents device to deter attackers ; BBC News India; 27 January 2012 URL: /world -asia-india-16745065
Girl friendly teenager who will save you from molesters , Times Life, TOI Mumbai, January 1 2012

2.2.3 Stun Gun/Taesers :

Taser guns work similarly like stun guns but the two charged electrodes are not permanently joined to the
device. Instead they are positioned at the end of long conductive wires which are attached to the guns cuircuit
. Pulling the trigger breaks open a compressed gas cartridge inside the gun. The expanding gas builds pressure
behind the electrodes, launching them through the air, the attached wires trailing behind.
The electrodes are affixed with small barbs so that they will grab onto an attacker's clothing. When the electrodes are attached, the current travels down the wires into the attacker, stunning him in the same way as a
conventional stun gun. The main advantage of this design is that you can stun attackers from a greater distance
(typically 15 to 20 feet / 4 to 6 meters). Most Taser models also have ordinary stun-gun electrodes, in case the
Taser electrodes miss the target.
Limitations :
The disadvantage is that you only get one shot -- you have to wind up and re-pack the electrode wires, as well
as load a new gas cartridge, each time you fire.

Figure 2.2 :Stun Gun


2.3 Existing deterring devices in the form of garment:

Protective Shield
No contact Jacket
Camouflage Dress
Anti-molestation Jacket

2.3.1 Protective Shield:

This garment, in the form of a jacket, has been developed by students of NIFT Kolkata 7 . Made of cotton fabric with metallic rivets all over its surface, the jacket is aesthetically appealing and also functionally evolved.
The metallic rivets serve as contact points and are connected, via wires, to the circuit. The battery powered
circuit, when operated (using a switch) gives an electric shock when the rivets are touched. The inner surface
of the jacket is lined with cotton fabric.
Wiring in the jacket is in series; hence even if one of the connections goes wrong, the whole garment becomes
non-functional. The lining material is cotton, so in case perspiration comes in contact with the circuit wires
(cotton has a high moisture absorbency) it may not be insulated from the wearers body. Moreover, the garment can only be dry-cleaned as all the rivets are fixed and the wires are soldered to them.

Photograph 2.3: Protective Shield: A jacket incorporated with protective device

A protective shield: A garment with safety device incorporated; Roshan, Kumar, Vaish,Shilpi; NIFT Kolkata;2004

2.3.2 No Contact Jacket:

Developed by researchers of MIT and Harvard, this jacket has an electrically conductive pathway applied
over the body portions, an electrically charged seam construction for producing an electric charge relative to
the outer surface of body portion. Activated by a power source, it comes into action once the switch is pressed.
There is also a wiring network for producing an electrical association between the conductive pathway and
power source.

Photograph 2.4: No Contact Jacket 8

It is not available commercially and manufacturing cost of the jacket is around 1000 USD 9 ,thus it limits its
accessibility to only a certain class of customers and is beyond the purchasing range of everyone. /2003/
05/ 58914

2.3.3 Camouflage Dress:

Concept of a Japanese designer Aya Tsukioka10 , this strange dress gets converted into a coverall which resembles a cold-drink dispensing machine. The wearer has to unzip the panels and pull them over. These panels are
printed to be camouflaged as a cold drink dispensing machine.

Photograph 2.5:Anti-rape dress developed by a Japanese fashion designer

Though the concept may look good, the practical use of the garment is really doubtful as the assaulter may
easily figure out the difference. Moreover, the operating time associated is high (2-3 minutes) and so may be
rendered ineffective.



2.3.4 Anti Molestation Jacket : 11

This garment in the form of a jacket has been developed by the students of NIFT Delhi. This garment works
on the principle of a stun gun and contact points are given by the help of metallic buttons on the surface of the
garment . Electric shock is given when the person touches these buttons , the inner layer is made up of polyester based material. The garment is operated through a button integrated in the garment itself.
1 Presence of metallic core wire circuit
(i) Due to movement of jacket along wearers body, circuit breaks as wires connects to contact points by soldering.
(ii) Metallic core wire affects wear ability of the garment.
2 Garment is non-breathable because polymer based material use as lining fabric.
3 Garment type is a jacket which become uncomfortable during summers and constant movement of body puts
stress on circuit.

Photograph 2.6: Anti molestation jacket


Anti molestation Jacket - Research project by Nishant Priya 2011


2.4 Why electricity:

Among all the available options, electricity appears to be the most effective and easy to apply. The impact and
use of electricity in similar applications is a well know phenomenon and has been in use for quite some time.
In view of these arguments, electricity comes across as the most feasible deterring agent.

2.4.1 Impact of electricity on human body:

Basic mechanisms by which electric currents affect biological tissue : 12
According to Bikson, the human body will conduct electricity. If the body makes contact with an electrically energized surface while simultaneously making contact with anther surface at a different potential (or
ground) then an electric current will flow through the body, entering the body at one contact point, traversing the body, and exiting at the other contact point. The magnitude of this current will increase as the voltage
difference across the contact points increases. Certain tissues in the body have traditionally been considered
most sensitive to electricity because they normally use bio-electric signals. Cells in the central and peripheral
nervous system (neurons) use bio-electrical signals to rapidly process and communicate information. Neurons
regulate the contraction of cardiac cells, diaphragm muscle cells (inducing lung inspiration), and peripheral
muscle cells (controlling movement). Cardiac and muscle cells, in turn, also use bioelectric signals to trigger
their contraction. These cells are collectively referred to as electrically excitable cells (Hille 2001). Electric
stimulation, or electrical shock, results when a portion of the current conducted by the body passes through/
polarizes excitable cell membranes. Theoretical and forensic studies examining the effects of electricity on
biological tissue have thus focused on systems containing or regulated by excitable cells. For example, electric
shock can lead to activation of neurons/muscles involved in respiration or cardiac pacing. Electric shocks can
acutely affect cell function without necessarily damaging these cells. Electric currents may also heat external
and internal tissue sufficiently to induce structural damage through electrical burns. Electrical burns affect
human health through actions on both excitable (e.g. cardiac, nervous) and non-excitable (e.g. skin, blood
vessels) tissues.

During electrocution the total current path resistance will be the sum of the body resistance including
the skin, the electrode interface resistance, and the resistance of any other materials along the current path
such as cloths or soil. High resistance clothing (e.g. rubber or dry leather gloves, dry shoes) provides increased
protection against electric hazards. According to Leibovici et al. 1995; Karger et al. 2002 electric shock can
induce violent muscle contraction

Marom Bikson, A review of hazards associated with exposure to low voltages ,

The Graduate School and University Center of the City University of New Pg 1,York, 2007



5 mA

Threshold of feeling, tingling sensation.

10 mA

Accepted as maximum harmless current

10-30 mA

Beginning of sustained muscular contraction

let go current.)

100-300 mA

Ventricular fibrillation, fatal if continued.

function continues.


