.
DOCUMENT FESUME
.
ED, 143 514,
'
SE 022 991
lr
,
.
Herr iot, Slrah T.; And Others
Calc ulus o (Elementary Functions; Part I.. Student,.
Text. Revi.se Edition,.
..'''
'Stanford Univ., Calif. School Mathematics Study
1=1UTHO'R
TITLE
f
INSTITUTION
Gtou.p.
SPONS AGENCY
PUB DATE
N9TE
National Science Foundation, Washington, D.C.,
69
41315.; For related document s, see SE /022 992994;.
Cpntains occasional light and bloke
*Algebra; *Calculus; *InstructionallMaterials;
Mathematics; Number Concepts; Secondary Education;
*Secondary School Mathematics; *Textbooks
*School Mathematics Study Group
IDENTIFIER,5
,
ABSTRACT
type
MF:$0.83 C$2209 plus'Posiage.
uRs' PRICE
SCRIPTORS
.
.
.This course is intended ,for students who .have a
.
thorough knowleZge of college prepdratoi.Y mathatics, including
ralytiO geometry.
This text, PartI, contains the first five chapters of the course and
two appendices. ChaptrerS in)Arded are: 41Pclynomial Functions; (2)
The p'erivative of a .Polynoial_Function; (3) Circular Functions; (4)
Derivatives of'Circular Functions; and (5) Exponential, and Related
Functirs. The appendices are: (1) Functions and Their,
Repres ntations; and '(2) Polynomials. (RH)
.
ia1gebra4, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and
11
Z
4.1
.1 4
***********************************************************************
Documents acquireby ERIC include many informal unpublished
*.materials not available from othet sourcei. ERIC makes every effort *
* to obtain the best' copy available. Nevertheless, items ofomarginal *
* _reproducibility are often encountered and this affects the quality *
* of the microficke and harddopy reproductions ERIC makes avaiAable
*
* xia.theERIC Documellt Reproduction Service (EDRS) . 'EDRS is AOt 1".
*
* regponsible fox the quality of the, origin4,dOcument. Reprochctions *
* supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made from
*
e, original.
******gtx******1,**************************#******vitt** 4****v*********,'.
'*
^$
.SCHOOL
MATHEMATICS.
STUDY GROUP
.CA4CULUS
ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS
Part
O
Student Text
.*(Revised Edition)
DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
EDUCATIONS. WELFARE
HATION??,L INSTITUTE OF
EDUCATION
HAS. f!E E..
T.
SMSG
P E PRO
0.,(E0 Exac tcP, AS OECE,vE0 rROM
T.4E PERSON OP ORGAN Zd707. OP &)N
OP OP,N,ON5
PO, rS OP
...C.,
,ratE0 00 NO* NE(EsSAR,Y PEPPE
r As NA! aNAL, .4,,ru7E OP
SEN.'
OP POL
.)
Ni
.
I,
.lz
`,l_)1,,,(
,tf)
T.
' .11
'10
",
"T r;
Tr /
yr
w,
4.
t CALCULUS OF
ELE71)1EIVTARI.FUATIONS.:
Part I
0, Student Text
)(Revised Edition).
7
The following is a list of all those who participated in the preparation of this
volume:
.
,
.
Sarah T. Hemet
Desmond T. JAkins
C. W, Leeds, III
George R Richatdson
Don'ald E. Richmond
.
Paul C. Shields
, Gunn High School, Palo Alto, Calif.
Palo Alto Senior' High School, Calif.
Simon's Rock, Great Barrington, Mass.
SMSG, Stanford University, Calif.
Williams College (Emeritus), Williamstown, Mass.
Wayrie State University, Detroit, Mich.
4
. .;
Financial support for 'the School Mathematics.Study Group has been
provided by the National Science Foundatiop.
Permission to make verbatim use of material in this book must be secured
from the Director of SMSG.' Such permission will be granted except in
unusual circumstances. Publications incorporating SMSG materials must
include both an acknowledgment of the'SMSG copyright (Yale
Univer.
sity orStanford University, as the case may be)dnd a disclaimer of SMSG
endorsement. Exclusive license will not be granted save in exceptional
circumstances, and then only by specific aetlep Of the Advisory Board of
SMSG.
1968 and 1969 by The Boiird of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University
All right reserved
.
Printed in the United States of America
..,
FOREWORD
.
The correspondence between graphs in the xyplane and relations between
x and y
was one of the profound discoveries of mathematics.
In particular,
if no vertical line cameet a graph in more than one point, then the graph is
that of a function f
x )y; that is, for .each first coordinate x of a
:
point on'the graph there is a unique number y such that
(x,y)
lies on the
graph. A central purpose of this 7.5:t is to study the'relatiOnship between
graphs of functions and'tbe expresSions which ,Define these functions.
We, shall
concentrate our attention on functions defined by polynomial, trigonometric,
exponential and logarithmic expressions,, or by combinations of such expressions.
These functions are usually referred to at elementary functions4
We should expect that properties of the graph of a function are related
to the expressioh which defines the functions.
F '
example, by analyzing the
functional expressiqn we should be able to determ ne the location.of high and
low points on the graph, and in addition answer q estions about the shape of
the graph (such as illitervals of rise or fall and .ow the graph bends).
Further
more,.if the function is related to some physical roblem involving motion i7
seems reasonable that an analysis of its expressi
should enable us to deter/
mine such aspects of the motion as velocity and ac eleration.
Likewise,, ry
might expect to be able to determine from the func iopal expression such/pr
perties as the average value of the function and,t e area of a region b un d ?ed
7.
.
by the function.
04.4: aim is to develop some of the concepts and techniqqes.w*ch/wi 1
enable us to obtain important information about gra
Theprimary et:Incept which we develop in Chapters 2,
tangent line at a point on the graph of a function.
of element ry functions.
6 is t
t of the
This tangent'line is des 
cribed as the'apraight Line which best fits the grap
'
and
In
near that/ ,point.
 particular, formulas are developed for finding the sl tes of tangent lines to
t14graphs of various 'elemeneary functions.
Fora gi en function
formula defines a, new function called the derivative
In particular,
descrh bed.by the
derivative.' Furthermore, high and low points of the g =p
by,zeros of the derivative, while rise or fall can be d
such a
f. /Values of the
' derivative give 'a 'measure q the rate of change of the graph.
such aspects of .motion as velocity and acceleration ar
f,
of
e
can be V,iven
ined by thesign
of the, derivative.
.
.
,
0
0
,,
Our fir4t task
unctions,
to analyze the simplest kinds of elementary
namely polynomials, the sine and cosine functions, and simple power, exponential and logarithmic functions.
These are discussed in Part One, while the
,more,difficult techniques associdted with various algebraic combinations
(sums, products, quoNents, composition) of these, basiC.functiorls are left
In additiond the concept of antiderivative
to Chapter 8 (in Part Two).
introduced in Part Two, the aRtideriptive of
derivative is
being a function whose
f. "We shall show how antideri4atives can be used to calculate
areas'and to solve such.prpblems as determining velocity given acceleration;
Furthermore, this relationship between antiderivatives and area provides us
with aowerful geometricIool for analyzing and approximating functions.
.
Chapters 1 and 2 discuss polynomial functions, with Chapter 1 Concearating on,definitions and simple algebraic and geometric properties:
The .concept
of tangent line at a point oncthe graph of polynomial function is introduced
in Chapter 2 and formulas for the derivative of a polynomial function are
.
Applications of the derivative to graphing (such as finding high
obtained.
and lbw points and intervals of rise or fall); its interpretation as velocity
;
or acceleration, and its use if gpproximationare also discussed .in Chapter 2.,
This same pattern is followed in the remaining four chapters of this volume.
Definitions and simple properties of the sine and cosine functions and the
power expohential and logarithm functions appear in Chapters 3 and 5, respec,.
tively, while Chapters 4 and 6 discuss derivative formulas for these respec,
tive classes,,as well as applications to graphing and approximations.
FOr their tlioughtful comments we are grateful to Frank F. Allen, Lyons's
.,
,
TOWnShip High
chool; Leonard Gillman, University of Texas; DavidW. Jonah,
Wayne State Upiversityt; Albert W. Tucker, Princeton University; 'and the pilot
.^
_,
teachers and students at.Cubberley, Gunn, and Palo Alto High Schools in Palo
Alto; California; St. Mark's School.in Dallas, Texas; .and Simon's Rock in
.,
Great BariOngton, Massachusetts.
We are also indebted to previous SMSG writihg,teams,whose materials WO
t
considerable influence pn this text.' Many ideas and exercises were taken,
directly or ada'ped from two earlier MSG texts:
Calculus.
Elementary Functions and
In the first pgrt ofthis text. we borrow heavily from SNSG Elemen
tary Functions; Appendix 2 of ,this text contains Sections 212; 2 6, 2 8, and
2 9, of Elementary Functions, Appendifes '1, 3, 4, 5,, 6,.7, and 8 wgre adapted
6; A31, 2; 103, 4, 5, 6; 61, 2, 3,.4; A61, 2p
from SectionsA2 1,
32, '3, 4,;A11,,,,,2; 5;3; and Alf5 of SMSG Calculus..
ft
we%expresq appreciation to Nancy Woodman, whose function as a
'typist was transcendental..
' iv
Y.
*.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Part 1
Foreword'
47.,""
Chaper 1.
POLYNOMIAL 'UNCTIONS
.)
C
ffntroduCtion'and Notation
11.
Quadratic FUnctions
_1:5.
7
24
Remainder and Factor Theorems
1 7.
RatiOna.1 Zeros
18..
Approximatj.ng Zeros
19.
Degree oi'PolynOilial and Behavior of Graph
Polynomial Functions of Degree Higher Than One
39
56
.t
,75
THE DERIVATIVE OF A POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION
81
The Tangent at the yIntercept. of a Grapb
82
The Behavior of the Graph Near an Arbitrary Point
.
.
The Slope as Limit of Difference Quotients, ,..
90
22
.,
'The Derivative
105
Derivatives of GeneralyFolynomial Functions
Applications of the Derivative to Graphing
2.7.
Optimization Problems
2
Rate of Change:
2 5j,
The Secorid Derivative
98
. 21
: ..
111
123
136
e.
Velocity and Accelei.ation
148
162
... ...
Newton's Method _..
173
..
:.
211. Higher Derivatives and'Notation
'Chapter 3.
178
4,
CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
"
187
)
3 1.
The Sine and Cosine Functil6hs
3 2.
Properties of the Circular Functions
188,
33.
Graphs of thecircular Functions
54.
Uniform
35
34.
The Addition Formulas
37.
Pure
72
22.
24:
65
21.
23.
49
Locating Zeros of Polynomial Functions.
,:
,e_
14.
15.
16.
Chapter 2.
Constant andlinear Functi9ffs
12'.
207
217
'224
Circulir Motion
.
,,.
.\.
252.
Waves
239
....
AnalieOf General Wave.
Period
247
40,
Chipter 4.
DERIVATIVES OF CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
41:
The
angent at the y Intercept'
42:
The
erivative as the Limit of a Difference Quotient
,..
253
253
263
43.
Line
Substitution
44.
'Velocity and Acceleration
273
279
.
45.
Higher Derivatives an; Approximations
287
0.
Chapter5.
EXPONENTIAL AND RELATED FUNCTIONS
303
Exponents
51.
.t.
303
52.
The'Exponentila Function, Growth and Decay:
53.
More'About.Ratiosal Exponents
54.
Arbitrary Real Exponents
55.
Powers of the Base
56.
The Logarithm (Base 2)
5 7.
Logarithms (General Base)
'i
Appendix 1.
308
313
...
319
as Powers
rs of
325
330
1.538
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR.REPRESENTATI04$
343
.0
343
A11.
Functions
A12.
CompositeFunctions
A131
Inverse Functiohs
A14.
Monotone Functiohs ...... ..
A15.
Polar Coordinates
359
Appendix 2.
A21.
A22.
364
,n5
, ..... ..... .
.,
...... ,.
372
377
POLYNOMIALS
382
SignkficanCe of Polynomials
t
Number of Zeros
38a395
.A23., ciomplex.Zeros
402..
_
''04,
Part II
, _ ..  
.,.. ,.
eo ,Foreword
,
_.
.,..
,
:_,,
_7.,.1..
Chapter
6. 45ERIVATiVEi.OF.E*NENTIAL AND,JRELATED FUNCTIONS
!!.
The Tangent ,line tothe Gr4S Of ii4aZ.:ati,,7(tta
62.
The Tangent at an Arbitrary Point
63.
ARplications of Exponential Functions
64.
.s
"S'*:T51:,,t,
61.
The Derivative of a Logarithmic Fun ction.).
6:5.
Taylor Approximations to the FUnction" x ,e
66.
The ePowet Formula
67.
Approximations to Logarithmic,and Root Functions
gri
1.
,
t.
Chapter 7,
.....
AREA AND INTEGRAL
7 1.
Area Uhder a Graph ,
72.
The Area Theoret
73.
The Fillichmental Theorem of Calculus
74,
Properties of Integrals
75.
Signed Area
76:*
IntegrAion Formulas
C apter 8.
8'
1.
DIFFERENTIATION THEORY AND TECHNIQUE
Differentiability
82:
Continuous Functions
83.
The'Mean Value Theorem
84.
Applications of the Mean Value Theorem
8.5._ Sums and Multiples
86:
Products'
87,
Composite Functions
88.
The Chain Rule
''89.
The General Power and: Reciprocal Rules
810.
The Quotient Rule
811.
Inverse Functions
812.
IMplicitly Defined Functions
Chapter 9.
.
INTEGRATION THEORY AND TECHNIQUE
91.
The Method of Substition .0
9 2.
Average Value
9 3.
Volumes of Solids of Revolution
9=4.
Estimation of Definite Integrals
.7_12,5.
Taylor Apprqximations
tAppendix 3.
A3 l.,
t.
MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION
The Principle of4lathematica1 Induction'
A32. 'Su/Ifs and Sum Notation
Appendix 4.
kuRTHER TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION
A41.
Substitutions of CircularFUnctions
A4 2'.
Intagration'by Parts
Integration of Rational Functions
A44.
:4
Definite Integral;
vii.
9
r
Appendix
THE INTEGRAL FOR MONOTONE FUNCTIONS
A51.
Introduction
A5 2.
Evaluation of an Area
It53.
Integration by Summation Techniques.
A54.
The Conceit ot%Integral.
A5 5.
Elementary Properties of Integrals
Appendix 6.
Integrals of Monotone Functions
INEQUALITIES AND LIMITS
A6 1.
Absolute Value'and Inequality
A6 2.
Definition of Limit of'a Function.
A63.
Epsiionic Technique
A6:4,
Limit Theorems
Appendix 7.
t
CONTINUITY THEOREMS
The Separation Axiom
AT1.
Completeness of the Real Number System.
A72.
The Extreme Value and ,Intermediate Value Theorem& for Continuous
Functions
A73.
TheMean Value Theorem
A74.
Applications of the Mean Vdlue Theorem
Appendix 8.
MORE ABOUT ,INTEGRAIS
A81.
Existence of the Integral
A82.
TheIntegral of a Continuous Function
Appendix 9.
LOGARITHM AND pPONENTIAL'FUNCTIbNS AS SOLUTIONS
TO DIFFERENTIAL EQOATIONS
A91.
The Logarithm as Integral
A92,
The Exponential Functions
se
,V
iO
viii
Chapter 1
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS
Here we An
This is the first of two chapters.on p7olynomial functions.
centrqte on the deinitiati and simple algebraic and geometriF properties:of
polynomikil functions, leaving to the next chapter a discussion of tangents to
polynomial graphs.
between the'graph of a polynomial
Our.concern is with the relationship
.

function and the expres;ion which defines the function.
i
'
This relationships
Onstantand linear functions for these correspond to
easy to describe for
nonverttcal lines (Section 12).
For quadratic' functions the graph is a
parabola whose locatioh and general slope can be easily determined by using
the quadratic formula.
scale Change o
In fact any quadratic graph is just a transfationor
the graph of thesquaring function Section 13).
After discussing these familiar cases we turn to polynomial functions
of degree three or .larger.
Here the situation becbmes lass routin
thetic division serves initially'as a tool for plotting points (S
Later interpretations
Chapter 2) are more profound.
Syn
tion 14).
'The general relation
between zeros end factors of the pblynomial is.discussd in Section 15.
In
Sections 16, 17, and 18 we discuss methods for locating, determining; and
.
approximatlnK zeros ofgpolynomial functions.
The final,section of this chapter
indicates some of the kinds of information about the graph of a polynomial
function which can be quick1ybbtained from its expression, includtng the
important result that the degree is'a bound for the number of iines its graph
crosses the xaxis.
ae
Further algebraic results are discussed in Appendix 2.
We begin our'studyith'polynomial functions because they are the simp
The theory, and techniques employed in
lest Cf,the elementary funci'ions.
Chapters 1 and 2 are fundamental to the rest of the text.
.
Not only will
ours approach to the analysis or.polynomial func9tons be useful as we de31
yith oder functions; but the polynomial functions themselves will serve as
,approximations to other functions 'we shstll study.
'
11
Introduction and Notation
11.
In this chapter weshall be concerned with functions that are defined by
expressions of the form
*IN
+ 8 X + 8 x
2
1
E1.4
where
+ anxn
is a nonnegative integer and the coefficients
(i = 0, 1, 2.,
3,
n)
are real numbers.
Such expressions are called polynomials, and the
functions they define are called polynomial functions.
We commonly denote funttions by a single letter
to denote the value of
f(x)
at the point
is a function whose rule is given by
f(x) = a0 +a1x+
using the/symbol
f,
Thus a poiynorhial function
x:
2
+anxn.
)1/4*
This notation is particularly useful when we wish to calculate various values
of ,f)
For example, suppose
is given by
..
..
= 2+ x.
(0f(x)
,.4The values
and
f(0)., f(1)
f(0)
are then given by
f(2)
+ 0 02 = 2
= 2
= 2 +. (1)
f ( )
x2.
= 2
1 2
 
=o
(1)2
= 2
(2 )
.
.
We can sUf)stitute other letters or.expressile for
5c;
for example
f(t) = 2 + t  t2,
f(2  y) = 2 + (2 
ti
.3y
f(a + b) = 2 + (a
We may asso denote the function d
f
A
thus ,gtregsing thlit
a +
b.y 
4tined
In (1) by
x *2 4 x  x
2
,
tv,
1,,is an opetation or association.
duceanother variable to stand for
graphing.)
1
+ b  a2  2ab
= 2 +
(2)
(2.  y)2
f(x).
This is especially convenient for
For example we may rewrite (2) as
We frequently intro
x *y,
where
(3)
y =
2.+xx2
y = x3
+x2
y = 1
y = 1 + 2x
'
Figure 1la
The graph of a function,
(x,f(x))
is the set of pairs
as wel.pieture
(In Fivre 1la we sketch the graphs of
them on a plane, say the,xyplane.
MuCh of our effort in this and the next chapter
thred polynomial functions.)
will be'directed toward quickly obtaining sue picturps.
The graph (a model)
'can help us t6 examine the behavior of a function (which may itself be an
Polynomial func
tdealized matepatical alodel of some physical situation).
We give here two examples.
tiOns,often arise in applications.,
.
_
..
If we say "the volume of a sphere is a function of its
Exambl.o.11a.
,redius" we meah that if
is the volume function and
is the measure of
.1
is the measure of the volume.
where AT
the lius then,f :,r )11,
In
particularwe know that
.
.x..
(4)
.V
The expresion
volume ft5totion
1;
nr
3.
is, of course , defined for any real number
nr
r.
The
r 41T
is, however, defined only when
r > 0.
.1
iadius is doybleid we can write
f(2r).= 1. n(2r)3 
nr3
80 itr3),.
3
which tells Us that doubling the radiudMultiplies the volume by eight.
S
A ball is thrown straightup with an initial velocity of
Example.11b.
64 ,feet per second so that its heiglit
feet above the ground after
seconds is given by tie function,
(5)
= 64t  16t2.
(We shall later derive functions such as this as a consequence of various
This 2.unctin
physiCal assumptions about velocity, acceleration and gravity.)
can bnly serve as an idealized model of the physical situation over a particuliir
ihteval of values for
Since
t.
s = 0
when
t = 0
0 < t,< 4;
serves as a mathematical model over the interval
the air for
Or
4,
the function
the ball is in
To' find how many seconds it takes for the ball to
seconds.
reach its maximum height we can (by completing the square),write the function'
.
0'
in the form
t
The quantity ,16(t .2)2
64
and equals
)2 '4 64.
reaches a maximum height of
64
Thus
cainot exceed
Therefore, we conclude that the ball
only when ft = 2.
64
t = 2.
is negative unless
feet after
seconds.
.p71'.
64 ft
height of
ball after
t
seconds
feet
ground
(i)
While we picture (Figure 1.3.b) the motion.funciion (5).as a parabola
we think,of the physical. motion of the ball itself as vertical (i).
11
'Exercises 11,
1.
.In Example 1la
we expressed the volume of a sphere as "a function Of its
.
.
radius."
2.
txpress the volume of a sphere as Nt'function of its diameter'."
Suppose that a vellet is projected straight tap"and after a while comes
,
straight down via the same vertical path to the place on the grotind from
After
which it,was launghed.
seconda :the distance
feet of the
pellet above the ground is described by the equation
160t  16t
2
,
which defines the/function
'1'
t 41.60t  16t2.
when
Za)
What is the value of
(b)
Evaluate
(c)
How high above the ground is the pellet after
(d)
What is `the height of the pellet after. 6
t = 4?
f(6),
4
seconds?
seconds?
4N
Compare your answers for'parts (c) And (d).
(e)
Explain on physical
grounds.
f
How many seconds is the'pellet in the air?
(g)
'(h)
.A
'
How long does it take the pellet to reach, its highest point?
How high does the pellet go?
Tom is .standing on the top of a railroad car which is moving at a speed
of
32
ft. /sec. as it passes a. station.
As he passes Dick on the station
platfori Tom throws aball straight upward with an initial speed of
64
ft.isac;
After
seconds the ball is a horizontal distance of
feet and a vertical distance of
te,
The distances
ft. and
feet from.a ,point opposite Dick.
ft. are given by theequations.
x = 32t
and
y. 64t
(a)
Does Tom have to move tocatah the ball?
(b)
What.is'the path Of the ball as Dick sees it from the platform?
(c) Write
16t2.
y 'iriterms of
X.
IV
(d)
Name the curve that is the graph of your equation in part (c).
(e)
Sketch the graph of
(f)
For what 'values of .x
y = 2x
does
x2
a."
y = 0?
when x = 128?
(4)
What is
(h)
After how many' seconds does ToM catch the ball?
ci)
How far down the platform from Dick'does.Tom catch the ball?
I.
1J2
12.
Constant and Linear Functions
The simplest polynomial functions are cbnstaRt':futictions.
is any
which associates with every real number
real number, then the function* f
k,
the value .c,
If
fi
f : x )c,',
is called a constant function.
The graph'of such'a'fUnction is a line parallel.
Some examples%of constant functions are
units from the xaxis.
to.aAd .jcl
graphed in Figure12a.
o4
y .0/
2,
Figu e 12a
X
Constant functions are quite simple, yet they occd?frequently in mathe
matics and science.
A physical example of such a function is
f
re
Here the constant is the acceleration ..,
due to sravity,.that is2the constant
.,,,
n distance is
amount by which the velopity of fall increases each secoAd.
da.
'32: at sea
'measured ill feet and tie in seconds, this constant is very nearly
level.
In other wordS7thevelocity of a falling body increases
feet
ter second every second.
A simple principle will later be useful when we encounter constant func
tions:
%if
is a constant function and the value 1.(a)
is known,
(?).
then
f(x)... f(a)
for all
is 6 constant' function and that
For example, if we know that
f(0) ;,,10,
than we know that
restatement of the fact that if
x.
f(3)
f
is also
10.
Clearly, (1) is just a
is a constant function then all values
oP f`are the same.
./
1 7
12
A linear function
that is,
mx + b;
all
is a function defined by .an expression of the form,
is linear if there are numbers
and
such that for
f(x) = rot + b,
(2)
If
m = 0
tlen
is a constant function.
crosses the Yaxis'at the point
'(0;b),
m f 0.
The graph of (2) is a line wihich
since
i(0) = b;
b
is called the yam intercept of 'f.
The number
is called the slope of
FoUr linear'functions are
and gives'a measure of the steepness of the graph.
sketched in'Figure 12b.
f,
\
\
/
/
/
.
4
\ \
X(
/
1
/
x
y sx
= 2x + 1,
y = x + 2
x
t
Figure 12b
4
is linearsadd
x
1
/ x2, then the slope
is given by
f(x2)  f(xl)
m 
( 3)
 x
'
that is,
of
f.
is the tsngent,(telgonometric ratio) of the angle of inclination
(See Figure 12c)..
(x2,f (x2)
 f(xl)
 xi
angle of inclinatibn
Figure l 2e
A
12
The ratio (3) is, of course, a simple consequence of (JI since
f(x
(mx 4 b) 2
 f(x1 )
b)
x2  xi
o use a slightly diff rent.form o
It will often be convenient
This is c9ntain d/in the following:
expression (2).
The equatIon'of the 1 ne/through
Example 12a.
1
the
(h,k)
with slope
Find the quation of the line throu
(1,2)
and
*4.
The slope of this line
2

,8
9
3
3.
( F)
(1,2,
$o, using the point
the form (4)
y = 2 +
'
Ives the equation
8

1).
Using the point
( 7
gives the
quation
(
y  
Simple algebra shows that these two equations are just d fferent forms of the
equation
8
3r/;=
x +
10
.
The graph of this line s shown in Figure 12d.
1
y
Figure 12d
9
fi
19
12
A number of very generE4 concepts have simple.and usefUl formulations for
V.
0.f these we shall now discuss slope as velocity,
constant and lidear functions.
inverse linear functions, translation and scale change, and proportionality.
Slope asrelocity
For
The slope of d linear fUnction,hat various physical interpretations.
example, suppose a man walks north alOhg a long straight road at the uniform
rate of
At some particular time, say time
miles per hour%
t = 0,
man passed the milepost located One mile northoi Baseline Road.
before this, which we shall call time, t = 1,
this
An hour
he passed the milepost located
one mile south of. Baseline Road. (All hour after time
t = 0,
at time
he passed the milepost located three miles north of Baseline Road.
t = 1,
(See
Figure 12e.)
position
at t = 1
position at
.K
t =
BASELINE ROAD
position at
t =
Figure 1L2e
In
time
t 'hours, the man travels
,Singe he is at milepost
2t
at
he must be at milepost
2t + 1 at time t. Us4ng f(t) to
#
represent the directed distance (in miles) from Baseline Road at time t
t = 0,
hours, we seethat
f
t of(t) = 2t + 1
The graph of
describes the man's moidft.
shown in Figure 12f thus plots
to
the man's positioil versus time:
20
I
10
12
.velbcity
(in mi/hr)
distance
(in !ages)
2t + 1
\.
slope = 2
g :t
time (in hours)
1'
'Figure 12f
time (in hours)
..Figure 12g'
In Figure 12g we plot the man's velocity versus time. For all values
of t 'dining the time he,ls walking his velocity is
Hence if
g(t)
is his speed at time
g
that 'is, _13
is a constant function.
the position function
t
t
ti
miles perhour.
then
2,
In this case, the slope function 'g
can be interpreted as velocity.
'of,
We shall encounter
this relationship again.
Inverse Linear Functions
We recall that the rule for converting from Centigrade to Fahrenheit is
given by the formUla
(5)
C + 32
and the rule for converting from Fahrenheit to Centigrade is given by,tbff__
Vbrmula
(6)
32).
*That speed is the absolute value of velocity is spmetang that we shall
emphasize later.
2i
e0
'04
12
6s
`Since each of these formulas is useful, it is important to be eble,;to get,
say
6) from (5).
then add '32.
in (5) to get from C
Starting with
then divide by
we must', therefore, first,subtract
That is, to get
we first multiply by
.io
qi we first find
F  32
and
324 and
then
1F
5/
t'
., N a.%
,.
whence
.)/i
?
'or 1F
9
5.
,'
C = 2(F  32) In our next example we shall study two
9
functions suggested by the foregoing formUlas.
a
Example 12b.
Consider the function's
and
32
5
g
5
x 7) (x  32)
land their graphs, sketched on one set of axes'in Figure
,We observe immediately that the slope of
g
is the reciprocal orthe slope of
and the slope of
is
f.
= f(x)
11P
100
Y = g,(x)
47
100
Figure 12h
Let us make some further observations to see how the functions
and their graphs are related.
Ton,find the value of
failid,then add
32;
Consider the equation
x
for a given value of
i.e.,
and
x + 32.
y = f(x) =
5
we first multiply
by
on the graph (Figure 12i) we.first"go up"
,
4!
re
2 x
5
12
to the Jotted line and then "garup"
32
more.
to get
y
Finally we "go across"
y =
9 x + 32. To go from
5
back to x
we just reverse the
arrows of Figure 12i.
subtract
32
to get'
divide by1 to get
''.
32
We first
i.e.,
x;
y  32,,5
r
.
P*
9 x
5
,Let
.
.x
.//.
and then
x and
exchange roles and
/
compare this form of the egtation
/
.
for
with the function
g.
Figure 12i
The two functions
if
m /'0,
and 4,_a_re obviously closely related.
In general,
we say that the, linear
4.
is the inverse.of the linear function
f,: x )mx + b.
The slopes of g
and f are reciprocals of each other;that is, the
product of the slopes is '1
The graph of
.
'g
can be easily obtained, from the graph of
s ' that (C,0 1 es on the graph of
f,
Suppose
f.
so that
d =f(c) = mc * b.
Solving for
c,
we have.
1
c=
Thus
(d,c)
lies on the graph of
d 
g.
.t
`similarly established.
g(d)
The converse of this statement can be
.
We,summarizepi.n (7) .'
If g is the inverse of
(7)
then
(c,d). :lies
on the graph of
f ,if and only if
(d,c). lies
on the graph of
g.
f,
er
miakr
12
.41. /
.
.
Thus the gphs oll and its inverse
are symmetric with respect to
ion, for it
This has a simple geometric interpret
the line given by y= x.
says that the graph of tie inverse
raph of
can be obtained from the
This s
merely by interchanging the coordinates of each poirit.
gests the
AN.
y = f(x)
trace the graph of
of
= g(x)
Merely.
in slow drying ink and then fdld carefully along
(.Consider this mechanical procedure for the graphs of
f.
f.
The wet ink will then trace the graph of the inverse
y = x.
the line given
from that/of
following wayto obtairilthe graph of the inverse
and
y = f(x)
in Figure 1 2h.
Translation and Stretch
Let
on
be'the line given by the equation
of replacing x by
(x  b).
21
x axis at the point
(b,0):
y = x  b,
The new equation is
having the same slope as
represents.ths line
and consider the effect
y = x,
which
and ilterseeting the
Figure 12:j
4
Hence, replacing
by
x  b
translates or slides
right without changing its slope (Figure 12j).7
24
44,
11,
units to the
12
M
r
Now consider the effect on
equation is
y = mx,
of replacing
which represpnts the line
x
2"
by
mx,
m / 0.' The new
having slope
and
pgssing through the'origin.
0;
2"
4
Figure 12k
Note thaiif m > 1,
replacing "x
*4 steepens the slope of
Norizontal than
Thus, if
y = x
1,
while if
What happens if
2.
m > 1
by
mx
(or equivalently,
0 < m < 1
the new line
y
2" isilore
m < 0?
the effect of replacing
is equivalent to stretching the ordinate
by
(y)
mx
in the equation
of each point on
fK
Figure 122
t
15 ze\c:
12
"contracted." , Notf that conceptilally,
"shrinking each 0
ordinate is no different in this case from
each ordinate is
If*,0 < m < 1,
'"stretohing each
abscissa"; the resulting
2"
is identical,.
Y'
Either 1.47' we think about it, the slope of
mation, and
by mx
2. isc
aged under such a transfor
by replacing
algebraically the stretch can be obt=iiined mereky
(or' y by 4)
m
in the equation of
2.
can be obtained
equation y = mx.+ b
The graph of any line given by the
stretching.' For example,
translation and/or
y = x by such
from the graph
may' first stretch each
ffrom y =
y 7 5x graph
of,
to obtain the
.
The equation
by replacing. x by 5x.
ordinate of, y = x by the factor 5
may
2:
shown in Figure 12n Then
and its graph is 2'
becomes y.= 5x,
the equstx by x  5 in
units to the right by replacing
be translated
tion of
2'.
26
16
1'
12
4 .The equpion bedomes
4
Y = 5(x 5 )
i or
y = 5x  4
as desired, and its graph has been obtained from the
translating and stretching.
x.
by
and the graph is shown in Figure 12o.
5
by replacing
y =x by
A.4
.
Alternatiyely.fwe may first translate the graph
units to the right 'by replacing
a factor of
z$
by
5x.
x, 4.' The equatron.becomes
y = x  4
Then we may "shrink" each abscissa by
The, new equation is
y = 5x  4
_before; only our way of thinking about, the transformations is different.
4.
t
o
as
12
9
x
.`$
Figure 126*
I
Proportionality
Ns
,
.,,
I
The concept of proportionality is very useful in physics as well as other
or
parts
y,
science.
We shall use the idea frequently in this text.
is proportional to
means that there is a number
To say that
m' such that
y = mx
for all numbers
x._,The number
is called the constant elf proportionality.
4
Note that if
doubled.
is proportional to
x,
then
doubles when
The,same relationship 4o1ds for tripling; halving, etc.
the experimental observation that
is
In science
doubles, triplz1 halves, Ate., when
,7
does the same  'usually leads to the hypothesis that
is proportional to
x.
Further observation is then'used to test such an hypOthesis and if no contra/
dietory evidence is found this proport4nality is usually stated as a,law and
,
th&elfter systematically used.
For exaMid1e, if air resistance is neglected
it is usually safe to use the assumption that the velocity of a freely falling
body is proportional to the time it
28
1.8
12
Example 12c.
Assume that the velocity of a free falling body is directly
proportional to the time it fOas.
Suppose that a ball is dropped from the top,
of a building and attains.a velocity of, 64
fast
be falling after
,ground
then)?
sec,,we have
v = mt,
v =.64
t = 2,
we get
When
= 5,
t ) v = 32t.
velocity is
160
seconds.
Hoy
seconds (assuming that it,hasn't hit the
.'
Sincthe velocity
when
ft./sec. after
where
ft./sec. is'directly proportional1 the time
is the constant of proportionality.
m = 32.
v = 160;
WA Otain the linear function
therefore,'after
ft./sec.
VAL
19
29
seconds the
If
12
Eke raises 12
1._ gee'r to Figure 12f .
,\
t 9 2t + 1?
(a)
What .is the /slope of the Linear function
(b)
What are'the units of "rise over run" in the graph of t 9 2t + L?
(c)
Compare the number and units.of parts (a) and (b) with the consilant
function and vertical units of Figure 12g.
0
2.
(a)
On separate sets of axes ,sketch graphs of the functions
g
t 9 32t
and
"g'
32.. Indicate vertical and horizontal
units appropriate to Example 12c.
(b)
What is the slope function of the linear function
(c)
What are tie units of the slope of your "graph of
g
g
t 932t?
t ) 32t1
NO.er .
(d)
Compare the .vertical units for your graph of
gl
t 9 32
,..14th
your answer to part (c).
(e)
What word from physics is commonly asso.4.eted with the xatio. of
units you found in response to paii, (c)?
3.
Assume (as in Example l72c) that the velocity of a, free fallingbOdy is
directly proportional to the time it falls.
Suppose that a penny is
dropped from the top of a tower and attains a velocity of
second after 1
seconds.
hits the grounp4fier
4.
For the function
42
48
feet per
Determine the'impact velodity if the _penny
seconds.
x 92x + 1,
(a)
f(0)
(b)
f(1)
(c)
f(1)
(d)
for h / 0,
f(x +'h)
(e)
for
f(x)  f(a)
x  a
find
 f(x)
5.
x / g,
Find the slope of the graph of the function
numbers
x,
(a)
f(x) = 3x  7
(b)
f(3c) . 6  2x
(c)
2f(x) =3  x
(d)
3f(x) = 4x  2
3020
if, for all.real
12
6.
Find'a linear' function
./(a)
whose graph has slope
and 'such that
2
f(1) = 4
7.
8.
9.
(b)
f(0)
( c)
i.43),=
f(8) = 3
Find the slope of the graph of the linear function' f
(a)
f(0) = 4
(b)
f(2) = 3
(c)
f(5) = 5
(d)
f(6)
13
if
f(1) = 3, and
/(
Find a function whose graph is the line joining the points
02,4)
(a)
P(1,1
(b)
P(7,4), QC5,0)
(c)
P(1,3),
Q(1,8)
(a)
P(1,9,
Q(2,4)
e.
Find the linear function
coordinates
f
(2,1)
tr
whose graph passes through the point With
and is parallel to the graph of the function
3x  5.11,
10.
Given
x 
1'
graph of
(a)
P(0,)
(b)
P(2,3)
(c)
1,(1,5)
3x + 4,
find a, function whose graph is parallel to the
and passes through the point
(d)
11.
If
f '14 a constant function find .f(3)
(a)
f(1) = 5,_
(b)
f(8) = 3
(c)
f(0) :714
21
31
if
12
12.
Q(3,1), and
e.points. P(1,3),
Do
S(7, 9)
all lie on a single line?
Pro e'your aasertion.
13.
The ,graph of a linear fuhction
and
Q(101,39)., Find
(a)
f(100.1)
(b)
,i(100.3)
(c)
f(101.7)
(d)
f(99.7)
f ,passes thrOugh the points, P(100,25)
I
14 The graph of a linear function
P(3,25)
passes'"through the points
'and ,Q(54,:19).Find
15.
(a)
f(53.3).
(b)
f(53.8)
(c)
f(54.4)
(d)
f(52.6)
Find a, linear function with graph parallel to the line with equation
and passing through the point of intersection of the '
x  3y.t'4 = 0
2x + 7y + 1 = 0, arid
lines with equatibns
16.
A(1,2),
Given the points
B(5,3),
C(7,0),
x .2y + 8 = 0.
D(3,1),
and
shoW tha
ABCD is a parallelogram.
17.
Find the coordinates of the vertex
if AC
of the parallelogram ABO
is a diagonal and the other vertices are the points:
18.
(a)
A(1,1),
(b)
A(0,5),
If
it
B(3,4),
(a)
D(4,1)
B(1,7),
If you graph the set of all Ordered pairs of th form
tion
6
(t)
Find
f.
f(0)
(t
1, 3t + 1)
you will, obtain the gr ph of a linear func
and ,f(8).
_,,,
If yo
is on
x )2x  1.
for any real number
g
1)
is a real number, show that the point. Pct + 1, 2
the graph of
19.
D(2,3);.,
graph the set of all ordered pairs if the form
(t 
function
t2 + 1)
f.
for real
Find
f(0)
t,
and
you will btain the graph of a
f(8).
4 ).
32
22
12
20.
At what temperature do .Centigrade degrees. equa1 Yahrenbeit degrees?
21.. Ifsthe slope pf a linear function
1 <
22:
.then
f(\xi): >
"
y 0
__that
if
f(x2)
Consider the linear,6nctions
that m
is negative
and
p = g(q)
and
nix + b
if' q = f(p)
+ f3
p land
q.
23.
I40 f
x )mx + b,
24.
What is the equation of the line perpendicular to the. line given by
.
25.
y =
If
+ b,
What is the relationship between
/ 0,
f(2x  1) = 4x2
'0
find
and
the inverse of.
g,
such
for all real numbers
1.i?
f.
at the
 8x + 3,
'find
f(2x).
tt
o
23
a.
0,5
4
13
Quadratic Functions.
13.
As we discuss the.behal0.or of polynothial functions
2
f : x )ao + alx + a2x
conventional terminology: If
we shall use soc
of
f, is
11
we say that the degree
/ 0
while
0,
f : x '2  3x + x.
has.degree
For example
n.
has degree
+ anxn,
,71
x5
This convention assigns no degree to the zero function
5.
(1)
x )0.
Thezero function should not be confused with the zero of a fUnction.
We say that anumber
equation
f(x) = 0
if
r' is a zero of the function
f(r) = O.
For example,
x )2x
 x
of of the
or a
is a zero of t e function
15
or a root of the equation

2x
,x  15 = 0,
xt
f(3) = 0.
since
If r
is a'zero of
then
(r,0) 'lies on the graph of
f crosses the xaxis at the point where
the graph of
4
f;
that
x = r..
Polynomial functions of degree
are known as quadratic functiOns.
us review some of the properties of quadratics.
The zeros of
f:x,c+bx+ax 2, a/0,
are given by
/2
b + O Itac
(2)
If b
2
 4ac < 0
and
b 
2a
these roots are complex numbers.
 4ac > 0.
34
2

lac
2a
Real roots occur if
Let
r
1 3
If

ac = 0 then
b2
and we can factor toobtain
co.
where
r1
to obtain
,
If b
F2 =." 2a
 4ac 150,
then
rl
and we can fbctor
ti
(4)
,x q(x 
r2).
In the following three examples \ we illustrate the graph of f for each
of these cases. In the final example\ we review a method for graphing
quadratics
by translation and change of scale.
Example 13a.
\.
Graph
In this ,9ase
+ x + x2.
a = b = c = 1,
so
2
and
has no real zeros.
cross the xaxis.
 4ac < 0
We should expect that the'graph of
In fact, the graph of
doesn't
lies entirely above the xaxis.
We caA show this by "completing the square" to obtain
_
1 + x
5tnee
x)
> 0
unless
x2 =
x = 
f(x) >
+ x 4 x2)
1
2 '
we see that
 *I
.%
'1
while
f
a
f(
Thus thegraphof
= i..
lies above the line given by
y =
i,
touching
this line at the point
\ Al
value
x = 
the quantity
.2. ,
3.
( Dv. Furthermore,
I
large. Also as
as
increases
the
,1
Vz.'4. x)2
becomes very large as ''x
decreases (to the left of
x = 
2:.
becomes.
) the quantity
(1
.
)2 )2
inOreases, becoming very large.as we assign numerically large negative values
to x. Thus, without plotting points other than ( i,i) We,cat conclude
that the graph o'
appears a's shown in Figure 13a. 0; course, a more
25
r,
11
13
6
accurate picture can be obtained 'by plotting some points .(x,f(x)).
becomes large
as x moves
to the left
f
becomes large
as x moves
far .to the right
c6,
tpinimum(
74
'Figure l 3a..
Example. 1, Graph
In this case
and
x 41 + x + x2
x 4 4  4x + x2.
t=
so that
b2  4ac = ( 4)2  4
(1)(4)
b = 4,
c = 4,
x . 2.
has the single zero
= 0
Therefore, we can write
...
and
x / 2
f(x) > 0
so that we have
if
x / 2
(\
Therefore, the graph lies above the xaxis, touching this axis
f(2) . 0.
at the point
if
(x  2)2 > 0
The quantity
(2,0).
As
x ='2
increases to the right of
.
decreases. tOthe left of
the quantity
x  2)
or as
,,
increases, becoming
x moves far away frOm x = 2:' As in the previous example,
this gives us enough ,information to quickly sketch the graph of f, lhown
very large ,as
inFigure 13b.
36
O
26
173
becomes large
as x moves
to the left
becomb; larg
as x moves
to the right
(2,0)
Figure 13b.
x )4  4x + x2
Example 13c.
Graph, f : x 71
x  2x
Since
b =4'1.1,
a = 2,
we have
c = 1,
'Minimum
2
.
b2  4ac =.(1)2  4(2)(1) = 9
The zeros of
are
r1 '=
we can write
(1)+
x ' 2(x + 1)(x 
The graph of
x < 1,
r2  (2)4
and
in the form
f'`
If
crosses the xaxig atthe two points
each of the quantities
'multiplying by
x + 1
1
x  f
and
2 ,we see that
f(x) < 0'
and
is negative.
if
x < 1.
Similarly, we could argue that
f(x) >0
(1,0)
if _ 1 <x <
s,
f(x) < 0
if
x >
27
0 1
1
(IF, 0) .
Upon
1.3
as
decreases to the'left of
Further arguments show that as
1
or increases
to the right of
as
decrease, getting far below the xaxis
f(x)
the ualtie
x moves far to the right or left.;
1 < x <
'In the interval
the graph of
lies above the xaxis.
We can "complete the square" to obtain
s,
#'
0
= 2(x2,+ 2 x
2)
= 2(x
.1
= 2(x + t)! + g
This expression has its greatest velue when
.1
E.
x =
9.
( v,v
so that
is
"
the highest point on the graph ,of
(See Figur? 13c.)
f.
y
,e
maximum
(1, 0)
(1,0)
far below xaxis
moves left
as
lc
or right
Figure 13c.
 x  2x
2
.
Translation and. Stretching of Parabolas
Just.as any line with Ositive slope may be obtained from the graph
y
x by appropriate translations and streAkhes, any parabola may be obtained
front the graph:Of
y = x2 ,by similar transformations.
y = 14 + 12x.+ 2x2
For example, to obtain the graph of
f'
of y = x
we first rewrite the equation as
from the graph
y = 2(x +.3)2  4
by completing
the square as follows:
10 + 12x 4 2x
,t
6x '+ 7)
t
= 2(X2 + 6x + 9  2)
= 2(x + 3)a: 4.
a
28
1 3
In this form, the apOopriate translations and stretches are readily determined.
2
y = x
First, translate the graphof
three units to the left by
.
replacing
by
.,
(x + 3).
.._...
The new
2
parabola has the equation
5f = (x + 3 )
. ,
i
(See Figure 1 3d.)
'Then stretch" each ordinate of
to graph of
y
by X .
2
y = (x + 3)
by replacing
.2
'\
is shown in Figure 13e.
//
.'
The graph of r, y = 2(x + 3)2
3
...
\..
Figure 13d
y = 2(x +
2:
2 i 1 0
/
/
/.k
e
Figure 13e
'Figure 13f
Finally, die more translation,
Units down is required to obtain the
desired graph:, This is achieved by replacingy by
'Ty = 2(x 4/8)2ek See Figure 13fAfor the graph of
If the coe ficient of the
2
x
(y + Id
y= 2(x + 3)2  4.
2
y =x1// x  2x ,
one more transformation
would have been 'required to obtain the graph from the graph of
x +
giving the graph of
5r= x2,
y = (x +
unit to the left by replacing
)2
Com7.
by
Then stretching each ordtnate by
4AV
y = x2.
y = 2(4 + .)2 + g and in this form we see we must
first translate the graph of
1
in the.equation
term inyte original equation had been
negative, as in'Example 13t, where
pletingythe square gi'es
1
13
.r.
Translation
replacing
y, by
'produces
4.
the graph of
7,1
12
.
y = 2(x
elbw the extra transformation,.
rellnilag the graph 141Che
x axis by replacing
gives the graph of
by 40,
y = 2(x +
teehis is physically equivalent to
f.44ding the graph along the xaxis
or'"clipping"
r51.
the graph about theme
Finally, translating this
exit.
graph bt units' up by replacing
by;, y  9g gives the desired
v.
rap&
In general, ..the graph of. any'
I.
a.
quaEattc function can be obtigped
`*2
by such
x
m the `graph of y
a sequence of trapslations, reflec.
.tions and stretches.
quadratiC function
Hence, any
f : x
bx + c
represents merely a translated;
reflected, and/or stretched image
of the standard, parabola given by
2
the equatiob y = x .
Reflection
414
1
13
Exercises 13
1.
Consider the function
Name the type of function
2.
(a)
a = 0,
b =0,
c #0
(b)
a = 0,
b / 0,
c = 0
(c)
a =
0,
c #0
(0)
a / 0,
b = 0,
c = 0
(e)
a / 0,
b # 0,
= 0
(f)
a / 0,
b, # 0,
ax
+ bx + c.
is,/if
t1
Aristotle claithed that the speed of a free falling object depends on the
r
weight of the object as well'as the length of time it falls.
Galileo
discovered that the need of a free falling object depends only on how
lo'ng it falls, and,in particula4r, that speed v
proportional to'time' t
(a)
ft. /sec. is directly
:seconds.
A ballis dropped from the topof a building and attains a speed of
64
ft./sec. after
seconds.
How fast will it be Balling after
51..seconds?
(b) ,,,.4.11,,fe raft is dropped,from a helicopter and hits the water after
10
seconds.
If the raft is falling at a speed of,,64
ft./sec. after
seconds,, determine how fast it is.going,aS it hits the,water.,
,.
'
Galileo:discovered that the distance traveled by a falling bogyHof
any,
weight depends only on the length of, time in which it has been falling.
Specifically it was discovereqrthat the number of feet fallen is directly
proportiohal to the square ofthe numbel 'o,f seconds elapsed.%
(a)
Suppose we timed the fall of a ball
.feet'high and discovered ti
secondiTt
rom the top of a,builldiUg
the `x1/1
400
it the ground after ,5'
Find how long it Wouid take for the ball to hit the ground
if it'were dropped from a gUilding
144
feet high.
(b) ,Suppose that d ball is dropped'from a television tower and hits the
ground after
10
Seconds:
hit the ground after
400
'Previously we discoverg that the ball
Secongs,when it was dropped from a building
feet high.' How high is ,the television tower?
.
4.
31
it 1
1 3
4.
For each of the following pSirs of functions,
(u,v)
is on the graph of
..,,
and
(a)
v < w.
v = w,
x )2x2
g : x )2x
(b)
g. 'Determine which is correct:
is on the graph of
(u,w)
v > w,
1 x2
g : x ) 2x
(c)
5.
g : x
'2
2x
On the sear set of axes sketch the graphsof the functions
x
6.
2
,
and
5x
2,
To x2.
Describe the location of the.points
y = ex2 ,
7.
42
f,: x
and
(p,q)
(p,q)
on the graph of
relative to each other and the coordinate axes.
A pall is dropped from E; 47th story window of the TimeLife Buiiding in
New York City.
after
Its distance
feet above the Avenue of the Americas
seconds is described by the equation
s = 576  16t
2
,
which serves to define the function
%
f
(a)
576  16t2.
Determine how many feet above the pavement the ball is after falling
the first
second_
(b)
WA/ high above'the ground is the ball after zero', seconds of;falli4g?
(c)
How'eigh above theAvenue of the Americas is the 47th story window
*WO
t'.
of the TimeLife Building from which we dropped the ball?
(d) 'If f
(e)
t .4576
16t2,
f(4)
evaluate
Four seconds after it is dropped 'from the 47th story window, how
Tar is the ball from the pavement?
for
lot
= 576
and
t > O.
( f)
Find the value.of.t
(g)
Determine how long it would take for a ball dropped from,e 47th
'which
story window of the TimeLife Building to hit the pavement below.
32
42
13
.
8.
A ball ii dropped from the top of the Fidelity Union Tower in Dallas,
Texas.' :After
seconds the height
ft. of the ball above the
ground is'given.by
1
s.= 400  16t2.
(a)
What is the height of Fidelity Union Toirer?
(b)
How long does it take for the ball to reach the ground:
9 The Woolworth Building in New York city is about
784
feet high.
A ball
is ,dropped from the top of the Woolworth Building so that its distance
feet above the ground after
seconds is described by the equation
s = at
(a)
+ c.
Relating your experience with other problems of this type to this
problem, try to determine appropriate values for
(b)
10.
and
c.
How long does it take for the ball to reach the ground?
The vertex of.the parabola given by
If
a > 0
y = ax
the graph of the function
x *ax
+ c
2
is the point
+ c
and the vertex of the ,parabola whose equation is
opens
y = ax
(upward,downward)
+ c
is the
point.
( ighest,lowest)
The graph of the equation
number and
c > 0
y = ax
where
+ c,
is always a
is a, nonnegative real
which is symmetric to the
, congruent to the graph of
x *ax2
and
units
(above,below)
Ae>pait'bola given by
11.
y = ax2.
A flowerpot falls from a'75th story windowsill of the Chrysler Building
in New York City.
We know, that,after
seconds the height
feet of
the floWerpot above the'grokind is given by the equation
's,= 1024  16t
(a)
2
.
How long does it take for the flowerpot to7hit the sidewalk at the
corner of,Lexington Avenue and Forty Second Street directly beneath
the window?
(b)
,
The distance from the 75th story windowsill to the roof of the
Chrysler Building is
22
feet.
33
How tall is the Chrysler Building?
Ae
13
*;
12.
Suppose that a ball is thrown straight up from the ground with an initial
'speed of
ft./sec. and is not acted upon by the force of gravity.
64
What
is its height above the ground after .10 ,seconds?
A ball is thrown from ground level straight up with an initial 'speed or
64
ft./see.
Its distance
feet above the ground after
seconds is
described by the equation
s = 64t
which specifies the function
c';
16t2,
such that
s = f(t)k..
.7(`1 ,Whatcis the,value df; s, when t =,1? ,;
"
(b)
Evaluate
(c)
What is the height of the ball above the ground after
after
(d)
t(2).
3
seconds?
seconds?
s = 64t  16t2.
Sketch the graph of
(e) *What is the path of the ball?
(f)
13.
What is the name of the graphof the function
16t2 + 64t?
Suppose that.a pellet is projected straight up and after a while comes
straight down via the same vertical path.to' the place on the ground from
After
which it was launched.
seconds the distance
ft. of the
pellet above the ground is described by the equation
s = 160t  16t2,
which defines the function
f
(See Exercises 11, No. 2.)
160t  16t2.
Sketch the graph of4 f
on the interval,
0 < t < 10.
14.
The product of two consecutive integers is zero.
integers be?
4A
What could the
15.
Suppcie that you are standing close to the edge on the top of a. building
80
feet tall.
You throw a ball upward wipl an initial speed of:64 ft./
sec. in a nearly vertical path.
After
seconds the height
feet of
the ball above the ground is given by the function
t
=.8b +
Olt  16t2.
(a)
(b)
,How long does it take for the ball to reach the ground?
How high above the building is the ball after one second?
after
three seconds?
(c)
The ball passes the edge of the top of the building from which it
was thrown as. it falls to the ground. ,After how many seconds does
.this occur?
16.
(d)
After how many seconds does the ball reach its maximum height?
(e)
How high above` the building does the ball go?
For each of the following pairs of equations, given that
the graph of the first equation and that
(u,w)
(u,v)s
is on
is on the graph of the
f".
second determine the values of
(a)
for which
y = 3(xi 4)2
Compare the graph of
v = w,
v > w.
y = 3(x  4)2
(b)
y = 3(x  4)2
17.
v < w,
y = 3(x + 4)2
1,
x ,0x  3)
+ 2 ,with 'that of
1
x ).
on the
listed characteristics by completing the following chart.
1
2
x 4 x
2
Function
(a)
Media of graph
(b)
Opens (upward or ,downward)
1,
. 2
x 5 pc  3)
+ 2
2
.
.
(c)
Equation of axis.
(d)
Coordinates of extremum/point (vertex)
(e)
Type of extremum (minimum or maximum)
,
.
113.
Sketch the graphs of
x , x
1,
. 2
x 52 kx  3)
,
and
of coordinate axes.
+ 2
on the same set
I
Check your answers for Number 17 against yur gra
35
4;
1 3
,
19.
(a), Using one set of coordinate aXes plot the graphs of the following.
t
y = x2
(ii)
y = x
(iii)
y = x,  2x + 3
+ 4x + 5
On one set of,coordinate axes quickly sketch the graphs of
(b)
20.
(i)
(i)
(ii)
: x
(iii)
x
+ 9
+ 4
+ 1)
Consider the functions
x *ax2
and
x 4a(x
h)2 + k.
Let
be a point on the graph of, f.
(p,q)
We know that
(a)
(x  2)
Another equation relating
f(p) = q.
and
is
q =
We want to show that the point
(b)
(p + h, q + k)
lies on the, graph
of
4(c)
g. _Show that
g(p + h) _= q 4:k.
To every point t(p,q)
on the graph of
point
(p + h,
on the graph of
there corresponds the
g.
o
(d) 'In particular,.we see that the vertex
4
..4.4en by .y = ax2
parabola given by
corresponds to the vertex
Y'"gliCk,,,/,h)
of the parabola
of the
+ k.
(..
,,,_
21.
Determine the coordinates of the vertex and the equation of the axis of
,
the parabola given by each'of the foliOWiiig equatio'ni.
(a)
y = 2(x  3)2 + 4
(b)
y = 2(x  3)2 +4
(c)
Y = (x
(d)
y =  1(x
(e)
Y = 3(x 4 1)2
(f)
y =
1,(x 
3)2

1)2  1
2
2)2  3
5,
22.
Determine th
ext
whether it4ia
mum point'of each graph, in Number 21 and tell
or minimum.
36
46
13
.
For each of the following pairs of equations, given that
is
(lio')
on'the graph of the first equation and
second, determine the values of
(a)
(u,w)
for which
is on the graph of the
v <
= w,
y > w.
y = 2(x  3)2. + 6
y = 2(x  3)2  6
y = 2(x 3)2 + 6
(b)
y = 2(x  3)2  6
(c).
y'= 2(x
3)2
y = 2(x+ 3)2 + 6
24.
JA
Write each of the following equations in the form y = a(x  h)2 + k.
2
(a)
y = x
(b)
y = 2(x2  6x + 9)
'(c)' y = 2x
 6x + 9
 12x + 18
(d)
y = 2(x2  6x + 9)
(e)
y = 2x2
12X+ 22
(f)
y = 2(x2  6x + 9)
(g)
(h)
y = 2x
(i)
y = x. +
(j)
y = x
(k)
Y =
2(x2  6x + 9) + 4
2
+ 12x, 14
+9
,2x + 1
I
 2 x
+ x
x + x
(in)
y = x
(n)
+ 2x + 1
= 3X2
(0)
(p)
y = x
(q)
y =
6A + 9
2
3x + 6x + 11
2
 44x + 4
2.(X2
+ 4)
11
5
(r)
y =
5x
es*
11
37
47
13
25.
For the function
f (xi) = p(x2) = 0,
2
ax + bx + c,
f : x
a,41'
prove that if
0,
then
or$ X2 
b t
lac.
I
r
ti
Fd
Q.
zs,
mo
4)
40
38
.or
1:h.
Pol nomial Functions of Degree Higher Than One
Most
al
f our initial work w4h polynomialrfunctions will be concerned wit})
two related problems:
4
Problem 1.
Given a function
and any number
in its domain,
Given a function
and any number
in its range, find
f(
Problem 2
all numbe s
of
x' such that
x 'for which
f(x) = y;
y = 0,
in particular, find those values'
i.e., the zeros of
f.
of these two problems.
Later we shall study the second
Soon we shall also develop techniques for determining maximum and minimum
points, intervals of increase and decrease and behavior for large values of
for polynomial functions of degreehigher than two.
As in the quadratic ex
amples of the previous section these techniques will enable us to sketch
graphs of higher degree polynomial' functions very'quickly.
sider Problem 1.
To graph polynomial functions and find the sOlutions of
polynomial equations, it is important to evaluate a given
values of
For example, to graph
x.
For now we con
we may want the values
fCx)
x ,)3x
for different
'
 2x
+ x  6,
x = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc.
at
f(x)
Of course,we may
obtain thtse values by dirrect substitution, doing all of the indicated multi.
plications and additions.
For most.vplues this i& ;tedious.
Fortunately,
there isan easier way which we, shall_ialitsynthetic substitution.
To under
,.
stand the method, we shall analyze a few easyi,examples.
.Example I
a.
Find the value of
f(x) = 2x
 x + 3'at
x = 4.
We write
f(x) = (2x  1)x +
When x
this becomes
4,
114
(2(4)
3 = 31.
Note that to evaluate our expression, we can"
i
40'
r.
Multiply
(i)
product to
(ii)
x2) by
(the coefficieritof
(the coefficient of
1
Multiply the result of (i)
and add this
x);
and add this product to
(the constant term).
Example l4b.
Find
given
f(3),
f(x) = 2x3  3x2 + 2x + 5.
We may write
f(x)
as
(2x2  3x + 2)x + 5
or
3)x + 21x + 5:
i (2x
,
To find the value of this expression when
inside parentheses and
we may start with the
x F 3,
(i).
Multiply
.,
(the coefficient of
2
,
to
3
x3)
by
(the coefficient of ,x2);
(ii,) Multiply the result of (1)by
.
?
andedd this product:
a>
avid adiA this product to
coefficient of
x);
../
,'
,.
64
4...
(iii) Multiply the result of ( ii ) by
and add thiS produkto
(the constant term),
The result is
f(3) = 38.
.
,.:,.
.Ar,
These steps can be represented convenient
consists of the coefflcien
order:
f the successive
able whose fiFst row
owers, Of
ght is the pa
(The number at the far
.n depcending
,yalueii5f, x
being
substituted.)
2
3
cy
(0?..3)
(3 '3) =
,/
'
(11 .3) =
,/
33
38
11
.4 so
When this tabular'arrangement is used, we proceed from left to right.
start the process by rewriting the first coefficient
Each entry in the second row is
preceding column.
2,
We
in the thiid rows".
times the entry in the third row of the
Each entry in the third row is the sur,s_of the tyg,entries
gbova it.' We note that the result
38,
can be checked by direct substitu
tion.
40
50
14
Now let us consider the general cubic polynomial
.46
lit
f(x) = a3x3 + a2x2 + alx + a
When x
c,
0,
we have
4
f(c) = a c3 + a2c2 + ale +
0'
which may be written
f(c) = [(a c + a )c + 8 le +
'
0.
Again the steps employed in the procedure can be represented in tabulal form:
a2
a3
al
a3c + a2
c + a )c + a
(a
[(a3c + a2)c +
(a3c + a )c
a3c
a3
]e
f(c)
As in,/earlier examples, the number'teing substituted is written to the right
/
of the entire array.
Example 14c.
Given T(x) = 3x
 2x
+ x  6,
14*,
6
18
determine
f(2).
1 '2
12
Now 12
substitution:
'
24  8 + 2  6 = 12.
f(2) =3(2)3  2(2)2 + 2 
Example 14d.
that
= 0
This may be checked by direct
f(2).
is the result sought, namely
Given
f(x) =
3x
+ 2x  5,
determine
f(3).
Note
and that this number must be written in,its appropriate place
as one of the detached coefficients in the firstrow.
1
3
r5
9
18
20
1,
60
55'
4,,oW
Thus,
T(3)i= 55,whish..as.before, may be checked by direct substitution,
With a little care and practice, the second line in' the above work cart.,
often be omittedwhen
c is,a small integer.
14
f(Z) = x4  x3  16x2 +.4x + 48,
Example 14e. Given
for
f(x)
x = 3, 2,,1, 0, 1; 2, 3, 4, 5.
In order to avoid confusion, it is sometimes
We detach the coefficients.
,,
evaluate
convenient to write them down at the bottom of a sheet of scratcli paper and
slide this down, covering pt` each steget446he work previously done.
As suggested
above, we omit thasecond line in each evaluation and write the value of x
we are using adjacent.to the answer.' The results appear in Table 14a.
0
e a table of f(x) and x. Note that the
The .last Two columns now bec
.
row that corm sponds to
as the sup entries as the, coefficient row.
x = 0
Table 1:4a
Coefficients of
1
1
4
) = x4  x3  16x2 + 4x + 48
48
I 4
16
3
/..10
24
2
14
18
30
1
48
36'
41.6
/
1
'
...3'7:'.
2
.,,,1
,1
I

16
ON.,
16
12
14.
24
10
26
0 _
' 30
'1
 4
12
44
24
168
f(x)
''....
Themethod described and illustrated above is often called synthetic,
4
substitution or synthetic division in algebra books.
The word "synthetic"
14tera3.ly means "put together," so You can see how it is that "synthetic
_$9,1)stitution".,is appropriate here; later we shall illustrate'why the process
is also called "division."
evaluating .f(x),
The meth, gives a quick and efficient means ofTh
and we are now able to plot the graphs of polynomials more
easily than would_ be the case if the values of
f(x)
had,to be computed by
direct substitution.
52
..
/1.
Example 14f. Plot the graph of the polynomial function
f
Sx2  12x + 13.
We prepare a table of values of x
and
by synthetic
f(x)
tion, and then plot the points whose coordinates
substiv/
(x,f(x)) .appear in Table
14b.
J
Coefficients of
Table 1 4b'
f(x), 2x3  3x2  12x + 13
3
12
13
9
15
32
3
7
2
5
7
20
1
3
12
13
\1
13
10'
7
3
45
it
From the table we observe that the points
(73,32), (2,9), (1,20), etc.
(:c,f(x))
These points are located on a' rectangular
coordinate system Ers.shown in Figure 14a.
Note that we have chosen different
scales on the axes for convenience in plotting.
to be plotted are
11 WV
fi
, 14
f(x)
(4,45)
( 3,4)
ee
SOme Points_on Graph of
r
x _2 2x3  3x2 ; 12x + 13
Figure 148
Now'tht problem is how best to draw the graph.
graph has no breaks.
We shall assume thwt the
The question remains whether the points we haV'e already
plotted are sufficient to give us a fairly accurate picture of the graph, or
whether there may be hidden "peaks" and "valleys" not shown thus far.
.
We are
not in a position to answer this question categorically at present, but we
can shed "further light on it by plotting more points between those alrm4y
located.
By use of fractional values of, x
substitution, Fable 14b is
extend
and the method of synthetic
as shown in Table 14c
44
::
14
Q
Table 14c
Coefficients of
f(x) = 2x3  3x2  '12x + 13
3
12
13
8
7
6
3t
4
35
10 ;r
5
2
_
18
2
4.
13
12
r5
5
2
20
t(x)
7
When we fill in these points on the graph, it appears that if we connect the .
j
points by a smooth curve, we ought to have a reasonably accurate picture of
the graph of
in the interval from
3
to
4.
This is shown in Figure 14b.
r,
e,
Exercises 14
1. Evaluate the followineggtYnomials for the given value% of x.
(a) f(x) = x 4 + x  3;
x = 2, 1, 3
x = 1, 3, 0, 2, 4
(b) f(x) = x2  3x3 + x 2
(c) g(x) = 3x3  2x
x=
(d)
r(x) = 6x3  5x 2  17x + 6;
(e)
s(x) = 6x3  29x2 +. 37x  12;
2
1
3, 4
F(x, = 3x  97x 3 + 35x 2 + 8x + 2; x =
(g)
G(x) =_x10  4x 3 + 10;
=2
2. If f(x) =2x3,  kx2 + 3x ' 2k,
3.
will f(2) = 4?
3x,
for what value of _ k will f(2) = 2?
Flind the value of each of the f011owing functioons when x =
(b)
(i)
x 3 2
(ii)
(iii)
(0)
x 3 2x = 7
01
x 3 2x
(c)
7 5x. 2 7
,..,
x , 2x3
3x2  1.2x + 13
Plot the graph
of the function
.
x )
Ifa f X) = x3 + kX2
4.
for What value of
2x3
Rx2
+ 20',
Compare your:sketch of part Op with the graph of
f x 21.3  3x2  12x 413 in F,j.gtire 14b
(e) Find the value of each of the following functions when x = 1.
.
x `3 2
x A 2x + 10
x
(iv)
(b)
2x
x 2x3
x
3x2
 12x + 13
Plot the graph of the function
x
ti
(c)
13
2x
+ 3x
 12x.
Compare yotir sketch
Part (b) with the graph of
f
2x3  3  123c + 13 in Figure14.b.
,
14
6.
Plot the graph oft each of the following functions and compare eachgraph
with'the graph of
2x3
3x2  12x + 13
in Figure 14b.
x  2x3 + 3x2 + iPx .13
(b)
7.
2x3
3x2  12x
Plot the graph cd4each of the following functions.
(a)
x )x3
(1>)
x )
AD
+ 4
x )(x  2)3
8.
9.
Plot the graph of eadli of the following functions.
x3 +' 3'x2 4: 4
(a)
(b)
x ) x3 + 3x
(c)
x**4(x + 1)3 + 3(x +
1)2
Sketch the graph of each of the folldwing functions.
(a)
( b)
(c)
2x3  12x +
4 2x3
2 12x
3)3  12(x  3)
10. 'Sketch,the graph oft x )x
.
T2
over the interval
47
11:
if'o i,each
Plot the grap
.20,
of the folloling functions.
(a)
x) x4 7,2x.. 5x2'+ 6x
(b)
x 74 x4 + 2x3 +,5x2  6x
(c)
x ) x4 + 2x3 .5x2  6x
For
f :: x+44 + 4X  13x2
;
,
'4
12.
we give some of the functional
18x3 i 9x4
.1
values in the following table.
1 2
f(x)
'y
1
1 7
304
'
44.
'.."5
'''''
304
for which the function has
(a) From the table, estimate the vat,ue or x
a mgXigiumvalue.'
4'
7. .
1,
U < ,C<' lr
4
'
1"1
'
44
13.
'
44
"4.
4.
e, 'with special care given to the interval
(by Sketch the graph of
Approximate0,e.maxiMtun value of the tunctipn

f' : x)39 
144
640x2
10;c.) 
640x4:
48v
53'
477
,
1N.77
15
15.
Remainder and Factor Theorems
momentarily we shall turn away from graphing and take another look at the
process W5 rescribed in Section 14, in order to develop some theoremrthat4
will be useful in finding the zeros of polynomial functions.
substitUtion used,to determine
given
f(2),
x )x3
The synthetic
7x2 + 3x  2
will be the basis for this developtent, so let us examine it closely.
1 r
7
2
kp
14
5
7
16
We'rewr/te the first row in the synthetic substitution as the givenmelra
nomial
by restoring the powers of
to each;entry in a given column.
1x3
x), and then attach the same power of
Thus we obtain
7x2
+3x
2x
.
5x
1)(3
10x
14
2
7x
16
The polynOmial in _the third row tis the Sum of the two&preceding polynomials.
S1hbe
f(X) = x3  7x2 + 3x  2
and
1(2) ,;=. S,
the above addition can be
written
.
f(x) + 2x
 10x 1. 14 = x 3  5x
.
 7x.'+ 1(2)."
By factoring, we May write
VV. y VV.!.
''
Solving for
4p f(x) + 2(x
f(x),
;#
i./e have
<
f(xl= X(x2. 5x': 7)  2
or
 5x  7) = x(x'"  5x ,1) + f(2).
2_7 5x  71+c(2);
2)(X2  5x
f(X)
f(2).
The form of this expression may look fa4iar. 'It is, in fact, an
example' f the division algorithm:
Divldedd =(Divisor)(Quotien
our:example, if
(x
2)
+ Remaindel;.
is, the divisoi, ',then
q(xY=x2
/i
49
5 9
15,
is the quotient, and
is iWremdinder.
f(2)
This result may be generalized.
t is of sufficient importance to be stated as a theorem.
REMAINDER THEOREM.
If
n > 0
is a polynomial of degree
f(X)
a number, then the remainderin thedivision of
by
f(x)
and if
is
c' is
That is,
f(c).
f(x) = (x  c)q(x) + f(c),
where the quotient
n  1.
is a polynomial of degree
q(x)
We shall prove the theorem only in the case of the general cubic,
Proof.
polynomial,
f(x) = 83x3 + a x2 '+ a x + a0.
1
Following the pattern of the previous example, to determine
the synthetic substitUtion
a
a3
a0
al
(83c + 82)c
(83c2, + a2c + a1)
(a3c + s2)
(83c3 + 8.2c
As before, writing in the appropriate pd ers of
8 x
3
2,
+41 x
we get
+ a
c + a )x
2
+ (a
4 a
c + a )cx
+ ain + a0)
+ a cx2
x,
r
+ 8 X
x +
a3 x3
c2 + a2c + a
(a
(a3)
we trite
f(c)
+ a2c + a )c1
c + a )x + (a 63 + a
1
+ a c + a
1
0
_
.0,
We note that the polynomial in tilt third row is the sum of the two preceding
..
polynomials, that the polynomial in the first row is
Ta c3 +la c2 + a c + a )
2
1
0
1
f(x) + C(8 x2 + (a c + a )x'+ (a
x(8 x
+ (a c + a )x + (a
and that
f(c). .Hence we may write
is
f(x)
'
'+ a 2c +
c + a )] + f(c).
1
b
Thus we have
f(x) = (x  c)(8 x2 + (a c + a )x + (a c2 + a2c + s )] + f(c5
3
or
fr
f(x) = (x  c)q(x) + f(c).
50
60
15:
The process is the same for higher degree polynomials.
f(x) = (x
where
If the remainder
tient
c)q(x) +, f(c),
is a polynomial of degree
q(x)
f(c)
n  1.
is zero, then the divisor
are factors of
q(x)
f(x).
It gives
x  c
and the quo 11
Hence, we have as an immediate consequence
the Factor Theorem:
FACTOR THEOREM.
n
If
then
0,
is a zero of a polynomial function
is a factor of
 c
f(x),
of degree
and.conversely..
We know from the Remainder Theorem (applied to a cubic function)
there exists a polynomial, q(x)
of degree
n  1
at
such that
f(x) = (x  c)q(x) + f(c).
171k a
I
24
zero of
then
f,
f.(x) 4 (x  c)ii(x),
y ,
Hence, x
is a factor of
Conversely, I
".
f(c) = O. and
4ik
is a polynomial, q(x)
f(x),
by definition.
is a factor of
(x),
then by definition there
such that
f(x) =,(x  c)q(x).
we obtain
= c,
f(c) = (c  c)q(c),= 0,
and hence
is a zero of,
Example 15a.
f.
Find the quOtient and ,remainder
.f(x)
is divided by
=42:0 
6x2 + x
5
x  3.
Hence,
2
q(x) = 2x2 + 1,
f(3) .= 2,
 
and
, 2
2x3  6k
2x
,
+ x 
5=
(x  3)(2x2 + 1)
51
2.
15
.
'
is a factor of
Example 15b. Show that x  6
f(x) = x3
f(6)
q(x) = x
6x
+ x
q(x).
and find the associated
Here,
6
J.1
6
and
+ 1,
f(x) = (x  6)(x2 + 1).
'..
In testing, for the divisibility of a3polynomial by
.
write
a / 0,
we
.
.
.ax + b .= a(x +
and see whether
if and only'if
b.
f(
a)
= afx  ( )]
)
ax + b
By the FactoryTheorem,
= 0.
f( 12)
f(x)
ax + b,
(Note that
= 0.
b