Sustained ventricular contraction followed

by normal
heart rhythm. (defibrillation). Temporary
paralysis and possibly burns

Table 2.1: Effects Various Levels of Currents can have on the Body 13

2.4.2 Electrical Circuit


The interconnection of various electric elements in a prescribed manner comprises as an electric circuit in order to perform a desired function. The electric elements include controlled and uncontrolled source of energy,
resistors, capacitors, inductors, etc. Analysis of electric circuits refers to computations required to determine
the unknown quantities such as voltage, current and power associated with one or more elements in the circuit.
To contribute to the solution of engineering problems one must acquire the basic knowledge of electric circuit
analysis and laws. Many other systems, like mechanical, hydraulic, thermal, magnetic and power system are
easy to analyze and model by a circuit. We shall discuss briefly some of the basic circuit elements and the laws
that will help us to develop the background of subject.

Occupational Health Safety /construction/electrical_incidents /eleccurrent.html#wet_ conditions
Electrical Circuits -Module2, DC Circuit ,Version 2, EE IIT , Kharagpur.
http://ecourses /Webcoursecontents /IIT%20Kharagpur/Basic% 20Electrical%20Tech nology/pdf/L-03(GDR)(ET)%20((EE)NPTEL).pdf

2.4.3 Electrical Network:

A combination of various electric elements (Resistor, Inductor, Capacitor, Voltage source, Current source)
connected in any manner what so ever is called an electrical network. We may classify circuit elements in two
categories, passive and active elements.
Passive Element:
The element which receives energy (or absorbs energy) and then either converts it into heat (R) or stored it in
an electric (C) or magnetic (L) field is called passive element.
Active Element:
The elements that supply energy to the circuit is called active element. Examples of active elements include
voltage and current sources, generators, and electronic devices that require power supplies. A transistor is an
active circuit element, meaning that it can amplify power of a signal. On the other hand, transformer is not
an active element because it does not amplify the power level and power remains same, both in primary and
secondary sides. Transformer is an example of passive element.
Bilateral Element:
Conduction of current in both directions in an element (example: Resistance; Inductance; Capacitance) with
same magnitude is termed as bilateral element.
Unilateral Element: Conduction of current in one direction is termed as unilateral (example: Diode, Transistor)
Meaning of Response:
An application of input signal to the system will produce an output signal, the behavior of output signal with
time is known as the response of the system.
Potential Energy Difference :
The voltage or potential energy difference between two points in an electric circuit is the amount of energy
required to move a unit charge between the two points.

2.4.4 Types of electrical Connections 15

When there are two or more electrical devices present in a circuit with an energy source, there are a couple of
basic means by which to connect them. They can be connected in series or connected in parallel. Suppose that
there are three light bulbs connected together in the same circuit. If connected in series, then they are connected in such a way that an individual charge would pass through each one of the light bulbs in consecutive fashion. When in series, charge passes through every light bulb. If connected in parallel, a single charge passing
through the external circuit would only pass through one of the light bulbs. The light bulbs are placed within
a separate branch line, and a charge traversing the external circuit will pass through only one of the branches
during its path back to the low potential terminal. The means by which the resistors are connected will have
a major effect upon the overall resistance of the circuit, the total current in the circuit, and the current in each
resistor. /circuits /u9l4b.cfm


Figure 2.7: A comparison and contrast is made between the two circuits

A series circuit can be constructed by connecting light bulbs in such a manner that there is a single pathway
for charge flow; the bulbs are added to the same line with no branching point. As more and more light bulbs
are added, the brightness of each bulb gradually decreases. This observation is an indicator that the current
within the circuit is decreasing.

Figure 2.8: A circuit in series connection

So for series circuits, as more resistors are added the overall current within the circuit decreases. This decrease
in current is consistent with the conclusion that the overall resistance increases.

Figure 2.9: Impact of dis-connectivity n a series circuit

A final observation that is unique to series circuits is the effect of removing a bulb from a socket. If
one of three bulbs in a series circuit is unscrewed from its socket, then it is observed that the other bulbs
immediately go out. In order for the devices in a series circuit to work, each device must work. If one goes
out, they all go out. Suppose that all the appliances in a household kitchen were all connected in series. In
order for the refrigerator to work in that kitchen, the toaster oven, dishwasher, garbage disposal and overhead light would all have to be on. In order for one device in series to work, they all must work. If current
is cut from any one of them, it is cut from all of them. Quite obviously, the appliances in the kitchen are not
connected in series. Using the same collection of wires, D-cells and bulbs, parallel circuits can be explored
in the same manner. The effect of the number of resistors upon the overall current and the overall resistance
can be investigated. The diagrams below depict the usual means of constructing the circuit with parallel
connections of light bulbs. One will note that a study of the overall current for parallel connections requires
the addition of an indicator bulb. The indicator bulb is placed outside of the branches and allows one to
observe the effect of additional resistors upon the overall current. The bulbs that are placed in the parallel
branches only provide an indicator of the current through that particular branch. So if investigating the effect of the number of resistors upon the overall current and resistance, one must make careful observations
of the indicator bulb, not the bulbs that are placed in the branches. The diagram below depicts the typical

Figure 2.10: A circuit in a parallel connection

It is clear from observing the indicator bulbs in the above diagrams that the addition of more resistors causes
the indicator bulb to get brighter. For parallel circuits, as the number of resistors increases, the overall current
also increases. This increase in current is consistent with a decrease in overall resistance. Adding more resistors in a separate branch has the unexpected result of decreasing the overall resistance.

Figure 2.11: Impact of dis-connectivity on a parallel circuit

If an individual bulb in a parallel branch is unscrewed from its socket, then there is still current in the
overall circuit and current in the other branches. Removing the third bulb from its socket has the effect of
transforming the circuit from a three-bulb parallel circuit to a two-bulb parallel circuit. If the appliances in a
household kitchen were connected in parallel, then the refrigerator could function without having to have the
dishwasher, toaster, garbage disposal and overhead lights on. One appliance can work without the other appliances having to be on. Since each appliance is in its own separate branch, turning that appliance off merely
cuts off the flow of charge to that branch. There will still be charge flowing through the other branches to the
other appliances. Quite obviously, the appliances in a home are wired with parallel connections.
The effect of adding resistors is quite different if added in parallel compared to adding them in series. Adding
more resistors in series means that there is more overall resistance; yet adding more resistors in parallel means
that there is less overall resistance. The fact that one can add more resistors in parallel and produce less resistance is quite bothersome to many. An analogy may help to clarify the reason behind this initially bothersome
The flow of charge through the wires of a circuit can be compared to the flow of cars along a toll way system
in a very crowded metropolitan area. The main sources of resistance on a toll way system are the tollbooths.
Stopping cars and forcing them to pay a toll at a tollbooth not only slows the cars down, but in a highly trafficked area, will also cause a bottleneck with a backup for miles. The rate at which cars flow past a point on
that toll way system is reduced significantly by the presence of a tollbooth. Clearly, tollbooths are the main
resistor to car flow.
Now suppose that in an effort to increase the flow rate the Toll way Authority decides to add two more tollbooths at a particular toll station where the bottleneck is troublesome to travelers. They consider two possible
means of connecting their tollbooths - in series versus in parallel. If adding the tollbooths (i.e., resistors) in
series, they would add them in a manner that every car flowing along the highway would have to stop at each
tollbooth in consecutive fashion. With only one pathway through the tollbooths, each car would have to stop
and pay a toll at each booth. Instead of paying 60 cents one time at one booth, they would now have to pay 20
cents three times at each of the three tollbooths. Quite obviously, adding tollbooths in series would have the
overall effect of increasing the total amount of resistance and decreasing the overall car flow rate (i.e., current).
The other means of adding the two additional tollbooths at this particular toll station would be to add the tollbooths in parallel fashion. Each tollbooth could be placed in a separate branch. Cars flowing along the toll way
would stop at only one of the three booths. There would be three possible pathways for cars to flow through
the toll station and each car would choose only one of the pathways. Quite obviously, adding tollbooths in
parallel would have the overall effect of decreasing the total amount of resistance and increasing the overall
car flow rate (i.e., current) along the toll way. Just as is the case for adding more electrical resistors in parallel,
adding more tollbooths in parallel branches creates less overall resistance. By allowing for more pathways
(i.e., branches) by which charge and cars can flow through the bottleneck areas, the flow rate can be increased.