is a factor of
is the root of,
ax + b = 0.)
In applying the Factor Theorem, it may sometimes be easier to compute
f(c)
by direct substitution, ratherthan by the Method or synthetic substi.
tution.
x  1
Thus,, to show that
is a factor of
faft= )2;73
we note that
,
Evaluating
x37 = 1,
f(1) = 2  1  1
f(1)
by the synthetic substitution method would take considerably
longer.
er.
At this pointyou imay wonder what to do when confronted with a polynomial
such as
;5,
8x4
dor which you might like to factor.
device.
28x3 62x2 + 7X + 15,,
Note that the Factor Theorem id only a testing
It does pot locate zeros of polynomial functions.
(Methods, other
than blind" guessing, for doing this will be developed. later.)
7.
62
I
15
Exercises
Find
1.
q(x)
and
f(x) = (x  c)q(x) + f(c)
so that
f(c)
*N.N.
(a)
f(x) = 3x3 + 4x2  10x  15
(b)
f(x) = x3 4 3x2 + 2x + 12 and
(c)
f(x) = 2x4 + 3x3 + 6x  10 and
= 2x
(d)
 3x
+ 5x  2
and
C = 2
c = 3
and
c = 3
=2
Find the quotient and remainder when,
2.
(a)
x3 + 4x2  7x  3
(b)
x3 + 3x2  4
(c)
3x3 + 4x2 .7x + 1
3.A If
fn(x)
is divided by
is divided by g + 2
is divided by
is divided by
remainder ,r(x)
x  2
3x  2
gm(x) # 0' so that a quotient
are obtained', what is the degree of
and a
q(x)
q(x)?
of r(x)?
Give a linear factor of each of the polynomials.
4.
5.
(a)
r(x) = 6x3  5x2  17x.+ 6
(b)
s(x) = 6x3
29x2 + 37x  12
Consider the function
Determine
(a)
..(b)
qt.Ctor
ti
f : x tx3 + 4x
f(3), f(2),
f(x)
+ x  6.
f(0), f(1), f(2),
and
f(3).
over the integers.'
f(x) = 2x3 + x
6.'
and
.7.
8.
1
73.
Factor
 5x + 2,
k(x)
If f(x) = x3 + 3x2  12x: k,
Find a value for
is exactlyedivisible by
Determine
f(1)
if
f(x)
at
x = 2, 1, 0, 1, 2,
find
so that f(3),=
so that
x3 
9.
determine
over the integers.
+ kx
x  3.
f(1) = 0
and
x )ax5 + ax4 + 13x
53
11x2  10x  2a.
15
10.
Divide
(b)
Find
(c)
Determine
if
g(1)
+ 8x  4
by
x  1.
x 4.x4 + 2x1 3x2  4x + 4.
a, 0,
x5 + x4
x2
5x3
x5 4..x4
(a)
and
5x3
if
x2 + 8x  4*
+ r.
(x  1)3
(d)
Determine. A, B, C, D, E, F
if, for all values of
x,
(x  1)3(x + 2)2 = Ax5 + Bx4 + Cx3 + Ent2 + Ex + F.
0
Consider the function
11.
)
x3  3x.
_successive synthetic divisions of
tients by
We submit a table to show three
f(x) = x3  3x
and, resulting quo
x  2.
1
3
14
2
2
8
9
4
2
1
(a)
Determine g(x)
f(2) if
and
f(x) = (x  2)g(x) + f(2)(
(b)
Determine
p(x)
and
g(2)
2)p(x) + g(2).
g(x) =
'(c)
Determine
q(x)
and,
if
p(2)
if
p(2) .',
(d)
What is
q(2)?
.(e)7 Show that,,forall
x,
we canwrite
f(x) = (x  2) {(x  2)[(x
2)q(2) + p(2)] + g(2)) + f(2).
6 454
15.
In Chapier2 we shall find it useful (for analysis and translation)
to be able to express a given function in terms of
x  a.
We have
already developed the equipment necessary to do this for a simple
3
polynomial function such as f
x 4x
3x,
with a = 2. Using
:
the.results of,parts (a) through (e) of this problem determine
B, C
and
f(x) = x3
if, for all
x,
..3x = A(x  2)3 + B(x  2)'
2)2 + C(x 2) + D.
41114k
(g)
Sketch the graph of the function
f:
(h)
)x3
3x.
Sketch the graph of the function
.F : x 4x3 +6x2 + 94 + 2.
4F
A,
16
16.
Locating Zeros of Polynomial Functions
FrQm the discussion in the previous section we khow.that a number
a zero of a polynomial function
if
f(r) = 0.
is
Furthermore we know that
the zeros of first and second degree polynomial _functions can be found by
solving linear and quadratic equations, fat which there are simple formulas.
We know how to find the zeros of polynomial functions of the first and
second degree.
If
If
x )ax
mx + b,
2
then
/ 0,
+ bx + c,
f(
then
0,
b.
= 0.
f(
b t
c)
2a
Upon examining these solutions, mathematicians noticed that the zeros are
expressed in terms of the coefficients by formulas involving only the rational
operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, division) and the extraction of roots 16f numbers, and believed that it might be possible to express
the zeros of functions of higher degree than the quadratic in the same manner.
In the first half of the sixteenth century such formal expressions for the
zeros of the third and fourth degree polynomial,functions were obtained by
Italian mathematicians.
Unfortunately, these formulas are too complicated to
be of.practical value in mathematical analysis.
Mathematicians usually find
it easier even in theoretical questions to work with the polynomial rather
than with any explicit expression for the zeros.
While these explorations prod, ced some significant, if largely peripheral,
results, they wer
later abandoned to be replaced by better procedures.
rejected the purs
t of formulas to solve equations of higher degree, mathe
Having
maticians came to believe that perhaps the most fruitful path was to guess at
the solutions.
_ 
.:
Inspection of the xintercepts of graphs we have sketched in earlier'
..,
sections enables us to approximate zeros of polynomial functions.
But plotting_
Inherent inAe pro
graphs is,timeconsuming, and there are better methods.
,
..
cess of preparing a table for graphing, however, is infoNmation that helps us
to make intelligent guesses about the zeros.
the following theorem.
d/
66
56
This information is contained in
46
THE LOCATION.THEOREM. If
i, E7i.polynomilaffunction and if
real numbers such th2t,e(a)
and
f(b)
is at least one zero of f between
are
b.
Geometrically this theorem means thAt'the graph of
(b,f(,b))
and
have oppositesigns, then there
and
from (a,f(a))
to
intersects the x axis in at least one point.
In Figure 16a we illustrate the
0
Location Theorem wit?! the observation
that
and
f(a)
f(b)
are' of opposite
f(b)
sign so that
must have'at least
one zerebetween a
and
b.
The Location, theorem depends upon,
the fact that the g aU of n polynomial
ftnction has no "gas ", and hence can.
not have both positive and negative
values without crossing the xaxis
Figure 1.6a
t
gtween.
makes
A complete proof of this
of a suitable formulation of the fact thqt the real line has no
:zr
"gaps" and 0.11 be discussed further in the appendices.
Since the Location
Theorem seems intuitively plausible we.shall,assume that It is true and con...
centrate on its consequences.
Example 16a,
Given that the polynomial function
'f
x  12x3
8x2
* 14
has three real zeros, loCate each of them betweentwoConsecutive integers.
..
We use theLoca'tion Theorem to search for values Of fM that are
Ak
opposite in sign.
It is convenient to do this in.a systematic, way by'synrm,_
thetic substitution, setting down the
or
as ip Table 1t6a.
t
me'
a,
'
57
O'
16
_)
Table 16a
Loat g the Zeros of
12
8
21
14
12
8
21
14
8x2  21x + 14'1
x )12x3
''"
Location of41.:7.__
402ero
1 4
12
17
3
a.
40
12
.46
.111
36
12
28
63
203
12
8
21
3.4
12
20
12
32
15
72
43
f(x)
WU=
The intervals that contain the real "zeros of
and
1,
are indicated
between
and
2,
and betweens2,,and
We hasten to add that it is entirely possible for
between
and
when
f(a)
the
Thus, we see that the real zeros .or...;'f
arrows at the right'in the table.
are located between
and
f(b)
to have zeros
have the same sign.
this possibility in Figure 16d.
We illustrate
f(x)
Figure 16u
Since the problem of locatirig zeros of a polynomial fUnctionfseSseh
tially a matter of trial, We should ask the very practical questionHow
far sliould we extend the table of ac
tions of thezeros of
and .f(x)
when we search for the loca
fe,, In Elyample'16b this question arises.
'
..41
I.
58
16
Example f6b.
Locate 'the real zeros of
.2x x
7 2x + 6.
We repeat a procedure similar to EVIIple 16a and compile Table 16b.''Table 1,6b
Locating the Zeros of
2
1
1
 2x
1
2
.45
2
2
.
2
2
'?Ib'
x k2x
4.,;
3,
2
1
^.
2,
j
5
8.
io
.7'
19
51
440
r(x)
The Locatiod Theorem tells us that there is at(leastoone real zero
between
1
and
We can then write
f(x) =
where
has degree
2,
say
ex)
Depending upon the sign of
r)9(x)
2
x + bx + c.
 4ac, .this will have two distinct real zeros,
one repeated Veal ''zero or tw.:,) complex zeros,'. Thus,:there are fir
(1),
there may be one, t.
interval between
(2)
, or three real zeros, all contained in the
1 'and
."
2,
two zeros maybe complex, in which case there is only one,real
zero,
I.
(3)
oneortwo real zeros may be in some other inter;ial of the table
between successiveintegral values of
(4)
x,
op
one or two real zeros may be in intervals outside the values of
shown in the table.
.
59
16
While it is difficult to rule out the'possibilityof complex ieros or
zeros between other entries Of the table we can at least show that no roots
2 < x < 2.
can occur outside the interval
.Possibility (4) appears unlikely for the simple reason that when we
all the entries in the corresponding row of Table 16b
f(2) = 14,
evaluated
were positive.
They will be still greater for ereater values of, x;
table shows this for
greater than
f(x)
x > 2,
it appears that for
a zero of
and you can check it yourself for
xr 3,
the
x = 4.
'Thus
must be positive, so that there cannot be
We shall prove this, as well as the fact that
2.
9agrxe cannot be a zero of the given polynomial less than
by application
2,
. of the following, theorem.
SuppcAel f
UPPER BO,UND THEOREM FOR THE ZEROS OF A POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION.
f(a) > 0
polynomial function with
If
and if all the coefficients of
(x  a)q(x) 4.f(a)
f(x)
a > 0.
for
poitive, then all the real zeros of
are less than
is a
q(x)
are
Wethen
a
*
3 call
an upper bound for the zeros of
Proof, For
x_T  a,
q(x)?
x*.. a,
f(a)
and
and all real zeros of
f,
x > a,
For
f(x) = f(a) > O.
are eall Positive.
f
f.
x > a
Thus,
must be less than
by hypothesis,
is not a zero of
p.
.
..../
Now you will 'see from Table 16b that
.
of the
given polynomial.
....
is an Upper bourfd of the zeros
We really did not need to. evaluate
f(3Y.
v..
What about a lower bound for the zeros?
,
f(x) = 0
is a positive root of
the positive roots of
0
f(x) '= 0,
f(x) = 0,
Since any negative root of
its negative will be a lower bound for
...
if we find an upper bound for
t....
'theilegat.t.ve roots of
f(x) = O.
Let us "apply this test to our example.
.
From the given polynomial
Olt
2
f(x) = 2x3  x
 2x I 6,
we find that
f(x) = 2x3. x2 + 2x
6.
Since we are,trying to find the roots of the equation, f(x) f 94
it will
ble less confusing to multkay each' member of this equation by
to have a
in order
tive coefficient for the third degreeterm. Irhus,wehave
f(
2x3
4
.r
10
4 :v
1
6o
x2 , 2x. 6.
Using synthetic substitutioni we4obtain the results. shown in Table 16c
for positive values df
x.
Table 16c
Ewalluatlig
f(x) = 2x3 t.x2  2x  6
2'
2
6
2
6
5
'5
10
19
51
f(x)
44.
This table tells us two things.
occurs between
Occurs between
1
and
ay
and
2,
Firdt, a poSitive root of ..f(x) = 0
which means that a negative root of
is an upper bound for the roots of .f(x) = 0,
lower bound for the roots of
have been searching.
evaluate
f(x)
f(x) = 0.
and gence',
Secondly,
2
isa
This is,the conclusion for which we
in actual practice, however, it is unnecessary to
to find a lower bound for the 'zeros of .f.
Table,16b that thesYnthetic(substitution for
signs for the coefficients of, q(x)
Suppose a negative number
If the coefficients of
f(4.:=0
as previously shown in Table 16b.
and
x(= 2
f(2).
is substituted (synthetically) in
q(Z) concluding with the number
sign, then all of the real zeros of
Notice in
gives, alternating
are greater than
is a lower bound for the zeros.
..
1
In EAmple 16b, we have found that
f(a)
a.
f(x).
alternate In
We say that
a.
is an upper bound and
lower bOund'for the real zeros of the given function.
zeros of
Hence, all the real
are contained in the interval 2< x < 2 and we have found,
1 ,and
Methods for showing that, ip fact, If
know'must lie in'the interval
has only one real zero (which we
=2 < x < 1)
section.
61
is a
that one zero lies between
2
11
are beyond the scope of this
16
4,
_Exercises 16
1.
Find intervals tetween consecutivevintegers that oontain tne real zeros
of
given that:
f,
f(x)
(b)
f(x) ='3x3 + x2 + x = 3
9  x  x2  x
(c). r(x)
2.
3x2 + 3'
(a)
(Hint:
3x 4, 1
(d)
f(x) = 3x3
(e)
fM) =2x3  5x2' x + 5
(r) r(x)
3x2 + 6x  9
(g) f(x)  x4
6x3 + x2 + 12x  6
k
Determine the values of
f(2).)
evaluate
f(x) = x
far which
2x
+ 3x  k
has 'at
*least one real zero between
(a) CI
and
and
(b)
=3.
In Example 16b we located at least one zero of
.
f : x
between
2' and
(Table 16b).
71
2x + 6
x2
While that example ser ed priMarily
as a vehicle for the development of larger considerations we afford you
the satisfaction of completing it here.
(a)
Evaluate
(b)
Divide
(c)
For what values of
(d)
How many times does the graph of
x +
2x3' x2  2x + 6 Eby
1
2x2
does
+ 4 = 0?
 4
x 42x3
x2  2x + 6
cross' the xaxis?
(
(e)
How many real zeros has the function
Cr)
What are the zeros of
.72
.
.
62
2x
f : x .242x3  x2  2:fe+_6?
 x2
 2.x
5+ 6?
Locate real zeros of each of the following functions.
(a)
(i)
x 4 x
(ii)
F :
 3x
Factor
(b)
x3 + 6x2 + 9x + 2
x3  3x
over the reals.
48?
(c). What are the'zeros of each of the following?
(Consult_Exercises
174, No. 11.)
(i)
f: x
(ii)
F : x 4 x3 + bx
x3  3x
,
+ 9x + 2
Use the Factor Theorem to find a cubic equationwhose roots are
5.
and
3.
1,,
You are familiar with the fact that for the general quadratic, equation
2 '8X + bx + c = 0,
is
the sum of the roots is
and the product of the roots
Similar relationships exist between the roots and the coefficients
of polynomials of higher degree.
The following problems (Nos. 6, 7, and 8)1
are intended to illustrate:these xelationships for thirddegree polynomials:
6.
Use the roots of the equAion given in Number 5 for each of,the
parts:
Find the sum of the roots.
(a)
of
(b)
x2
Comparethis result with the coefficient
obtained in Number 5.
Find the sum of all possj;b11 twofactor products of the roots.
That.is, find
(2)(1) + (2)(3) + (1)(3).
with the coefficient of
obtained in Number 5.
Find the product of the roots.
(c)
Compare this result'
COmpare this result with the con
stant term obtainedin Number 5.
7.
If the roots of a 3rddegree polynomial equation are
2,
and
3,
find'
(a)
the sum of the roots,
(b)
tlietsum of all possible twofactor productp of the roots,
(c) , the product' of the roots.
t
'4 tdy Using the results of (a), (b), and (c), write a polynomial
..eqtiation of 3rd degree having the given roots.
.(e)
Check your result's by using the Fablor Theorem to obtain the equation.,
63
7:3
o
V'
16'
8.
(a)
Using the Factor Theorem, write in expanded form a 3rddegree polyr1, r2, and
nomialequation having the roots
(b)
r3.
From the result obtained in part (a), and from the fact that any
polynomial of 3rd degree can be written in the fOrm
.
(x
a3
2 2
1
0
+  x, +  x + )
find expressions for the coefficients
a
1
a
,
'
9.
Find the polynomial function
and
10.
r2, and
1'
a0

in terms
of the roots
and
r3.
of,degree three that has zeros
and satisfies the condition
1, 1,
f(0) = 12.
There is a theorem known as Descartes' Mlle of Signs that states that the
number of positive roots of
f(x) = 0
tions in sign of the coefficients of
cannot exceed the number of varia
A variation in sign occurs
f(x).
whenever the sign of a coefficient differs from the sign of the next
nonzero coefficient.
Thus_ x
 x
+ 2x + 5
has
variations in sign.
.
Since the roots of
fx) = 0,
f(x) = 0
are the negatives of the roots of
the number of negative roots of
f(x) =,0
number of variations in sign of the coefficients of
f(x) '= x
4

.f(x) = 7
x3 + 2x +,5
has at4most
+ x 3 .  2x + 5
Nts
Cannot exceed the
f(x).
Thus
negative roots, since
variations in sign.
Find the maximum number of pbsitive and negative roots of each of
the following equations.
(a)
x3
x2' 1167
(b)
x7
x4 + 3 = 0
3x4
x2
24 = 0
2x  3 = 0
(d)
x5  l'= 0
(e)
x5 + 1 = 0
(f)
x5 =0
64
'7
4:
17
Rational Zeros
17.
If
is a polynomial
f(x)
whose coefficients
an, an,1, ...,:a0
rational zeros of
n1
X
+
+ a x + a0, all of
n1
1
are integers, then we may find all
anxn + a
by testing only a finite number of possibilities, as
indicated by the following theorem.
If the, polynomial
,
(1)
/ ;(' n
f(x)
+ a
.4 . a
has integer coefficients
and
divisor of
n1
\as
+ a0
+ ... +lx
f. has a
and' if
expressed'in lowest terms (that
are integers with no com* integer divisor
'greater than
an, an:1, ..., ao,
?ational zero F # 0, q > 0,
is,
n1
1), then
p4
is a divisor of
and
,is. a
an.
We use the following argument to establish the 'theorem:.
.
..
.
..*
is a zero of f,
If
then f(), = O. By Equation (1)
f(2.)
. a (E)n + a
(E)n1
n q
n1 q
+ a (E) + a
1 q
= 0;4
or, when cleared'of fractions,
n
(2)
+ a
n
n
n1
Solving Equation (2) for
aoq
= .481 p
n1
q +
+ alpq
qn
we obtain
where
divides
a0.
n1
= O.
n11
pnlg
n2
n1
q
,:nc1
2
an 1P
a whole number,
8'1(1
r.
j
is an'integer.
Hence
of times.
We wish to show that p divides
4
To do this, we appeal to the Fundamental,TDeorem of Arithmetic,, that the
0
N,
factorization of positive integers is unique; namely, we note that since
and
and
have no common integer divisor greater than
4
a q
n1
= p[a pn.1 + a
= pN,
n1
65
1,
neither have
17
q
Hence, all the factors of
of
a0,
are factors of
and
is a factor
a0.
q
To prbVe that
divides
anPn = 11.a
(3)
Then we reason that since
a p
the number
than
and
n1
n1
and
in the form
n2, 4a
and
have no common divisor greater
Hence; all the factors of
pn.
is a factor of
+ a pq
22
divides the righthand side of (3), it divides
Again, since
neither have
of an,
we write Equation
an.,
are factors
an.
The'foregoing result may be easier to remember if we state it in words:
If a fraction in lowest terms is a root of a polynomial equation with integer
o
coefficients, then the numerator of the fraction must divide the constant term
of the polynomial, and the denominator must divide the Coefficient of the
To keep things straight, we can always see how the
highest power of x.
theoremwoits for
b = 0, m / 0.
mx
4, only root is
divides
the numerator
divides
b
bk1 while the denominator
m.
If the polynomial has, fractional coefficients, the theorem can be applied
after the polynomial has been multiplied by a nonzero integer 'to clear of
f(x) = 0
fractions,' because the roots of
(k / 0)
and the roots of
k['f(x)] = 0
are the same.
%.
0,
,Example 17a.
What are,the rational roots(of
1r
It is clear that
.1W
3x3
'
8x2 +,3x +,2 = 0?
If
is not a root.
is a rational root, in m
lowest terms, then
p
diVides
2,
divides
3.
The possibilities are
,
t 2,
,s
(1411 1, 3,
so that
I.
q
4.
2_
or, +2
_3.
We test these one'by one and find that the roots of the given equation are
'1, 2,
and
3
AO.
76_
1 7
(Note that in the statement of Theorem A2 2a, rye specified
q > 0,
,,..soP
the potsibilities for
1
1
, and
,' .....5
are all positive.
There Zs no point in testing both
0
.
)
...
:e ra ional roots4of
4
 ox
,f(x)
3x
=
3x
+ 2x = 0.
 8x + 3x +'2x
x(3x3
Now,
8x2 + 3x + 2).
f(x) = 0
if and only if either
P*41ft
x = 0
or
3x
(1+)
ox
+ 3x + 2
0.
By Example 17b,'the roots of Equation (4) are
1, 2,
and
Adding the
root: 0,
we see that the roots of
f(x) = 0
are
0, 1, 2, 
. We, can use our Rational Zero Theorem to establish a corollary for
integral ziotros.
44.
,r
If the polynomial
f(x) = x
+ a'
n1
x +
has integer coefficientswith the constant term
with the coefficient of the highest power of
then the gnly possible rational zeros of
divide
0
a0
4 0,
0
equal to
are integers that
a0.
We establish this corollary with the follOwing short
.
oof.
Suppose
(in lowest terms),
7F0 = f(0) / 0,
divides 1.
.
and
/ 0.
Therefore,
q > 6
is a'zero 'Of
By the Rational Zero Theorem,
q . 1,
an4
= p
q
67
le**
f.
Since
divides
a0
and
is an integer that divides
ao.
17
Find the rational zeros of
Example 17c.
f: x )x 3 + 2x
 9x  18.
By our corollary, the possible rational zeros are integers that divide
 18,
, +he ?Pros of
namely
 3, 4,
and
are
3.
After we have found one zero of a polynomial function,
we can use
By this device,
;a special device to make it easier to find further zeros.
we can cut down the number of possible zeros we have to test, and sometimes
4
we can even use it to help us findcertain irrational zeros.
We know from the Factor Theorem (Section 15) that
if and only tf there is a polYnomia.1
such that
f(x) = (x  a)q(x).
(5)
(x  a)q(x)
Since the product
q(x) = 0,
(x
(6)
can find one zero of
f,
consists of
x = a
(x
or
together
q(x) = 0)
f.
is one less than the degree of
Thus, if we
Equations (5) and ,(6) allow us to reducethe problem
of finding the zeros Of 'f
of lower degree.
f'
or
GI:
f(x) = 0)
Moreover, the degree of
x  a = 0
is zero if and only if either
it follows that the set of zeros of
with the set of zeros of
f,
is a zero of 'f
to that of fteding the zeros of a polynomial
q
Naturally we may repeat the process, with
if we are fortunate enough to find a zero of
apply the Fa ctor Theorem ,to
q,
say
b,
in place of
for then we may
and" write
q(x)
(x
b)r(x),
and
(x
q(x) = 0) = (x :x.= b
or
r(Y) = 0)
If we are successful in repeating this reduction until we have a quotient
which is either linear or quadratic, we can easily finish the job by solving
I
a linear or quadratic equation.
1.
Example 17a.
Find all solutions of
2x
(7)
 3x
tirect'calculation'show.s that
fore,
x  1.
is a divisor of
2x
is a solution of Equation (7).
0.
 12x + 13
. 3x
Al2x + 13.
3
12
2.
71
Performing the divisioh,
13
13
1
There
Thus
2x
 3x
 12X + 13 = (x  A
12x
and the solutions of Equation (7) are
2x
(1 +
By the quadratic formula,
 x  131,
and the'solutions of
 x  13 = O.
(1
 i5)
/1. 55)
f.15
and
areLthe
solutions of Zquation (7).
Example 17e.
Find all zeros of
f
x '12x3
8x,2
 21x
14.
This is the same function that,we considered earlier in Section 16,
Example 16a.
between
At that time we found that there are zeros between
and ,2,
and between
2
and
and
1,
Thus, we know that there are
1.
three real zeros, but we do not know whether they are rational or irrational,.
/
If all three areirrational, the best, we can do is to find decimal approxi
tions. ,Butifat least,one zero is rational, then we can Obtain a function
reduced degree  in this case a quadratic  that will enable us to find the
exact values of the remaining zeros whether rational or irrational.
If the function has a rational zero, it will be of the form 2
theRational Zero Theorem of this section the possibilities for
t 2, t 7, t 14,
and for
are
l',' 2, "3, 4, 6, 12.
and by
are
! 1,
Thus, there appear to be,t
a good many values of 2 to test as possible. zeros of the given,function.
q
But
since we already know something about the location of the zeros, we need test
.only those'possible rational zeros p. between
0 and
and between
;2! and
1,  until a zero is found.
.1
69
79
1,
between
and
2,
'f
17
Now the possible rational zeros between
and
are
b
1
1
2
By synthetic substitution, we find that
1
the zero lies
f(1) = 3,
values
1 1
,
and
and
f(2 )
1.
and
f(0) = 14
Since
= 3.
Hence, we need riot test the
This is a,good example of how the Location
12
Theorem (Section 16p may save us unnecessary wor). 
Continuing, we knob that the only possible rational zero between
2
1
is
or
.2N
and
and we have found
Testing these, we find that fkt = 0,
3
12
the rational zero 7 ..By the Factor Theorem,
_.
x 
is a divisor of
f(x),
3
2
and the quotient, obtained from the synthetic substitution of
is
q(x) = 12x2  21.
The ,zeros of
are the roots of
12x
which are
17 .
7
and
1/7
 21 = 0,
2
Thus, the zeros of tile given polynomial are
,
IT
VT
'
'
o.
78
80
Exercises
17
Find all rational zeros of the polynomial functions in Firxercises 1
and find as many irrational zeros as you can.
(a)
1 .
'3x 
2x" 
3x
;14 2X3
2.
3.
4.
 2x
(1)
x3  6x2 + llx
(b)
x14
(a)
x3  2x
(b)
x 3
x14
(a)
(b)
6x3 + llx 2  6x
+ 3x  4
2
2x3 + 3x ="'4
.2x3
 x2
2x
)2x4  x3
2x
5. x )12x3
 40x2
19x
3x 3  10x2
+ 5x + 4
4x 3  10x
+ 5x + 6
8. x
x4 12x
9. x
x4  8x2
,,
+ 8x .412
16
 5x + 5x 2 + 5x .6
10.
11.
x 3 x5 + 3x4
x4
 7x 2
+ x
+ 2,1
'7.
6
5x
15x
+ /pc + 12
2
3
x ).3x 4  es'
o x  28x + 64x  15
13.
Show algethaic'ally that the equation
if
is
a real
number such that
x +
1
 =
has no real solution
In j < 2 .
Ni.
You are familiar with the fact that for the gdneral quadratic equation,
ax2 + bx + c = 0,
is
s
the sum of the roots is
and
the ,product of the roots
 .
a
Similar relationships exist between the roots and the coefficients of
polynomials of higher degree.
Thesfollowing problems are intended to illustrate
these relationships for thirddegree polynomials.
71
81
. Z;
Approximating Zeros
 18.
Methods for finding rational zeroTof, polynomial functftion:, are discussed
A simple method, known as the method of repeated bisection
in Section 17.
N.
canQbe used, along with theLocation rfleorem, '''c) approximate roots (either,
rational or iTational).
<
This Methodis easy to desbrzbe and i3 simple bb
>"
The arithmetic can Lecome very complicated, however,
frogram on a computer.
v.;
04
(Another, more powerful, method is described
and the method is fairly slow.
in,Section 210.)
COnsider fhe polynomial function
At
0
Since7'f(0):, 1 < 0
and that
x )x
3>
f(1) =
and, 1,
namely
we know (by the Location Theorem)
0,
that there is at least one zero between
"
 1.
and
1.
We take the average of
and find
/
r(7).= 7 + ,  1 > Q.
t
1
Th01,thereisazerobetweellOarld,.We
average again to obtain 74
v.;
,:'
Srnce
r....7
f(;)
1 < 0,
we know that thereis a zero beteen 7 and
1
7r
Averaging these we'get
+ 2
3
. 7
2
and since
.1)
(4)'=
".
we have
1 >0,
and
0 ated a zero between
3
.
For convenience we now use
decimal: n ta ion and average again to obtain
0.25 + 0.375
2
Since
 0.3125
we knoW :that there is a zero between
f(0.33Z) < 0
0.3125
C
41
/
72
00,
1.8
We could continue the process to show (Exercises 18, No. 1) tha,the
zero is between
the zero is
0.31
and
Having done.this we could be certain that
0.35.
correctto one decimal place.
0.34.
Sorpbta_ining zeros of fu9ctions to some prescribed degree of accurac
the method.of repeated tisection is often .sad on high speed computers since
the process is easy to program,
,
Without a computer we try to speed the process by shrewd guessing.
For
example, we might obser1Athat
X' 4 ,X  1
.b
x >
iS DO.Fiti')V for
We could thentest
>
 3x 1 >
0.333,
n.ive
3() I > 0.
(7):)3
,0.332', '8.331,
0.330,
0.329, etc. until ,we
obtain anegative value; and then average to obta.in
_ further accuracy.
7
Does
this really speedy the process?'
.IP
r
S
'
I.
73r
8:3
b
18
Exercises 18
3
+ 3x  1
1.
Show that a zero of
2.
Extend the method of repeated bisection started in this section for the
x )x
lies between
0.3
and
0.4:
function
to locate a zero of
to show that a zero of
3.
Find correct to the nearest
f
4._ (a)
x =ix
 ix  2x
x )x
3...
2x
+ 3x  1
between
0.31
0.5,
0.35;
0.32.
the real zero of
that lies between
and
correct to two decimal places, is
f,
Find, correct to the nearest
f
5.
x gx
apd
0.5, the real zeros of
+ x  J.
(b)
Find the zeros correct to the nearest
(a)
Find a solution of
+ x = 3
0.1.
*.
p.
correct to one decimal place.
Cor Find this solution correct to two decimal places.
6.
Find the real cube root
of.
20
correct to two decimal places by solving
2
the equation
x' = 20.
19.
19.
Degree of Polynomial and Behavior of Graph
Suppose
is the polynomial function
0
,
x ;a
+ a x + a x2 +
1
2
+ anxn,
What kinds of information about the graph of
: expression?
an
0.
can we get easily from this
FOr example, note that
f(0) = ab
so that the constant tern a
0 is the yintercept, that
0
(0,;0).
the yaxis at the point
This observation is, of course, quite,timple.
Shall show that the coefficient
graph of
at
(0,a0).
In the next chapter we
is' the slope of the tangent line to the
The othef coefficients of
ficance .as we try to determine the b.ehalhoi: of
rhe degree Or
the graph crosses
f will also be of signinear the point
(p,a0).
can also give us useful information.
Suppose we wish to knoow how many,times a lie4 given by
g(x) = mx + b
can intersect the grgloh of a polynomial function
f :x_)ax n
+a an
1
a x
n1
+ a x + a0.
0
1
".
...
Figure 19a
...
';;.
7 5
111;?" '"4 f
6, on
"
19
That is, for how many values of
is it possible that
f(x) = g(x)?
other words, we are asking how many roots the equation
f(x)  g(x) = 0
have, or the maximum number.of zeros of the function
x ,anxn + a
too**
n1
xn1+
In
can
111
+ a x2 + (a  m)x + (a  b) .
2
1
0
We assume (without proof here):
if
is a polynomial function of degree
> 0,
then
( 1 )
has at most
Since
zeros.
n 'real zeros.
is of the same degree as
14;
we know that
has at most n real
This means that a line can intersect a polynomial curve no more times
than the degree of the polynomial.
The xaxis is a very special case of a line given by
m
and c
are both zero.
y = mx+ b,
where
Therefore, as a partibular consequence of (1) we
have:
if
f has degree
n >0,
then the graph of
the xaxis no more than
cdn cross
times.
the expression for
of
If
also determines the behavior of
f(x)
far from the origin.
for va
For example, consider the function o.
x 4 1
is far fromIero (that is,
dominates the remain;ng terms.
for
 3x
Ix'
+ 2x2 +
x3.
is large) then the cubic term
x3'
To show this we can rewrite the expression
f(x)
I
/
as
+ x3 = x3 ( 1
 3x +
c5,
4.
'XI _increaseS, the abs lute value of eachlpf
and
he terms
2
,
decreases so that
11
when
Ix!
L+1
x
is very large.
6'1 1/416
is close to
,
19
By_this kind of reasoning, J\ could show that for any polynomial function
f,
the term of highest degree will dominate all
This means that4the sigrrof
from zero.
term,of highest degree for
Ix'
other terms when
isfar
will agree with the sig
f(x)
large, and hence the graph of
of the
wil
above or below the xaxis according as the value of.this term is positive or
negative.
.,1
.
We combine this information with that previously garnered to sketch
the possible graph of
f :x 41  3x 4 2x
f(0) = 1,
We know that
and that the araph of
particular the xaxis, at moss three times.
,
nates when
Ix'
+ x3.
\ ,
is large, so that forA
mustRte far above the xaxis and for
1
.
lies fabelbw the xaxis.
x
,
can cross any line, and in
Furthermore, the ter
,domi.
far to the right the graph of
far to the
left, the graph of
.
In partibu.1,ar, the graph of
xaxis to the left of the origin (since
f(x) < 0
for
mu ' cross the
far
ft and
Some candidates for the graph of t are sketched in Figure 1?b.
if(0) > 0).
Further information is needed to show which graph mightbetan accurate picture of
f.
In the next chapter weistIll develOp thethods for determining the
behavior of graphs of polynomial functions (e.g., locating maximum and minimum
points).
For now we can eliminate five of the six possibilities pictured: We
r
eliminate:(i) and (iv)
because to line shouldobe able to cross the graph
' more than three times;4
(!iii)
because
fl(0)
(ii) and (vi)
because
4k11
must be positive:
mustbegzeater tha
, 77
4
(.5
f(0).
//'
19
( i)
(7i)
.,.
FIgure 17c.
.
40,
Candid8tes for trkg grapti of x :41
.
3x + 2x2 4: x3 .
78 ,
e.
9
I
a
Exercises 19
1. Plotting as few points as possible try to sketch the graph.of
2
, 4x 3
 12x
y = 3x. . +
2.
Plotting as few points as possible try to sketch the graph of
f
3.
+ 5.
"If
5x3
x ) x5 + "x4 
and
g(x) = 0, then
x2 +. 8x  4.
are polynomial functions and
f
and
if and only if
f(x),= 0
are identical.polynbmial functions." Refute
or defend this statemen
4.
Suppose thatthere.are o ly a finite number of selected points shown for
a number of polynomial functions.
graph.
One could only gueat the complete
In each cage indicate the minimum degree that a polynomial func
tion migirthavear:d still be satisfied by these points.
(a)
(f)
4!
"(g)
(b)
OM
(c)
Is
.4
aA
(d).
(
It
.
I
79
:8 9
19
5.
f is a polynomialfun6tc
on of degree
Suppose that
g
(a)
x )f(ax + b),
Is
where
and
b,
.6
e constant,
n
a
and
O.
a polynomial function?Itg. If so what is its degree?
If
not why not ?
.
.
(b4 If
a = 1
If
b = 0
(c)
how ii=The graph of
related to the graph of
f?
how ere the, graphs related?
a.
(d)
Use parts (b) and (c) to indicate'the relationship.between th.
: .
graphs of f
g(x)
.
and
f(a(x : 12))
a
for general., a
and
g(X) = flax
and
Consider
b.
b).
4
tI
;1.
90
Chapter 2')
'
THE DERIVATIVE OF A POLYNOMIAIANCTION
Having discussed polynomial.functions in Chapter 1 we now turn to one
aspect of the calculus of polynomial functions.
The two basic ideas of the
elementary calculus are derivative and integral.
We can appreciate these
ideas intuitively and understaAd their usefulness before we formulate them
precisely.
We begin with the idea of derivative.
, 5
..._.
If we select any point P on the graph of a polynomial. function and,1
draw a line through
with a ruler, it will be possible
direction of the ruler so that very close to
't
choose the
the line s ems to lie^altvpg
...
the graph.
When this is done,
._
if we stay close enough to
P,
'.it will be impossible.to distinguish between the line and the
curve.
We may appropriately refer
to.the straight line which has this
propeKt.y as the best linear approxi
P. The
mation of the graph It
straight line is also said to touch
or....12etangent tothe graph at
P.
In this chapter, we shall be concerte'dir
with the precise determination of the direction Of the tangent line at any
point of a polynomial graph.
te that our use of, the:sword "tangent" here is consistent with its
meanie
in the elementary geometry of circle
but it, is al'S7o more inclusive.
Graph of polynomial functions mdy lie en:tir
on one side or the other of
one of their tangents, as i circles do, but th y
ay also cross their tangents:
es
r
.
The derivative will help us to determine the direction of such tangents, and
,'
also the shape of the curve.

...
7 \
81
10
V t'
A
.4tfr'
.*
21
Once we know how to determine the tangent and the shape of the graph we
shall be in a position to find any points on a polynomial graph at which the
tangent line iS horizontal ,and the graph nearby.isentirely above or entirely
below the tangent.
Such points are called minimUm and maximum points, res.
pectivelY.
max. point
min., point
P
The problem of finding the tangent to a polynomial graph at a point
and the shape of the.graph nearby is particularly simple if the point is on
the yaxis.
As we shall see, in this case the result can be written by
inspection.
At first we shall, therefore, confine ourselves to, this easy
special case, and later turn to the case in which the point is not on the
From these considerations we shall obtain a general' formula for the slope
of the,tangent to the graph of a polynomial function
(x,f(x)).
from
f,
at any point
The general result will be expressed as anew function, de'Aved
sometimes thoughtf of as.the slope function of
function wjiich we call the derivative of the function
f.
f.
It is` this slope
In the final sec
tions of,this chapter we shall apply.these ideas as weCamine the behavior of
polynomial functions and 1; later chapters we shall see that the same basic
concepts can be used to discuss functions other'than polynomial functions.
12 1.
The Tangent at the yIntercept of a Gr4ph
I
. In this section we shall illustrate, the method of obtaining an equation
.
of the tangent to a polynomial graph at its point of intersectio
yaxis.
As indicated in
with the
he introductidh, the tangent we are seeking is
defined here to be the straight line most closely approximating the durve at
a. given point.
f
For a polynomial, t
method corales merely of omitting every tet1TWhose
degree is higherthan,on
*'
.02
'82
4
21
Example 21a
of
The tangent
yaxis 17 .P7(0,1),.
to
it
("4;
x  lx
4
h:1,4
intt,r;;.ct, the
tne ,:quation
y14x
obtained ty omitting the se' ond degree :ern::
4r
is easy to draw
from its equation.
Figure

of
is Che gra
41
4
x 
y's= 1 + x
is the.'graph of
4r
Moreover, since the omitted term
lies below T
except,
exc
is negative for all values of
1.x
at
.)
P .
'
v.
I.; ,.
".'itreIlse
2 .*.
Ellample 21
The graph` G
If we
p(O,2).
it the
,,
the tangent
T . through
x2
term and write
) 2 t
'
y = 2
x1
'
'.;:i .;:,,
fie' equa4i.on of
wecip.:!,,,1"1,...
P. ' Inthis, case the tangent is, p'4
st1.4": y7,axis+cat :,
f..
to' the xaxis..

1
;,,,,
Since
7i
is positive for all
q_ .,
..
Because
except zero, all pints *,,
T.
is the lowet point on
(See Figure 2 lb.) .)
.,s.
I
0.... .,:f
4.
G,
'4
it is called the
..
9,
milimum. point.;
,
.83
1:%:,,
,4\4:
,,,,74'
,.
of the .graph.
1:%except
,..
lie above the tangent_ line
1
x.
.0
,
ti
Figure 21b.
G
The graph of
Ample21c.
74
is the graph of f : 42 + x2 ,
is the graph of y = 2
x3iintersects the yaxis
at Q,0). T,heequation.
y=x
of the tangent at
.is obtained 'Cy
omitting the x3 term. Since x3 is
positive for positive x and negative
for negative 5i,
is above T if
P
'x > 0 and below T if x < 0. (See
Figur. 21c.) he graph G therefore
rouses from one 'side of the tangent
,o the other: P is called a point of
_inflection of the graph G.
Figure 2 le
T
1% the graph of f : x 4 x
is the graph erf y =, x
+ x5
pictures for Exainples 2 la., by and ce seem to indicate that the procedure of omitting, every tbrm whose degree is higher than one does indeed
,
prodre the iequatibn of ple tangent o a polynomial graph at Its yintercept.
T explaip 4hy,
retuzn to Exe,mple 21a. We obtained the equation
The
y/= 1 + 5: of the tangtht to the graph of
c
I.
.1*
21
1)
x 74l+x4x
at 4(0,1)
by omittif.g the term
4x
We wish to justify this procedure by
showing that the.'1,,lhe obtained does represent the best linear approximation
to the graph.at the,poiit
This will entitle us to call
P.
equation of the tangent to,the,graph at
y = 1 + x
the
P. 7
From (1) we have
t
f(x) = 1 + x  4x2,
which may be written a's
p
f(x) = 1 + (1 16)x.
(2)
If
to
1.
making
is numerically small, the expression
In fact, we can make
x
1  4x
lie between
and
in parentheses is close
lie as close to
as we please by
numerically small.
'Specifically, if we wish
.01
1  4x
.99
.01,
and, 1.01,
1 4x to be within
it will be sufficient to make
and therefore to make
lie between
f and hence to
of
.01
4x
.0035
lie'beiqween
and
.0025.
'ThiAesult has a simple geometrical interpretation (see Figure 2fa).
Let us consider,three lines
L, L1,
and
L2
through .P(0,1)
With slopes
1,41 + .01
and
1 .01.
These lines have the equations
L
y = 1 + x
L .,y =
1/1101x.
L2; Y
1 4...99x
1'
L,
L
L2
L2
n .0025
.0025
A
iyare 21d
t
85
I
2=1'
.4,Pleir slopes are so nearly 'egual that the differences ca
Figure 2ld only by distorting the scale.
e shown on
Let, AB' be the interval
.6025 < x < .0025. .dn this interval AB, the graph of
1.4s
between
and
L2
1': x 3 1 + (1 
The numbers chosen were merely ilrustrative;
,0
They were
. degigned to give
a certain concreteness to the picture. We can make 1 .
1 + c
and I  c for 'an arbitrarily small value of c,
between
r
e
and
c
,;
We did not need to chodse
4x
..
Geometnically this means that if we keep values o
of
lies betwee
X '1 + (1  4x)x:,
f):
merely by. choosing
clo e enoughto
zero the graph
lie between
c = .01.
"
'''.
4x)x
and, hgnpe,,in the 11itchedregion.
two lines.
y = 1 + (1 + c)x
L
y = 1 + (1
c)x
which differ in direction as little as we please..
which is always included between gucp. lines Li
L
Hence, tie see that
to f:x4 1 +x 4x
..1
1
at x=.0.'"
We can confine thegraph
and L2,is
y = 1 + x.
can indeed be regarded
The 0111pstraight line
of
gt
as
the best linear approximation
1 + x  4x
of the hatched region in filsre 21d isy noting thet.
at the point
Hence, on the interval AB;
P.
to the right of
and between
and
to a smaller part
,d lies below. %except
lies between
to the left of SP.
L and
L2
(See Figure
9
21
Exercises 21
1. For each of the following
.
(i)
(ii)
write the equation or the tangent tothe graph of the
function at the poiktk of intersection of the graph of
the function with the yaxis;
the ) angent line and sketch the shape of the graph
thaw
hear its yintercept.
(a)
x>1 
(b)
4  x2
3x  2x2
(c)
(f)
(g)
 x3 .
(h)
1 + 2x + x
(1)
x5
1
x.
x3
"Po
(c1)
)1+x+
(e)
2.
(a)
3 + 2x +
x4
(j). x
x3
x4
For If x
+ x + x2 'show that if .01 < x < .01, then
.
1. 4 .99xe.:4(x) < 1 + 1.01x;
:
(b)' Strengthen ths, result of part (a) by showing that
(i). 1 + x <f(4) <1+ 1.01x, for
(ii) 1 j x < f(x) < 1 + 99x, for
x >.Q,
x
'
<f0.
Show the imploved results on a diagram.
(c)
,
Show that the results of pant (a) can be obtainers more simply by
noticinq,that except at=the 3t intercept, the graph
f x
+ x + x2 must lig above the graph of y = 1 + x.
:
3.
In Example 2lp we could write f
(a)
as
Sa
(1 + x 2 ,)x. .
Show that
(i)
x < f(x) < 1.01x,
, (ii) Lax < f(x) < x,
(b)
+ x3
for 0 < x
.1
_.for 0 > x > .1
Draw a figure to illustr;tte the geometrical meaning of the results
Ort
h,( a) arid (b)..
87
A
_
th.,2 function
4%,*
'
(a)
At what point does the
)f the functt3n ,ro"."o the
axis?
f?50'
show tat if
Ixr..< .01,
x ) 2.99
3.01
and that
:etween
lie
fex)
3.01x
and
(c)
Paw a figure to illustrate the' gsom,trical meaning.
noticing that the graph of the
jtrAgthen ;he re alt of :,mte'r 4
function lies :Pio', the graph .?f the ,traig;nt.lin
made in tne figure assopiat'el
c.,hat.dditional refinement
ith
N.mcer 4?.
Consider the function
f': x
x  1 
+ (2
x < .01,, then the graph of
snow that if '0
lies between the
ltnes who,e equations'are
= 1 =2.01x
and
= 1  1.99x.
/
(t)
/
to show'the geometrical interpretation of this result.
D.aw a figuf
'''t
7,
Consider the function ',f.: x )3  5x  4x
(a)
F.::r
lies near the point
If it is desired that, near
the hra4ht lihes
value's may
''
determine the s/oltes of.the lines between_
.02 < x < .02
which the graph'of
.(b)
,
(0,3).
(0,3) ttie graph of
y = 3  4:998x
apd
lies between '
y = 3  5.002x, *what .I.
assume?
'I
8.
If.
is a polynomial function of degree 'higher than '2,
quadratic (or parabolic) approximation to
found by omitting every term whose degree
they bes
near its Yintercept
is higher than two.
Thus, the
quadi:atic approximaticrn to'
is
x, )1  x + x2
2x3,

x + x2.
(aT
On' the sam.. set Of axes draw the graphs
of
and its 'best linear
and bestlquadratic approximations near the yintercept of
(b)
If
compute
**"
f.
f(x)  g(X).
r
(c)
If
(d) 'As
g =,0.01, eompute
f(x)  g(x).
f(x)  g(x)
x approaches zero, what value,. if any, does
x2
approaoh?
9.
`.
is found by o
roximation to a polynomial functi6n att,its y intercept
The best cubic a
(a)
Determine the best, linear, quadratic, and cubic apPAqoximationeto
f
(1;)
t ng ,e,i)ery term whose degree is higher than three.
Graph
x
f
near
4;
2x
 x
near its yintercept
e(0,2).
13(0,2), makingA of the' informatibri you can
glean from its best linear, quadratic, and 'cubic approximations
near there.
(C.), Let
i(x)
graph of
value,
be the value of the best cubic approximation to the
near its yintereept.
f(x)  g(x)
if any, does,
As
approach?
x3
.89
99,
approaches zero, what
3
Y.
2 2
22.' The Behavior of the Graph Near an Arbitrary POint
In Section 21 we restricted our attention to the behavior of the graph of
Noll We shall generkiza ourdis
a polynomial funct,io;nnear its ynintercept.
.
mission to include,the behavidr If the
rgraph
of such a function near any point.
In Section 21 the behavior near the,point for which
the point for which ,x =,a,
'for
f(x)
say, can be determined if we have an ex&essidn
4
x  a.
in ascending powers.of
Totiegin we consider 4 specific function,
 10x + 4x
Writing
f(x)
f.: x
at a
 10X + 4x2
'
a = 1.
articular point, where
Example 22a.
The behavior near
in ascending powers of x.
a:10
from,the expression for
was determined
x = 0
Determine the behavior of the graph of the function
a
P(1,3).
near the point
powers of
le find
(x  1)
A
4,
f(x) = 3  2(x1) + 4(x. 1)2.i
(1)
.
,
shall see how to derive such'an expansion for
(Soon
f(x),. but for the
,g moment merely check that
*
3  2(x  1) + 4(x =;1)2 = 3
+ 4x2  8x + 4 = 9, 10x + 4x2 . f(x)
2x +
41
as desfred.)
A
translating the graph of the,function
right. .(See Section 13.)
X = 1
f' may be inteqleted as the result of
In this form (1) the firaph of
 2x + 4x
one unit to
Hence, the behavior of the graph of
is identically the same as the behaVior of the graph of
near
near
x = 0.
0 .1
Figure 22a
ti
22
.
Since the'tangegt to
to
x2 >
Since
y = 3 2 2(x 
k3 1 ?x + 4x
except at the point_of tangency
(x  1)2 > 0
 1) + 4(x 1)2
the tangent
\:
the graph or
y = 3  2x,
In the same.manner, .since
x = Os .given by a = 3  2x,
fo1Call x/ 0,
above its tangent line
at
f at .x =1 is given by
xi
for all
lies
Q(0,3).7
',theegraph of
lies above its tangenty = 3  2(x % 1)
except at the point of tangenoY
o
The foregoing discussion a sumes that since or = 3.7 2x is:the equation
of the tangent to gat x
y = 3  2(x  1),
then the equation of the translated line,
will reire ent the tangent to
at
x ='1.
lating the graph of
we can verify that.the line given by
is the tangent to the graph of
At ,x = 1,
'Without trans
y = 3 + 2(x  i)
in filch the same way that wet/
0
,V'ried out the argument in Section 21 for tangents at the y,intercept.
Writing (1) in a factored form
f(x) = 3 + [2 + 4(x  1)1(x
we note that if'x is near enough to
small, the expifssion
words, for any
e,
however small,
that is ff
1,
(2 + 4(x  1))
1),
Ix
sufficiently
is arbitrarily close t.
2.
In other
lies between
f(x)
3 + (2 + e) (x  t)
and
3 +
provided that
3  2(x' 1)
Iii(x %. 1)1 < e,
2  g)(x
1)
that,is, that
<
Ix
is the best linear approximation to
T'is thetangent to the graph
at the point
`Hence
near
(x)
x = 1 And
It should be noted
P 1,3)..
that we have followed the same procedures as before with
x  1
in place of
x.
4
Thus, to describe the behavior of the gr ph of a function'
A
f.: x 4 13
+ blx + b2?c2 +
only express
f(x)
c
bnxn
4 c
(x  a)
(x 
4: c
we need
tion (See...Exerciees 8 and 9, Se.ctio
,x = a
x= c.
is then :y = co + ci(x  a),
The best quadratic approxima
21) is given by
x = a,
+ c (x 
'the equation of the tangent to
y = c
,s'
e po;nt where
in the form
The test linear approximation, to
near
+ c (x  a). + c
'a)2,
1
2(x
d so Non.
IN
91'4.'
101.
22
(x
Now consider the problem of expanding a giVen function in power's of
+ c (x a) + c 2 (x  .
a) for some a. We want f(i)
.9
ri
Note that upon dividing ,f(x)' by (x  a) the q'uotient is
+ cn(x
40/
+,,cn(x .8)n.11 and the remainder is c0. Hence, to
 a) +
'find the first coefficient c0 of the desired expansion we divide f(x) by
 a) and record the remainder. Similarly, to find c1 we divide the
0
votient.
[c 1
+ c2(x
[el +
,
by
agaih.
a)
(x
c2(x
...
a) + c3(x  a)2
The remainder will tie
cn(x  lei)n11
at\if
the (second) quotient k.41.11
[c2 + c3(x .a) + + c n(x  a)4 2 1.
Continuing in this manner, we can find the coefficient
.
.
fx  a) in the, expansion of f(x).
,
\ Is i
. for eacti power of
\L
For example, to expand f(x) 4 4  3x 1 2x2 in powers of (x  1)
dividei 'f(x) by (x  1). By synthetic division we have \
2 3,
we
4
2 1,
7:717
I.
indicating that
,(2)
f(x) = 3 + (2x  1](x  1)%
Now we divid
the quotient (2x  i)
I
(x  1)
py
win:
'1
t.
2
.
.which.taillsus',that (2x  1) = 1 + 2.(x
k
1)'.
Stkbstituting in (2) we have'
..:?
' or
.7
f(x) = 3 + (1. + 2(x  1)](x  i)
F. 2(x  1)2.
f(x) = 3 + .1(x 
Note that the coefficients '3, 1, *Id
are precisely the remainders under
repeated division:by (x n 1) .
r(
1,0 2
92
22
o
/t
If
(.
f(x) were .15n exprgssion of higher degree, the process would ,be con
tinued.
We simply divide each Successive quotient by
remaind4r, until
f(x)
'
(x  1)
and record thq,
iscampletely expressed in powers' of
(x  .1).
4"74.
Example 2 2b,
f :
Determine the behavior of the grath of
2 :4 3x + x2  x3 'near the point at which x = 2.
'
11'
 We need to expand
f(x)
in powers of
x  2;
that is, tntfind the
, ..
coefficients in
f(x) ="c
As before, if, f(x)
x. 2,
is.divided by
(x  2)
.
ci. + c2(x  2) + c3(x  2)
the remainder is
further, division of
the final quotient
2)V+
+ c (x  2) + c (x 
the quotient it
..
co
.+ c
a2.}
(x  2),
x  2
by
3.
and
this quotient is divided,by
and the new quotient is
+ c (x  2)
the remainder is
2
.
d5 (x  2)3.
gives the remainder
A
.
c'
, 2
and
We proceed to carryout tIese divisions synthetically.
c3.
Dividing by
x  2
1
+1
+3
+2
2
2
+2
1,
We obtain ;the first remainder
co = 4
and the quotient
= x2  x + 1.
Dividing this quotient by
x  2
1
1
12
+1
2 6
1
gives the remainder
this quotient by
the remainder
obtained:
5
c1 = 5 . and the new quo'tient
x  2,'
c2 = 5
the expansion of
3
f(x)
co = 4, cl =
x  3.' Finally, diyiding
we ha'
and the quotient
in powers of
.62 = 5;
1.
x  2
The buccessive coefficients in
are the successive remainders
the final quotient. c3 =
can write
f(x)
= 4  5()c  2)  5(x  2)2
93
03
1(x  2)3.
Thus we
2,r2
Near the point where
we conclude that:,
x q 2,
s'
,,(1)
(2)
the value of the function is
the equation of the best linear approximatiori.to the graph
of
5;
(3)
4;
is
y = 4  5(x  2),
thus the direction (slope) is
and
the equation of the besd quadratic(parabolic) approximation
to the graph of,
is
" .2
y = 4  5(x  2) '5(x  2)
thus
the graph lies below the tangent on'bcith sides of the point
under'consideration.
4't
104
94.
2 2
MO.
Exercises 22
1.
For each orthe' following express
(a)
(b)
'f(x)
in powers of the given facto'r.
f(x)
(x  2).
5x:
f(x) = x3 '7x2 + 3x + 4)
2.
?x  2)
(4)
(c)
f(x) = 3x3  5x .+ 2x + 1,
(d)
f(x) IL, x3  2x2 + x 1,
(x + 1)
4
1
2.
(x +.
For each of the following function's write the expansion of
powers of
of
(a)
(b)
f.
(a;f4a)):
x 4 3 + 4x 4 2x2 + x3,.
x 4 3 + 2x3 + 4x2,
a = 2.
a ; 3
di
(c)
in
and determine the equation of the tangent to the graph
x  a
at 11e point
f(x)
x 4 4x3
3x2 + 2x + 1,
a =
AIP
14
t
(d)
,f
x 4
5x4
3x2
.
3.
.
(e)
(f)
f :
.x 4
4x3. + x2 + 3x,
x 4 2x3 + x2
a = 3
 16x  24,
a . 2
For eacli 'of the following write the' equation of the tahgent at the"
t
/
nearby.
specifilnd point and sketch the shape of the
4
(a)
x 4 4 + 3x 
(b)
x 4 3C3
(c)
x 4 3x4. 4x3
.(d)
7x2 4x3
at
(2,:110)
tt 1
at
(3,109
at
(1,1)
at
(2,1)
_60XF
t 420 
40
 5t + 9
3x2  12x
14, at
(e)
2x3
(f)
s 4
2s3, 6s2 + 6s  1
(a)
f(x)' = x3  3x
(1;1)
cs
4.
at
q.
(1,1)
fn terms of asbending powers of
h
(b).
Write inequalities to show the relative values of
(x  2)2,
and
(X  '2)3: near the point where
instance consider' x = 1.9 or
y = f(1) = x3  3x
2.
(x 7 2) ,
x = 2.
(For
x = 2.1.)
write the value of _y
when
x = 2.
(c)
If
(d)
Write the equation of the best linear approximation to the graph
f
x )y = x3  3x
near the point wh:te
4.
05
x = 2.
00
22
(e)
What is the direction (slope) of the (tangent to thy) graph of
x )x 3  3x
near the point where
x = 2?
(x)
Write the equation of the best quadratic approximation to the graph
of f
x 4y = x 3  3x near the point where x = 2.
(g)
What is 'the coefficient of
represents the graph of
Near the point where
(h)
(i)
x = 2
.3x
is the graph of
Compare the behavio?.of the graph of
+ x
and
3x
near the
x 4x 3  3x,
in terms of X a.
x  a.
x *x3  3x
at its yintercept.
Beginning withthe simple statement
x'
x 4x3  3x
with the behavior, of the graph of
x 42,+ 9x+ 6x
Again consider the fundtlon, f
near the point where
Why?
(b)
flexcl (concave) upward or downward?
point where. x = 2
(a)
in the parabola which best
x *x
x = a + (x  a),
Write
x3  3x
express,
in powers.'Of
Make a table to indicate three successive synthetic divi;iolls of
6
x3
3x
and resultingquotients by
x  a.
(c) 'Use your table from part (p) to write
(di)
x3
in powers of
3,t
Write inequalities to show thexelattonships between
/(x  a)2,
/and
4x3
(x  a)3
when
in .close to
(x  a
a.
(e)
If
(f)
What is the, linear function that best approximates the graph of
f.
at
 3x,
find the value of
at
a.
a?
(g)' What is the dillectionlope) of the (tangent to the) graph of
)
(h)
 a.
near the .pint where
Foi what .values of
x .= a?
does a tangent to the 'graph of
ft have
zero elope?
46).
(i)
At what points is the tangent to Ae graph of
(J)
What is the quadratic function that best approximates the graph of '
f
(k)
near the point
hor,izontel.
(a,f(a))?
What is the Coefflicipnt of
in the best Paraboric representation
to the graph orf near the point .(a,f(a))?
1.0 (i 96
22
(i)
For each of the points found in part (i) determine Whether the
(parabolic approximation to the) graph of
f is flexeA (concave)
downward on upward.
(m)
Decide which of the points found in part () is a relative maximum
and which is A relative minimum.
(n)
If the coefficient of the
the graph of
x2
in the parabola which best represents
near some point
is neither positive nor
(a,t(a))
negative, then the, graph is neither flexed, upward for downward at
that point.
(We refer to such a point as a point of ,,inflection.)
At what pant on the greagh of
x )x 3
3x
does this
phenomenon occur?
(o)
Use information acquired in other parts of this problem to quickly
sketchlthe'graph of
;x3 
I.
3x.
23
The 'Slope as Limit of Difference Quotients
23.
To find the equation of the tangent line to the graph of a polynomial
function
at the point
we expressed
(a,f(a))
in terms of powers of
1., Thus, we wrote
andalkhen omitted the terms of degree larger than
x  a,
the function
+ bnxn
x + b 2x2 +
as
f: x
+ c1(x  a) w`c'2 (x
+ c.riCx
to obtain the equation of the tangent line
As
y = c
4
+ c (x  a)
1
4"...
to the graph of
at the point
(a,f(a)).
)l''
We now.describe an alternative procedure.for
Tinding the slope
.
,.
Wa tangent line.,
.
..
Let
P(a,f(a)),
be a .point on the graph of
N.../
nearby point on the same graph.
and, let
See Figure 23EoWhere
P..
'"
of
',W.4.,
.
.'
Figure 23a
'103
98
Q(x,f(x))' *be a
is to the right of
23
i
:*
\The line that joins
ands, Q
f(X) .f(a)
X . a
" .
'
has the slope
Consider what happens to this',"difference quotient" if we chobse
graphcloser' ynd closer to
P.'
,
......
. Figure 2 3b shows intuitivelythat the slope of therseeant
,
,approaching the slope of the tangent
PT.
PQ
is
'.4.
.
,
on the
A '
,Q
kk.
Figure'23b
TO take a speeific,,example, let
and let P
be the pant
A
2
4x
(0,1).:zThen
?2)
=_X.
c
99 109
4
23
The slope of
PQ
is
x  4X2
f(x)'  f(a)
4,
P x
Since
0,
we aey divide and obtain the result
sloPe(PQ) = f(x)
f(a)  1  4x.
x  a
x > 0
If
of
is greater than
PQ
To take
4'
PQ
the slope of
means to take ,x
',take 4x closer to zero; and
1  4x
differ from
x <0 the slope
and if
1,
1;
closer to
is. less than
closer to/zero, and henge to
1  4x . closer to
In fact, wecan mike.
1.
le by as small amount as we p/eake by choosing
lx)
imall enough.
In ft; if x.<
where
then
isa positive 5umber no matter how small,
r'..4,
1  4x >1  vp = 1
:.,
e.
,Pthen
Siniilarly, if .x
1  4x < 1  4( i)
.Since the slopt of
PQ
+ e.
1 4x we_conclude
is
1  e < slope(PQ) < 1 + e
,
provided that
.,'
e

<x
'
<
that is, if
e
11c I < V
'.
II
.......
For smaller and' smaller choices of e (> 0) the slope of the secant PQ
.
is thus brought arhitrarily close to 1. We have'learned to describe this by
saying that slope of' PQ approaches
ss x
approaches
In this example
Olt
we shall call the number
approaches
or as
the limit, of slope of PS as
In Figure 23b the line 1Yr
0.
slope is the tangent to the graph at the point
approaches
P,
with this lithiting
P.
Gen4alizgliffrom this example, we introduce at definition.
The slope of the tangent to the graph af
is the limit of
f(x)  f(a)
x
.x
Thoaches
at the point
P(a,f(a))
.745',*10410"16'
as
a.
100
110
23
I
A ,convenient abbreviation for this phrase is
 f(a)
slim ,f(ix)
x  a
x
a
to be read "the limit, as
approaches,
of
a,1
f(x)  f(a)
divided .by
a."
We illustrate this 'definition by using. the same function
,
f :x41+x 4X
but a different
'
pc:dr
on its graph.
,P(1',2)
Then
f.
Let
be the ppint
(x,r(x)):
f(x)  (1)
 1
.slope(P
(1 + x
4x2)  (2)
x  1
3 + x  Itx2
1
4x2
 ,x
x
(x` 1)(4x
= (4x
Now
lim
x
(11x
+ 3) = 7'
3)
[since
x A 1]
which is the elope of the tangent to the graph at
'
We, illustrate the use of our definition_ with two further examples.
I
ii
Example 25a.. Fird the elope of the tangent to the. graph
'';
of
2x  x3
at the point P(a,f(a)). The slope of the line through P(a,f(a))
'QCx,f(x)), x
a,
and
is given by the , diiference quotient
f(x)  f(a)
(2x
is)
x  a
2(x  a)  (x3
ax  a
X= _a
 a3),
.
+ax +e ),
'
a3)
.(2a 
x
6
101
 1 1 it
'"
..r
/.
4
a .
ti
23
As
'approaches
the difference quotient approaches
2 
, 2
+ as + aa2)) = 2  3a
2
.
We conclude that
2, 3a
= slope of tangent to the graph of
at
P(a,f(a)).
..,
'
Example La. Find the slope of the tangent to
f
at the point
1  2x + x
 3x
a
P(a,f(a)).
The desi;ed slope Val be the limit of the difference quotient
f(x)  f(a)
x  a
Using the expression:for
f(x)
as
2

3x
,x a
,74.
a.
Ire'have,
 2x + x
f(a)
approaches
 a
= 2(x
x  a
 k1  2a + a21 x  a
:3E;14:)
14:
+
:
x  a
a )
3(x x  a
2
2
i,= 2 + (x + a)  3(x3 + ax + a x + a3
As x, approaches
a,
x + a
and
4
73(x3 +
approaches
2a
2"
a.x + a3)
approaches
3(a3 + aa
3
+ a2a + a3) = 12a3
so that
i
0
tif(x)  f
x  a
approaches
+ 2a  12a ,' the desired slope.
No
4. I
102
23
"
'f
Exerdises.,2.3
1. For each o
rte the
the following functiona,, assuie, 'that
1
difference quotient
,t
'f(x)  f(a)
a.
in simplest form.
f:
(a),
) x
7
(b)  f
(c) , f
(d)d
x > x
For each of the functions in Number 1 evaluate the limit
2.
of the difference quotient
3.
approaches
..
Find,the slope otthe tangent to, the graph of each of the funCtions in
4.
Number 1 at the point
5.
(0,0).
Write the equation of the tangent line to, the graph' of each of the P
ftinctiong in Number 1 at the point
'
(a,f(a)).
a.
I.
.
......
or each of the following functions, assume that
x / a
and write the,
i ference quotient
r( x)  f (x)
1(a)
implest form.
Find the slope of the. tangent to the graph of each of the 'functions in
Number 1:at the point _'(a,f(a))...
r(x).
4s
f : x ) mx + b
k(b
f :
x =)Ax
A :
x ritx
,c)
2
+ Bx 4 C
3
+ Bx
'
+ Cx + D
Or each of the functions in,Number 6 evaluate the limit as
7.
6 the difference quotient
8.
r(x).
ind the s1ope of the tangent to the graph
jle point
9. Mud
pdint
of
(it)
each function in
umber 6,
.(a,i(a)). c'
the slope of the tthgeirt te,the graph of
(a
apprOaches
x )20x  3x
at the
.
V.+
103
A.;
;4,
23
IL;
10
Consider the function
(a)
Evaluate
lim
f :
f(z )
z
z ; x
o
approaches
(b)
Evaluate
x,
litn
x ) 1 
f (x)
x

x3:
i.e., determine thel limit as
.:
of the difference quotient
i(i) !Ii..
f ( X )
z  x
f(x + h)  f(x)
h ) 0
kc)
What is the sl ope of the tangent to the graph
4
oftWat
the point
(x,f(x))?
11.
Consider the function
f
(a)' Find the limit as
x
x
1 + x  !ix
appropches
of the difference quotient
f(x)  f(a)
x  a
.$
(b), What is the slope of the tangent to the graph of
at the point
(f(a))?
(c)' Find the limit as h approatches zero OF
ence quotient
,
.
'f(X" +
(d) 'What is the slope of the tangent to the graph of
at the point
(x,f(x))?
1 ,.1,4b4
 f(x)
24
The Derivative
24.
Consider the function
ti
L 2
(11
x ,1 + x  4X
..
nr
the previous section we showed that the tangent line to the 'graph of
(a,f(a))
The slope of the tangent to the graph of
has slope;' 1, 8a.
(x,f(x)1
the point
isiven by
at
at
(See No. 10(c), Exerciadt 23.)
1  8x.
ti
The function/
,
x 141.  8x
(2)'
is sometimes called the slope function for
value .1  8x
at a point
the graph of
known as the derivative
of
since its
The function (2) is more commonly
(x,f(x)).
f
: x ,1 + x  4x
gives the slope of the tangent line to
(x,f(x))
at the pint
and usually denoted by
f'.
Thus the deriva
tive 'of
2
1 + x  4x
is the function
1 
f :.x
f,(4. at a point
The value
graph of
at
is the slope of the tangent to the
(x,f(x))
For brevity, we will often refer to this value
(x,t(x)).
as. simply the slope of the/graph of
ft(x)
at (x,f(x)).
Our purpose in this section and the next is to Ob'taina formula for the
derivative
function
f'
(that is, the slope function) of an arbitrary polynomial 41
f. ,In the previous section we defined the slope of (the tangent
to) the graph of
at the point
(3)
(a,f(a))
f'(a) =
f(x)  f(a)
lim
x
to be
x  a
a
An alternate form will be more convenient here.
place of
in (3), and.substitute
f'(x) =
x'
lim
(x+) 2x
If we write
in place of
a,
(x + h)
in
(S) becomes
f(x + h)  f(x)
(x
h)
which .simplifies to'
1*
oo
The name is reserved for this very special function, in spite of the
fact that there are many, functions which could be, derived in other ways from.
.
a particular function under consideration.
('
21p
f(x
'fqX)
/4
f(x)
h)
h,
f(x + hh ).  f(x)
Note that
PQ,' where P
(x + h.
ca d
still be interpreted as the slope of a secant
..
f(x + h)),
and
(tft(x))
has coordinates
has coordinates
(See' Figure '24a .)
Figure 24a
TZ is
It is clear from Figure 24a that the slope of
h) " ffx1
f(x
h
As in thelast section we define the slope' of the tangent to,be the limit of

this differerice quotient as Q ,approaches
P,
that is, in terms of the new
s.
expression (4), as
and calling
f'
We are denoting this limit by
h approaches zero.
the derivativi of
f.
piyeAsthe_function_f
find
f'(x),
_x
3x2 2x+ 1,
and the slope of (the tangent to) the graph of
use (4) to
f
at the point
(2,9).
J
f(x +
h) = 3(x +h)2  2(x + h) + 1
2
2
= 3x + 6:th + 3h  2x  2b + 1
f(x) = 3x?  2x + 1
f(x + h)  f(x) = 6xh + 3h2  2h
f(x + h)  f(x)
lim
h
0
f(x + h)  f(x)
h
The slope of the tangent at
1
(2,9)
f' (x)
6x + 3h  2
6x  2 =''x)'.'.
'f
Is
f' (2) = 6
2  2 = 12  2 = 10.
.
2.4
Example 24b.
Tofind the equation of the tangehtto the graph of
J
x )x3
at
(1,1).
 x3
+
ft (x)\
h *to
(x + h)3 = x3% 3x2h + 3xh2 +h3.
0
Hence
+ ;03. + x3 = 3x2h +' 3xh2 + h 3
,
(x +
x3
3x2 + 3xh + h2,
and
fqx) = 3x2
The required tangent hsis die equation
y = f(1) + f.(1)(X  1)
= 1 + 3(x  1)
or
y = 3x  2.
This solutionhas the advantage that it enablei utto obtain tangents
at other points with little extra work.
the slope
f'(2) = 3 .22 = 12.
.1
107
Thus at
(2,8),
the tangent has
214
Exercises 24
Consider the function
1.
(fi)
1im
Find'
from part (a)...
f'(3)
Firid
 1.
f(x + h)  f(g)
11, .0
(b)'
2
4x
..
Find
(c)
as
f' (3)
lim
h 4 0
and also
f(3 + hh)
f(3)
using auccessively.
h = .1; .01, .001.
..
Use the definition
.4;(x) =
to find
(b)
f(x) =.3x2 + 14
(c)
f(X).= 2x2  x +
If
ax
lim
h 4 0
f(x + h)  f(x)
h
fpr each of the following:
f'(x)
f(x).= x2  x + 1_
a)
where
+ bx + c
a, b, and. c
are constants, show 'that
2ax + b.
f': x
14.
h = .1, ..01, ..001,
.
3.
'
Construct a table of values for
(d)
h)  f(j)
h.
1:
2.
f(3
v.,
Use, the definition
f'
(X) =
to fl.nd' the
"f(x) = x3 + x
(b)
f(x) = x3; 3x
(c)
2
f(x) = 2x3.+ x
f(x)
'each`ok tkie following:
deiivitive
(a)
h)
li'm
41e
6x +
5.
If
f(x) = ax3 + bx 2 + cx
6.
If
f:
(a)' f'(a)
(b)
f1(0).
(c)
fl
(2) :
2x "
xr2
d,
show that fqx) = 3ax
,evaluate
+ 2bx + c.
'
24
7.
If
find the slope of the tangent'to the graph of
x 4 I + 2x  x ,
f :
at, each of the following points.
(0
(a,f(a))
(b),
(df(0))
(c)
(1,f(1))
(d)
(e) (710,efl0)).
.
If
(a)
x3  2x + 1,
find all
such that
f'(x) =
(x) =.22
(b)
tc.
9.
(c)
f'lx) = 0
(d)
ft(x) .F
Determine each of the following.
Oi
,6x
X,N404.`)4
(c)
(TheWrbol/"px,"
 a
in
(x + h)6
lim
:::
(10.)
x6
v.
What is the slope function of
I z.,(c)
It
is merely another name for the quantity
x  a
(b)
x."
x5 lim z5z  x
Z )X
(d)
10.
reid "delta )7."
often stands for "change in
lim
(b)
x3
(x + Ax),
DX
lim
.4
`.
What is the derivative of
3.
: x 4 X ?
4
: x 4x ?
What is the slope of (the tangent to) the graph of
at the point
x 4 x5
(x,f(x))?
"
11.
What
is
fr
if
Find
(a)
(b)
(c)" f
4
ff(x)
(X +
if
x 4 x6?
1)2
x 4x(3x + 1)2
:
Ant
(x2 + 2x)(3x  1)
(vria*'
J
0,7
The Oinph of
slope of th& graph of
and
C.
25
25.
Derivatives of General Polynomial Functions'
IneExercives 3 and 5, Section 244 you were asked to.show that if
2
4 bx + c
x %ax
f': x e2ax + b,
g
x + ax
+ bx
14
3ax
g': x
.,then
+ cx + d
+ 2bx + c
Such general,expressions allow us tb write derivatives of specific quadratic
and cubic functions by inspection.
For example, toobtain the derivative of
the function
'
x t
5x3
7x2  i1x + 13
".
.
we merely obserye that this,. is the above cubic polynomial .with
c:. 11
aAa' d = 13,
ti(x)
. 7,
so we know ihmediately that
9 3(5x2)
4:?(7x). t (11)i'=
15*2
14x  11. .
These exa7led, and othet'exercises in SectiOri 24, suggest the following
general.expressions for derivatives of polynomial functions:
The monomial
sQ
f
(1)
x t bxn
has the derivative
x + nbxn1
f'
Thepolynomial
f
ro
4 170
b x + b x2
1
2
n1
xr11 + bnxri
(2)
has the derivative
ft:
2b2x + 3b x
+ (n1)b
n1
3
;,4(
n2
m1
+ nb x
n
2'
ecause derivatives are calculated as 'limits otdifference quotients, tHe
ocess of obtaining the derivative of'a function is called differentiation.
Observe, that (2) states..that the'derivative of
general .nth
degree
polynomial can be obtained by differentiating each term in the sum, according
.44
J2 5
to (1). We are claiming t 'hatthe derivative of such a sum of terms is simply
;the sum of the derivatives of the terms.
writing the expakions f6r
Formulas (1) and (2) can both be derived
f(x +
 .f(x) using the Binomial Theorem, and taking the lirt as h
by
approaches zero. We shall derive (1) 'this way. Fortunately, however; we can
deduce (2) from (1) wirout a long algebraic argument by first justifying the
claim we made above, namely,that the derivative of a sum of functions Is the
sum of theii' derivatives.
To show
(i),
let f'
bxn.
Then according to the Binoinial 'Theorem,
f(x + 11) = b(x +
brxn +flxnlh +n(n  1),xn2h2+n(,n 2T) (,3 2)
f(x + h)  f(x) = 'tinxte 1 h + n(n  1)
(3)
+ hn1
and
 Pi