2.4.5 Dc-Ac Inverters

Inverter 16, is an electrical device that changes direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC); the converted
AC can be at any required voltage and frequency with the use of appropriate transformers, switching, and control circuits2.This makes them very suitable for when one needs to use AC power tools or appliances but the
usual AC mains power is not available. Examples include operating appliances in caravans and mobile homes,
and also running audio, video and computing equipment in remote areas. Most inverters do their job by performing two main functions: first they convert the incoming DC into AC, and then they step up the resulting
AC to mains voltage level using a transformer. And the goal of the designer is to have the inverter perform
these functions as efficiently as possible so that as much as possible of the energy drawn from the battery or
solar panel is converted into mains voltage AC, and as little as possible is wasted as heat. Modern inverters use
a basic circuit scheme like that shown in Figure. As it can be seen, the DC from the battery is converted into
AC very simply, by using a pair of power MOSFETs (Q1 and Q2) acting as very efficient electronic switches.
The positive 13.8V DC from the battery is connected to the centre-tap of the transformer primary, while each
MOSFET is connected between one end of the primary and earth (battery negative). So by switching on Q1,
the battery current can be made to flow through the top half of the primary and to earth via Q1.
Conversely by switching on Q2 instead, the current is made to flow the opposite way through the lower half of
the primary and to earth. Therefore by switching the two MOSFETs on alternately, the current is made to flow
first in one half of the primary and then in the other, producing an alternating magnetic flux in the transformers core. As a result a corresponding AC voltage is induced in the transformers secondary winding, and as
the secondary has about 24 times the number of turns in the primary, the induced AC voltage is much higher:
around 650V peak to peak.

Figure 2.12: The basic circuit scheme used in many modern DC-AC inverters. MOSFETS Q1 and
Q2 are used to convert the batterys low voltage DC into AC, which is then
stepped up to 230V RMS by the transformer

Resnik, Halliday,Elcetrical Circuits ,Pg 330, Fundamentals of physics , 5th edition, John Wiley
Understanding & Using Dc-Ac Inverters , Jaycar Electronics Reference Data Sheet URL:


2.4.6 Electrical Transformers:

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another purely by magnetic coupling. Relative motion of the parts of the transformer is not required for transfer of energy. Transformers are
often used to convert between high and low voltages, to change impedance, and to provide electrical isolation
between circuits.

Transformers come in a range of sizes from a thumbnail-sized coupling transformer hidden inside a
stage microphone to gigawatts units used to interconnect large portions of national power grids, all operating
with the same basic principles and with many similarities in their parts.

2.5 Materials and techniques:

2.5.1 Introduction to electro-textiles:
As per the Open materials definition, electro textiles or e-textiles are textile materials with electrical properties. Electro textiles have attracted increasing attention in recent years.
The combinations of textile structures that are lightweight, flexible, conformable, and strong, with electronics
have aroused keen interest from many disciplines. With technological innovations appearing in both textile
and electronics, integration of these has started giving benefits. Innovations like the fabric keyboard, musical
T-shirt (by Levis) soft switches and smart composites have found many applications in sports, healthcare,
military, aerospace engineering, civil engineering and many other fields.
The concept of e-textiles has evolved from the concept of wearable computers. Wagner et al 18 consider that the
complete spectrum of e-textiles exists between wearable computers on the one end and electronic components
integrated into yarn on the other.
E-textiles represent integration at the yarn level. E-yarns are used to make functional circuits, and are made
functional by weaving.
E-textiles being new in use have some inherent challenges which have so far restricted their usability. Some
of these challenges are:
Pliability: When used in e-textile, a conducting yarn will be subjected to bending, stretching and shear which
may affect the electrical performance.
Shear: Shearing yarns against each other during drap
ing has two consequences. One is the making and unmaking of non-fixed electrical interconnects. The second
consequence is abrasive wear associated with shear friction. This is another aspect of e-textile that has to be
understood and prevented.


Wagner Sigurd, Bonderover Eitan, Jordan William B, Sturm James C, Electrotextiles : Concepts
And Challenges , International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, Vol.12, No.2

2.5.2 Techniques of making the intended garment:

1. Traditional garment making technique:

Construction of pattern
Tracing the pattern on the shell fabric
Embroidery of the Conductive Thread on the shell fabric
Cutting of fabric, both inner and shell
Stitching of the garment
Placing the circuit board inside the garment
Joining the ends of the conductive thread to the circuit
Finishing of the garment

Figure 2.13 : conductive yarns that can be used for embroidery 19

:// /2010/April/Issue/Etextiles _Feature.html , Figure 2.





thread 117/17
x 2ply

Shieldex Silver thread

234/34 x 4ply


Yarn type

Aracon yarn
Metal clad

Filament -66

Metal plated

Metal plated

Metal clad

Steel Conductive

Yarn count 200 and 400






Yarn diameter (mm)

0.23 and







1200 to 2000






(2.5% ultimate
elongation )





Price (U.S.
$ and
Temperature range
Top thread

3 yard/$


19 yards/$

13 yard/$

10 yards/$

9 yard/$

-65 to 200

-65 to 260

















Hand stitch



(diff. as yarn is











Table 2.2: Comparison of different conducting yarns and their properties 22

Minyoung Suh, E-Textiles For Wearability: Review On Electrical And Mechanical Properties , /2010/April/Issue/Etextiles _Feature.html,
Table 1.


2. Another Technique could be through weaving

The idea in this is to weave conducting metallic yarns (yarn diameter equal to the textile yarn) in the fabric
while the fabric is developed. The textile yarn could be of cellulosic or proteinous natural fibre.
Conductive yarns are either pure metal yarns or composites of metals and textiles. Metals are superior in
strength and fineness, and textiles are selected for comfort. In order to produce a successful conductive yarn,
the best mix of conductive and non-conductive materials is critical. As a thread takes on a bigger portion of
conductive components, it loses the typical textile properties such as flexibility or drapability and becomes
more conductive.
The conducting yarns will run after every fixed interval (weft-wise and warp-wise) to from a circuit. The
Cross-over points will be connected to shock terminals. An electrically insulating material will be attached to
the reverse side to prevent the back flow of current. The limitation with this technique is that it can be used
only as shawl or stole.