f(x +`4h 
1)(n)th 1 +ri(n
.
01
Note that every term in (3) except the first term, bnxn10,, contarns II at
(
zero1 all the terms in (3)
pr
least once as a eactor. Hence, as h approaches
w,
of
.except
bnxn1
..
t;
also approach zero. We conclude that .lim f(x ,;I h)h  f(x)
h > 0
,
and therefore, that the derivative"of f
unxn1
u
is
x + bxn
f':.x
n1
bnx
Now to see that (2) follows' from this rasa t we must fiiSt see why the
general property of derivatives mentioned above holds true . Suppose 's is
l
a function whose v alue s(x) eQuals fcx), 4 gx), wnere f anti' g , Eire'
functions of t x. (For exatnple, if ,f; x > 5x and :13.1 x 4 13x7, , then
s : x 5x + 13x 7.) Re may calculate the derivative.. of .s in general
5...
'directly frozethe definition, as follows:
,
lira
h)  s(x)
s(x
h 40
h
s (x + ,h) = (x + h)+ g(X
s(x) = f(x) + g(x)
and
so
A
112
122
*40
o
...
P,
s(x) = 1:(x + h)  f(x)+ g(x
h)c
g(x)
'Therefore
ax
s(x + h)  z(x)
h)  f(x)
in the
lizni as
g(x + h)'  g(x)
h 7aproaches zero, it can be sh3041.4that (4) becomes
'
carthed.:
The argument could easily be extended to sums, of three, four, or any
numbqr of functions. 'Hence, we'see that we can differentiate the general
polynomial function
5
n
b0 + b x + b x2 +
.f : x
+, briX
2
term by term since it can be thought of as the sum of
From (1) we conclude that
f'(x)
(n d 1)
functions.
A
1
+ a; x
Translation and the .Derivative
3b x2
...
4; nb'xnl'
Nowlet, us consider what happens to our differentiation formulas if we
.
replace x by
x 7 a.
To be concrete.we considet the function
x 42x
 8x +
whose derivative is
f'
x 4
4x 4 8.
Let
be the function
2
g : x 42(x  a)  8(x  a)
a
that is,
+ 9,
40*
If a = 6,
g(x) = f(x,  a).
translating `the graph of
*t4
graph Of
six units to the left.
.313
.123
g. iS obtained by
(See Figure 45a.)
25
..
I,
.41
.
Y:
I,
,...,.4:
i
i
...
,,
St
Nlv
I
%
I.
%./
07
""?
Figure 25a
46
g : x
If
= 7,
becomes
X 4 2x
g : x
8x + 9
+
(2x + 6)2 =
2( X
of
obtained by translating the graph
Figure '25b.)
6) 4 9
8(x  7) + 9
7)2
4
4
and its graph is
seven units to the right.
(See
4
;
Figure 25b
f:x
g
: X 4
2x?
+9
3.
2(x 
7)2
1114
8(x  7) +.9.,
,
,4044111
1425
Now under atranslation a line is carried into a parallel line, and thence, the
.
slope of a tangent to a graph is unaffected by ranslation.
 a), /that is, the graph of 'g
1Pting the_graph of
(x,g(x))
gs"
point
g
f,
(x  a ,Ox  a)).
at
(10,3)
is exactly the same as the
,slope of the graph of f: x '2x2  8x + 9
254 since
is the image of
Tu
g, at the point
at tile corresponding
For example, the slope of the graph of
7)2  8(x  7) + 9
is the result of trans:
then the slopeQtthagi"aph of
is the same as the sinperof thegiaih 9f
(See section 12.)
at
(3,3),
ander a translation
as shown in Figure
7 Units to the
right. 
a"
Figure 25c
...._
Since the slope of the,graph of a function is giv'en by its derivative, we have
concluded that
if
(5)
.X ,t4f(x  a),
This conclusion en
rather easily.
then
gr() = f'(x  a),I
les us to differentiate, 'g
For the function
f
2x
o.
 8x
o +
we find the derivative'
f': x 44x 8
and replaci
by x  a
to obtain
4(x  a)  .8.
115
125
in the above example
25
Pt
we have
For example; if Aa = 6,
g : x ) 2(x' + 6)2  8(x + 6) + 9
and
.
'13': x > 4(x + 6)  8 . 4x + 16.
',.
11
.
.
We can also justify conclusion (5) algebraically using difference quo.
tient'g.
.,..
We know that
f'(x) = slim
(6)
Replacing
by
x  a
in (6) we obtain
g(x) = f(x  a)
 f(x .a)
f(x  a +
lim
f'(x. a) =
Nov/ if
f(x + h)  f(x)
h
we can rewrte,this as
f'(x a) =
+ h)
limb
lim
h
g(x)
g'(x).
and the righthand expression is simply the defiriition of
Hence,
fqx  a) = g'(x).
In general then,
The polyriial function
g:x4c0+c 1(x  a)
02
c 2(x
+ c
has the derivative
g': x
t
Example 25a,.
find the derivative
(2j9)
a)2
+ 2c (x  a) + 3c (x
2
3
Given the, function
f'
+ nc (x 
con=1
x,
3x2  2x + 1,
and the slope of the graph of
use} (2) to
at the point
Using (2), we obtain
The slopeof the graph of
f': f 1(2)(3x)  (1)(2) = 6x  2;
f
at
(2,9)
is
f'(2) = 10.
10.
.Example 25b.
5
Given
. the tangent line to the graph of
Sind
of
is
f(1) = 7,
 3x
+ x  6,
find the equation of
at the point where
f.
the tangent passes throper
'
x = 1.
The derivative
(1,7).
4.
A 45x4 6x + 1 '
f'
so'that the slope of the tangent at
line'at. (1,7)
(1,7)
f1(1) s 0.
is
the tangent
Thes
is Horizontal and has the equation
Y = 7.
Note how74Ch easier it is.to find the equation of this tangent by using
the derivative formula (2) to, obtain its slope at
themethod of expreglang
Exam 1
y =
25c,
x + 1
.4x3
f(x)
in powers of
x  1
x = 2,
rather than using,
as we did in Section 22.
Finethe equation of.the tangent to the graph of
(2,45).
at the point
It is common to denote the expression for the derivative by
y',
so that
(2) gives
yt = 12x
's
 7
the'slope ofthe tangent at the point
(2'45)
we, replace
To find
(x,y).
This is the slope of the taftgent to the graph at any point
by
to
obtain
12
 7 = 55.
The equationof.the tangent line is
y = 45  55(x
Example 25d.
For f
x )x
2).
 3x
and
gi(1)
4
'We have
:
X 4 3x2
so that
.
x 4
 2)2  6(x  2)
12 7
x if(x
find
and hence
gl(1) = 3(1
2)2
 6(1 
J'
Example 2 ..21.
Suppose
t.ngent to the graph of
f : x t(x + 1)10.
We could use the binomial theorem to expand
differentiate.
(x + 1),1
However, it is easier.to use (7) which gives
,
tfe
10(x + 1)9
so that
1
the equation of the
at the point 4 ,102hid
1024).
P(1) =
10 x 29 = 5120.
Hence, the desired tangent has the equation
y = 1024 + 5120(x  1).
1161
28
ands then
25
Exercises
1 (a)
Find
f'
if
(b)
Find
g'
if
(c)
Compare.
2 (a)
(b)
f'
x2
.4
2:2
2)0+ 1, using (2).
x (x + 1)2 using
(7).
and
Find the deriVaiive of each of the following functions.
(1)
(ii)
g 1: x
2(X + 6)2
" 8(x 4,6) + 9
(iii)
g2: x ) 2(x . 7)2
 8(x. ; 7) + 9
: x ) 2x
 8x + 9
Find the slope of the tangent to the graph of each of the functiOns
in part (a) at the point: indicated:
(c)
(i)
f 'It
(ii)
g1
at
(3,g1(3));
(iii)
g2
at
(10, g2(10)).
(3,f(3));
Show that the tangentssto the graphs of
f, g1, and g2
at the
points indicated in part (b) are parallel lines.
(d)
Indicate the function obtained by shifting the graph of each of the
functions in, part (a) as prescribed:
the graph of
the graph of
g1
the graph of
g2 nine units to the left.
two units to'the left;
four units to the right;
(a)) Find the derivatives of each of the following functions.
(i)
F : 2c) x3 43x
(ii)
(iii)
(b)
x ) (x
2)2 +
p2) + 2
1)3  3(x + 1)2 + 2
(0)
(ii)
ft(0)
(iii)
gt (0)
What is the equation of the tangent to 'the graph of' each of the
functions
F, f,
and
at the yaxis?
11129
4
.9(x
Evaluate:
(i)
(c)
+ 6(x
x 4 (x  2)'
2=5'''
and
F, f,
(d)
Compare the functions
(a)
7nd the derivative of
g.
F.
(0 Determine
if
f'
x )x
+ 6x
+ 12x + 8.
f : x > (x + 2) 3.
(x + 2 + h)3 .(x + 2)3
lam
Evaluate
(c)
. h )0
,4
(d)
Evaluate
F*(1).
(e)
Evaluate
ft(1).
(f)
Evaluate
lim
14,
(x +
2)3 
(1 + 2)3
x + 1
x,> 1
Consider the. function
5.
1)10.,
(x +
(a)
Find
(b)
Evaluate *f(0)
(c)
What is' the equatioh of the tangent to the graph of
ft.
tt(0).
and
at the
yaxis?
ft(1).
and
(d)
Evaluate
(e)
Find the equation of the tangent tothe'graph of
,where
f(1)
at the point
x = 1.
and '.ft(2)._
(f)
Evaluate
(g)
Write the equation of the tangent to the graph of
f( 2)
at the point
x = 2.
where
6. %Consider the function
x ;(x  2)15.'
1
f.
(a)
Find the derivative of
(b)
Evaluate' ft(1), ft(2),'
(c)
Find the equation of'the tangent to the graph of
and
f!,t(3).
(4 ,32768).
at.the point
.D
t
f
: x )3(x + 2)2.
(a)
Find
(b)
Whatis the derivative of
(c)
Compare
(d)
For
(e)
Determine the derivative of
f'
if
f with g,
:
x >3x2 .7+ 12x + 12?
with
and ,f*
x 70(3x + 6)2 find
g'.
F'.
G : x.>9(x + 2)2.
,
P.
.
(f)
Compare F wi
G,
and
F'
with G'.
'11
120
130
8.
Find
f,1
cif
2
(b)
X )
x3
"
"nt",
(Note:
from 1
+.57..
x9
x4 + x
2
x ) 1 +
3* x 4
+
x7
31.)
(c)
x
+.
read
8
x
is the product of all the integers
"11, faCtorial,"
through the positive integer
= 1 .2 .3
...
n.
.(n  1) .n.,
11Z.
For example,
9.
(a)
Find two points where the slope of the grAeph of
k
(b)
10.
5: = 1 .2 .3 .4 .5 = 120.)
x ,2x3
9x2  60x + 5
What dOes the graph of
is zero.
look like at these two points?
Consider the functions
3
x )x
3x
+ 1
x.
2
6
(a)
Find the. associated slope futIctio(!
(b)
Evaluate
(c)
It each case write an equation of the ]tine tangent to the graph of
and
fl(1)
f'
and
g2.
e(1).
the function at the point where
11.
x7
x = 1.
(d)
What is the relationshipof these tangent lines to one'ano;theri.
(a).
Using
7
x = (x  a) + a
and the Binomial Theorem express
x'
.)
in.
bt
x  a.
pok.;ers of
(b)
Using part (a) determine
(c)
Evaluate
lira
(d)
Determine
(10
x 7  a7
x  a
for
'
x / a.
x7  a
X  a
7
xfbr
& / 0..
(See No. 9, Exercises 24.)
2=5
(e)
As
increases by an amount
(x + 6x)7
'"change in
&c,
the change in
x7.
This quantity is often labeled
y."
Determine
is
representing.
"4,,"
OP.
ti
r
s.
(This limit is, of course, the derivative of
symbolized by
y'
or
y = xer ,
'
and is often
3Y. .1
dx
,)
)
FI
122
182
26
Applichtions of the Derivative to Qraphing
26.
*The derivative, f'
of a polynomial function f
,
very "Afful for
f. In particular, the sign of
, obtaining information'about the graph of
f' (x)
will enable us to determine exactly the int,ervari over which the graph
of
is rising
or
falling and to locate precisely the high and low points
44
of 'the zraph.
To be specific, consider the functionf
. .
2x
12xi. 2.
3x.
Its derivativeig' given by
2
f': x 7)6x . 6x  12.
The value
point
f'(x)
(x,f(x)).
can be interpreted as the. sioPe
of
the graph o.f
In factored forin
f' (x) = 6(x 1 1)(x  2),
'4
from which it fpllows that
ft(x).>` 0
for
x < 1,
f'(x) = 0
for
x =
p(x)
ft (xi
and
0 for
= 0
f'(x) > 0
1 < x < 2,
for:"
x = 2
for
x > 2.
See Figure 26a for the zraph of .f :
2x
3x
 12x + 2,
together with
these facts.
,
123
133
2 6
i',(x)<o4.4.1(x)
f'(x) > 0
fl(L1)
p
.
fr
(2 18)
Figure 2 6a
0
,,
The graph, of
.
Note that as
3
f : x 42x
 3x
..
 12x + 2.
....
increases, the graph of
rises over the intervals 4n
f'(x) >0 and falls over theIntervals in Which
which
f1(x) < 0.
Tat; is
41.
as we might expect from our experiencesAfith pOsitive and negative slopes or
lines.
We now show, for any function
f,
increases through
a.
is rising as
that if
124
134
f'(a) > 0,
the graph of: f
Figure 26b
:By definition,
f'(a)
lim
h 4 0
Hence, if
f'(a) > 0,
f(a + h)  ffa)
h
then
f(a h)*  f(a)
life
> O.
40
This limit can not be greater than zero unless
* h)  f(a)
h
(1)
for 6.bfficienty small values of
Suppose we take
enough so that (1) holds. *Then multiplying by
positive and small
ip (1) we have
f(sy h)  f(fa) >0
or
(2)
f(a +
> f(a),.
This inequality (2) hays simply that the graph of
right of
a.
rises immeditptely to the
(Sea Figure'26c.)'
,.
125
135
26
1A
a + h
Figure 26c
f(a + h) > f(a)
for
h sufficiently small and positive'.
Similarly,. if we take
negative in (1), then o4m1tiplication by
h, (1)
becomes""
f(a + h)
Or
 f(a),< p
f(a + h) < f(a),
which says that the graph of
falls away immediately to the left of
L
(See Figure 26d0*
a.
iy
f
co,
f(a)
f(a + h)
a + h q.k a
..
Figure 268
f(a + h) < f(a)
for
h
sufficiently small'and native.
126
1 .8 6
26
I
We 'have shown the following.'
If
then
fl(a),..> 0,
f(x) :increases at the. point
and the graph of
(a,f(a)),
increases through the value
rises as
x e a.
NI'S A completely analogous argument.may be carried out for the case in which
ft(a) < 0.
We merely state the result.
If
then
ti(a) < 0,
'
f(x)
decreases at the point
(a,f(a)),
and the graph of ,f
increases through the value
falls as
x = a.
A simple but impbYtant corollary of (3) '4nd (4) is the following.
The graph of
(5)
only if
is horizontal at the point
(a,f(a))
f'(a) =10.
For if the graph is horizontal at
(a,f(a)1,
ing noX decreasing at
1'1(0:
x = a,
qc
then
f(x)
is neither increas
can neither be greater than zero,
according to (3), nor less than zero, according to (4).
Hence,
f'(a),
must
be equal to .zero.
f : x )2x 3 , 3x
Returning.to the function
 12x + 2
we note that we
could ha4e predicted its intervals of increase and decrease without having
seen the graph in Figure 26;.
the to
of the poZt
Furthermore, we could have pinpointed exactly
(1,9)
where the graph of this particular function
ceases'to rise and,begins to fall (as
c lled a relati
,poin
ban all the,values of
similarly calle
The point
interval about
is increasing).
maximum of the'function
ow
f
nearby.
The point
a, relative minimum.
(a,f(a))
a
maximum of
is a.relativekInfaximum if and only if
,
(i)
.(ii).
,
(iii)
f'(a) .= 0
i.,(x) > 0
for
x < a
fl(x) < 0
ftir
x > a, and close to
and 'close to
..
12
is
f..4Xi es for x < a, and falls for x > a.
.
(iV(a))1
(2,18)
'
at that
f, if and only if in some
Ixpother,,w,ords,
e)Ipoint
./
is ellela&A,
the graph 'of
Such a point is
because the value of
,01F14.r;4..
a.
The point
val about
(a,f(a))
is a relative minimum if aid only if ,in some inter
the graph of
falls for
x < a
and rises for
x > a.
In
other words,
oint
the point
(a,f(a))
is a relative minimum if and only if
(i)
f' (a') = 0
(ii)=
f'(x) < 0
for' x < a
and close, to
(iii)
f'(x) > 0
for
4 > a
and close to
a.
.
A final word about notation:
in discussing the intervals over which a
function is increasing or decreasing, it As convenient to .use the symbol
[a,b]
to represent the closed interval from
points
and
That is,l[a,b]
V.
[a,b]
(a,b),
whglech excludes the endpoints
derivative
suchthat. a < x < b.
of
f'
x 42x
 3x2
less than zero on tie open'interval
[ 1,2]
and
such.that
a <x < b.
from the open interval, denoted
That is, the interval
b.
(a,b)
Note, for example, that the
 12x + 2
(=1,2)
including the end
b,
is the set of all
Often it is necessary to distinguish
is the set of all
to
in Figure 26a,is strictly
while in the closed, interval
this is ndt so':
Example 26a.
Determine the relative maximum and minimum as well as
intervals of increase and decrease for f i x 41+ x  x2  x 3 .
We have
,
"r,
j,ft
x 4 1  2x  3x
= (3x  1) (x +.14)
The graph of
1
x = 5
has a horizontal tangent when
and when
x = 1.
Examination of the signs of these factors,leads to the conclusions:
0
Qr.
Thus,
_044 f' (x) < 0
if
x < 1
f'(x) >'O
if
1 < x < 1
f'(x) < 0
if
x >
decreases if
x < 1
or if ,x >
and increase's when
between 1
and
1
.
In particular
f(1) = 0
is a'r'Aative minimum
and
f(4
3
.32
is a relative maximum.
27,
128
1 32,
is
,
26
This information ehables us to give a quick sketch of the graph of
shown.in Figure 26e.
f,
Of course, further accuracy'is obtained by plotting
`,more taints, but Such quick sketches are often all we need to have.
falling
27),
J, 31,
a relative maximum'
rising
(1,0)
2
a relative
minimum
4,
falling
Figure 26e
400
x  x2
X )1
Example 26b. *The zeros of the derivative do not always lead to relative
maxima and minima of a function. 'Consider the function:.
x3.
3x
Its derivative is
f t
whigh has the zero
x = 0
of multiplicity
has a horizontal tAitent at
(0,0)
2.
The graph of
In this ease
s'
ft(x)
f
if
f,
therefore,
but thispointisnot a high point or a
crosses its tangent
Such a point is called ajpoint of inflection:
(0,0).
that is,
2,
In fact, the graph of
'low point on the graph of ,f.
at
x < 0
or if
x > 0;
is increasing on either side of the origin.
1.29
(See Figure 2 6f.,)
26
r.
=x3
increasing
graph crosses its
tangent (which is
the xaxis) at
this point
increasin
Figure'26f
This
example serves to remind us that to determine the relative maxima
f
and Minima, we locate the critical points (that is,the zeros of
test the sign of f*
ft) and
on each side of a critical point to determine if that
point is a relative maximum, minimum, or point of inflection.
Example 26c.
Graph
+ 4x  13x2
18x3
9x4
first by
plotting points from the table below Figure, 26g,andconnecting them with a
smooth curve, then by finding the critical points and intervals of increase
and decrease.
1,
X30140
4.1
(.
(3,.304)
Figure 26g
'Plotting points for
f : x ) 44 + 4x  13x
.
from the table
'
"f(x)
2
'1
304
0
44
18xr 
9x
44
304
We have plotted st,few points and connected them with a smooth curve in
Figure 26g (using a compressed vertical scale for negative values of
f).
The graph suggests the possibility of a relative maximum point between X0,44)
and
The derivative of,
(1,44).
f'
is
x a4  26x +54x2
We suspect that f'(x) will be zero somewhex'e in the interval
1
a
indeed gives
Testing x =
0 < x < 1.
= 0'
so that
factor of ft(
.
f'
Upon, factoring
2
 2 3ox
A
131
x 
+ 36x  8).,
141
we obtain
26
We can factor further to obtain
f
*<.,
36(x  P(x  i)(x "f)
Note that there are three critical poiRts between
(0,44)1i and .(1,441.
The product of three factors, will be positive if and only if all three factors
are positive, or exactly one is positive.
fl(x) > 0
Therefore,
1
<
if
f'(x) < 0
if
f'(x) >0 if
f'
< x < 1
(x) <
<x <
x >
if
2
3
We conclude that
f
is increasing for
, t
x <
and for
< x <
while
f
is decreasing for
< x <
and for
x >
2
3
In summary we can say that the graph of
(1
3 '
then falls to the point
i(1))
(1,r(2)),
(i, 4).
and falls beyond
f(3)) = 44
'
and
9i(1) = 44
i is
f orises until it reaches
rises again to
(2
f(2))
In particular we know that
2
t,
f(3 ) = 44 7 are relative maxima, while
Y
a relative minimum.
We conclude that Figure 26g correctly indicates the increase for
x.< 0
and, the decrease for a > J.,
0 <'x < 1.
but is incorrect for the interval
A more accurate representation of
in Figure 26h.
on this interval is sketched
132
,1 42 i/
26
4.
I.
3
FiguYe 26h
f:
x "4 44 + 4x  13x2
+ 18x3.
 9x4 for 0 < x < 1.
tr
133/
26
Exercises 21,6
1.
Make a careful sketch on the interval
graph of the fuection'f
[0,1]
x 41 + x  x
2,
(i.e., 0 < x < 1).
 x
of the
given in Example 26a.
Does the graph confirm the conclusions of the text?
2.
For each of the following functions locate and characterize all extrema
(maxima, and minima).
On what intervals is the function increasing?
decreasing?
3.
(q
(b)
4.
4oc3
Prove that, for
is, let
8x2
14:x4
f : x 14x2
01,
is an increasing function.
(That
xl > x2 > 0 and show that
xk > x22 .)
Employing information gathered by procedures suggested in the text,
sketch the graph of each or the following polynomial functions over the
interval indicated using convenient scales.
(a). f : x 4x3  3x + 1,
2 < x < 2
f.a x 4x3 + 3x + 1,
1 < x < 1
(b)
(c)
5.
(a)
'f
: x 4x4  4x3
8x2 + 6:,
2 < x'.< 5
Describe the behavior of the graph of
(Maxima?
(b)
Minima?
12x
Intervals of increase, de
Sketch the graph'of
f : x 42x3
3x.2
 3x
on
[ 1,27.
eRse
op J1,
6.
(a)
Describe the behavior of the graph,of f
(b)
Sketch the graph of
x 435E4 f 8x3
on
.O 3
+ ox
on J1,31.
[ 1,3].
p.
7.
Determine the maximum ialuk of the function
f : x
k=
8.
8
2
x
.
le.
What is'the greatest possible number of points where the tangent to the
graph of a quadratic function
x 4Ax
+ tx + C
may be horizontal?
26
9.
Consider the function
f
(a)
(b)
Find
x 4 Ax
+ Bx
f'.
What is the maximum number of zeros thet
can have?
How many relative extrema (maxima and minima) can
(d)
If the graph of
If
f have?
has a relative maximuth point, must it have a,
Explain or give. examples.
X
(e)
f'(xl) = fqx2) = 0,
determine
x2
1
2
Consider the functions
and
.t(a)
(b)
11.
f'
(c)
relative minimum point?
10.
A / 0.
+ Cx + D,
x 4(x + 1)3(x t 2)
x 4(x + 1)2(4x + 7)'
How are the functions related?
Sketch the graphs of
Suppose that
onthe same set of axes.
are zeros of
and. x
and
x 4Ax
+ Bx + C,
tts
A > 0. r
Show that
has a minimum at
x
x1 ,
x 0
12.
Determine the relative maximum and minimum points of the graph of ,
f
N/43x
 12x
12x
 4.
2 7
27.
Optimization Problems
The post office limitsthe size of a parcel post'package by requiring
that its length plus, its girth, may not exceed
72
inches.
Is there a package, subject to such a restriction, which has greater volume:
than all other such packages?
If so, what are its dimensions?
In this form,'the Problem is hard to hpdle.
Suppose we simplify it try
asking ifthere is a (rectangular) package with a squai'e'crosssection which
has maximum volume subject to postal regulations.' If we let
x represent &,
the width in inches of the square crosssection,,then the girth of the package is hoi: inches and its length is it most 72  4x iriches, accor4ing40
the post office.
4
4'
,e
V.;
14 4
t,
2 7
Hence, the volUme in cubic inches of the package is at most
V =x
'(72:.4x).
This f4rmulg. defines a polynomial function
(1)
V : x 472x2 '4x3,
and we wish to, find its Maximum value.
do not restrict
as
if
x:
Note that
x < 0, V(x)
x.'becOmes negatively infinite.
[0,18]
has no maximum if .we
Hqwever, this causes no difficulty because
we are Interested only in values of 'x
thiinterval
V(x)
is positive and gets arbitrarily large
between
and
because only in
18,
are all the dimensions of the parcel post package sen
sible positive lengths.
Hence, our idealized model of the probletris:
Finthe maximum value of the function
for
in
V : x $72x2  4x3
[0,18].
The desired maximum may occur at one of the end points of the closed interval
01
1.0,1uJ,
fr
if for example, the sxaph_of
V looked 'like one of the curves shown
in Figure 27a.
18
Max. in
x = 0.
Max. in
18
[0,18]
at
x = 18.
Figure 27a
,
'However, if the maximum value
V(x)
occurs between the enaioints. of the
interval
[0,18],
.,J
i.e., for some
the remarks in Section
x = a
..6 Show that
in the open interval
V'(a) = 0.
be higher points immediately to the right 6, 'a,
If
V'(a) > 0,
and if
would be higher points4iffiediately to.thp lerLof _a.
(0;18),
then
there
ould
V'(a) < 0, th
27.
Thus the maximum volume for our parcel post Package occurs where
x = 0
or where
V'(x) = 0,
or
x = 18.
or x = i2.\'
V'(x) = 12x(12  x) =0 then ,x = 0
If
The possible maximum volumes aie therefore
V(0) = 74292  4(0) 3 = 0
V(12) = 72(12)2 r 4(12)3 = 3,456
'
V(18) = 72(18)2  4(18)3= 0.
Clearly,
is the largest of these andby the above ymarks.it must be
V(12)
the relati e maximum of
on the,ifterval
[0,181.' Hence, the dimensim ns
of the most) vOluminous parCel of this sort acceptable tro the post office are
width = ?C inches = 12 inches,
height = x inched = 12 inches,
length = 72  4x inches = 24 inches,
and its volume is
3,456
cubic inches'.
The folj.owing examples do not begin to indicate the wide range of
possible applications of the methO used above.
v.
.4
Example 27a.
A man proposes'to make an open box by cutting a square
from each corner of a piece of cardboard
ups the sides.
12
inches square and then, turning
Find the dimenSions of each,square he must cut'in order to
obtain a box with maximiim volume.
Let the side of the squarjbe cut out be
box will, be
11"
12  2x
the volume V
inches.
The base of the
inches on each aide and the depth will be
in cubic inches will be
V = (12  2x)(12  2x)(x)
= 144x  48x
+ 4x
Figure 27b'
138
'148
inches.
2 7
We suppose that
0 < x < 6,
for otherwise
V will be negative.
Our problem
is to maximize
subject to the condition
x 4144x  48x
0 < x < 6.
+ 4x
The derivative is
TMe
ft
tgo the ,zeros of
x 4144  96x + 12x2 = 12(6  x)(2  x)
are
f'
We know that this maximum must occur at one,
2, 6.
of the points
c = 0,
= 2,
or
c = 6.
We find that
f(0) ..4f(6) = 0
lnrgedt iialue of
and
so that
f(2) '> 6,
on the'Uterval
'f
0 < x < 6.
With a
from each corner, the box will have dimensions
8 x 8 x 2.
f(2) = 8 x 8 x 2 = 128,
128
Example 27b.
the maximum volume is
must be the
f(2)
2
inch square_cut
Since
cubic inches.
We wish to plant one square and one circular flower bed,
surrounding them with *15
yards of fencing.
What shodld be. the dimensions
of the two' fences so as to contain flower beds of greatest posbible area?
Let ,s be the side of the square bed and
bed.
the radius of the circular
Denott the suns of the areas of th,p two beds by, A.
(2)
A = s
Then
2
+ mir
and
454 2vr = 15.
( 3 )
'
S
Figure 27c
Solving (3) for
and substitUting this into (2) gives, our. area in terms of
the circular radius
r:
A
sit
/12_121EN2.1. gr2
/
= (14q)r2 
r +
Akt
139,
149
27
We can suppose that
< r<
3
_
the endpoints of this interval corresponding to the respective situations of
Thus we seek to maximize the function
no circular bed and no square bed.
6'
2
f
over the interval
+ /4vN 2
Iv
Eir
o <.r < 12
2v
The derivative is.
15v
+ 4v)r
'
2.
Solving
r +
gives
f'(
15
r 
+8
Hence, ,f must hive its maximum value on the interval
1.2
0 < f <
amt one
of the points
1
0, c 
We examine the values of
or
+5
2o
for each of these values of
277
f(0)
c:
14.06
e.
f(2g9 8) 7 7.88.
1)
*.
and
4
f(224t)
sz
We see that the maximum' value of
2
f
...;(v
+ /4v)r2
lin
15
subject to the restrict Ion
r <
2v
is attained at the right endpoint g
Our conclusion is that the problei has no solution in the terms posed; a
square and a round flower bed together will never encompass as great an area
as a single round bed Whose perimeter equals the total length available,
,
S
1401
150
t;
27
44,
Similar problems requiring the minimization of a functiog over an inter,
val often occur, and can be solved similarly.
If
is a polynomial function
defined on some interval
x =' a, x = b,
the minimum value
',[a,b1,
or where, f,' (x) = 0.
To ,justify this claim gyre need only ob
serve that if the minimum occurs at'f x = c, a < c < b,
there are lo wer points immediately tp theleft of
then if
and if
c,
there are lower points immediately to the right of
Example 27c.
occurs either'at
f(x)
f'(c) > 0
f'(c) < 0
c.
What shouldbeithe dimensions Of theqrlower beds in
Example 27b so that the leastpossible area is encompassed?
f
Following the analysis of Example 27b, we wish to minimize the function
,.
v2
+ '4% N r2
(4ir
over the interval
where
f'(r) = 0.
221.
r +
16
:'.
[0 4].
f(r)
is minimum either at
r = 0,r ,..
12
or
an
In Example 27b we fOtand that
if and only if
15
+ 8
Hence, the possible minimum values for
.
f'(r) = 0
are
f(0) v. 14.06
15
f (2v + 8 )1. 7.88
f(12i)
Wesee that the minimum value or
= 17.90
.
occurs when
15
Hence, the
combination square and circular garden surrounded by
has the least area when the circle hits radius
the square has side
s =
15 yards of fencing
5
r =
= 1.05 yards and
2v + 8.
.(15  2vr) 74 2.10
yards.
I
Example 27d.
the point
Find the point on the graph of y=irk 2
that is nearest
A(3,0).
Recall that the distance between
(xl,y1)
2,
0,2
 x2)
(x2a2)
and
(Y1
Y2)
is
*a.
27
A(3,0t
The distance from
to a point
P(x,x, )
on the.graph of
y = x
is
thus given by
AP = J(x  3)2
Our prdblem is to choose
(x2)2.
is least.
so that this distance AP
(x x
minimum dibtance
.
A(3,0)
Figure 27d
This expression for the distance AP
is not a polynomial so our tjchni
Note, however,, that
ques cannot be directly applied.
(AP)2 = (X  3)24 (x2)2
=9  6x
'Which is a polynomial expression.
x4
Furthermore, if
least, then AP will also be least.
f
4,x2
is such that
Thus wq,,aeed only choose
9  6x
x2
(AP)2
is
x so that
x4
has its least,value.
The derivative of f
is
C
ft
The factor
4x
t4 6 +
4.. 4x + 6
2x713
= (x  1)(4x2 +14x + 6).
is always positive, since we can complete the
,square to 'obtain
4x2 + 4x+ 6 = 4x2,4 4x 421 + 6 4
.tr
Nx +
152';
+ 5 > 5.
27
(x) < 0 if x < 1 and f ' ( x) > 0 if x > 1. Therefore, by the
(x)
remarks in Section 26 weJAnow that, f has a relative minimum at x = 1.
Hence, the point (1,1) is the point bf the'graph y = x.
which is sest
to A(3,0).
Thus,
Exercises LI
ti
1. Consider the funct).on
+ 4x3  12x2 :1 5. ,
Determine the behavior and sketch the graph of f.
2. Find the pxtrema (maxima and pinima) of the funcL tion
if :07x 44x5  5x4  40x3 + 100
14e
'
on the 'interval 3 < x < 4. Sketh the graph of f .
.
3.:. A ball is throwen upward so that its height
above the earth, where
s =96t
seconds
later is
S'
feet
16t2.
What is the maximum height the ball will reach?
t
,
4. Shdw that of 'all the, rectangles having a given
'perimeter _p,
, .
square alas the largest area.
,
V.
5. Sketch the graph of the function
f
over the inte'r`val
(0,181,
.
,
L.
x 4Ix
4n72x
.
indicatingy/extrema.
t.
...
6: A Tectangutlarbox with square base and open top is to be made from a..0 ft. square piece' of cardboard. What is the maximum volume of such
.
'a box?
,
7.
,
tie
"
field is. to be , adjacent to a river and is to have fencing
..
on three sides, the 'V.de'on the river reqUiring nO' fencing. If 100
yards of fencing isavailable, find thelimerisions of the field with
)
largest area'.
,
4
A
rectangular
8. The sum of two positive. numbers is
.
N. 1.......termine the'
. numbers so_ that
thert, product of one and the square of the other will be a
..
.7
maximum.
9. A wire24 inches long is cut in two; and then one part is bent into .thex shape of a circle acrd the other, into. the,shape of ,s3 square. aw
should it be cut if the sum of the area is to be a minimum?
1143
...
.
'153
27
Given the requirements of Number 9, determine how the wire should be cut
10.
if the
surN
the areas is to be a maximum.
A fpurft. wire is to be cut into two pieces:
one piece to become the
*Perimeter of a square, the other the circlamference of a circle: Determine
hot it should4be cut to enclose.
minimum area;
(a)
ti
114
.maximum area:
(b)
feet which
12. 'Determine the dimensions of the rectangle with perimeter' 72
will enclosethe maximum area.
eight. of the right circular cylinder of greatest
Determinetheradius and
13.
ight circular cone with radius
'volume that can be inscrib
height
and
h.
A man has
14.
yds. of fencing which he is going to use
600
enclose a
reanguler fieldand then subdivide the field into twodots with a
3,1
What are the dimensions of such a fieldiif
fence parallel to one side.
theencloseddarea is to be a maximum?
An open box isto be made by cutting ouysquares fromthe corners of a
rectangular piece of cardboard anetheeturning up the s
pipe of cardboard is
12"
what are the dim hsions of the bpx
24",
by
If the
of largastvolume madeein this way?
,
16.
A rectangle has two of its vertices on the xaxis and the other two above,
ithe.axiston the graph of the parabola,
x2.
What are the
sions of such a rectangle if its area is to be a max.imum?
'
./e
17.
A stone wall
1Q0
Pail or all of it is to
yards long'stands on a ranch.
,4
'
be used in forming a rectangular corral,, using ay Viditional
260
yards
Find the maximum area which can
of fencing for the other threepsides
ge so enclosed.
Find the point on the graph,of the equation
18.
to the point
(2,1).
y2 . 4x
Find the dimensions of the right circular cyiinder of maximum volume
19.
'
inscYibddin a sphere ofradius
A
.a).
which is nearest
10
inches.
a,.
What number most exceeds its square?
154
.4,44
I
/'
...
21.
Suppose that the babe of the parcel post package mentioned in the text
is taken to be stilare.
1
Ad
Find.the package of this shape which has maximum volume subject to the
postal restriction,that the sum of its length andgirth may not exceed
72 inches.
,
22.
A rectangle has two of its vertices on the xaxis and the other two
above the axis,on the parabola
y = 6  x
2
.
What are the dimensions{ of
such a rectangle if its area is to be a maximum?
23. A rectangular sheet of galvanized metal' ip bent to form the sides and
bottom of a trough so,that the cross section has this
t,
If the metal is
14
shape: U
inches wide iloweep must the trough be to carry
the most water'?
24. A rectangular sheet of iplvanized metal is to be made into a trough by.
i
nnd ing it SQ that the cross section has a ' 1
shape.
If `the metal
is
10
L___1
inches wide, how deep must the trough be,to carry the most water? 0
'44144
25.
Pro/0 that with a fixed perimeter
P the rectangle which has, a maximum
area is a square.
26: Determine' the area of the largest rectangle that
can be inscribed fn the;
,region bounded by the graphs of y 2 = 8x and x =_4.
27.
Showthat there is=no
to the point 11,01i that
onthe ellipse given by
1
(3
4y
closer
'28., Find the alti,tudelif the
one ofMaximum volume that can be inscribed
,.,
a ..sphere,Of r,idiuS" r.
145
1,5 5
7'
in t
(
29.
A rectangular pasture,with lie side bounded by a straight river, is
fenced on the remaining three sides.
If the length of the fence is
400 yards, find the dimensions of the pasture with maximum area.
30.
A farmer plans to enclose two chicken yards, next to his barn with fencing,
Find
Ihs shown.
(a)
the maximum area he can
enclose with
feet of
120
Barn
fence;
(b)
the maximum area he can
Chicken Yards
enclose if the dividing
fence is parallel to the
barn.
In the follqwing problems (Nos. 3135) meaningful replacements for the
variables are obviously restrieted to'positive integers, but we must consider
the functions to be continuous in order to apply the techniquts of this
chapter.
31.
10,000
A printer will print
thousand.
'labels at
a base price of, $1.50 per
For a larger order the base price on the entire lot is
decreased by
cents for each thousand in.excess of
10,000: For how
many labels will the printerts,gross income bele maximum?
32.
100
A manufacturer can now ship 'a,mgo of
per ton.
tons at a profit of
He estimates that by waiting he oan add
20
$5,00
tonsper week to
the shipment, but that the profit on all that' he ships will be reduced
250, per ton per week.
33;
A peach orchard now has
400
peaches per tree.
How lOng will it be to his advantage to wait?
30
trees per acre, and the average yield is
For each additional tree planted per acre, the
average yield is reduced by approximately
10
peaches.
How many trees
e.
lier,acre wile give'the largest crop of,peeches?
34.
A potato grower wishes to ship as early as possible in the season in
ordeg to sellat tbe best price.
tons at a prof
of
If he shipsJuly 1st, he can ship ,6
$2.00 per ton.
By waiting hesestimates he can add
tons per week to his shipment but that the profit will be reduced by
dollar per ton per week., When should he ship for a maximum profit?
I
f
11.65 (3'
27
35 A real estate office handles 80
apartment units.
unit is
$6o.00 per month, all units are occupied.
creased
$2.00
When the rent of each
If the rent is in
repairs and maintenance).
$6.00 worth of service a Month (i.e.,
What rent should be charged in order,to obtain
the most profit?
A right triangle with hypotenuse
is rotated about one of its legs..
Find the maximum irblume of the right circular cone produced.
37.
Determine the dimensions of the rectangle with greatest area which can
be inscribed in a circle of radius R.
P
38.
a manti, on the average one further unit remains unoccupied.
Each occupied unit requires
36.
71
Determine the dimensions of the rectangle with greatest perimeter which
can be inscribed in a circle of radius
R.
>
2.47 157
44,
28
28.
Rate of Change: Velocity and kccelaration
The derivative
ft
of a polynomial,function
function whose value at
at the point
is the slope of the tangent line to the graph of
(a,f(a)).
In many physical situations thejwillie
velocity.
f 'has been defined as the
can also, be interpreted as
f'(a)
Let us loolOat an example.
Suppoie a solid ball is droPpAd froM a. 2000
foot tower.
its distance (in feet) from the top of the tower at time
it.is released.
t
Experimentation has shown that
Let
denote
(in seconds) after
is approximately related to
1Dy the equation
s =
Thus, we sometimes say that the fallen distance (s
time (t
function
seconds).
f
More precisely, the equation
feet)
e 2
s = 16t
isa function of
specifies the
t )16t2.
2000 ft.
= 400
1500
position at
:V= 5
s = 1600
500
position at
t = 10
Figure 28a
We wish to formulate a suitable concept of velocity, so that we can
answer questions such as:
5
val
seconds?
t
How fast is the, ball falling after it has fallen
To do this we first define,the_average velocity in the time inter
< t < t
. 2
1 
as the ratio
28
f(t
2
t
 f(t l)
2
feet/second.
This is just the ratio of the distarice traveled in the time interval to.the
length of the interval.
For example, in the time interval
[4.5,5]
(i.e., 4.5. t < 5)
the
ratio is
.,.
16
,
(5)2  16 (14:.)
5
4.5
400
324
0.5
152.
.
Therefore, the average velocity between
In the time interval
0525.2]
16..5.2)
and
4.5
seconds is
152
ft./sec.
the ratio is
 16 (5)
4 2.64
0.2
5.2. 5
'0_13.2.
,....,
Whence the average velocity between
and
5.2
eeonds is
163.2
ft. /sec.
''''
,....
suppose that
the time interval'
li
..
1...... ...... .._...........
is a small positive quantity
The average velocity in
5 < t. < 5 + h is then
ti
f(5
f(5)
h)
ftilsec
This is just our old friend, the difference oott t used in approximating the
derivative.
We know that.asthe time interval becomes shorter, ,h Approaches
,zero and the ratio expresing average velocity approaches, f'(5),
soff' the.ddrivativeof the distance function
at
='5.
the value
We therefore, adopt
the, following definition:
The (instantaneous) velocity of a body whose position
after
In our example,
".
It
seconds is
seconds, s given by
f'
160
t )32t, and
f(t),
f'(5) = 160,
is
ft(t).
so that the velocity after
ft./sec.
In summary, the function
f
t a s = 16t2
describes thepostficin of the ball at time
f': t
describes its veldaty aetime
t,
= 32f
t,
lilt 59
while
28
Velocity is a measure of how the position of a moving body changes over
time.
It is often' characterised as a rate of change of nosition.,with respect
to time.
The acceleration ofa moving body is also a rate of change  it
,,
measures how the velocity is changing over time.
1 Is
'
Acceleration
flpo
We,haVe.seen that velocity, like distance, 'can:be exl?ressed;as
tion of time.
As st,solid ball falls from a tower, for example, *ts 'velocity
(in ft./sec.) after
seconds is given by
\t
y = 32t.
This formula "Specifies a velocity function
g
32t,
and Allows us to determine how"the velocity of the falling body'i3 changing
The rate of change of velocity with respect to time is called
over time.
acceleration.
4
Just asoie4efined.average velocity over a time interval, we can define
ft
average acceleration over a time 'interval
40change in velocity to the length of time
as the ratio of the
l' 2
t2  tl:'
I
g(t2)  g(ti)
<'
,
In the time interval J4.5,51
 t
the ratio is
32(5)  e(4.5)
5 
1111gt
.5
32(0.5)'
32.
0.5
Hence, the average acceleration of a falling body between
4.
an
,
seconds of lewd time is 32,^ft /sec. per sdcond.
In a short time interval
,5/
the expression for the'averages:
[t,t + hi,
acceleration is
1(t
h)  g(t).
ft
h
..,,
As the time interval becomes shorter, ;11
l
,,
44.
approaches
and,thd ratlp
expresaing average acceleration approaches
gt(t),,
the derivatle of the
.
:.veloci.:ty, function. 4As before, we therefore define:
I
.
e.
' The (instantaneous) acceleration of
ajfte6r
.4
t" secondS,is given by
_
.:,
g(t),
body whose velocity,
is
g'(t).
28
In bur example,
and
g': .t 4'32,
indicating that the accelera
tion of a falling body in the absence of air resistance is a constant appraxi.
mately equal, to
32
ft./sec. each second.
In Chapter 7 we shall see  that constant acceleration of an .object
(e.g., a = 32)
A
(e.g.,
guarantees that its velocity is alirlb:1r function of time,
32t)
and that the Aistarice At travels is a quadratic function of
time, (e.g., s = 16t2).
ligte
Example 28a.. gh""iiti..ietre velocity of the ball dropped from the
top of
the: 2000 foot buildpag,aktthe time it strikes the ground.?
The distancefunction
f
16t2
andthe baIl.iskdropped from a,height of 2000
feet.
Setting
16t2 =: 2000,
.411
we see that the ball strikes the ground when
i5555
=
)t
55.
Since the velocity function is
ft
we find
V(515) 2,357.8.
3?t,
Therefore the (impact) velocity after 5/5 dec.
is approximately
0
357.8
Example 28b.
ft/sec.
A car is being driven at the rate of
60 jmi. /hr.
(88 ft./set) when the brakes are uniformly applied until the car comes to a
complete stop.
Suppose that the function
2
f
describes the distance
t 4
k t  7.
10)%
s = f.(t.) in feet traveled in,
seconds after 'the
brakes are applied.
(i)
How many feet doei the car move before it stops?
(ii) .Show that the acceleration is negative and oonstant.
no.
The velocity function is
6 4 88  E88 t
the distance traveled in
f(5) = 220
t = 5. Since
gives
Solving
0.
and the car will stop at the point where the velocity is
ft(t) = 0
seconds is
220
feet:
.
The derivative of the velocity fUnction
t 488 
88
(renamed for
convenience) is the acceleration' function

g': t
Therefore,' the acceleration after
88
seconds is
88

feet per second per
second, which is indeed constant negative acceleration (deceleration). , This
refle,pts the physical fact that the car is slowing doyen due to the applica' tion of the brakes.
The,fact that the acceleratiori isaonstant is based op
the assuAption that braking is uniform.
tO
(rue to brake fade, the pressure'
applied to the brakes must increase to maintainauniform deceleration.)
It is often useful in'other situations to interpret the value of the
Given a polynomial function
derivative as a rate of change.
the average rate of change of
[a,b)
in the interval
x 4f(x),
is defined to be
f(b) , f(a)
,b  a.
Since the.limit of this as the length of the interval approaches zero
apprOaccies
of f
as tti
is
a)
(b
f'(a), At is appropriate to refer to the deriVative
(instantaneous) rate of change of
This is consistent with our interpretation of
at the point
f1'
x = a.
ft(a) ...as the slope of the
for the slope of a line does measure its rate of
tangent line at
x = a,
rise (or fall).
The tangent line is the line of "best fit" near
(a,f(a))
and hence its slope (rate of change) gives a measure of the rate of change
of f
at that points
ry
152
162
28
Example 28c.
The volume pi' a sphere isa function of its radius.
the rate Of change of the volum4' with respect to the radius.
rite of change when the radius is
Letting
Find
What is this
inches?
'V' denote the, volume (in cubic
hes)
and
the radius (in'
,
"inches),,we have
V=
In Other words, if we let
is given by
V,
V = f(r)
when
r =
0.
denote ehe function
r >(li n)(3r2)
The rate of change of the volume
2
vr 3 .
(in cubic inches).
ft
Ltvr
4
3
r 4 vr
The,derivative of
'
the volume
f
is
4nr2.
V, with respect to the radius 'r
is thus
or
; the volume is changing at the rate
C!
146 ire/ unit changy in radius.
, Speed
We have defined velocity as the (instantane4ps) rate of change: of the
position of an object with respect to time.
This definition implies that
'velocity hes direction, because it involves not only how fast the object is
moving, but, also from where to where.
For motion along a straight line thgn,
the velocity of a moving object is a signed quantity:
A,
it is positive if the
motion,is in the direction we define to be positive, and it is negative if the
O
motion is in the opposite direction.
What we intuitively think of as the
speed of the object is independent,of direction.
We define speed to be the

absolute value of velocity.
The following familiar example (Exercises 13,
To. 12) will make the distinction clear.
Example 28d.
Suppose that a rock is thcdwn straight up from the ground
with .an initial speed'of
64
ft./sec.
Contrary to our analysis of the ball
4,
dropped from the
2000
foot tower, let us take "up" as the positive direction
and "down" as the negative.direction.
Hence, the inAial yelocity.oi' our rock
.
'
is
+64
ft./sec.
..
g
.
We know 'that if the rock were not a cted upon,4 gravity the pAitfon of
the ro* after t
seconds would be given by the function
f,
64t.
AZ'
a
153
63
.:
J.
2a
But the force of gravity acts on the rock, just'as on the ball dropped from
2
the tower, adding a downward (in this case, negatiyj component,
the position of the rock at time
to
Hence, the function
t.
Ot2
t 464t
16t
describes the position of the rock at time
and
t,
f': t > 64  32t
i
gives the velocityof: the rock after
for
t < 2; f'(t) > 0,
for
t = 2, f'(t) = 0,
and for
t > 2, flt) < 0,
indicating that between
and
We note that,
seconds.
seconds the rock isrising (moving in the
chosen positive direction) while after
seconds have elapsed the rock is
falling (moving, in the negative direction).
At
t = 1.5
seconds the velocity of the rock is
Jr.
f'(1.5) ft./sec. = 12 ft./seg.
At
t = 2..5
seconds, the velocity is
al/
f "(2.5) ft./sec. = 12 ft. /sec.
We conclude that the speed of the rock is the same at
namely' 12. ft./sec.
and t = 2.5,
t = 1.5
Similarly, the initial speed and the final (impact)
speed of the rock are the same since the inittalve1ocitrls164 ftisec.
(up)and the impact velocity is
64
ft./sec. (down).
Renaming the velocity function
g r t * 64  32t,
we see that the acceleration of the rock is given by
111
gl: t t32,
indicating that gravity accelerates the rock at the rate of
32
ft. /sec.
eachsecondlOk downward, of course.
Note that this negative acceleration
detreases the rock's velocity constantln.on the 'way up the;ZeCieasq in
VIP
velocityamounts to a slowing of the speed of the rock, while on the way
.,
down the "decrease" in velocity (becoming more negative) creates an increase