3. Conducting Fabric:
This is the most advanced way of making of the desired garment. The fabric in this case serves as the medium
of carrying the current instead of wires. The surface when connected to electric current source will conduct
electricity all across it, so in this case no point is devoid of current. As in the earlier types, here also there
would be need of electrically insulating but water repellent textile material so that it prevents the wearer from
electric shock, in-case the body perspiration comes in contact of the fabric. There are several techniques to
develop such a textile material. One of these is a fabric developed by in-situ polymerization of conjugated
polymers 21. Here Polypyrrole(PPY-intrinsically conducting polymer) is synthesized by in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization in aqueous solutions of the monomer.
After that the textile material is coated with an even and uniform layer of PPy. PPy layer does not change the
mechanical property of the textiles.
The material so developed has low surface resistivity (electrical) of 10Kohms/m2 (textile materials generally
have the electrical resistivity of 1010 -1012 ohm/m2). This treatment can be done on all the textile substrates
except cellulose based fibres. The limitation with this fabric type is that, it is not available on a commercial
basis and is developed in textile laboratories. Another type of material which is the electro-textile namely
Soft mesh-conductive fabric developed by the Middlesex University. This fabric gets its conductivity from
threads containing metallized micro-fibres but these are woven more loosely to create a very soft-feeling fabric. This fabric has a good tear resistance because of its silver content. It has very good electrical conductivity
of 10 per 100mm measured on a 25mm wide strip 23. Unlike other conductive fabrics, this one is available
commercially at a price of around 12000 for one jacket.

4. Through Knitting Technique:

The garment can also be made by knitting of conductive yarns along with cellulosic or protienious fibre. The
idea would be knit the conductive yarn alternately with the non-conducting fibre so that there are strips of
conducting fibre followed by non-conducting yarn and the conducting strips are connected to the circuit for
giving the shock. For this the knitting has to be done very carefully so that there is no breakage or the conducting surfaces do not intermingle or short circuit can be caused.

Sede De Biella ,Electrically conductive textile, .it/contenuti/file/Electroconducting_Varesano.pdf

2.6 Outcome of Review of Literature

On the basis of the literature reviewed it was found that following methods, techniques and material would
best suit requirement.


Properties Required



Deterrent Technique

Should provide
shock for short duration

Mild electrical shock

NIFT Anti-molestation garment 2011,2009

10-30 mA current

Williams Edmund A, National

Association of Current Broadcasters Engineering
Handbook(pp-355) 2007,10th
Edition, Elsevier Inc.

Working Principle

Should be easy to
operate and safe

Garment insulated

Shell Fabric

Should be waterproof and non-conducting

Polyester Taffeta

NIFT Anti-molestation garment 2011,2009 and sample

William RR, Murphy EJ, Predominating influence of moisture and electrolytic material
upon textiles as insulators, Bell
System Technical Journal,1929
Market survey

Lining Fabric

Should be water
proof ,air permeable
and insulating
Conducting Wires

Nylon Amide

Material exploration and testing

Stainless steel Filament Yarn

Shock Range

Contact Points


Convert DC to AC
and Non Continuous
Electrical Supply

Inverter circuit

NIFT Anti-molestation garment 2011,2009


Conducting yarns

Stainless Steel Filament Yarn by Spark


Comparison of conductive

Table : Review of literature outcome

2.7 Development of Software for Tracking

1 Background
1.1 Motivations and Goals
Security is very important in some activities. Freeride, mountain walking or climbing, paragliding are those
where accidents can be serious or fatal. Having the possibility to follow physically the position of a person
on regular basis can be comfortable for family, relatives or others. And keeping in mind the current security
problems for women this can come in handy.
The project is meant to propose a simple and portable solution for people to get traced during a trip, or in daily
life when they are in danger. The application is web based and should be available for every people who have
the possibility to
1. Run a small Java application on its mobile phone.
2. Has link between a GPS device and its mobile phone.
3. Has Internet access.
This concept is not new and a lot of applications involving GPS are available on the market: nowadays almost
every new car is equipped with a GPS on board and help people in city or country side to and their road.
The concept of this project is a bit different. We are not focusing on "where are we?" but more on "where he/
she is?". For this the idea is to use a cell phone which accepts to receive GPS coordinates and send them to a
server able to record them under the account of a register user (tracked person). Then from a web client, the
user can be followed on a map in real time mode.

1.2 State of the art

As mentioned above, there are already a lot of applications which use the geo-positioning. Garmin, one of the
famous GPS manufacturers, proposes maps of almost every country in the world ready to be downloading into
their panel of GPS devices. Different kind of applications for different kind of public: road maps and tracking,
topologic maps for technical job like geologist (for instance), lights map for pilots, etc.
Also it exists, for mountain activities like free ride, hiking, and those automatic signalling systems which
switch on as soon as the rider gets caught by an avalanche for example. It transmits a radio signal to the closest
relay and indicates the exact position of the victim. It helps for the search and often save lives. The portable
GPS proposes a full navigation system with vocal indication. The list of geo-positioning applications is huge
and a simple search on the Internet gives hundred web sites talking about the topic.

1.3 Use Cases

Figure 2: Use case of the application

The diagram ( figure 2) shows the use cases for the application. There are 3 actors, 10 use cases which represent for different action what actors can do with the system. The use case Start a track is in fact 2 use cases. A
track can be started from the web client or from the mobile application (cell phone application). The use case
Send a position is only available from the mobile application. We will see in the architecture what is done
where (mobile vs. server application).

User login This web page is the first one in the system. The user must be identify in order to access any options.
The web page contains two fields:
1. User Id
2. Password
This page proposes the link to the registration web page in case the user is not yet registered.
Creation of a track for a given user. The user, once registered, can log in the system and create a track. There is
two possibilities to do it:
1. From the web client application.
2. From the mobile application (mobile phone).
If a new track is started from the mobile application, the user must provide:
1. User Id
2. Password
Then the server will create a new track and be ready to store the future positions in under this track's id.
For a track started from the web client, the user can (but it is not mandatory) give:
1. North coordinates
2. East coordinates
This will represent the rst point of the track. The track has a unique identier within the system. The time and
date when the track is created is taken from the server's clock.
Sending GPS coordinates to a server using mobile data communication. The user gets the coordinates (position) from its GPS device and sends them to the server with mobile phone. The position must contain:
1. User Id
2. Time
3. North coordinates
4. East coordinates
5. Altitude

Then the server records the position under the user's current track id. If no track is created or the user Id does
not exists, the system gives an error message and do not record the position.
Follow a user in real time mode on the Internet. Any person having the right to watch a user's track must log in
the system under the user's ID and password. Then he/she can choose the track to be drawn. A list of the user's
tracks is available. This is done through the web page. The drawings of the track are done in two different
manners: Swiss Topo 2D maps and Google Earth. If the track chosen is the current one and drawn in 2D mode,
it is refreshed periodically using a "refresh time" parameter.
Delete a track. The user can delete tracks from a list of tracks. If the track deleted is the current one then the
previous one become again the current track and all the future positions sent to the server will be save under
this track id.
Manager - Delete users. The web page allow the manager to delete users from a list of register one. This list
shows all the available users.
Manager - Follow a tracked user in real time mode on the Internet.
The manager can choose the track to be drawn. A list of all user's tracks is available. This is done through the
web page. The other options are the same as standard users.

3 Operational Instructions
The architecture of project is based on Enterprise JavaBeans technology. The mobile application is developed in Java 2 Micro Edition.
3.1 System Requirements
The system needs die rent hardware and software components:
An Application Server J2EE EJB 2.1 compatible. A SQL database
Java compatible mobile phone with Bluetooth Internet access
3.2 Software
The OS where all the following were installed is Windows XP sp2:
1. J2EE Application Server: Sun Java System Application Server Platform Edition 8.1 2005Q1
2. Enterprise Java Beans 2.1
3. Java Midlet: SUN J2ME Wireless Tool Kit 2.2
4. Point Base free Version: 5.2 ECF build 294
5. Test Browsers: Fire Fox 1.0.7, Internet Explorer
6. Java VM: J2SE Version 1.5.0 (build 1.5.0 06 b05)
In addition, we have used Google Earth (v3.0) Release Notes - November, 2005 (v3.0.07xx). The Development platform is Eclipse Version: 3.1.1. To build and deploy the application Xdoclet and Ant script are used.
3.3 Hardware:
1. Mobile Phone
2. GPS EMTAC Bluetooth - GPS Trine

3.4 Architecture
The technologies used for the project are client-server and web based. The main platform of development is
J2EE. The full description of the language, server version is described above.. The general structure of the
application is shown in the figure 3.
The application is based on 3-tiers architecture:
1. Client side: mobile application, web browser
2. Server side: business logic, web application (interface)
3. Database

Figure 3: General Architecture of GPS Tracker application

3.4.1 Components
As shown in the figure 3, there are 3 main components. The client side which contains an Java Midlet application (loaded in the mobile phone) and the browsers. The application server which contains the Web container (JSPs and servlets) and the EJB container where the business logic (Session beans and Entity beans)
stands. The third tier is the database managing the tables where the entity beans store their values.
4 User's guide
The application can run on a local machine very easily. The machine must have the Java SDK 1.5, SUN
application server with Point Base, Java Wireless Tool Kit 2.2 installed.
4.1 Installation procedures
Application Server. At first the SUN application server must be installed completely with Point Base on the
machine and correctly configured. The server is available in
or on the CD-ROM delivered with the application.
Once installed and running, some setup have to be made in order to use the correct Point Base database:
1. Open the server admin console (http://localhost:4848/admingui/TopFrameset)
2. Go to Resources, JDBC, Connection Pools, PointBasePool.
3. Go to Properties and check that:
Database Name = jdbc:pointbase:server://localhost:9092/sample Password = pbpublic
User = pbpublic
Usually the default domain used is Domain1 and all the les extracted from .ear
will be saved under ../domain1/...
Database. Before the deployment of the le ejbTracker.ear, the database Sample must be lled with the tables
tracker xxxxx.

1. Enter in the PointBase console startConsole.bat (under Windows) in in-stall dir/AppServer/pointbase/
2. Execute the le create.sql available in the CD-ROM delivered with the documentation and sources.
3. Deploy the ejbTracker.ear on the server with 2 possibilities:
Deploy the application.
1. Copy the le ejbTracker.ear under install dir/AppServer/domains/domain1/autodeploy
2. Use the server admin console go to Applications, Enterprise Applications, Deploy... and specify the le .../
4.2 Download and les locations
The CD-ROM given with the documentation contains (directory and les):
/report-presentation: the projects report and the presentation in PDF. /ejbTracker project : the ejbTracker.ear,
classes, create.sql, built.xml. /util : SUN server installer, WTK 2.2, Google Earth.
/reference-documentation: all the PDF les mentioned in reference.
/java Sources eclipse-project:
The complete project in Eclipse structure (/MITS for the EJB project and /WTK2.2-Apps for the mobile
/GPS-tracker javadoc: javadoc.
4.3 Tutorial
The application is very simple to use and very intuitive. The user interfaces are:
1. Web client
2. Midlet
4.3.1 Web Client
The web client can allow 2 types of users to be log in the system:
1) the manager
2) the user. The manager is a special user and is identified in the system by the user Id number 1.
It is in fact the first user to be register.

The figure 12 shows the web site map for a normal user. We will see what are the additional rights that the
manager has later.
To access the application from the web the URL

Figure 12: User navigation : site map

http://localhost:8080/ejbtracker/ must be entered in the browser. This is valid of course if the server is local.
The main page asks for a Login and if the user is not yet register he/she must register first. The user receives
a user Id and will need it every time he/she enter in the system.
Once logged in, the navigation page allow the user to change its pro le, add a new track, delete a track, view
its different tracks, logout the system.
The different buttons are:
Pro le setup :
allow the user to change its pro le and password.
Add track :
allow the user to add a track. The coordinates and altitude are optional. Once the track created, all the positions send to the server will be saved under this track Id.


3. Methodology:
3.1 Research methodology

Figure 3.1: Stages of product development for Garment


3.3 Patterns Of The Intended Garment



Figure: Patterns

Figure : Embroidery design

3.4 Garment after embroidery and Cutting

Figure: Garment after embroidery and cutting

3.5 Final Garment After Stitching

Figure: Front

Figure: Back

Figure: Close up of Embroidery

Front side of the Garment


Lining fabric





4.1 Product description

4.1.1 Special Features of Jacket
1.The wiring in the garment has been done in parallel so each wire is independent of each other so even if one
of the wires break the garment can function without any problem.
2.The circuit and battery are placed in separate places so that they are easy to remove and repair if the need
3.The circuit is easily removable from the body of the garment so it can be washed.
4.The garment is waterproof from the outside so it can be used during mild rain if the need arises without the
fear of getting an electric shock .
5.The inner lining is made up of waterproof and air permeable material so besides providing insulation it can
provide comfort to the wearer.
6.The Jacket is very light and can be used in summer as well as winters
7.Due to the design of the garment it can be worn over any garment.
8.There are no sleeves in the garment thus minimising the chances of the garment short circuiting due to contact between conductive surfaces.
9.The entire garment is potentially a conductive surface because of the embroidered threads.
10.More importantly the circuit board has been fitted with a GSM module which will send a message to the
wearers family and friends who in turn can track the wearer using the software which has been developed by
11. The button is placed such that it is easily accessible and can be activated quickly.
12.The garment can be machine washed.
13.The garment thus effectively utilises hardware and software to provide complete protection to its wearer.
14.Because of the usage of three 9V batteries the garment can operate for a longer duration than previously
NIFT anti molestation garments.

4.2 Costing
4.2.1 Costing for Jacket


Sampling Cost

Production Cost

Polyester taffeta fabric(Shell)




Nylon Polyamide fabric(lininig)

Sparkfun stainless steel conductive yarn




50 m



Battery 9v Duracell




Sewing thread



Total material cost


Table Costing
Embroidery Cost - Rs.600 (Sampling)
Cut and Make cost Rs.260 ( 20 % of raw material require in making self defence garment )

Total Cost
Sampling Per piece including Labour :

Rs. 3416

4.3 Weight Of Jacket

The overall weight of the garment including the circuit and battery comes out to be 400 grams which is quite
light as compared to the previously NIFT Anti-molestation Jacket.


Weight in Grams

Fabric and Lining






Total Weight


Table- Breakdown of total Weight

4.4 About the circuit

The circuit used in the garment is an inverter circuit powered by three 9 Volt D.C cell. The A.C output which
is delivered via the transformer ranges from 150 V to 220 V and 15 to 30 mA current. The combination of the
final current and voltage level is within the limits of safety and are non-lethal. The switch that is used activates the circuit only when it is pressed. The circuit is connected to three 9v batteries which enables the user
to switch it on for longer durations The circuit will also house a Bluetooth chip along with a micro controller
which will be connected to the wearers mobile phone and will send out messages to the wearers close ones
once the shock is given by the garment.