. ipthespeed of the rock.
...
.,
:,,
.
4
,=
tP'
)
I.
II
158
4.
.'
%a
2=8
4
Exercises 28
Determine the rate of change of the area of a circle with respelIK ,
.,
to its radius r. Compare your result with the formula for the
circiiittfriide
C 4.0f a circle in terms of radius
r.
.
.
(b)
Wbat, is the rate of change
Cot are this resul\with the formu a for the
'r?
.4
from the time
?
L'4'
't =.8,
r
L' 
z.,.11.1
iSf a sphere 'in terms of radius. r.
2 A certain motion is described
3
with respect
;6
to its radius
surface area
'
`the volume of a spher
t = 5 *until the time
by the equation
r
.
s = f(t) r 2t3  39t2
(a)
We subinit tliat
f(i) = 2t 3
f the distance
"hen the velocity
is given by
39t2 + 25 t  535,
=6t2
at time
v .at 04the
252t  535.
Is
 78t + 2
Explain why :this is, tr ue.
(b) 'Sketch the graph of th'e ;unction
t 4 s = 2t
on the interval
(c)
ft
on the same interval
4C
39t
5 < t <
Sketch the graph of
&
+ 252t ' 535
v = 6t2  78t + 252
p5,81.
DetArmine the zeros of
ft.
M
14
(e) ' When does the ptxticle whose motion Is being describedcome to rest

for an instant,as it shifts direction?
,(f)
Cy
Whenis the particle the ,greatest distance from its starting point
,on
[5471?
,
(g).,..1.114at is the greatest distance Of the patticle from its starting
point on
(h)
(5,71'1.
When is the next time on
[5,8]
when the distance of the particle
from its starting point is as great as its greatest distance on
N
,
(5171
4
155
65
4's
s
28
When is the particle the greatest distance from its starting point
et)
[5,8]?
on
When is the speed of the particle the greatest on
(j)
3.
of the particle whose motion is
'What is the acceleration at time
(6,7]?
considered in Number 2?
4. 'Hecall Example 28b
(a)
For a cat traveling at
mi./hr., how'many seconds are required
60
after the brakes are applied (and held) before the car comes.to a
.
(b)
complete stop?
mi./hr., go after the brakes.are
60
How far will a,car traveling at
applied?
(c)
"
t = 0
Suppose at time
60
velocity
the brakes are applied on 11 bar moving at
mph and kept on until the car is broaght to a stop
producing.a constant deceleration (negative acceleration) of
1
(a)
Given an approximation for
ft. /sect.
wi4 continue to travel only
100
Ustig your approximation for
,to ensure that the car
f . after the brakesare applied.
a.)
from part (c), determine the dis
tarice the car would require to stop if it were traveling at
30
mph.
5 Let us assume that a pellet is projected straight up and after awhile,
comes straight down via the same vertical path to the place on the'ground
After
from whiCh it.was launched.
aPoveth
ground.
followin
table.
seconds the pellet is' ;s 'feet
are given in
(t,$)
Some of the ordered fairs
the
.../.4
144
256
336
384
400
384
336
10
We shall intentionally avoid certain physicefl considerations such as air
resistance.
Moreover, we shall deal with simpll numbers rather than
qtantities measured to some/prescribed degree of accuracy which,mfght
.
arise from the data of an actual projectile prOletlin engineering.
''(a)
Interpolate from'tqe data given to detefmine the height of the
projectile efter eight and nine seconds respectively.
using syminetry as your guide.)
(Guess,
Does extrapolatiO;1 to find values
of
s 'for,
or
t =11
make sense_on physical ground's?
After how many seconds does the projectile appear to have reached
its makimum helig? What seems to be the maximum height?,
156
28
(b)
appea
Doe's
to be a,function of
so, discuss the domain
t?
,
,physical' considerations into account.
and range, takin
(c)
If we were to plot a graph of
s = f(t),
is it, plausible on physical' grounds to restrict our. graph to
(11)
the first quadrant?
Does 'the dat4 suggest that the scale on the saxis (vertical)
(2)
should be the same as the scale on the taxis (horizontal)?

(d)
Keeping in min
(t,$)
your responses to part (c), plot the ordered pairs
from the table.
Connect the points with a smooth curvy..
On
What is the name of the function suggested by the graph?
physical grounds is it feasible 'that there would be a real value of
s
forfevery reaAnumber assigned to
0 < t < 10?
over the interval
Were we probably gistified in connecting the pointsR
(e)
Assuming that the equation
s = f(t) = At
+Bt + C was used to
develop the entries im our table, find values for constants
B,
(f)
and
A,
C.
Sketch the graph given by the equation
s = 160t  16ta
over the
interVa41. 0 < t < 10., Using a more carefully plotted graph of the
above set, connect the point wheie
t = 2
with a chord.
the,slope of the curve at
'(g)
If the units of
with the point where
t = 1
and
Estimate
t = 2.
preTeet and the units of
are the units of slope?
ratio of units?
t = 1
What is the slope of this chord?
are seconds, "Ale't
What word is .commonly associated with this
What would you guess are the physical interprets,
tionsof positive, zero,_ and negative values of this ratio?
(h)
Draw the graph of
v = 160  32t
Compare the values
of v
for
over the interval .0 < t
t = 1
and
t = 2
your estimates for .the ,slopes of the graphs of
respectively with
s = 160t  16t2 .in.
pgA (f).
X767
4
2:8
ci)
Average the values of
and
for
an
i.= 2
compare this
average with the slope, of the chord connecting the points where
t = 1
(4).
t = 2
and
in part (f).
are
If. the units of .v
ft./sec. and the units of
are seconds,
What
v = 160  32t?
what are the units of 'the slope of the line
word from physics is commonly associated with this ratio of unite?
Does the minus signalong.with the particular numerical valUe of
this slope have any special connotation from your experience?
6.
Aoprojectile is fired straight up and after awhile comes straight down
via the same vertical path to the place on the ground from which it was
2
launched.
t seconds the projectile is,
After
s = 160t  16t
ofet
above the ground.
.
(a)
After how many seconds,4oes the projectile strike the ground?
(b)
What is the velocity of the projectile after
(c)
What is the initial velocity?
seconds?
(d) What is the tmpact,velocity?
(e)
How high is the projectile after
1 .seconds?
(f)
How high is the'projectile after
(g)
After how many seconds does the'projectile reach its maximum height?
(h)
How high does the projectile 'go?
(i)
How far has the projectile traveled after6 seconds?
7.
seponds?
A ball is thrown upward from the ground so that after t,seconds its
height 's
feet igiven bythefuriction
.
4
f
(a)
, 2
t 4 s = 96t  lot
The path of the ball,is straight up and straight down.
.
of the functiOn
What is the
f?
What is the velocity function?
(b)
What is the derivative of
(c)
How high is the ball after,on& second?.'
(d)
How high is the ball after
(e)`
How far has the ball traveled after
(f)
What is the initial velocity of the ball?
f?
5,
seconds?
168
seconds?
4,
2 8
(g)
How long is the .tell in the air ?'
(h)
What is the impact velocity whep the ball strikes tha ground?'
(i)
What is theconstant acceleratiOn acting upon the ball?
Give a distance function
where
t;'
is the number,of
t :,seconds, appropriate for the situa
feet above the ground after
tion if the ball were thrown stVaight upward with an initial melocity of
96
ft./sec. from a to9er
Give a'distance function
(k)
200
where
t *4s,
G :
feet,:above the ground after
ft. high.
s
is the number of
;seconds appropriate for the situa
tionif the ball were thrown st&ight downward with an initial
96
velocity of
ft,/sec. from a tower .200
Give a distance function q'
(2)
where
feet high.
s
the number of
feet displacement from the top of the tower after t,rseconds if
the ball is simply, dropped from thetop of a tower.
,8.
The velocity Of an object, whose location on a straight line at timer
t= t
is given by
is the limit of the ratio
f(t),
.
f(t)  f(to)
t  tO
as
approaches, to.
This limit is the value of the derivat/v
Experimentally it has been established_ that the distan
t = to.
in time
by
freely falling body is proportional to
fore it can be represented by the function
0
positive constant.
ft
,covered
2
,
wher
at
ft
Show that the velocity of a ireely felling
is a
ody is
directly proportional to the t' me.
Suppose a projectile is ejected
second, at a point
P which is
eet per
th initial velocf.4roof
20
feet above the ground
friction and assume that the projectile moves up and down
eglect
a straight
pf
line.
Let
attains
f(t)
denote,the height (above
seconds after ejection.
P) in feet tha
Note that if gravitar onal attraction
were not acting on the projectile, it would continue to m
p constant velocity, traveling a distance..of
thatits: height attime
would be given by
feet e
0
f(t) = vo .
e upward with
h second, so
We knowthat.
o slow doWn anti
qstvelocity is zero and then trayel_baekto rthe earth.
On the basis of
.
0,
the force of gravity acting on thietprojectile causes it
I
4
the projectile
159
169
28
'1"
g
f(t) = v0 t at2 ,
physical experiments the formula'
where
represents
the acceleration of gravitOs used to repreSent the height (above P)`of
the projectile as long as it is aloft. Note that f(t) = 0 when t = 0
2vo
,This means that the projectilereturns to the initial
and when t =
.
2v
20 foot level after
 seconds.
g
(a)
and
(b)
t = to
Find the velocity of the projectile at
(in terms of
g).
Sketch the
s vs. t
graphs on the same set of
v vs. t
and the
$.
axes.
(c)
v0) the time required for the Velocity to
Compute (in terms of
drop to zero.
(d)
What is the velocity on return to the)nitial 20 foot level?
(e)
Assume that the projectile returns to earth at a point
below the initial take off point'1).
30
feet
What is the velocity at
impact?
10.
V2
ft./sec., it will reach a maximum height of
11.
*
V0
Show that if a ball is thrown upward with an initial velocity of
''Elsie Can throw a ball 148
go when it leaves her hand?
hand is .4
feet.,
How fast does it
feet straight up.
(Assume that when the ball_ is released her
ft. above the grounds)
12.
A ball is thrown upward with an initial speed of
64
ft./sec.
Simultaneously a ball is dropped from rest at a height of
128,
ft.
When} does impact'occur and how fadis each ball going dt the time of
impact?
13.
Determine the average velocity of a car for a total trip if,it averages
60 miles per hour going and. 30
14.
miles per hour retjUtning.
Find the velocity of an object whose location along a straight line isdeacribed.by.the.equation
s = 128t  16t2.
Sketch the graphs of
s vs. t
on the isme set of axes.
and
v vs.
(a)
During what time interval or intervals is t400object moving toward
the location
(b)
s = 0?
What are the values of
and
160
170
when
is a maximum?
28
41015:
A ball is, thrown upward with a velocity of
height
in feet after
feet per second.
32
Its
seconds is described by the, equation
s = 32f  16t2.
(a)
What is the velocity of the ball when its height first reaches.
12
When it again reaches
feet?
12
feet?
(b) 'How high does it go, and how long after being thtlOwn does th,e ba
reach its highest pos.glon?
16.
An object is projected up a smooth inclined plane in a straight line.
Its distance
in feet from the.starting point after
described by the equation
s ='64t  8t
2
.
seconds'is
After the object reaches,its
highest point it slides back along its original path to the starting
s =
point according to the equation
 t
Here
tance of the object from the highest point and
to
is the dis
is the time it takes
the object toreach the highest poidt.
f
(a)
Determtnejhow long it takes for the object to make the up and down
trip.
(b)
Sketch the
s vs. t
of coordinates.
graph for the up and down motion using one set
Do the same for the
71.
v vs. t
graph'.
29
The Second Derivative
29.
In the preceeding section, we found that the flunction expressing the
derivative of its
acceleration of an object with respect to time is
velocity function, which is in turn the derivative of the function
cribing the object's position at time
t. Hence,
can be obtained by differentiating' f
twice.
derivative of
f" and
e acceleration function
For any function, f
the
is called the second derivatiVe of _f....Thesecond derive
f'
tive,.denoted by
des
f",
gives us valuable information about the graphs of both
f.
.Consider the function
f
x ' x3  3x.
Its first derivative is
x
4 3x
 3,
and its second derivative is
f":
and
describes the slope of the tangent to the graph of
Since
f"
'since
f"(x) 7, 6x < 0,
for
Now to say that
increases.
x < 0,
f',
then
f'
is decreasing as
the derivative of
an interval, is the same as saying that the slope of
that interval.
x < 0
f,
is decreasing over
is decreasing over
.T
From the
sketch of Figure 2 9a we
T
2
see that if,the
slopes of
I
successive tangents to the
graph of
are decreasing,
the graphza
f
4WA,
ii "bending
Hence, we are led to
down."
believe that the'graph of the
function
3
2",
x )x
3.
Figure ?9a
 3x
is similarly "bending dowh" as
x < 0
increases, since
f"(x) < 0
.474a,
43.4o,
72
for
x < 0.
fr
29
In like manner, since
given by
for
fqx),
f"(x) = 6x > 0
for
the slope of
x > 0,
f ,f
is increasing
Figure 29b indicates
x > 0.
that in such a situation the graph
of
his "bending up."
Putting
these two pieces of information
about the graph of
: x ) x
 3x
together with what the first derive.tive,
f',
tellsus about it, we
obtain the following graph of
f.
Figure 29c
The 'second derivative,
f"(x) = 6x,
is bending downward, and for
x = 0, f"(x) = 0
x > 0
f':"x ) 3x
x < 0:,
the graph is ben
and the graph is apparently 'Changing
The first derivative,
e
indicates that for
the graph of
upward.
At
Aa
m one to the other.
 3 .r. 3(x , 1)(x + 1),
indicates that the
slope of the graph is zero at
we conclude that
x = 1
and from the way the graph 14,bending
has a relative maximum at
x..,= 1
and a relative

minimum at
x = +1.
/
163
173
Zi4
a9
A more rigorous interpretation of "bending  upward" or "downward" uses the
f.. We say that a func
notion of the convexity and concavity of the function
tion is convex in the interval
[a,b]
if its graph inthis interval lieS.,
*
above each of its tangents in the interval.
which is convex in the'interval shown.
concave in an interval
in that interval.
Figure 29b shows a function
Similarly a function is said to be
if its graph lies below each of its tangents
[a,b]
See Figure 29a for an example of a concave function.
s'
Some texts use concave upward in place of convex and concave downward in
place of concave.
The ideas of convexity and concavity are said to describe
the flexure (bending) of curves.
e intuitive remarks motivating the use of
x3
(1)
f"
in graphing
 3x lead to the characterizations that:
a function
f"(x) > 0
la,b1
is convex in the interval
for all
between
and
if and only if,
b (a < x < b).
and
(2)
a function
f"(x) < 0
is concave in the interval
for ail
between
and
[a,b]
if and only if
b (a < x < b),
An important consequence of these two characterizations is that if the
grgph of a polynomial
p(c,f(c)),
then
crosses its tangent at the'point of tangency
f"(c) = 0.
nt,
Figure 29d
The graph of f
crosses its tangent at
P.
The reader familiar with convex regions from g geometry course will
observe"that we are defining a function to be convex over the interval in
which the region above the graph of f is convex.
4,
le
29
'For if the graph of
crosses
at
(c,f(c))
x = c
then7'near
Figure 29d),'the graph must lie.above the tangent on one side of
below the tangent on the other side of
'one side of
and (x) < 0
c.
e(x) > 0
Hence,
oh the other.
Thus,
and
for
f"(c) = 0
(see
since a
polyAomial function must pass through zero as it passes from positive to
negative.,
If the graph of 'f, crosses its tangentatpoint of
tangency
of
tHen P
P,
is called a 'point ok
k.
The above argument shows that 'if _P(c,f(c))
of
f,
then
f"(c) = 0.
The converse of this may be false, however.
f"(c) = 0 at points
of
f.
is a point of inflection
(c,f(c))
Consider the graph of
It is quite possible that
P
where the tangent does not cross the graph
f
14,
at the origip.
(See EXehises
'29, No. 2.)
To summarize, it, is instructive to view the graphs of
together to see how the zeros of 0 and
f"
f, fel, and
affect the graph of
f.
f"
To.
show the relationships most vividly, we illustrate the graphs in Figure 29e
without yaxes.
4E
Alk
165
29
'
maximum
1
1
1
1
point of
i flectilrom
f"(#
6x
31
Figure 29e
3.661:7G
>
2 9
Note that a relatie maximum occurs at
e(c)
< 0,
(c,f(c))
since the tangent to the graph of
zontal and the graph must be concave.
when
f'(c) = 0
and
when
at
ft(c) =$0
x
ik
add
must be.hori_
Similarly, a relative miamulioccurs
Alt
since the tangent musebehorizontallas
f"(c) > 0,
before, but here the gra'ph' must be convex.
s
.
A point of inflection occurs'at
the other side of
When
(c,f(c))
is positive immediately to one side of
x = c
f"(c) = 0 \and cf"(x)
and negative immediately to
x = c.
Example 2r9a.
Determine the intervals over which the function
f
, 2x
+ 1
.rooffodi,
is increasing, decreasi g, convex, and concve, and
ate all relative
maxima and minima, and hll points ofinflectione
Intervals on which
is ivreasing and decreasing can be determined by
the sign of the derivative
f' :
4x3  4x = 4x(X+ 1)(x  1)
'The critical points (points where
and
f'(x) Cs 0) occur where
x = 1, x = 0,
x = 1.
10 <
f'(x) < 0
for
f'(x) > 0
for
1 < x < 0
ft(x) < 0
for
0 < x < 1
1
(3
f'(x) > 0. for
From these signs we conclude thatas
X < 1,
rises between
`finally rises again for
1
and
0,
1 < xt
increases the graph of
falls again between
f4lfalls for
and
and
1,
x > 1.

Intervals, of convexity and concavity can be determined by the sign of
the second derivative
f": x ,12x2  4 = 4(3x2 = 1) =
4
f"(x) = 0
if and only if
/T=
x = I
if
(xlq  1)
if
(x.13 +
and
0
(x13 + 1)
and
 4)(xl3 + 1)
IF
or
x = 
1171
f"(x) < 0
if and: only.
have opposite signs, which happens if and only
(x13  1) <00,
that is, if and only if
,167 177
1

< x < 1 .
r.ft '
.
a2 S
st),
..
29
0
f"(x) > 0
.10
Similarly,
 1)
if and only.if' (x,/
same sign, which happens'if and pul?.y if
and (x5 + 1)
have the
,..
,.
x,q+ 1 < 0
x)q  1,> 0,
or
i.e., it and only if
<', ,,
1
mor
x >
We conclude,that
is concave
4
over the interval
 < x < ,,
and convex for all
x < 1 1 or all
'...
N.,
4.
x. > 2
The graph of
)q
x =
since
 (I.
3.
r"
thus has points of inflection at
41/..
= 0
and
..
is convex on oneside of each of these
Together with the information that the
point and concave on the other side.
Wirst derivative of
x = =.1. and
is zero at
x = ,:1, 0, and :1,
these intervals of
_convexity and concavity show that
and
Finally,he graph of
hese relative minimum at
x = 1,
f.
hes.a relative maximum at
x =
6,
hag a relative n*1imum at
x =
1.
has poi is of inflection at
x = 
1
and
x =
4,T
11,T
f(! 
= 0 and f is convex on one side of each of these points
o
IT
and concave on theolher,side.
,since
In Figure 29f we sketch the graph of
using the foregoing informa
tion.
Figure 29f
f : x'73 x.
2
 2x + 1
0
168
.
17 8
Exercises 2 9
1.
Determine the second derivative of the function
f
2.
t ,2t
 39t
+,252t 535.
Characterize the origi&for each of.the following functions (by determining whether it is a relative max. or min., or poirii of inflection):
3.
(a)
f : x
(b)
c4
4):3
Consider the function
f
x )4x5 + 5x4
20x3
50x . 40x.
(a)" Find
(b)
fl(x), and
e(x).
Characterize each of the points
f(1))
tnd (2, f(2))
as
maximum oAminimuni.
,Consider the function
(a)
Determine fl(x).
(b)
Determine f"(x).
,f
)(
2x 3
4
+ x
on
[2,2).
(0' Evaluate f'( 1).
(d)
EValuatete(1),
(e)
Describe the behaviok of'f on
[2,2) (by determining Sub
intervals of increase, dedresse, convexity, and concavity, and by.
locatingrelative maxima and minima andpointq of inflection, iftr
any of these occur).
(f)
5.
Sketch the graph of
on
[2,2).
Determine the relative maximum point'and relative minimum point of the
graph of
f : x )(x
2) (x  2)
6.
Sketch the graph of
f : x
+ 5x4
Ifrx
20x3
50x2  40x.
(See NO. 3.)
7.
Sketch the graph'of
extrema (adxiMa an
 3x2
 12x + 2,
indicating relative
minima) and points of inflection.
169
4_1 
4'
29
8.
The.point
(1,1)
functions:
lies on the graph of each of the following
For which is this point (Wa relative maximum, (ii) a.
relative minimum, (iii) a point of inflection, (iv) none of these?
x
(a)
(b) x
9,
6x2 + 6x  1
 4)e,+,5
2x3
3
( c)
x 4,2x
( d )
x *2x3
+ 12x  10
 3x
3x2  12x + 14
Consider the function
+ x 3  2x
 3x
.over the interval'
2e< x < 2...
(a)
At what points is a tangent to the graph of
(b)
What are the relative minimum points ?,
(c)
What is the minimum value of
f?
(d)
What is the maximum value of
f?
(e)
Sketch the graph of f..
10. Claspify each of the points
of x 3  6x2 + 9x
 4
(1,0))
(2,12),
and
horizontal?
(3,4)
on the graph
as a relative maximum, a relative minimum, a
point of inflection, or not' bf these.
11.
The figure at the left stows four
polynomial graphs and their common
tangent
yi'=3
at '(0,3).
Match each graph
(A, B, C, D)
with one of the following equations.
3
(a)
Y =
(b)
Y = 3
(c) ,y = 3
,(d)
= 3'
:,4 + x2
x
,;
%..
'4 X3
(e)
r= 3 4
x3
(f)
=3+
x.
(g)
= 3 4
(h)
y . 3 +
+ x
+ x3
I
'110111011
29
12.
15.
Classify(see'No. 10) the
(a)
x ,(x  2)2
(b)
x .)(2  x),3
(c)
x )(x
Find an
(2,0)
for each of the following functions.
2)4
classify each critical point (local extremum or point of
inflection)' for each of the following functions.
(a)
x )2x
(b)
x )x
(c)
2x
(d), x
/14.
12x  7
+ 3x2
 12x + 160
3
+ 3x2
+ 12x + 7
1)2(x + 2)
Consider the function, f
(al
9x2 + 24X  18.
Determine
(b) Loca4 the ralatiVe maximum and minimum points of
(c)
.(d)
(e)
Determine
f.
f".
What is ae point of Inflection of the graph of.f?
What is the slope of the tangent to the graph of
(0 Determine
f'(3 + k)
and
f'(3
k).
(g)
Sketch the graph of
(h)
Discusp the symmetry of the graph of
at
(3,0)?
4.
f.
f.
=
15. SIT that;the graph of a cubic function must have a point'of inflection.
16. (a)
Sketch the graph of
f
x5 + x
5x
 x.
+ 8x  4.
Respond to each of the following by inspec tion of your graph for 'part (a).
(b)
What are the zeros of
f?
at the points where
(c) ACe9cribethe flexure of the graph of
f(4 . 0.
(d)
Describe the flexure of the graph of
,4.2(x) = 0
and
at points for Which
f(x) > 5.
2
mine those points on :He graph of
17.
X5) _ 2x
rs
at which
e flexure is neither upwarld nor downward.
,
I
'A
1
29
18.
Characterize the point
,x4
on the graph of
2x3
7x2 + 10x 4210.
(1,11)_ on the graph of
and
Characterize the points ,(0,0)
19.
+ 3x5 + 10x.
,
20.
: x ,(x + 1)2(x  2)
Consider the functions
and
g : x ,3(x + /)(x  1) .
and
gr'_
(a)
What is the relationship between
(b)
Characterize each of the following points on the graphs of
and
g.
41.
(i)
C1;0)
(ii)
(0,f(0))
(0,g(0)),
(c)
(iv)
(1,g(1))
(v)
(1,f(1))
(vi)
(z,f(z))
t4
Consider the function
21.
and
f : x
Sketch the graphs of
(a) Locate the zeros of
(b)
on the same set'of axes.
 3x + 2:
f..
Locatthe relative maximum, relative minimum and point of inflectibn.
(c)
22.
Sketch the graph.
Consider the function
'3
f : x , x
 3x
2
4..,
(a
/,
Locate the zeros,of
f.
y kb i
Locate the relative maximum, reiative minimum and point of inflection.
i (c)
Sketch the graph.
Show that the grail
23.
of
Bi + C,
f :
A F/ 0,has no point of
inflection..
1
Find an equation pf /the tangent to the
24.
at its point of inflection.
graphf
o f :
x3
+ 3x2  4x '3
';
'?
4
15.
210
210.
Newton's Method
In Section 18 the method, of repeated bisection was presented as a means
for approximating zeros of a polynomial function.
In this section
present
another method, known as Newton's method for approximating such zeros.
This
method makes use of the derivative and is more efficient than repeated bisec
./
tion.
Newton's method proceeds as follows.
Suppose''.f
function and we wish to approximate the real zero
graph of
r.
is the given polynomial
By inspection of the_
synthetic substitution, repeated bisection, or some other device,,
f,
we obtain a firstapproximation of
r.
Let us call this first approximation
4
1
Figure 210a
:
If the graph of
looks like thatMlown in Figure 210a, we should:
expect that the .tangent line at
point `x"
2'
which 4s
oser to
will intersect the xaxis at a
(xl,f(x,))
r
than i
'
The tangdnt line at
x
1.
has the e uation
(x1,f(x1))
y = f(x1..Y + fl(x1)(X  xi):
that is,
This crosses the, x axis at .(40);
4:
1'
0 = f(x1) +ft(x1)(x2 x1).
,
itstuningthatmo/ 0,
we cansolve for x2,
obtaining the formula
'
f?x
,(4
i
\.
1
'
..1
X2,7 xl
..=1
SI
173 183
i
lh
210
x2 . instealdof
We can now repeat this process, using
to obtain the
1
new approximation
f(x2)
.x3
TTTT2Y
x2
(See Figure 210b.)
in place of
Repeating &pill, using x3
we obtain the fourth approxima
tion
f(x I
x3
x4
.
.
.,..
process; havin 'arrived at
'Thus, equation (1) it the basis for an iterative
define i.new appr&imation
xn,
!the approximation
I'
(2)
n+1
=x 01
Example 210a.
by
f(x )
m)
ft(x
it
n+1
n)
.
r
For the polynomial function'
.
.
.,4
.
f
x .0 x3 F.
2:+
x  2
..
the value of the real zero which lies be ween
4.
141
.1
;,.
eLmate/
and
1.
.1;
/
A method o f CallilaIlOn which consists of the repetition (iteration)
of a basic process, especT7lly useful for writing a program for a compulkg
machine%;
...(
...
174
i
I,
/V
1,84
2710'
Since
f(0) < 0
real zero between
and
f(1)
and
1.
we know thatthere is
Further calculation shows t
f(0.8) < 0
and
as our initial estimate.
We have
ft
and
Le'
f(0.8) = 0.048.
2
f(0.9) > 0,
so that the de4red zero lies'between 0.8
.7'
at least) one
3x
+ 2x + 1,
us take
= 0.8
Since
"
we have
f'(0.8) =
whence formula (1) gives the second estimate '
)
...
= 0.8
olts
= 0 81.
% .47?7
...
Now we calculate to obtain
f(0.81):= .002459
and
ft(6.81) = 4.5883.
We use (1), with
replaced by
to obtain the thii.d estimate
x2,
x3 =0.81 
o.81o5..
Correct to two decimal places the zero of
Example 210b.
f, is
0.81.
Use Newton's Method_to estimate
313.
Since .q i's a 'lot of thp equation x3 = 3,
function
must be a zero of the
f : x
Since, f(it)' and
approximation.
3.
f(2) 'lave apposite signs we take
The derivative of
xl = 1.5
as our first'
is
No
3x
f"
2
f
A
*so that (1) gives
f(xl)
(i.5)3
x2)%x1
1.5
,3(1.5)2
f'FT,c3.,,,,,
t 1.444 z 1.44.
Using :1.44
as our second approximationrrwe obtain
A
,k
/75
1
A11
210
'4(1'44) tt 1.442.
f't1.44)
 1.44.
..
.Correct to two places
1/
1.44'
f4
1.
Exercises 210
t,
Use Example 210a to respond to each of the following.
a
(a)
What is the slope of 'theftngent to the graph of
x .x3 t'x2 +
(b)
at the point
(0.8, 0.048)?
Write the equation of the tangent to the giaph of f.at t1
point
(0.18, 0.048).
(c)
The line tangent to the graph of
f ,at the.,point
(0.8, 0.048)
intersects the xaxis at a point close to the place where the graph
f
drosses the xaxis.
,What is the xintercept of this tangent
line?
2.
Use Example 210b to respond to each of the following.
(a) Find the slope of the tangent to the graph Of
at the point
x .x3
0.375).
( .5,
(b). What is the. equation of the tangent to the graph of
at
(1;5, 0.375)?
,
(c)
Find the value of
at which the tangent of part (b) intersects
the xaxis.
3.
(a)
What is the positivezero of the' function
(b)
Show that a zero of f lies between
(c)
Use Newton's me
od to approximate
Consider tkii\function
(a)
f : x
and
If
to three deci
such that,
0 < r < 1.
ti
lb)
Find
(c)
Evaluate f(0)
(d)
To two 15140,mt..ajpaces apprOximate
fl.
4
and
fl(0).
h:
x
2
if
xi = 0
ni
(e)
Use your estimate from part; (A)
a
and.
es.
x3  12x t 1.
Show that there is at least one. real number
and
2.
x'  2?
o dhow that
4).040512
.e
f ( x2) =
.L5
9,308.
 ;
'f(xl)
9.xl
f(r) =.0
2.10
(f)
Use Newton's Method and the results of parts (a) through (e) to
compute the zero of
.5.
between
and
to three decimal places.
Calculate to two decimal places the zero of
f a x ) x 3  3x
which is' between
6.
and
+ 2.
3. .
Find an approximate solution of
2
x
+ 3x = 7
correct to twOrdeAmal places.
7.
Suppose
(a)
is a polynomial function and
If the derivative
f'(x)
f(r) =
5, < r <I5'.
changes sign over the interval*.N,b1,
it is possible that Newton's
method will fail to generate cloier
and closer approximations to
r.
Sketch a picturesshoWink such a
I
situation.
,
(b)
(c)
If
f "(x)
changes,sign over the interval
[a,b],
then even if
f'(x)
does not change sign it is possible for Newton's method to
fail.
Sket
In vid
a picture showing such a situation.
(a) and(b), what precautions should you take in applyink
Newton's method?
il
SS
I
'
'14
''*7
4,
2.al.
Higher Derivatives and Notation
We have denoted the derivative of the function
There are other notations in common use.
by the symbol
In graphing
f'.
we often write
f,
so it Is natural to write
y = f(x),
I
for the value of
f'
at
x.
is
Andther alternative symbol for
This notationallows us to abbreviate such statements as
f : x 4ax2 + bx + c
if
f'(x) = tax + b,
then
'^by'writing
2
D(ax
+ bx + c) = 2ax + b.
The symbol
R
sLY
dx
bj
which was introduced by Leibniz (1646  1716) to represent
14(x),,is suggested
10.have defined
by the'difference quotient used to calculate it.
4
'
If we replace
f'(x) =
by the symbol
lim
0
h
f(x + h)  f(x)
(read "delta x ") to j1i icate a differ
"Ax"
ence in xcoordinates, the difference quotient becomes
f(x + 6x)  f(x)
6.x
Th
ressio
(x + 64  f(4 ..stands for the corresponding difference in
coordinates, so we write
+ 6x)  f(x)
6x
bx
This prompts the hotation
for the value of the derivative if
Ax
= LI.L4
dx
f(x).
Thesym
dv
/
is not a ratipl
*r.
it stands for the limit of a ratio.
It is a tribute to the genius of Leibniz,
tigtha.49'a notation which, as we shall ste, anticipates some
c:Iyeyer,
732
properti6 of, derivatives which permit us to handle their valdes ps though
they were common fractions.
Corm,sponding
the foregOingtsymbols ?Or the first derivative, we have
the following symbols for the value of the second derivative!
2
f"(x)or", D2f(x),
dx
a2
The Leibniz notation
is again suggested by the difference quOtient and
`'=,Y=
.
dx
the A symbo\for "difference "
ALL.
f'(x + bx)  fqx),
"'dx)
bx
.
.
..
d(c(ii)
To symbolize the limit as & )0,
we write
,
d(dy)
or
dx
dx dx
.1
..
..
*
in theshort
,
,
2,
dx
We have seen how to diferentiate'any polynoMial function of the form
..,,
x+ a2x + .
.
x )a
+ a
. + a ijY'''
F.'
'
.
Since the.second derivative of f
is still a poLynomiallwe may compute its,
.J.,
'derivative and call,it6,..the__...........third derivative of
f,_ denoting its value by any
..
of the symbols.
(.
,:
f '"(x),
t"', D3f(x) ..,.,,,,l..
t .
.,
de
11
..
'
'
'4
t'.rivatf4e.bff
'r.''
14(.
Similarly, we could find the fourth
*.
4N
'
. y ditfer,entiatinf.he
;;,....
third derivative, and so on, to fifth, sixth, .014,,tir
higher derivatives.
.1.r1W
Geometrically, we have seen that
of the tangent to the graph'of
,f
f'(x)
_.
can "qep. f rpreted as the slope
at the point
(x,'1"
derivative cab.be'interpreted as an indicator of, the vQ
High
and that' the second
mature of the grtiph.
t..4:
derivatives do not have such vivid gponietrii.intedriretations:Tor
h
but 4hey do have. important algebraic relationships tethl coeffictents of the
term
of
f.
'
I
lc
179`,89
,11.1,
211
To be concrete let us look at a general third degree polynomial function
.
x+a2x 2.+a3x
f:x4a.0
(1)
3:
We observed in4the first chapter that
t
f(0)7 ao.
If we obtain the derivative
`ft
x 4a
+ 2a x + 3a x
2
we observe that
ft(0) =.a1.
We. differentiate
to obtain the second derivative
ft
f"
2a.
,
+.2
3a .x;
and observe that
f"(0) = 2a2.
0.
If we difTereptiate
we obtain the third derivative
f",
`k
a
f"7 x 4 2 .,3a
In this ease
fm(0) = 2
We summarize:.
for the cubic polynomial function
I
f :x4a
th
3a3.
+ alx + a2x2 + a3x
coefficients'are related to the values of
tiv s
ft,,f",
and
and its'succe sive deriva
by theformuIab:
ft" ateox = 0,
0
1
= f(0)
= ft(0)
a, = 7 f"(0)
a3
r75 ft"(0).
180
1,9
a
211
Now we express
in terms bf powers of
x  a:
4
(2)
k 7./20 + bi(x  a) + b2(x  a)2 + b (x  a)3.
3
Such an expresioll for
22.
can be Pound by synthetic division as in Section
We can sholfthat the coefficients
b0, b
b2,
and
1,
'b
are given by
b
= f(ael.
bjc ft(a)
(3)
f"(a)
alb
V
To show that
= f(a),
1
fom(a).
2x 3
we let
x = a
in the expression for
f(x)
to
obtain
f(a) =b0 + bi(a a) + b2(a
(a  a)3 =.bo
a)2 41)
3
The remaining results (3) are almost as easy.
We'differentiate/f
to obtain
the derii/ative
A
,
a'
2b 2(x  a). + 3))
a). 2 ,
'kx
'
whence
ft(a) = b
'Differentiating f'
+ 2b (a  a) + 3b (a  a)
= b
1,
we obtain
ftt
Therefore,
.3b (x
4have
,r(p) =
f'
"
(a) .
Another differentiation
't.
gives'
f'": x )
3b3
r
so tht
fni(a) = 2 .3b
7
3
int(
and hence 'b
3
1
wt 1
'211
Using the foregoing proces for a fourth degr e polynomial function
.111.
x ' b
+ b
 a) + b (x
a)3 + b (x 
b (x
we could obtain
10
b
b
0
1
(4)
'2
b
3
b
4
whereftf"
f*.
of
= fea)
= ft(a)
Vi(a)
2 ,
=
1
2 X 3
fm(a)
" 1
2 >
is the fourth derivative of
fins (a)
f;
tihglt is,
ft"t is.the d#rivative
It is common to write
;
(4)
,
,'
for ihe fourth deritrative of
f;
rather then f"
similarly we use the notation
...,
.
for the fifth derivative, the sixth derAVative41
,
etc.
'
*ea'
..
....*
k!= 1 x,2 x 3 x'4 x ... x k'
;)
with the convention that
0! = 1.
i
0
N
..
Our results can be generalized:
x
(5)
(6)
A polynomial functidri can be
bo + b1(x  a) + b2(x  a)2 +
where.
and
(6 )
It is also Common
to use the factorial notation
(5)
.10
!..
'
1 f(k)(a),
k!
211's
/
Example
x + 1.
EXpress
f ;
in terms of powers of
1 .
 (1)7
2 + 28x3,
f'
f"
x )84x2,
f:(4):
x = 1;
We have the successive derivatives:
fen
Since
3  2x + 7x
168x,
X 4 168.
we need to find the values of these functions when
we have
f(1)
fl(1)
12;
b0 =
30;
b1 =
84;
b2 =
f"(1)'f
0!
1
1,
X,(30)
30
x 84...42
ft"(1) =  168; b3 =
J4)(1) = 168; b4 =
X 12 x 12 ,
x (168) ._28
1.
x (168)
= 7
Thus, we can write
,
;ret 12  '30(x + 1) + 42(x + 1)
cs,
 28(x + 1)3 +Y6cr 1)4.
The same result can, of course, be obtained by synthetic division. .(See
Exercises 211, No 6.)
,0000!%.
ti
183
193
211
Cs.
Ecercises 21a:
fi
1.
hai/e?.
2.
degree,pdlynomial functibn'
nth
How many nonzero derivatives can an
If we write a fifth degree polynomial function in the form
f
x b0
then
+ b (x  a) + b (x a)2 + b bc6 a)3+ b 4 (x  04
1
3
= k
'b
What is the valueof
f(5)(a)
a)5,
5
k?
5
3.
e,
and again consider the nine.
We.rel:leat Tertsof Number 11 of, Exercises
tion
We submit a table to show three successive synl
f : x +X 3 , 3x.
.and resulting quot ients by,
f(x)
thetic Divisions of
73
'2
1
1
l'
1.
8
9
(a)
Determine
g(x)" and
f(2)
if
f(x) = (x,
(b)
Determine
p(x) and
g(2)
g(x) = (x
(c)
Determine
p(2)
and
q(x)
2)g(x) + f(2).
if
2)p(x) +.g(2):
if
p(x) = (x  2)q(x) + p(2).
(d)
(e)
What is
q(2)?
Show that, for all
x,
we can write
f(x)'= (x  2)((x  2)((x  2)q(2) + p(2)] + g(2)) + f(2).
(f)
Using the results of parts (a) through (e) of this problem determine
A, B,.C,
and
if, for all
x,
1
f(x)= x3  3x = A(x  2)3 t B(x  2)2 + C(x  2) + D. .
(g)
Find the first, second and third derivatives of
x3 73x.
'1
(h)
TI,vluate
(1)
Evaluate
f(2), f'.(2), f"(2), :and
'f(2)
0'.
(.3)
f'(2)
'
f"1(2).
ftst(2)
f"(2)
and
.3!
'
Compare the results, cir parti (f) and (i)
a
.
14.,,'Consider the functions
4
G.
. 3x
x3
42
42 + 9(x  2)
x 42
,.9tx
x 4
+ 9(x
 2)
+ 6(x
+ 6(x
2)2/
2)2
+ 1:(x
2)3.
(a)
Find the value of each of these functions when
(b)
What, quadratic function best ,repreents the cubic function
G
(c)
x3
3x.
near the 'point where
What fiction as)
x = 2?
).
as the best linear approximation to
near
=2?.
the point where
"(d)
x = 2.1.
What function se4yes as the best quadratic appr.oximation to
near the' point : where
(e)
x = 1?
What .function serves as the best quadratic approximation to
near the point where x= a?
5. F.'ind
the first four derivatives of each of the following functions
(O.
(C)
x.
xx
1
,5
3
#
7.!
x4
X2
4,x
14
9
xx 11
+ 9!
x6
11?
x10
.e
6.
.(a)
Compile a table similar' to Number 3 toindicate four successive'
4
synthetic divisions of 7x  2x + 3 by x + 1.
00
Use. the table of part a) to. write
Of' powers'of
+ 1.
47x4
 2x
+3
in terms
Compare your result with the result of
Example 2=11ab.
.185
195
w.
.4
,
Write the functions which give the best lineal:, quadratic and cubic
k
7
apprdximatiohs to the'graph of f : x Ox  2x + 3 near the point
(c)
.
.,
(,1,12).
(d)
us
7.
..
At the,Point
(1,12). isth6 graph, of
the graph.of
Is
rising or falling?
f/tpted upward or downward near the point .(,1,1_2)?
Show that the third derivative of the function
2
f
x >ax
'
/
p 0
+ bx t c,
is the. zero function,.
r
'
.90
tb
196
is
Chapter 3
4
CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
Unlike the polynomial functions we have considered in the first two
41apters certain functions have the property that their function values repdat
themselves in the same order at regular intervals over the domain.
having this property are called periodic.
Functions
Included in this important class
are the circular (,trigonomerc) functions.
0
The simplest'periodia motion is that of.a wheel rotating on its axle.
Each complete turn of the 4heel brings it back tp the position it held at the
beginning. After a point of the,,wheel traverses a certain distance in its
path about the axle, it returns to its initial position and retraces its
course again.
The di
ante traversed by the point to a complete cycle o1' lts
motion is aga' a period, a period measured in units of length instead of
unity of time.,
If it should hipPenthat equal lengths are traversed in equal
times, the Fotidn becomes periodic in time as well and the wheel can be used
as a a1 ock .4
The model of a wheel rotating provides a basis for our definitions of
the sine and cosine functions, whose values are defined as the second and
first coordinates', respectively, of points on a circle of radlus one.
'
These.
definitions are compatible with those of ratios of sides of right triangles.
By defining the sine and cosine, functions 1.n terms of a unit circle, their
periodicity is immediately evident'.
Furthermore, we can use the geometric
properties of circlesto obtain the properties and graphs of these circular.
functions (Sections 31, 32, 33).
These definitions and'results are applied to uniform circular motions
.
('such as rotating wheels) in Section 334.d The basic addition formulas are
e
deriv4 in'Section 35, again by making use of the geometry of circles.
.
These
'Rre
applied in the next section to the study 6f pure_weves, the simplest type
.
..
vof periodic motion, 'While the final section points toward some of the ways.
114044 lle. lrcular functions can be used to analyze more general periodic
phenomena*.
se.
3:87
.
tg
197
Sine and Cosine Functions
31.
We assume that.you have0some familiarity with the sine and cosine functions, so that much of the material in this chapter is review.
You may have
previously defined
ese functions in terms of ratios of sides 9y right trip
angles.
nstead, to define the sine and cosine as functions of arc
We prefe
length on a circle.
The usual angular definitions in terms, of degree measure
.ment can be obtained frot our dvfinitiou by a suitable change of scale.
.definitions, in terms of the circle, have two great atyantages:
. Our
first, we
can easily read off many properties of sine and cosine from pr,,pperties, of the
circle;
second and more important, our choice of scale will simplify our
dtZferentiatiOn formulas.
For convenience of definition we use the Aide With center at the
1;, the unit circle whose equation is
origin and radius
2
u
+.17
m
The circumference, of the unit circle is
= 1..
21t
units.
For any real number
We measure 'x
units around this circle heginnif at the point
(1,0). If x
4
is positiv4 we meaeure ina counterclockwise direction and if x is negative
we measure in a clockwise direction.
coordinatts
nate of P
(u,v)
We obtain in this way a 'paint
on the circle given by
is called the cosine of
'is called the sine of
x.
u, +
= I.
P with
The first coordi
while the second coordinate of P
(See Figure 31a,and 3 lb.)
14
Note that x > 0' and we
measure in a counterclock:Wise direction, obtaining
with
= cos 8,
P(11,v)
v = ain 3
ii
ylgore 3la
14.
40 3'
31'
Note that x.< b, arid we '
measure in a clockwise
'direction, .obtaining P(u,v)
with u = cos(rl), v = sin(1).
Figure 3lb
Two functions, cosine and sine (abbreviated
cos sand
sin), are defined
as follows:,
cos
: x
sin
= cos x = the first coordinate (abscissa) of
(i)
The values of
= sin x = the second coordinate (ordinate) of
cos
sin
and
P.
are easily obtained in certain cases:

,For example, referring tQ Figure 3 lc, we see that'since
P' is the point
(1.,0),,, we have, by definition
cos 0 = 1
and .sin 0 = O.
Since the unit circle hascirculdiference
2v
vf4110
units we can measure
2v
units
around (in either'direction) to obtain again the point P. of Figure 31.
Thus
cos 2v =' cos(2v) ='1.
sin 2,
= sin( 2n)' = 0.
'74.!
This point
has coordinates
'(l4)
(1,0)
To meahlre 2v units
around fran P, returns
us to P.
Figure 31c
189
199
31.
To traverse onefourth of the way around, the unit circle is to thrive
,
thro'gn
2y
2
x =  we'have
units. Thusif
'
with coordinates
(0,1),
at
so
a
Ise
cos
x =
if
 then we get
with coordinates (0,1),
P2
cosy(*
(See Figure371d.)
sin
= 0, sin(
sO that
T 1.
A Figure 31d
d
Further calculations are indibated at the end of this sectibn a d in
the exercisei.
0 .
1
The sine and dosine are often defined in terms of ratios of sides of
right triangles.
In Figure 3 le, the sine and cosine of angle' AOB
defined by
AB
sin LAOB 2
opposite
hypotenuse
cos LAOB'
ad acen
_,OB'
OA
hypoten se
OA
(2)
hypotenuse
opposite
adjaceht
.4,
Figure 3le
are
31
44.
To relate these definitions to our,YiarlierIones, we can place the
u and
axed as shown in Figure 31f, letting ,.x
denote the.distance along the circle
trom:,R(1,O)' to
P' are
P.
The coordinates of
(cos x, sin x).
Figure 31f
Whether
OA > OP
(as shown)or
OA < or,
ccsrx = OQ a
we(have, by similar triangles that
.0B
cos aoB
and
AB
OA
.
Ms the angle
AOB
LAOB.
f
corresponds to an arc of length
and
cos x
and
are respectively
sin x
cos LAOB
and
sin LAOB.
The right,tNengle definitIonS are somewhat restrictive as the angle
AOB must always be between the zero angle and aright anglerthatis, the
arc length x must be between
and
such restriction and ertle us ta define
number
x.
Our definitions (1) involve no
in x
and
cos x
for itU real
Thus (1) gives us anaaturain extension of the definitions (2).
t
1..
31
"N.
Angular Measure
It is also common practice to measure angles in degrees`.;
is established by dividing the circle into
angle
Degree measure
equal units, measuring an
360
AOB 'f/ the number of units of arc it includes. For example, if
includes
1
;.
LAOB
of the circumference wt would say that the angle measures
X 3600 = 60
We can also measure angles by grs length.
Note that LAOB determines
the arc length x units
(on the unit circle).
(1,0)
ti
Figure 31g
In Figure 31g angle
.
+ v
= 1.
cuts off an arc of length
We say that
a measures
units.
x on the circle given by
Thit type of measure is
Called radian measure, its unit being called .Qkradian.
illustrate an angle of
.1
Figure 31h we
radian.
).
No 'measures
radian.',
oMINowli
Figure 31h
192
202
A moment's'''tchaug
measure.
tndicates the relationship between radian and degree
Cleeti.ly, if the radian measure of an angle is doubled, the degree
measure also.doubles.
The same result is Qbviously true for halving, tripling,
etc:
In general, we have that the degree measure M
,y directly croporticV1 to the radian measure
of an angle a is
Thus.
M = kx
."'
where
Since M= 360
is constant:
when
x = 2n
we have
;360 = k(2n)
l70
ao we must have k = 77 .
Thus
It
We thus
180x
radials corresponds to
(3)
degrees.
cc that degree'meksureis obtained from radian measure by changinE
scale.
.
We note the following cqnsequences.of (3).
'
(4)
'
180 ,
 a 57.296
radian corresponds to
lib
degrees
r"
degree corresponds 'Co I7 = 0.01745
11
radians.
In working with radian Mea,Sure,,it is customary simply to write, for
example,
S.
When we mean 3 ,radians.
use the degree symbol, such As
Example 3We see 't
11
corresponds to
we measure
radians.
745 X'990
90 0, 45 0, etc.
sin 00.
Evaluate
t ,990
11
With degree musipc we shall always
,units around the unit circlq in
a counterclockwise direction.
= (27t) '47
If we
3a
2
we indicate two times arbund the circle
urn, suggesting arritpl at
plus a
the point
Thus
(0,1).' (See Figure 310
sin 9900
'.
ni
31

Example 3 lb.
If
n'
is any multiple of
determine 'COS x
and
sin x.
3 '
Solhion.
to an angle, of
OQP
The arclength 60 .
7 th
of a circle and hence corresponds
:.
At Figure 3ij shows we thus know that_ angles
are equal and hence that
 and
has length
OR
PR
ioQ
and
herd length.
p (_._
it
p (.1
1 2'
1,0)
 12
(
2' 2
Figuge 31k
Figure 31J
s'fb.?
Thus
P (1,0)
has coordinates's,'
cos
Measurements of
2n
TY
3n
.a
1.
4n as
and An
,;
f 7 f QJ f
give the respective points
P2
P3, P4,
of Figure 31k., The coordinates of thqse points are easily.found using
6.
the same techniques as above. This gives us enough information to find nos x
13
5)
**and sinx. for
n.
x any integer multiple of
find
for example, if we wish to
cos(111),
we obsel..ve that
.,.
.
1n

57(
3'
We measu
point
P2.
in 4,pinckiwise d4eCtion first' 5y
then,  units to obtain the
3
Thus
cos(
1.6fn
)
1
,
the first coordinate (abscissa) of
2.
Throughout our'discussion we make use of the facts that.
f. ( 9
sin(x  2n} = sin 'x
cos. (x  2n) = cos x
The general'form is stated
(5) inSectiod 32.
298 4
J
I;
31
A
Exercises 3la
1.
Change the following radian measure to degree measure.
(a)
8g
2.1r
(g)
18g
(b)
(c)
(h)
27t
(a);

(e)
4
2v
(r)
'5.;1JEAAela.following degree measure to radian measure.
(a)
270
'(b)
.30o
(g)
810.
(h) :190
(C)
135 f
(a)
(i)
18
la
{3)
o.4
60:
195
(k)
1620
(f)
105
(2)
180
Express the following radian measure, in terms of the smallest positive
angle:'
(a)
What'is the sula of the measures of'the angles of aAriangle?,'
of a'rectangle?
0
(b)
Given:'4'a polygon of
of the interior angles?
(c)
What is the sum of the measure
of the exterior angles?
The smaller of the two angleS between the hands of a clOck at:
11:30
(d)
sides.
has ameasure of
Over which part of a radiate. does the mi
in. 15 'minutes?
in
25
to hand of a clock move
minutes?'
.e
(e)
itoW many radians does the minutehand
sweep out in 1
2 ,
in
hrs.
50. Min.?
e
195'
205
it
.,
hours?
31
44
Give the coordinates of the point on_the'unit circle corresponding to
$
3000
'(c)
.(a)
A
(b)
12000
15g
(d)
Express each of the following angles in terms of a positive angle
5.
.
(a)
0 and
between
radians.
2g
16
13 g
4
(b)
7 g
11
17
(d)
3n
(,/.
6.
'W4te two equivalent expressions for each of the following angles in
o4
terms of
(i)
(iii)
n (2g)' +
integer,
lal < 2g
n (g)
+a
integer;
kd <
n (2)
+a
integer,
jai <
2
28g
241v.
'5
In
,
7..
1..
(a)
2gg
12
lN
:Extending the information readily
available from the
306090P
tri6ngle in Figure 3,13, find
cOs x
and
sin x
for
x,
by drawing a
multiple of
2
unit clrcle similar to the one
to the Fight and labelling the
a,
coordinates
For
(cos x, sin x).
91, Q2,
9i2
(similar
to,ngure 3 lk)."
O.
'eco
(b)
Which of these points duplicate multiples of
IL
in Figure 31k?
3
(c)
.,
Whiich of the points
multiplies of
Qi, Q2,
9.
.44
196
.2013
411.2
have coordinates for thee
31
Since
(d)
is midway between
and
you can deduce
conjecture whether or not
cis T by averaging the value of
cos ;
and
cos
y
?
' Can you make a general statement about reading off values of such
A
functions fromthe drawing
it
91
it
cos
41 &)S
3
4 ,
ta)
Using re'ationships betWeen the
sides of a
find
454590
cos x
sin x
and
a multiple of
1.d
triangle,
for
x,
by drawing
a unit circle similar to the one
to the right and labelling the
cc.
(cos x, sin x)
coordinates k
,Ki, K2,
for
eee, K8.
(b)'
'ro4 this circle read off,the following values:
(,1)
sin 4:1
(2)
cos
11
(3). sin 41
JAI. _cos
(5)
(6)
cos 135
(7)
sin 315
(8)
cos (225) .
72
sin (  21f).
' (9) sin (135)%.
(10)
it 0 7
cos (3 .360+ 45)
./
31
a
Using the coordinates of the point
indicated on the unit circle to t
right answer the following:.
(a)
Find the value of
sin
&51
sin
sin
cos
COS
COS
v
;
14
v.
.
Wat is the relationship
between
.and
sin
ir
sin 5
sin
v
IT
cos
V
.
and
v
cos ;.1?
and
cos
&/..
In this first qpadrant, what is the sign of the sine? of the cosine?
(b).
Find the value of
of
sin
5v
of
sin iT,,
an1_ d_of
sin 7 ;
of
cos
and,of
cos'
5n
cos 76
2v
3n
,3n
7
2v
3
In this second quadrant, what is the sign of the sine?
of the
cosine?
Find the value of
sin
7v
of
0.
5v
sin 17
4
andof
and of. cosIT
sin T ;
of,:
cos
of
4v
cos
In this third quadrant,, what is_thesighiofthe sing?
cosine?
(d)
ofithe
Find the valde of
of
11v
sin g ,
cos
11v
,
of
sin
of
cos
7v
,,,
7n/
5v
and of
sin
and of
cos i..
t. 57(
',
In this fourth'quadrant, what is the sign of the sine?, of the
cosine?
198
203
31
(e)
(i)
In which quadrants Wsi/le positive?
(ii)
In which quadrants is cosine positive?
(iii)
In which quadrant is,shie persitive and co'ine negative?
sine n gative?
sine nega.tive. and cbtine positive? ,bot
cos ne negative?
positive?
both
negative?
10.
(a)
What are the coordinates of
P,
indicated onthe,cii:cle to the
right, if the circle has a radius
of
(b)
l?' 2?
R?
1:47::T?
What are the coordinates'pf' T,1
indicated on the circle to the
right, if the arc measure is
and the radiug is
2?
7?
11. 'Given a circle of radius 1:
An arc which measures
length
radian has
radians
radian has
1;
.an 9, which measures
has length
x?
Given a circle of:Adius
An arc which measures
length
R;
an arc which measures x, radians f
has length
(a)
T
xR.
Shona by similar triangles that the length of the arc is proportional
C
to the measure of tp,earp,.,and the constant of proportionality is
the radius, or
s = Rx
9V 9
31
Hi The minute hand of a clock is
far does its tip travel,in ''1.5
(c)"A Circle has a radius of
measures
60 ?
inches long:
inches.
15
Approximately ho\
minutes?
How long is the arc which
72 0?
(d)1 What, is the radius of the
circle to the right if the
AB
measure of
is
and the length of
A
(1)
AB
is
in.
in.
(ii)
3
(iii)
10 in.
(iv)
(v)
(e)
3x .in.
What is"the radius of a circle if the measure of
the length
(f)
in.
of AI
x?
is
If an arc of length
2x?
12.
is
x,
lOx?
has a measure of
of an arc of a semicircle?
Al,
14 ,
what is the le gth
of onethird of the circumference
From geometry we know that.ip any circle the areas, of tw
sectors 0
a,
circle are proportional to the measures of their arcs; for example:
lea 'sector AOB
Area sector AOQ
x
'
AOB =
i.e., Area sector
2x
R x
Ir
Li
C
2002:14),
..
, r
31
(a)
This formula can be restated in this way:
In a given circle the area of a sector
AOB = constant x arc measure
AB
the constant of proportionality,
.1
or
A = kx,
k,
is
where
that'is,
2
ac
What is this constant of proportionality for a circle, of radius
2? 4?
(b)
1?
Ih a circle of radius
a,
if a given arc has axeasure
m,
what is
the area of the sector?
(c), In a given circle, how is the area of a sector 'affected if the arc
'
(d)
measure is doubled?
halved?
tripled?
In the beginning of this problefwe stated that the area df sector
AOB
is proportional to the arc measure.
AOB
sector
Obviously, the area of
is also proportional to the arc.length.
What is this
constant of proportionality?
(e)
Wha4.is.the area of a sector of a circle of radius
the'arc of the sector is
(f)
(0
inches long?
tripled?
Illustrate (6) geometrically; that is, show
sin (x 2n) = sin x
cos (x (b)
inches if
How is the area of the sector affectedif the arc length is doubled?
halved?
13.
12
18
= cosix.
ShoL that
sin (x . +"2n
= Sin x
cos (x + 2n 7r) = cos x
where
an integer.
20r
4
4.1
The Use,S Tables
In a separate bookletewe give tables of approXimate values of
sin x' for decimal values A
and
up to
,x
1.60
cos x
which.is slightly more
than
(The number
x,
of'course, represents the measure of
on the unit mircle, iie., radian measure.)
arc length
More complete tables: tables in
terms of degree measure and tables for converting from radian to degree mea.
aUre are also foundvin the Booklet of Tables.
t,
The ,following,examplesindicate some of the ways of using these tables:
Example" 3 lc.
Find, sin .73
and
cos .73.
We simplyrel;d from the tables the values
sin, .73
.6669
cos .73 0 .7452.
Exarti le 31d.
sin 6.97
Find
cos 6.97.
and
e our tables do not include
6,97,
we do knew that
t
sin x.=sin(x.  2v)
and
cos x = cos(x  2v).
.
Using
6.28,
'11e. have
sin 6.97 p sin .69 0 .6365.
and
cos .69 0 .7712.
cos 6.97
Exam
e 31e.
Find
41
sin
,
Using
v ss 3.142
we have
v
ei
0 .524.
The tables t Lve
.tz
sin .52:0 .4969
sin .53 0 .5055
,,Interpolatin , we obtain
sin .524'0 .4969 + 10 (.5055  .4969).
202
.2 i 2 d;
31
.5003.
sin
Therefore,
Oficourse, we can observe'that
'1i (radians) corresponds to
and.read the result
30 0
tin i
_1
 2.
from Figure 3 12.
.3
'4
Example 3 1f.
Find
x.r..1<1 that
0 < x <
and
sin x
.885o.
From the, tables we see that
sin 1.08 ;4
.8820
and
sin 1:09 Ps .8866.
Interpolating we get
x
Example 31E.
Find
1.08 +
30 ,
(.01)
1.0865
sin 2:
Referring toFigure 3 lm we see that
1
14,7!.
sin `2 = sin (It  2)
\I\
t
q sin (3.14  2)
= sin 1.14
.9086
'Figyre 3 lm
203
.
31
sin 100.
Find
sin 100 is,located
.To find where the
on the unit crcle,we ask how Many times
2v
divides
7=
"
guess that
2v p_6.21g3
Since
100.
100
In, fact'
lo.
16 x 6.283 m 100.528,.
16 x 2v
100 = l6 x 2v  .53.
P
that point
so that
We show (Figure 371n)
sin
100'
units around the
100
is
we
Ptcos 100,sin :00)
unit circle (counterclockwise) from ,(1f0)
or
.53
units short of
16
653.
revolutions.
The tables give
sin.:53'm :5055
'Figure 32n
4
in 100 m sin .53 m
Find
Example 31i.
Since there are
plus
.2.p
We have
in one revolution,we write
Five and onehalf counterclockwise revolutions
,.
gives a point on the unit circle
20o  into the third quadrant..
2000 = 5 x.360 +
0
360
cos 2000. 
;
x 360 + 20.
o.
cos 2000 = cos 200,= cos(180 + 20) =,cos 200.
We use the ;'
table of No. 5 of Exercises 371b to find that
cos 20 m .914C).
radian tables we first note that '20, corresponds to
To use our
.35. (approximately)
s6 that
cos 2000
0.9394.
.,,
o
o.
204
21,4
e
'31
Exercises 3lb
For problems 14 2, 3, 4
Find sin x
1.
(a)
0.73
(b)
5.17
when
is equal to
x
41
(c)
1.55
(d)
6.97
2y .1 6.28)
(Hint:
and, .
(a)
sin x
0.i098
(c)
sin x
(b)
cos x a 0.9131
(d)
cbs'x v. 0.5403
Using
3.
cos x
x ,when 8 < x <
Find
2.
and
use Table 3 in the Booklet of Tables
0.6518
314, .approximate the following, interpolating where
necessary.
11
(a)
s;in
37
(c)
sirf 11.5'
(b)
cos :IT
5
(d)
cos 417
Find' x
where
0.< x< 1.57
4.
(a)
sin x = 0.2231
,(c)
sin x = .8714
Cb)
cos x = 0.7135
(d)
cos x =..1759
.
,:.
5.
Bela/ is a table giying values of
in degrees, .Sin'x
and
dos x
sin x
Pi
and
90
cos x
for angles between
read from the top and left, sin x and
45
and
cos x
are read froi the bottom and right.
hen x
0
and
is given
459,
are
for angles between
For example,
20 = cos 70p = 0.342.
4
4444016,
2sinc'x
0
COS' x
00.
50
10
150
20
Yr
0.000
1.000
0.087
0996
0.174
0.985
0.259.
0.966
0.342
0.940
":"
25.
0.423
300
0.500
35
0.574
40
0.643
0.766
45
0.707
0.707
''01.90e
o.866
vt
Using.4the table above find the valiteof the following:
6.
(a)
sin 75
(c)
sin .!;80?
(b)
cos 140
(d)
cos( 460)"
Using the table itTNumbCr 5, find two values for
in degrees
0 < x < 360.
(a)
lin x = 0.574
(b)
cos x = 0.643.
sin x = 0.8194
(0I
(d)\ cos x =*0.087.
1
A/
\
\
4
.4
a
11.
2'06
ro
VI*
!%
32
'32.
Properties of the Circular Functions
We have defined the circular functions,
arc length along the unit circle
+ v
cosiie
= 1.
bymeasuring
In this section we der've
perties.
v
....,
The valu 11111cos x
sine,
Many properties of these two
functions are'easily derived 'from this &efinition.
a few of these
and
and
P(cos x, sin x)
sin x
were defined as the coordinptes (cos x,
sin.x).:0 a point
u
,%2',.
11,
. 1
on 'the circle
such as in Figure 32a.
Therefore, the coordina,tes.of
must
u
satisfy this equation, that is:
(1)
.cos
+ sin. x =1
4
This identity will often be useful.
We have followed the usual convention
'of writing
(cos x)
2 '
,
cos
in
Figure 52S
x
x
rathen.then
rather than
(sin x)2.
Since a square is never negative it f011ows thatCOS*.2AX
< cos2
x,
NI sin
and
sin
x < cos
x + sin
x.
Combining j.hese with (1.) givesfthe two inequalities
. cos
x < 1
and
sin2 x < 1,
Ns
which can be rewritten as
1 < cos x <1 and
(2)'
1 < sinex < 1.
Another_covequence of (1) which will be useful in our approximation
disddsslons in the next chapter is the inequality
1%40.
(3)
0 < 1  cos x <
4
2c2
x2
2
e
32
o
*4,
To establish (3) we uses the familia_r distance, formgla to get (in Figure
32b) the distance from 15 to Q:
'
sin2
 cos /C)
P(cos x, sin .x)
As.
....
Figore 32b
'''.3."`
...(
.;
s,rjee,the short e4distance Letween two
.
Thus
points is measure along the straight i&ne joining tl4kit.4
A..
This distance can lit exceed
lx10,
'
Scluating
/(1 1 cos x)
'
 sin2 x < lx)
cos x),
and th en multiplying out
/ t
4.
gives;
2
2
2 cos x 4 cos x 4 sin x < x2,
and .hLnce (1) gives:
.
" 2 cos'
' x < x2 .
2%
4111* 0.41400
Di
0< 1
2
2, we get 1  cos x < 7 ., jioting tkt cos x <
xviding
by
cos x, we complete the proof of
.
(3)
..
X2
0 < 1  CO s X <
7 2
2082
s8
and hence
,
auk
...
32
Periodicity and.Related Results
t.
Thee are several formulas which
relate the values
sin x
at different points.
and
'
cos x
For example, if
we traverse the unit ..circle #2g,
units,
we.arrive at our initial position, since
the circle
+ v
= 1
(See Figure 32c)
2g.
has circumference
Thus we have
sin (x + 2g) = sin x
'(4)
cos (x + 21) = cos
Figure 32c
Functions which repeat their values at equal intervals are said to be
periodic.
In general, if there is a number, a > 0
stichthat
o
f(x + a) = f(x)c for all
then we say that
and_ cos
f' is periodic with period
are periodic with period
sin (x + 4rt
'21c.
a.
x?
Thus the functions
sin
As consequences of (4) we have
= sin ((x + 2g) + 2g)
sin (x + 2g)
=sin x
and
.
sin (x  2g) = sin ((x  2g) +'2d)
= sin x
.Infect, for.any'integer
nl we can make the general statements
4:7
sin (x + 2ng) = sin x
(5)
cos (x + 2nd) = cos x.
Other useful formulas can be "read qff" from the properties of the unit
circle given by
+ v
,
,
= 1.
For example, the points'
are symmetric with respect to the uaxis.
Apnd *(u,v)
Consequently, we'see (Figure 32d)
that
cos (x) = cos x
sin .(.J1) = sfn x
209
(u,v)
32
has coordinates
(cos X, sin x)
Q has coordinates
(cos(x), sin(x))
Figure 32d
Using the unit circle we can also derive the two familiar formulas:
,g
sin(  x) = cos' x
2
(7):
cos(1  x) = sin x
2
It Figure 32e triangle
congruent to tr angle
Then
P(u,v) an
related so that
OQS."
Q(u1,v1)
U = v1
and
OPR
is
(Why?)
are
y= 91
It follows that
cos x = Oi = QS 7sin (i  x)
and
sin x = PR = OS = cos (i  x)s.
'
'210
229
Ji
32
The useful formula
cos x = sin (x +
.
Q
dan also be derived,by geometric arguments using the unit circle.
Here we
,derive it Using (6) and (7), as'foll9ws
cos x = cos(x) = sin
( ;x)]
= sin (x +
We have given but a sample of the relationships which can be derived' from
the unit circle.
Other such results will be derived in the exercises and, as
we naed them, in SeCtions 35and
ti
221
211
32
, Exercises 32
1.
Using
f(x + 2nsc) = f(x)',.
f(31)
(a)
and
x cos x,
.1
find
f(?5671)
(e)
f(171c).
(f)
f(_ 121.c.)
2; If
3.
find the values of t in Exercise 1 above.
xj
'f
For what values of
(if'any) will
(a)
sin x = cos x?
(b)
sin x = cos x?
(c)
sin x = sin (x).?
(a)
cos x = cos (x)?
0,,m401101(
USe the fact that
Hint:
(cos x,. sin x)
repi.esents a point on the
unit circle.
4.
(a)
of
cos e
are reciproc als
csc e
sin e, 'respectively, show that the expression
and
sec e
sec e  csc e
(b)
sec 6 and
Using only the definition that
is identically equal to
sin
sin e  cos e.'
Adding to the definitions of part "(a) the definitions that
tan e
A#
is
(1)
sin e
cos 9
and .cot e
tan e + sec e
sin e c6t.8
can be changed
1 + sin e
cos
show that
to
tan 9.
4
show that the expression
to
(ii)
is the reciprocal of
1 + cot e
csc e
1 + tan e
sec e
and
can both be changed
sin e + cos e ; and
show that
sin e csc e,
are all equal to
cos 8 sec e,
and
tan 9 cot e
1.
212
222
a
3'2
5.
(a)
Formula (1)
sin
e + cos
e = 1 can be used to an advantage in
changing the form. of many trigonometric expressions. As_ing this
relationship,
show thdt
cos2 e
sin2
can be written as
2 cos
 1
or _1  2 sing 0;
(ii)
show that
(iii)
shOW that'
2 csc
tan e+ cot e
can be expressed as csc e
cos 0