Figure : Circuit Diagram

Figure : Circuit

4.5 Comparison Between Current Garment and Anti molestation Jacket developed at

Current Garment NIFT Anti-molestation Jacket

Advantage over NIFT

Anti-molestation Jacket


Polyester Taffeta

Wool Acrylic Blend


Nylon polyamide

Polyester Taffeta


Invertors circuit board Invertors circuit workproviding live current ing on the principle
to the wires
of stun gun i.e. charge
accumulation and discharge of electrons


Software for tracking

giving in the smart
Three 9 v batteries


The shell fabric is waterproof

thus can be used during light
The lining fabric is water
repellent in both cases but
the silhouette of self-defence
garment is breathable so more
comfort to the wearer.
Self-defence garment gives
shock during consecutive
attempts to molest and anti-molestation garment require
time to recharge the surface
after one shock.
Extra protection to the wearer
as help can be provided

One 9 v battery

Longer duration of functioning of the device

Ease of Detachment

The circuit can be

easily detached

Complex procedure of

Easy to use


Outer as well as inner

layer waterproof

Only inner lining waterproof

Can be used even in light rain

Wash ability

Can be washed and thus longer life


Washable because
Washable when all
conductive yarns used wired circuit is removed.
800-850 g


Rs 2900(sampling)

Rs 1200(sampling)

Costlier but more functionality


Normal embroidery
and stitching

Special frame required

for construction and
wires to be soldered

Ease of stitching thus can be

made in lesser time

Mass production

Easy steps to construct and usage of

conductive thread

Soldering used which

Greater mass production
can be break during use capability

Number of Batteries

Lighter than the NIFT Anti-molestation Jacket garment

4.6 Source Code of the Application Used in the mobile phone : 22

public class Tracking extends MapActivity implements LocationListener {

LocationManager locman;
LocationListener loclis;
Location Location;
private MapView map;
List<GeoPoint> geoPointsArray = new ArrayList<GeoPoint>();
private MapController controller;
String provider = LocationManager.GPS_PROVIDER;
double lat;
double lon;
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
locman = (LocationManager) getSystemService(Context.
// locman.requestLocationUpdates(provider,60000, 100,loclis);
// Location = locman.getLastKnownLocation(provider);

if (Location != null) {
lat = Location.getLatitude();
lon = Location.getLongitude();
GeoPoint New_geopoint = new GeoPoint((int) (lat *
(int) (lon * 1e6));
class MyOverlay extends Overlay {
public MyOverlay() {
public void draw(Canvas canvas, MapView mapv, boolean
shadow) {
super.draw(canvas, mapv, shadow);
Projection projection = map.getProjection();
Path p = new Path();
for (int i = 0; i < geoPointsArray.size(); i++) {
if (i == geoPointsArray.size() - 1) {
Point from = new Point();

/** Find and initialize the map view. */

private void initMapView() {
map = (MapView) findViewById(;
controller = map.getController();
/** Find Current Position on Map. */
private void initMyLocation() {
final MyLocationOverlay overlay = new MyLocationOverlay(this, map);
overlay.enableCompass(); // does not work in emulator
overlay.runOnFirstFix(new Runnable() {
public void run() {
// Zoom in to current location
public void onLocationChanged(Location location) {

Sanmax inc/Portweb Technologies

Point to = new Point();

projection.toPixels(geoPointsArray.get(i), from);
projection.toPixels(geoPointsArray.get(i + 1), to);
p.moveTo(from.x, from.y);
p.lineTo(to.x, to.y);
Paint mPaint = new Paint();
canvas.drawPath(p, mPaint);
super.draw(canvas, map, shadow);
public void onProviderDisabled(String provider) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
public void onProviderEnabled(String provider) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle
extras) {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
protected boolean isRouteDisplayed() {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
return false;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Environment;
import android.os.Parcelable;
import android.provider.MediaStore;
import android.webkit.ConsoleMessage;
import android.webkit.ValueCallback;
import android.webkit.WebChromeClient;
import android.webkit.WebView;

public void onStatusChanged(String provider, int status, Bundle extras) {

// TODO Auto-generated method stub
protected boolean isRouteDisplayed() {
// TODO Auto-generated method stub
return false;
import android.content.Intent;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.os.Environment;
import android.os.Parcelable;
import android.provider.MediaStore;
import android.webkit.ConsoleMessage;
import android.webkit.ValueCallback;
import android.webkit.WebChromeClient;
import android.webkit.WebView;
import android.webkit.WebViewClient;
import android.webkit.WebSettings.PluginState;
import android.widget.Toast;
public class ShowWebView extends Activity {
//private Button button;
private WebView webView;
final Activity activity = this;
public Uri imageUri;
private static final int FILECHOOSER_RESULTCODE
= 2888;
private ValueCallback<Uri> mUploadMessage;
private Uri mCapturedImageURI = null;
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
//Get webview
webView = (WebView) findViewById(;
// Define url that will open in webview
String webViewUrl =

// Here we can open new activity

return true;

// Javascript inabled on webview


} else {

// Other webview options

//Other webview settings
//Load url in webview
// Define Webview manage classes


url) {

//Show loader on url load

public void onLoadResource (WebView view, String


// if url contains string androidexample

// Then show progress Dialog
if (progressDialog == null && url.contains(androi){
// in standard case YourActivity.this
progressDialog = new ProgressDialog(ShowWeb-

private void startWebView() {



// Create new webview Client to show progress dialog

// Called When opening a url or click on link
// You can create external class extends with WebView-

webView.setWebViewClient(new WebViewClient() {
ProgressDialog progressDialog;
//If you will not use this method url links are open in
new brower not in webview
public boolean shouldOverrideUrlLoading(WebView
view, String url) {


// Check if Url contains ExternalLinks string in url

// then open url in new browser
// else all webview links will open in webview

// Close progressDialog
if (progressDialog.isShowing()) {
progressDialog = null;
}catch(Exception exception){


// Could be cleverer and use a regex
//Open links in new browser
new Intent(Intent.ACTION_VIEW, Uri.


// Called when all page resources loaded

public void onPageFinished(WebView view, String url) {

// Taking WebViewClient as inner class


// Stay within this webview and load url

return true;


// You can create external class extends with WebChrome-

// Taking WebViewClient as inner class

// we will define openFileChooser for select file from
camera or sdcard
webView.setWebChromeClient(new WebChromeClient() {

// openFileChooser for Android 3.0+

public void openFileChooser(ValueCallback<Uri>
uploadMsg, String acceptType){

catch(Exception e){
Toast.makeText(getBaseContext(), Exception:+e,

// Update message
mUploadMessage = uploadMsg;
// Create AndroidExampleFolder at sdcard
File imageStorageDir = new File(
, AndroidExampleFolder);
if (!imageStorageDir.exists()) {
// Create AndroidExampleFolder at sdcard


// openFileChooser for Android < 3.0
public void openFileChooser(ValueCallback<Uri> uploadMsg){
openFileChooser(uploadMsg, );


// Create camera captured image file path and name

File file = new File(
imageStorageDir + File.separator +

String acceptType,
String capture) {

openFileChooser(uploadMsg, acceptType);

// The webPage has 2 filechoosers and will send a

// console message informing what action to perform,
// taking a photo or updating the file

+ String.valueOf(System.currentTi+ .jpg);
mCapturedImageURI = Uri.fromFile(file);

//openFileChooser for other Android versions

public void openFileChooser(ValueCallback<Uri> up-

cm) {

public boolean onConsoleMessage(ConsoleMessage

// Camera capture image intent

final Intent captureIntent = new Intent(

onConsoleMessage(cm.message(), cm.lineNumber(),
return true;

OUTPUT, mCapturedImageURI);

public void onConsoleMessage(String message, int

lineNumber, String sourceID) {
//Log.d(androidruntime, Show console messages,
Used for debugging: + message);


Intent i = new Intent(Intent.ACTION_GET_CONi.addCategory(Intent.CATEGORY_OPENABLE);


}); // End setWebChromeClient

// Create file chooser intent

Intent chooserIntent = Intent.createChooser(i,
Image Chooser);

// Return here when file selected from camera or from SDcard

// Set camera intent to file chooser

, new Parcelable[] { captureIntent });

protected void onActivityResult(int requestCode, int resultCode,
Intent intent) {

of activity

// On select image call onActivityResult method

startActivityForResult(chooserIntent, FI-


if (null == this.mUploadMessage) {
Uri result=null;
if (resultCode != RESULT_OK) {
result = null;
} else {


// retrieve from the private variable if the intent is null

result = intent == null ? mCapturedImageURI : intent.

catch(Exception e)
Toast.makeText(getApplicationContext(), activity :+e,
mUploadMessage = null;

// Open previous opened link from history on webview when
back button pressed
// Detect when the back button is pressed
public void onBackPressed() {
if(webView.canGoBack()) {

} else {
// Let the system handle the back button

FILE : show_web_view.xml
Define webview inside this file.
<?xml version=1.0 encoding=utf-8?>
<LinearLayout xmlns:android=

android:orientation=vertical >
FILE : AndroidManifest.xml
Define sdcard and camera permission.
<?xml version=1.0 encoding=utf-8?>
<manifest xmlns:android=
android:versionName=1.0 >
<uses-permission android:name=android.permission.
<uses-permission android:name=android.permission.
<uses-feature />
<uses-permission android:name=android.permission.
android:label=@string/app_name >
<intent-filter >
<action android:name=android.intent.action.
<category android:name=android.intent.category.LAUNCHER />
<?xml version=1.0 encoding=utf-8?>
<manifest xmlns:android=

android:versionName=1.0 >
<uses-permission android:name=android.permission.INTERNET />
<uses-permission android:name=android.permission.CAMERA />
<uses-feature />
<uses-permission android:name=android.permission.
android:label=@string/app_name >


<intent-filter >
<action android:name=android.intent.action.MAIN

<category android:name=android.intent.category.


Legal aspect pertaining to the use of garment:

Indian citizens enjoy right of self-defence in case of any attack causing any harm to their body or property. The
intention of laws made for self-defence can itself be cleared by Section 96 of Indian Penal Code, which states
that nothing is an offence which is done in the exercise of the right of private defence.
Section 99 of IPC states that every person has a right to defend- :
1.His own body and the body of any other person, against any offence affecting the human body.
2.The property, whether movable or immovable, of himself or of any other person, against any act which is an
offence falling under the definition of theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass, or which is an attempt to
commit theft, robbery, mischief or criminal trespass.
Self-defence right against brutal attack to ones body extends to death case in Section 100. It states that the
right of private-defence of the body extends to the voluntary
causing of death or of any other harm to the assailant, if the offence which occasions the exercise of the right
be of any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely:
1.Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehension that death will otherwise be the consequence of
such assault;
2.Such an assault as may reasonably cause the apprehension that grievous hurt will otherwise be the consequence of such assault;
3.An assault with the intention of committing rape;
4.An assault with the intention of gratifying unnatural lust;
5.An assault with the intention of kidnapping or abducting;
6.An assault with the intention of wrongfully confining a person, under circumstances which may reasonably
cause him to apprehend that he will be unable to have recourse to the public authorities for his release.
Section 101 explains the situation, when such right extends to causing any harm other than death. If the offence be not of any of the descriptions enumerated in the last preceding section, the right of private-defense of
the body does not extend to the voluntary causing of death to the assailant, but does extend, under the restrictions mentioned in Section 99, to the voluntary causing to the assailant of any harm other than death.
Section 102 says that the right of private-defense of the body commences as soon as a reasonable apprehension
of danger to the body arises from an attempt or threat to commit the offence though

the offence may not have been committed; and it continues as long as such apprehension of danger to the body
Section 103 defines when the right of private-defense of property extends to causing death if the offence, the
committing of which, or the attempting to commit which, occasions the exercise of the right, be an offence of
any of the descriptions hereinafter enumerated, namely:
2.House-breaking by night;
3.Mischief by fire committed on any building, tent or vessel, which building, tent or vessel is used as a human
dwelling, or as a place for the custody of property;
4.Theft, mischief, or house-trespass, under such circumstances as may reasonably cause apprehension that
death or grievous hurt will be the consequence, if such right of private defense is not exercised.
The garment does not incorporate current levels which would cause casualties and serious damage to the
assaulter. Moreover, as the law permits the use of force in case of protection of self, so in the view of the
aforementioned sections of the Indian Penal Code, the garment is well with the legal limits and can be used
without any legal hassles.


Location tracking in self-defence garment is include two process:
1 sending SOS message form garment device to pre-defined mobile phone number.
2 Location tracking of wearer via mobile application.
This can further can be convertible into one process i.e. linking directly to wears phone in order to send SOS
message to pre-defined mobile phone.
The software communicates with only the pre fed numbers in its database .If something can be done so that
everybody has this application on their smart phones and in case of an emergency everybody within a 1 km
radius of the wearer is alerted then it would be of great help to the wearer and it would give people an opportunity to prevent mishaps.
This can be done by using NFC(near field communication). The technology behind NFC allows a device,
known as a reader, interrogator, or active device, to create a radio frequency current that communicates with
another NFC compatible device or a small NFC tag holding the information the reader wants.
In the garment part more conductive materials23 can be explored which provide more conductivity and consume lesser electricity than the currently used design. And also more shell materials can be used which can
be printed upon more easily. And finally the circuit can be made even smaller by using compact materials and
decreasing the size of the wifi module and discovering more long lasting battery options.




1.The developed garment is fully functional and it gives out a mild electric shock to the assailer which leave
him confused and cause a momentary loss of control giving the wearer a chance to call for help or leave the
2.The garment also has a Bluetooth microcontroller installed into it which will send messages to the wearers
close ones alerting them about the situation.
3.There is also a mobile application installed into the wearers mobile phone will help the close ones of the
wearer to track her through the internet and get her exact location . Furthermore they can also tell the wearer
that her message has been received through a message or an alarm which can be send through the phone itself.
4.All the wired lines along with the metallic contact points (buttons) are connected in parallel. This will ensure
that if there is accidental damage to any one of the conducting lines, the rest of lines would function properly.
5.The outer layer of the garment is waterproof thus the garment can be used even in mild rain without the
danger of the wearer getting an electric shock .
6.The inner layer of the garment is waterproof and breathable providing comfort to the wearer.
7.The weight of the garment is just under 500grams including the circuit which is quite light as compared to
NIFT Anti-molestation Jacket jackets of this type.
8.The circuit has been connected with three 9v batteries which will enable the user to just switch it on whenever she feels unsafe and walk through any path. More batteries mean longer working time of the garment.
9.Another important factor for the safety of the wearer is that the garment does not have any sleeves it is merely worn over the body which means it can be put over any day to day clothes and also there is less chance of
the wearer getting an accidental shock.
10. The circuit of the garment is completely detachable which means it can be washed easily.
11.The garment does not have any soldering anywhere in the body which gives increases the resistance of the
garment to wear and tear.
12.Some other concepts have also been developed so that the garment can be even more successful in the


1. Lama Pravesh, Bagga Bhuvan, India Today, January 7, 2011
4.By Correspondent, Hindustan Times , January 21, 201 2
6. Oleoresin capsicum: Pepper Spray as a force alternative; National Institute Of Justice; Technology Assessment Programme;1994 (URL: https ://www.ncjrs .gov/pdffiles 1/nij/grants /181655.pdf )
7. india: Delhi boy invents device to deter attackers ; BBC News India; 27 January 2012 URL: http://www. /world -asia-india-16745065
8.Girl friendly teenager who will save you from molesters , Times Life, TOI Mumbai, January 1 2012
11.A protective shield: A garment with safety device incorporated; Roshan, Kumar, Vaish,Shilpi; NIFT Kolkata;2004
13. /2003/ 05/ 58914
15.Anti molestation Jacket - Research project by Nishant Priya 2011 NIFT DELHI
16.Marom Bikson, A review of hazards associated with exposure to low voltages
17. Occupational Health Safety /construction/electrical_incidents /eleccurrent.html#wet_ conditions
18.Electrical Circuits -Module2, DC Circuit ,Version 2, EE IIT , Kharagpur. http://ecourses /Webcoursecontents /IIT%20Kharagpur/Basic% 20Electrical%20Tech nology/pdf/L-03(GDR)
21. /circuits /u9l4b.cfm
22.Understanding & Using Dc-Ac Inverters , Jaycar Electronics Reference Data Sheet URL: _uploaded/inverter.pdf

23.Wagner Sigurd, Bonderover Eitan, Jordan William B, Sturm James C, Electrotextiles : Concepts And
Challenges , International Journal of High Speed Electronics and Systems, Vol.12, No.2 (2002)
24. // /2010/April/Issue/Etextiles _Feature.html , Figure 2.
25.Minyoung Suh, E-Textiles For Wearability: Review On Electrical And Mechanical Properties , http://www. /2010/April/Issue/Etextiles _Feature.html, Table 1.
26.Sede De Biella ,Electriaclly conductive textile, .it/contenuti/file/Electroconducting_Varesano.pdf
27.sanmax inc/portweb technologies
28. Anti Molestation Jacket , Research Project by Nishant Priya(NIFT New Delhi 2011)
29.Sanmax inc/Portweb Technologies
30.The Indian Penal Code, 1860, Section 96 to 106

3.2 Questionnaire and Analysis
Objective: To determine the need of the Garment and analysing the price range for the garment
We conducted a survey for safety product that affects women and their wellbeing and safety. We surveyed
across India to better understand their opinions and experiences.
Product: we have developed a self-defence garment and accessory prototype against women harassment. The
surface of product is made of conductive fabric which will give a mild voltage shock to the intruder and have
a tracker in compliance with a mobile application which sends location of the wearer to predefined location
and police server as soon as intruder tries intervening to the personal space of wearer.
0) Age group
13 to 18
19 to 25
26 and above
1) Sex
2) Where do you live
3) Field of Study
School students choose their future field.
4) According to you, what are the reasons for increasing number of cases against women harassment/rape?
0 being least and 4 being most
Lack of education and awareness
Inefficient judicial system
Unequal distribution of assets in society
low conviction rate
5) According to you, how much time do you think, will take to overcome these reasons?
Lack of education and awareness
Inefficient judicial system
Unequal distribution of assets in society
low conviction rate
6) Have you felt threatened for your safety when you were outside home in the past ?
7) if yes how many times ?
More than thrice

8) During those times what was the thought you had ?

To call for help
Wish to have a gadget to protect you
Wish you were home and had not step out ever
Felt helpless
9) Are you aware if there is any gadgets available for you for safety?*Required
10) if yes, mention
11) Will you use a self-defence device which prevent intruder, is incorporated into your outerwear garment OR
glove and in compliance with a mobile application to track your location?*Required
12) Price range of your existing personnel mobile phone?*Required
Less than 5000 INR
5000-10000 INR
10000-15000 INR
15000-20000 INR
20000-25000 INR
25000 above INR
13) How much willing to pay for above mentioned self defense device?
Less than 3000 INR
3000-5000 INR
5000-7000 INR
7000-9000 INR

Number of Responses: 107


0) Age group
13 to 18
19 to 25
26 and above 8


1) Sex
Female 107


2) Where do you live?

Bangalore 2 1.9%
Chennai 1 0.9%
Mumbai 4 3.7%

4) According to you, what are the reasons for increasing number of cases against women harassment/rape?

5) According to you, how much time do you think, will take to overcome these reasons?

6) Have you felt threatened for your safety when you were outside home in the past?

Yes 90 84.1%
No 17 15.9%

7) If yes how many times?

Once 9
Twice 15
Thrice 2

more than thrice 65


8) During those times what was the thought you had ?

to call for help 26

wish to have a gadget to protect you 62
60 %
wish you were home and had not step out ever
felt helpless 19


9) Are you aware if there is any gadget available for you for safety?

yes 47 43.9%
no 60 56.1%

10) if yes,mention
chilly spray, lipstick pepper spray
pepper spray, pen
pepper spray, safety phone apps
SOS call systems, apps
teaser, anti molestation jacket
Knife, few android applications
pepper spray,
pepper spray
shock watches
Electric Teaser
pepper spray, taser gun, etc.
Pepper spray etc
Boyfriend :p

stun gun
Pepper spray, shock gun
Peper spray
spray..shock gun
Pepper spray, Swiss knife, scissors
anti- molestation jacket
The Shock Jacket developed by Niftians
pepper sprays, stun guns etc.
pepper spray :p
Pepper Spray
Alarm rings
pepper spray and self defence practice
sorry, m not aware
peperspray or just a normal key

11) Will you use a self defense device which prevent intruder, is incorporated into your
outerwear garment OR glove and in compliance with a mobile application to track your

yes 96 89.7%
no 11 10.3%

12) Price range of your existing personnel mobile phone?

less than 5000 INR
5000-10000 INR
10000-15000 INR
15000-20000 INR
20000-25000 INR
25000 above INR



13) How much willing to pay for above mentioned self defense device?

less than 3000 INR

3000-5000 INR
5000-7000 INR
7000-9000 INR



Analysis of the Questionnaire

90 % of the women have felt threatened outside their homes and 67 % more than thrice in their lives.
60% are not aware of devices available for their safety
90% women are willing to buy a device which can help protect them
88% women have phones priced above Rs 5000 thus they can run the tracking software
87% women want the device to be priced below Rs 5000.