1  cos e
can be expressed as
1 + cos e
and
0;
(iv)
show thEZt'Qth
cot
csc e
and
cos 61
are both equivalent to
sin
(b)
is simple to prove
sec 8  cos e
sin e cot e = cos e
and
cos e tan e = sin e.
(Why?). With these relationships, those of Exercise '(b)(iii), and
others developed earlier, prove the following:
6.
(a)
(i)
(1 ;lin2 0)seC2 e = 1
(ii)
(1  cos2 e)csc2 e = 1
(iii)
coe e (1.= cost e) = cos2 e
(iv)
eq2 e (1
cos2 e) = tang e
Starting
with the relationship
.
cally that
(b)
1 + tan
e = sec
sin
e + cos
2
e.
By considering iAT and.
the unit circle to the right,
prove geometrically that
1 + tang e = sec
DW
213
223
e = 1,
prove analyti
32
(c)
analytically that
(d)
1 + cot
proVe
sing e + cos2 e = 1,
2
Startitlg with the' relationship,
e = csc
e.
Adding the relationships posed as problems in parts a, b, c
to the
earlier ones discussed.
show that
(ii)
establish that
sec
(iii)
show that
identically
ct
1;
+ csc
is equivalent to
in two ways; and
sin
e kl
(1 + cot
9) + cos
Okl + tan
2
e)
is
2.,
sin(x + h)
 sin x < PQ.
From this restlt prove that
Isii(x + h)
Using the figure to the right
prove
(b)
'tan e
cot e
sec
e csc 2 0
always
(a)
sec e
cos 0
(1)
 sin(x) <1h1 .
.Again, using the, figure to the
right prire that
'cos( x + h)
P(cos x, sin(x)
cos( x) I < Ihl
and
are
Q(cos(x +7), sin(x + y))
indicated on the drawing to the
right.
(a)
By the use of similar tri %ngles,
read off the coordinates of
Q;
i.e., prove
cos(x + y) = cos x,
sin(x + y) =
(b)
and
x.
Similarly, prove
cos(y  x) = cos x,
sinfy
x) = sin x.
214
224
and
32
9.
(a)
Using the figure to the right
read off the coordinates of
to show that
Q'
cos(x
= cos x,
sin(x
(b)
y) = (sin
and
x.
Use formula (6) to extend the
results of (a) 'to show that
(i)
cos(x  y) = cos(y  x) = cos x,
and
(ii)
10.
sin(x  1)'=  sin(x  x). = sin x.
Read off the coordinates of
to show
cos(x + 71).= sin x,
2
sin(x +
,cos x.
f4
11.
Using the relationships (6)
(7)
(a)
prove
(b)
prove
(i)
 x) = cos x,
cos(x) = cos x, sin(x) = sin x;
cos(
 x) = sin x,
cos(x+ 2) = sin x;
cos(x + y) = cos
and
(ti) sin(x + y) = sin x;
(c)
prove
(i)
cos(x
411
y) = cosky, x)
cos x
(ii) sin(5V y).. sin(x  x)
)
P35
225
sin x
and.
1 2.The1 equality
phis /section.
0 < 1  cos x
< 7 was established as formula
By numerical substitution of various values of
(3) in
x,
let
us n w investigate this relationship
Using the table which gives the cosine of angles expressed in radian
measure, complete the following table.
X
1  cos x
cos x
(in radians)
0.1
0.15
0,36
0.5
'
0.6
Q.7
0.8
0:9
1.0
1,42
1.5
2
6
i
(b) ,From the completed table, conjecture for which values of
this
inequality is most usefUl.
13.
We know that the functions
cos x and
Find the period of the functions
(a)
sin 2x
(12)
sin x
2
(c)
cos 4x
(d)
cos 2.x
Show thqt the functions
than
2v.
2v.
x 4
14.
x )sinx have period
sine
and
cosine
216
226
have no positive period less
Ars,
33
33.
Graphs of the Circu
r Functions
The sine and cosine functions have been defined in terms of
arc length
on the unit circle give
functions, the graph
by ua,+ v
f these f
1.
As was the case for polynomial
tions prOvide another geometric device
for understanding their behavior.
At,this point for nonpolynomial functions
our primry procedure for graphing is the plotting of points.
Fortunately
we can make use of the results of the previous section to simplify pur procedures.
We first plot some points for
(1)
.y = sin x,
Tale" 33a lists some values of
0 < x < A.
'sin x
which were obtained in .the previous
These points are plotted in Figure 33a.
section.
Table 33a
,Values of
y = sin x
y = sin x
ir
1,
2
A
ig
= '71
If
74.,
3:
rt
2A
.17
3g
'V
2A 3A
3
2.1!:
b
87
2..
,e
I
17
..11
.71
"7
5A )*'::
1.
*6
Figure 353a.
Values of yt sin X) 4
plotted from Table 33a.
0
If we connect these points
with a smooth curve we obtain the graph shown in
Figure 33b.
A more com
'plete, picture can be obi
tained.using more points
but this will suffice for
rt
Figure 33b
o'ir present purl:loses.
217
t
)9
.33
Now we can make use of the properties obtained in the previous section
0 < x < yr.The, identity
to extend our graph beyond the interval

sin( x),= sin x
11
.(2)
',
_,
is' the
tells us,thatthe graph is symmetric with respect 1.o_the origin;_that
(Such a functionAl also
if it contains (x,y).
graph contains (x,y)
,
called an odd functtOn.
Later we shaIl show how toapproximate the sine
function by a polynomial function with o ly odd degree terms.)
t enables us to obtain Figure33c froM'Fi
Equation
re 33b.
n
We call this, one cycle of the
sine function.
Figure 33c.
sin x, n < x < n
Next we use the identity
sin(x + 2ng) = sin x,
(3)
which holds for all integers
graph shown in Figure 33d.
and all real numbers
x,
The identity states algebraically thatthe.graph
of,thesine function coincides.with itself under a tranalitionOf
nits'
2ny
.
(to the right if
7'
to obtain the
is A negative integer and to the left if
..,
tive integer).
't.
Figure 33d.
218.
y = sin x
228
n lea posi
{Arr.^ 4,
33
The gra'ph of the cosine function can be obtain
.
.
n.a ..aimilar. manner, ,
for we knowthat
(4)
44........=..=J ,0,,,,.,,
.
cos x = sin (x + 2) .
Thus we can picture a shift of the graph of thei;ine funcion
x
2
units to
ta graph of the cosine".functiolf.'
In Figure 33e we indicate this relationship by superimposing on the same
axes the graphs ig the sine and cosine functions.
cos
sin'
Figure 33e
Translation and Stretching
We havebbserved that the Cosine .functioh can be obtairied from the sine
A
function by translation;' This process generalizes.
The graph of
y = sin (x + C)
where C
of
is a constant is easily obtained by,suitsbly tratslating: *le graph'
y = sin x
33d)
ICI
on the xaxis.
units to
We can think of shifting the graph (in Figure
the right or left according
_is negative or posi
tive. For example, in Figure 33f we show the graphs of
y = sin (x 
under the .graph of
.tained from the graph of
y =
sin
y = sin
x,
3,=
in (x + 2) *and
to show how .each can be ob.
by an appropriate translation.
,.
r
219
.2 6
= qin(x + 2)
.....
.0"
....
Figure 33f
In Figure 33g we picture the graphs of
y = sin x,
y = 2 sin x,
and
y = sin 2x.
y =sin x
y = 2 sin x
y = sin 2x
"o
er,
Figure 33g
We can describe the graph of
y = 2
An
x ,ad being obtained from the graph of j
y = sin x by "stretching" each ordinate by
graph of
y = sin 2x
factor of
2,
and similarly; the
being obtained by.'"shrinking" each abscissa.
M33
The graph of
y = A sin (Bx + C),
called the general sinusoidal curve, can be obtained by combining translation
and scale change.
FQr example, to graph
(5)
y = 3 sin (2x + i)
we observe that
sin (2x + ir) = sin (2(x + V)
1
so,that the graph of (5) can be obtained from
graph
units to the left. The graph of
frorn'that of
y = sin x
5;16= 3 sin 2x
y = 3 sin 2x
by shifting the
can be obtained
by "stretching" each ordinate,by a factor of
"shrinking"4each abscissa by a factor of
2.
(See Figure 33114)
y = sin x
y = 3 sin 2x
1
y = 3 sin (2k + .11)
2
Figure 33h
ti
221
231.
.........
and
33

Exercises 2:1
For egth of the following, sketch the graphs bf the three equations on
one set of axes over the interval(s) indicated.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
'7.
0 < x
y = 2 cos x
(0)
y = 3 cos x,
(c)
y= 2
(a)
y = cos 2x
0 < x < 27'
(b)
y = cos 3x
O < x < 2v
(c)
Y = cos
(a)
y = cos (x
(b)
Y = cos ()
< x < 3v
(c)
y = cos (x +
7( < x < 37T
(a)
y = cos x
O < x < 2v
(b)
y = 2 q.b,rx
O < x < 2v
(c)
y = cos 2x
O < x < 27(
(a)
y = sin 2x
O <x<2n
0< X < 2v
COS X
0 < x < 2v
O < x < 47(
(b)
y = 2 sin 4x
(c)
y =
sin
< x < 37(
< x < 2v
O < x < 2v
ye= cos (x 
O < x <.47(
Y'= sin (x + 7t)
O<x
Y = 6os (x + 2)
O < x <_47(
(a)
y  1 = cos x
0.< x < 47(
(b)
y + 2
=sing
0 < x < 47(
(c)
y +
1t'in I
2x
< 476.
.0 < x < 47(
CJ
132
'V
2v
(a)
0,
33
8.
,P
(a)'
y = Isinxl
(b)
y o=
(c)
y = iisin
(a)
0 < x < 2vO < x <.2g
ilsin 2x1
4
5 xl
'
.9.
O <x <2n
= Icos xl
O < x < 2v,
.
'(b)
y = Isin (x  i)I
0 <.x
_ < 2v
10.
(c)
y = !sin (x  2)1
(a)
y = sin
(b)
y = cos
2
2
(c)
y = sin
IcOs xl
0 < x < 2v
0 < i < 2v
x + cos
0 < x < 2v
2
0 < x; < 2v
.s.
.
I
CO.
..;;:'
.J
tf
41,
A
'233
34
Uniform Circular Motion
34.
units pr second.
After one second
seconds
after
point
(r,0).
2s
omits away from
and similarly
P0;
st units
which is
P(u,v),
In Figure 34a we show a point
after
units from its starting
is
will be an arcdistance
P.
represent the initial position of
(r1,40)
0
will be an arcdistance s .units away from P0'
We let
will be an arcdistance
seconds I)
moves at the constant speed of
in the uvplane, and suppose that
around a circle of radius
Let us now consider the motion if a point
(measured clockwise if ,st > 0) around the circle given by
from P
+ v
= r
2
.
Figure 34a
We wish to describe the coordinates
the sine and cosine functions.
x
x
u
2
+ v = 1
of
(u,v)
Since we defined the functions
r < 1.)
We can express. these coordinates in terms,of
st
and
some constant factor
x
'k?
directly proportional to
if
crosses
instead of
x.
What
is doubled, tripled; halved, or multiplied by
What is
t.
OP
The line
Pi(cos x, sin x).
the unit circle at the point
happens to
r > 1,
(While we illustrate the case where
in Figure 34a.
and
x *sin x
in terms of a unit circle, we also drat the circle given by
our reasoning will also hold for the case where
in terms of values of
when
st = 2Ar? We know that
It follows that
224
23i
x.
st
is
is directly proportional to
34:
t;
that is, if
is a constant,
the cirdle given by
,st = 2nt
u2
x = 2o
we have
2
v
= r
When
x = kt.
then
has completely traversed
it follows that when
st = 2or;
(since the unit circle has circumference
units).
2o
Tthes.we have
,2or.
'2y = kk),
s
from which it follows that k =
Alternatively we could reason that
st
2o
we get
x = kt,
Since
kt
2n
st.
2or,
k =
whence we arrive at the same result:
To summarize we can say that the coordinates
(u,v)
at any time
seconds are given by
u = r cos (2)t
`r
'and
s.
v = r sin ()t.
k = r
The constant of proportionality
is called the angular velocity of
the measure of
w =
In
t, seconds
moves an arcdistance of
It is called angular velocity because
P.
POOP
central angle
is commonly. denoted by w and
(Figure 34a) may be written as
OP rotates through an angle measure of
st
units.
If we let w =
wt
as
we can write
u = r cos wt'
v = r sin wt.
When wt = 2y,
the point from Po
P will again be in the position
back into
Po
Po.
again is called a cycle.
This motion of
The time inter
val during .which a cycle occurs is called theperiod; in this case, the
perivd is
21
The number of cycles which occur during a fixed unit of
time is called the frequency.
We give a commonplace' example of frequency
when we refer to the alternating current in our homes as "60cycle", an
abbreViationfor "60' cycles per second." .
225
34
Consider the motion of a point
Example 34a.
.radius
3
Suppose that
in the uvplane.
units per second.
per second; the coordinates of
w'=
Since
u = 2'cos (i)t
2g
TT
the period is
2g
the angular velocity
P(u,v)
and
around a circle of
moves at the consta t speed of
units
are given by
'v = 2 sin (i)t;
and the frequency is
.4;7
To visualize the behavior of the point
the motion of the point
P
in a different way, consider
which is the projection of
Q
moves around the unit circle,
on the vaxis:
As
moves up and down along a fixed diameter
of the circle, and a pencil attached to
will trace this diameter4repeatedly
If, however, the strip of
 assuming that the paper is fixed in position.
paper is drawn from right to left at a constant speed, then the feribil will
trace a curve, something like Figure.34b.
4
Figure 34b.
Wave MotiOn
An examination of this figure,w111 show why motion of this type is called
wave motion.
We note,,that the displacement
position is functionally related to the time
tion
such that
we may have either
y = f(t),
y = cos wt
of
y
t,
from its central
that is, there is a func
By suitably"locating the origin of; the typlane,
or
y = sin at;
thus either of these equa
tions may be looked upon as desctlfoing a pure wave or, as it is sometimes
called, a simple harmonic motion.
The surface of h body of water displays a
wave Motion when it is disturbed. Anothet familiar example is furnished by
the electromagnetic waves used in radio, television, and radar, and modern
physics has even detected wavelike behavior of the electrons of the atom.
222
1:
A I.
34
One of the most interesting applications of the circular functions is to
the theory of sound (acoustics).
A sound wave is produced by t rapid alterna
tion of pressure in some medium.
A pure Musical tone is produced by any
pressure wave which can be described by a circular function of time, say:
(2)
p = A sin at
where
is the pressure at time
positive.
andthe constants
The equdtiot (2) for the acoustical pressure,
and
A
p,
are
!o
is exactly in
the form of one of the equations of (1) even thoUgh no circular motion is
involved; all that ocwirs is a fluctuation of the pressure at a given point
df space.*
Here the numbers
The positive Number.......Ae
and w have Asect musical significance.
is called the amplitude of the wave; ,it is the peak
pressure and its square is a measure of the loudness. 'The number
portional to the frequency and is .a measure of pitch; the larger
a)
a)
is pro,i,
the more
shrill the tone.
The effectiveness of the application of circular functionqlto the theory
of sound stems from the principle of superposition.
individually produce acoustical pressures
produce the pressure
the sum
+,p
pl + p2.
If
pl
has the same period.
pi
and
If two instruments
p
then together they
and p2 have a common period then
This is the root of the principle of
harmony; if two instruments are tuned to the same note,,thOy"will produce no
4o
strange new note when played together.
Let us suppose, for example, that two pute tones are produced with
individual pressure waves of the same frequency, say
u = A cos mt
v = B sin at
,where
and w are positive.
A, B
According to the principle of superposi, r
tion, the net pressure is
p = A cos at + B sin mt.
What does the graph of this equation look like?
We shall aqpwer this question
by reducing the problem to two simpler problems, that is, of kraphing (3) and
(4) above.
For each
t,
the value of, p
isobtained.from the individual
graphs, ,since
The acoustical pressure Is defined as the difference betwetn the gas
pressure in. the wave and the pressure of the gas if it is left unOisturbed.
227
37
34
u + v.
To' illustrate these ideas with specific numerical values in place of
and
w;
A, B
let
A = 3,
B = 41 vw =n.
Then we wish to graph
p = 3 cos,nt + 4 sin .nt.
(5)
Equations (3) and (4) become
(6)
u = 3 cos itt,
(7)
v = 4 sin nt.
By drawing the graphs of (6) (Figure 34c) and (7) (Figure 34d) on the same
set of axes, and by adding the corresponding ordinates of these graphs at
each value of
t,
notice that certain points on the graph of
nates.
You will
we obtain the graph of (5) shown in Figure 34e.
are labeled with their coordi
These are points which are either easy to find, or which have some
special interest.
'
;,.
0
2g
2"
Figure 34c.
311
Figure 34d.
Graph of
211'
Graph of '
v = 4 sin.gt.
u = 3 cos itt.
228
238
34
The points
(0,3), (0.5,4), (1,3), (1.5,4)
find since they are the points where either
and
(0.29, 5 )
(1.29,5)
u = 0
and
or
are the first zeros of ,p.
and zeros of
The points
v.2.0.
are important bqcause they represent the first
maximum and minimum points on the graph of tp,
(1.79 ,0)
are easy to
'(2,3)
(0.79, 0)
To find the maximum and minimum points
ipmplves:the use of, tables and herice we shall put off a dis
cussion of this matter until Section 36, although a careful graphing should
produce fairly good approximations to them.
V
,/
p,u,v
6
(0.29, 5)
5
(9.514)
4
ee
and
0.3)
(2,
%
%
3(
%
%
1
%
%
\'
i
%
%
i\
0.791
,
,
,
.r%
(1,3)
/2
il
/
\.
3
(1.79,0)
/A
1%
/11
45,4)
 5(1.29,5)
s. .
6
Tr
Figure 34e.
211
The sumof two pure waves of equal period.
Dashed curve:
u
Full curve: p =
are not the same
in order to shoW
= 3 cos yt. Dotted curve: v = 4 sin yt.
3 cos Itt + 4 sin yt;
0 < t < 2.
(The scales
on.the two axes; this distortion is intipduced
the detaili more clearly.).
'
229
239
34
1.
Exerciges 34
Sketch graphs A' each of the following curves over one complete cycle;,
. and state what the period is, and what the range is, if you can.
(a)
y = 2 sin 3t `
(b) 7 = 3 sin 2t
2.
(c)
y = 4 cos
(d)
y = 3 cos (x)
(e)
y = 2 sin x  cos x
(a)
Find the length of thdarc traversed when co = 3
(b)
(1)
t = 4
(ii)
tom= 2
Fora given w
t = to
(iv)
in a circle, how is the arc length affected
tripled?
Find the length of the arc traversed when w = 3g
ir
(i)
r = 5
(ii)
r =
if
t = 6
if the radius is doubled?
IIN
rs= 3,
3.
(iii)
r = 10,.
(iv)
r = R
if
t = 3
 *
/
(d)
For a given w and a givemtime, how is the arc length affected
if the radius is halved?
(e)
doubled?
,...
Find the length of the arc traversed under
.
o
(ii)
(iii)
..

5
(iv)
if
W ''.ia'doubled?
J.)
).
quadrdpied?
. _..
i
Foe the following, sketch and identify the
(i) period.
:.
('il)* location of maximum point(s) and
(iii)
minimum points. in this interval
(a)
y = 
(b)
y = 2 cos
221 sin 2x
(c)
0 < x < 2v.
y = 2Icos
.0
42.
If theotime is given and the circle fixed how is the length of the
arc affected if
cIS = g
(f)
r = 10:
0
.
(i)
4
; 230,
240
,),
34
4.
(a)
On one set of axes, using the same scale over the interval
0 < x < 2v.
(b)
Sketch the graphs of
(i)
y = sin X
(ii)
y = cos x
(i)
Using the sketches and the scale in part (a), sketch on the
same graph
(ii)
sin x + cos x.
From the graph of
y = sin x + coS'x,
conjecture the period,
and the maximum and minimum point(s).
(c)
(d)
(i)
Sketch y = I cos(x
using same scale as (b)(i).
(ii)
Sketch y =
using same scale as (b)(i).
sin(x
Compare the,graphs of (b) and (c).
Have you any conjectures?
tt,
to.
231
241
3,5
35
The Addition Formulas
In Section 34 we added the corresponding ordinates of the graphs of'
t ) 3 cos it
and
t.4 sin it
at each valve of
to obtain the graph
of
f
over the interval
0 < t < 2.
We could have obtained the graph of
easily if we had been able to express
f
nt
3 cos lit! 4, sin
t ) p
more
in the form
t )p = A sin (lit + a) .
In this section we shall derive formulas Which will enable us to show that,
for all real values of
t,
3 cos it + 4 sin it = A sin (lit + a),
where.
A = 5,
cos a = 11, and
sin a =
The formulas that we shall derive will also hepo us to discuss tangent
lines to the graphs of 4trcular functions and areas beneath them.
We begin by deriving the basic formula
cos (a  0) = cos a cos 0 + 'sin a sin 0. .
Q(cos a,sin a
cos 0,sin
o
"
V
AEI
4
To begin our deriva
(We,illustrate the case for whibhO < 0 <
tion we refer to Figure 3 5a.
P to
"
_ _
Yoll may have derived this formUla En an earlier course.
The distalde from
is
c
p.
232
2.4
35
PQ = Acos, 0  cos a)2 + (sin 0  sin a)2
(2)
444
We now use the principle that arplengthon a circle"depends only upon the
unit of measure and not on the choice of axes.
axes (Figure,35b), we see that
the coordinates
If we choose the
now has coordinates
(cos(a  0) ,sin(a  0))
(1,0)
and
u'
and
v'
has
Q(cos
0) sin(a
 0))
P(1,0)
Figure 35b
In Figure 35b the distance from P
to
is
PQ = 141 4os(a
(3)
05)2 + (o  sin(a ,,0))2
,
We,equate this with (2) and square both sidesto obtain
(Fos 0  cos a)'4 (sin 0  0110)2 = (1. coS(a 0) 12 + to  sin
0)12:
Expanding and regrouping, we get,on the left
!'
11
(cos2 0 + siri2 0)
cos2 a + sin2 a) '7, 2(cos 0 cos a + sin 0 sin a)
and oh the right
V._11.11,1
',1,4JcOs26Z 
sin (a 
233.
243
2 cos(a
 0) .
35
Sines, for all real
x,
sin
x + cos
we have
x = '1,
1 + 1  2(c6s a cos 0 + sin p sin a) = 1 + 1  2 cos(a  0).
Therefore, we conclude that (1) holds; i.e.,
cos(a  0) = cos a cos 0 + sin 0 sin a.
While we could use a similar argument to derive the formula for
we elect to use (1).
cos(a + 0),
Replacing
by
$
in (1) we have
cos(a + 0,)= cos(a  (0)
*.t
= cos a cos (0) + sin a sin(0).
.
...
cos(0) = cos 0
Sine
and, sin(0) = sin 0 owe have
....
..
( 4)
cos(a + 0) = cos a cos 0  sin a sin 0.
Earlier we showed that, for all real
sin x =, cos (  x)
(5)
and
x,
cos x = sin
 x).
We cap use (1) and (5) to obtain
sin(a + 0) = cos
 (a + 0)]
cos
a)
*CP
13]
St,
= cQs
 a)co
0 + sin (2  a) s in' 0
4
ox
)
sin(a + 0) = sin a cos 0 + cos a si
(6)
,Replacing
by
0 in (6) we. get
sin(a  0) = sin a cos 0
cos a sin O%
A
The following examplleshoW some of the many fordulas which can be
deril/ed froth the foregoing addition (sum and difference) formulas.
Show thatfor all real
,ExamPie 35a.
cos
(8)
We use (4) with a = 0 = x
2 .
x,
1 + cos 2x
2
to obtain'l
2
2
cos 2x = cob x cos x  sin x sin x = cos ,x  sin x.
1
Since
cos
x + sin
2
x '= r,'
can r,Oritee this as
11
35
cos 2x = cos
cos2 x
Solving for
x 
cos2 x) =2 cos2 x  1.
we ,get (18).
Show that for ali real
Example 35b.
sin (x +
(9)
= sin x + cos x
We use (6) with
a=
x,
to obtain
0 =
sin ,(x +
+ sin x cos,
) = cos x sin
r.
Since
x
n
cos '' = sin .=
we get
cos, x t sin x
sin (x +
sin x + cos x =
Thereforej
).
A slight generalization of this
processkyill be used in Section136 to rewrite. (from Section 34)
3 c s Itt +,4 sin nt
.
as
5 din Ott + a),
Example 35c.
(11)
cos
11.
sin
5'
a=
Show that for all,geal numbers
a, b,
and
sin ax cos bx = ifsin ((a + b)i) +,sin'((a  b)x)].
(10)
We let
'where
= ax
and
f5 = bx
to obtain
sin((a + b)x) = sin (ax +1'bx) = cos ax sin bx + sin ax cos bx.
go
Formula (7) gives:
(12}
sin((a  b)x) 4 sin (ax  bx) so sin ax cos bx, cos ax sin bx.
Adding (11) and (12) we get
sel((a + b)x)
'Dividing by
cos((a + b)x) = 2 sin ax cos bx.
we obtain (10):
235
: 245
fi
3 5
Exercises 2:21.
Show that for all real
sjn
(a)
sin 2x = 2
(b)
cos 2x = cos
x cos x
x  sin
= 2 cost x  1
= 1  2 sin
(c)
2.
si,2.
n x
Sketch
(a)
1.  cos 2x
2
and show that
(0 < x < 2n)
if
cos x + sin x =
sin (x
+ Ii) =
1ff cos (x 
*(b)
c os
if cos (x + p = 4
cos x  sin x =
4.
sin(x
li)
741)
I)
= ,r2 s in (x + 341)
3.
Using formulas (1), (14),
(a)
tan
.
(b)
(c)
tan
(a
r3)
(a
4.43'
tan
14.
tan
a
2
=
1 L tan
+ tan 0
tan (3
a
tan2 a
2 tan
1 
(d)
and Exercise 1 show that
tan a  tan 13
1 +'tan a tan (3
tan 2a 
(6), (7)
1 + co
1 'cos
sin a
sin a
1 + cos
Use the law of cosines to derive formula
Show that for all numbers
a, b,
(3).
and 'x
.01
(a)
sin ax sin bx =
c
21 cos(a,
b)x  cos(a + b)x]
1.
1.
(b)
cos ax cos bx = LcOs(a 2 b)x + cos(a
2
236 6
2 4:
,tt
4:.
b)x)
fi
it
"J
6.
Using any of the formulas developed in this chapter, find:
sin
(b)
;COS
(Hint:
12.
12
,0
21'
1
fl
lig
..
cos .15
(d)
Tr.
ir
(a)
..
.
7.
Using Iiriy of the formulas delloped in this chapter, show that for all
values where the functiondare defined the following are identitiesj
cos4 e  sin4 e = cos 2e
(a)
tan e + sin e
2 tan e
tos2 31 e
2
(b)
1
1
%2
(sin a
+ cos a
2
,
(c)
1 + sin a =
(d)
(sin e' +, cos e)
(e)
sin 2e _
2 tan e
+ tan
+ cos e
sin e
()
8.
= 1 + sin 2e
sin e
1.+ cos e
sin
You derived the formula:
cos 2x = 2 cost x
Solve this for
(a)
cos
function of
1.
thus expressing
cost x
as a linear
2x.
Consider
(b)
cos4 x
as
(cost x)2
and. by theiame methods as used
, ,
in (a) show that
4
cos . x = 5.0 +
x,,..derive the formula for
x:
.
1
(''''''
..,_._..,
Thin
(..
,..
cos 2x + cos' 4x) .
cos 2x = 1  2 sin
9. "Using the forthulEi
sin
._
1,
,.
or
x = 513  4 cos12x+ cos.4x).
f,
237
4.7
T
35
10.
"
that is, they are true for all
Show that the f llowing are identities:
values for whi
(a)
sin 2e co
(b)
sin(x 
(c)
'(d)
cos 2e sin e = sin' e
cos z + sin(y  z) cos x = sin(x  .z) cos y
1kcos
,
sin .3x sin 2x =
cos e
.7.
("0sin3 6
(f)
the functions are defined.
sin 13 tan 2e
d<
x  cos 5x)
cos 36
cos 20
3e)
114(3isin
144
sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = sin 2x (2 cos x + 1)
+ tank \ 2
1_
1 + sin 2x
1  sin 2x
Aft
.4
238
48
Pure Waves
36.
We promised thatformulas derived in the last section would enable us to
write
.P = 3 cos nt + 4 sin nt
(1)
in the form
(2)
p.= A sin (at + a).
We apply the formula'(6,of Section 35) for the sine of the sum of two
numbers to (2) to obtain
A sin (wt +
= A sin at cos a + A cos at sin a
= A siha cos wt + A cos a sin wt.
.
NoW if this ins to be the same as (1). we must choose w = n,
A s trr a = 3
4
A cos a = 4. .
.a
To find
we .take ifie sum of the squares irk' (3) to obtain
2
L2
A2 sin a + AA2A. costa = 3, +, 4.
A
2
2,
N.
A ksin a + cos
a) = 25,
.
A2%., 25.
.
Thus we can choose A= 5
air; 6 =
(14)
aqd then choose a^ so that
and
cos
a=
"A
From tables we get a g .643.
..
We have..seown that, for all'real Nglues of
we can write
t,
b
(5).
fr
o'
3 cos nt + 4 siti nt = 5 sin(nt + a)
...
r
.r
.:
...
where a .1:
.6143.
:.'
,.
We can use the same procedure which we have followed for' our articular
.
numerical example to express any equation of the type
.
(6)
y =,B cos wt +46 sin at
in the foria
(7)
ti
,y = A sin(wt..)
By using the such formula for
sin(wt + a)
A sin v = B,
r
4.4
we obtain the two equation
A cos a = c,
,
?39.,
r
:4
"
d.
which can be solved by putting
(8)
d
A'=
choosing a
so that
(9)
cos a.= 
sin a =
A
Neer a such that
We can choose exactly one
We know from (8)
0 < a < 2y.
that
2_
'=
(1A3)
t.
that
2
P
+,v
= 1.
on the circle given
0 < a < 2y
There is then a unique a on the inlerval
a units around the unit circle from
is
13 %
( ,)
A A
by
with coordinates
so there is a unique point
(1,0);
so
that is,, so that
(9) hOTds.
Consider thefunCtion.
(10)
y = A sin (wt + a),
1
where
A > 0
and
a <7a < 2n.
The graph of
is called a pure wave (or
'
sine outve)." We call
of the wave.
The amplitude
MiniOnvaque.of
(9r minima)
(11)
the amplitude;
2y
the phase; and
to,
is the maximum vallie of
and
the period,
A
is the
The period is the distance between successive maxima
f.
We can rewrite the eglAtioli_of (10), as
y = A sin (w(t
4.
C.
Fr,om this,we see, that the graph9f (10) can be obtained from, the gr&ph'Of
(12)
by shifting the yaxis
y= A sin cot.
.w
unitsto the right.
,
1.rated in Figure 36a for the graph of
'his ibformation is illus
la = 5 sin4(Itt + 0, where 4a
.643.
sc
4
.
a
1,*
24.0;
r
12 ti
maximum
the period is` 2.
Maximum
44
minimum
Figure 36a
y = 5 sin (at + a), a
E'
.643
We have seen that ingeneral thgre Ts a better way to sketch the graph
y,= B cos &V+ C sing
than to_add the ordinates .octhe.graphs of
4
.
y = B cos wt
and
y = C sin at.
To discuss a fUnctiOn
.defined by
4
4 aV4
y = B cos wt + C sin ut
expediently aid to beable to graph it quickly, we can write
y = A sin (at + a).
If we write the function in this form we can tell by inspection the period
(1),
the amplitude
(IA1),
the maximum and minimumvalues
(tIAI).
Since
A sin (wt + a) = A sin w(t + 2),
,a)
we can obtain the graph by shifting the, graph of
y = A sin wt
_units to the
.eft or right according,as
a
w
is,positive or negati.
ve
22 1,,1
41,
.44
y = B'cos wt + C sin wt
ft'wou10 be just as convenient to express
the form y = A cos (wt
0).
in
We leave this for the exercises.
We wish to discuss and sketch the graph of the function
Example 36a.
given by the equation
y = 2 sin It
(13)
 3
cos*2
t .
We want to write (13) in the form
y = A sin (it + a).
Our addition formula enables us to write
A sin (it ;I a) = A sin
For all real values of
a.2
cos a+ A cos
t sin a.
we require that
A sin 3 t cos
it
3
+ A cos t sin a = 2 sin 3
 3 cot
3t
2
Therefore, we must have
A cos a = 2' and
A sin a,= 3.
Following our earlier procedure we write
2
12 ,...(cos
whence we get
that the point
A =
A7.
a + sin
a) = (2)
+ (3)
Referring to the unit circlp of Figure 36b, we see
.=
lies in the fourth quadrant.
il3
a
ID
242
252
4'
4.
We/now find
Figure 36b
a'
our.talaes we get
at
so that
7,1
.98.
cos a/ =
2
'
and
sin a/ =
From
wehave
Since a = 21t  a'
_a s", 6,28  .43 =
.831.
5.30.
 _14
Therefore, we can write (13) In the Convenient form
(14)
Y4,71.447 sin it
a),
where a *60.
att.
By insp ction we can'tel that the period is
241.
the amplitude
3.
2
is
1/1.5,
the phape is
5.30.
A sketch appears in Figure 36c.
"3
214'3
9. 5 3
Figure 36c
Graph of
y = 2 sin 3. t
2
 3 cos 21t =
sin (1t + a),
where a L. 5.30.
'nercises
1.
'
Sketch each orfthe following graphsover aeleagttwOeits Periods.*
Showtheaoplifude And period_of each.:_
= 2 cos 3t
(a)
,y
(b)
y =2 cos (4)
(c)
y = 3 cos (2t)
(d)
y = 2 sin
(e)
y = 2 sin (2t + v)
(i)
(f) 'y = 1 cos (3f +
244
t,
2 4
36
4,
2.
Without computing the value of
a,
find the amplitude and the period of
.
eadh.
(a)
(b)
) 
y =
si:;*\3t
'
+ cos 3t
i,:
,,,
y = 2 cos itt + sin\yt
I
(c)
y = 2 sin
(d)
y = 8 cos
t  2 cos lt
2
+ 6 sin ICI
3
(e)
y = 6 sin
(f)
y =
2t
4'1',
 2
cos
cos
2.1iL
 4 sin
57rt
Express each of the following equations in the form of. y = A sin (x + a),
(where
4.
0 <'a.< 2n):
(a)
y = sin x + 1/
(b)
y = sin x + cos x
(c)
y =
(d)
y = sin xcos x
sin x  cos x
Express each equation in Number 3 in the form
(where
(1)
cos x
0 < a < 2y),
y = A cos (x + a),
by two methods:
Use the formula for the cosine of the sum of twoangles;.i.e.;
cos (0 + cp).
(ii): Convert the answers of Number 3to A cos (x + a)
trigonometric identities, suchas
sin (e + 2n) = sin 0,
(a)
sin 4:p = cos (
cos (e) = cos 0,
Using the addition formulas, show that
by the use of
 (p),
etc.
y = 914T sin Tit 316 cos ni.'
may be put into the. form of any one..of the following '(0 < a < 2y)
H
(i)
y = A sin (at + 0)
(ii)
y = A sin (wt  a)
(.ii) y = A cos (wt  a)
(iv)
(b)
y = A cos (wt + a)
r.
By the use of trigometric identities show that the four expressions
of part (a) are equivalent.
Sketch the graph indicating the period
:r the amplitdde
(using the form y = A sin (wt + a))1 indicating the phase.,
...
A,' and
36
,6.
Express each bf the following equations in the form
A
for some appropriate real numbers
(a)
and
y = A pbs (nt  a)
a. 
y = 4 sin nt  3 Cos nt
(b)'y = 4 sin /ft + 3 cos nt,
7.
3 cos nt
( c )
y = 4 sin /ft
(d)
y = 3 sin Tut
4 cos rut
(e)
y = 3.sin /ft
Ycos nt,
and a
and
the coefficients
can be drmtwi...frO
sin at
show on a diagram how
a,
Without actually computing thagalue of
and
of
cos at
if each of the fo lowing expressions of the form
B cos at + C sin at
is made eq
A cos (at  a).
'1 to
Compute
a,
and find the maximum and minimum values of each expression, and its
period.
Give .reasons for yotir ansWers.
in 2t + 4 cos 2t
(a)
'3
(b)
211in 3t  3 cos 3t.
(c)
7sin
ce
+ cos (2)
Verify that the superposition of any two pure waves
and
B cos (at  p)
A cog (at  a)
is a purewave of the same frequency, that is,'
that there exist rehl values
and
such that
A piwt (at  a) + Bcos (at  p) = C cos (at  y).
9.
Show that any wave of the form
y p B cos (gt  a),
(g # 0),
can be written in the' form
$.
y = A cos (at  a)
where A
is noprnegative, 'd),, positiveand
0 < a < 2n.'
246
25G
1
37
37.
Analysis of General Waves.
Period
2v
We.have seen that the superposition of two waves, each with period

s1ich as0those given by
y = B cos at
and,
y ='C sin at
gives a pure wave
y = A sin (at + 0)
AKOh
of the same period.
Now.we direct our'attention to the superposition of two
waves with different periods.
Suppose, for example, we had to deal with
11,
(1)
.
The period of
sin 3x
is
sin'3x  3 cos 2)1.
av

the period of
cos 2x
is
Point a simple observation is, helpful  namelypif
then
2a,
a, 148, etc.,are also periods of
f.
?1(
 = v.
2
At this
is...a period of
For example,^V4 know that
sin 3(x + 21) = sin (3x + 2v) = stn 3x
3
two
and hence it follows that'
sin 3(x + 2(4)) = sin 3(x +
I)
= sin [3(x + 21) + 2v]
3
2v%
= sin 3(x + ) = sin 3x.

In general, we must have4for each'integer
.
foe'
,27(
sin 3(x + n( )) = sin 3x
and
cos 2(x + rig) = cos 2k:
In particular, we have:
sin 3(x + 2v) = sink
cos 2.(x + 2v) = cos 2x
so that
2v
is a period for both
defined by (1) has period
of the respective periods
2v.
2v
sin 3x
The number
and
and
2v
v.
247r,
z. 5'T
cod 2x?
Thus the function
is the least common multiple
*
ow.
37
 In general, suppose that
=4_
y = A sin (at + a) + P si
(2)
bt +. (3).
9
If
,a = b,
we.can proceed as in the prey us section to express
pure Wave With
a
period
. If
a /.
then
v,
is no longer a pure wave.
Suppose
as a
may still be periodic but
;
27t
but th t
,2t
and
have a commoh%multiple, that is,
'4 a
there are positive integers
and
(3)
We can then choose
holds.
m and
such that
2n
= n
b
2n
so that they have no common factors and (3)
In this case, the relation (2) is periodic with period m
is exactly the situation in (1) where a = 0,
we can choose
M = 3,
n = 2
The period of (1) is then
is not periodic.
a = 3,
2n
.
This
0 =  2, ,b = 2
and
so that
2rt
tic
m a
n 17
2n
(2n)
 en,
Of courser it may be that
case (2)
2n
a
2n
and
have no common multiple, in which
For example, the function
y = sin nx + cos x
notp ;periodic.
This is/difficult to proVe and ita proof is omitted.
Theeriodicity of (1) is thus easy to determine.
There is little elise
About all we can do to simplify matters
we can conclude ih generalabout (1).
to.sketch separately the graphs.of
v = 3 cos 2x
4
The result is shown by the three curves in Figure 37a,
u = 2 sin 3x,
and
y = u  v.
As
2 5,, 3;
* 3 7
Al
y, u,v
I
1
v =3
I
u =2
'At
1
2 'TT ?(
v=3
t%
Figure 37a
u = 2 sip 3x,,,,y = 3 cos 2x
y = u  v = 2 sin3x 
cos 2x,
0 < x < 271.
Thesuperposition of sine and cosine waves,of different, periods can
produce quite complicated curves.
In fact, with only slight restrictions,
any periodic function can be approximated arbitrarily closely as a sum of a
finite number of sines and cosines. The subject of harmonic analysis of
tt
Fourier series is concerned with approximatingperiodfc functions in this
way.
,
The principal theorem, first stated by Fourier, is that a function
of period
cap be approximated arbitrarily closely by sines and cosines
for each ofNwhich some multiple of the fundamental period is
f(X)
AO + (Al cos
211x
+ (A2 cos
a
`oi
o
47tx
+ B
2
sin ax)
a
..
Spicifically,
2eX '
+ Bi
(1)
+ (A
a.
44g+
cos
2n7tx
2nxx.
n a
e
+ B
cos *).
4.
.1
'and the more terms we use, the better is our approximation.
259
21'
As an example, consider the function depicted in Figure 37b.
by
n < x <11
.efined on the interval
function
This
0, ife = n
=
For all other values.of
we define
if i= 0
0,
1,
n < x < 0
if
1:00
f(x)
(2)
if 0 < x < v.
.r
f(x) .by the, periodicity condition.
f(x + 2n) = f(x):
This function has a particularly simple approximation as a series of the
t.
form (1), namely,
x
(3)
11'
sin 3x
sin 5x
sin(2n  1)x\.
'
2n  1
0
qi
Figure
37b
Graph of periodic function.
.
0,
x =
if
1,.if 0 < x < v
x 4f(Z) =
0,
1,,
Fourier series.
f(x +
x = 0
if
= f(xr..
if v < x r 0
4 s n x
iinja
sin 5x
....4..,.sin(2n
1)xN.
2n  1
As an exercise, you may graph the successi'e approxiMations to
ttaking.one, then two,
y = f(x).
Q.
250
260,

f(x)
by
en thine terms of the serieb,epd iethow the succes
sive.graphs approach the graph of
"
.S:1
,
.
...
NN,
Exercises 37
,
:
1.
Without setcfling,
find the periods,of the functions defined by the
.
following expressions
.
:.(a) 2 sin x + cps"gic
'
ti
.

(b)
(c)
cos i ,sin
sit; 71 gx 
cos ItX 1r
.
j cos 12x, 2 sin* 3 x
1."1
(e)
...(f)
1  2 sing x + 2 sin
Icos xl + sin
cos
x
2
rr
(g)
(h)
41simp4
11cos 4v xl:
2.
Sketch the graph of
y.=
sin x + sin 2x
by Urstketching y1 = 2 sin' x,4
axes for the interval
'3.
Sketch graphs, /or
(a)
(b)
.
1x1 < v,
sin x
n
on the same set of
for each of the following curves.
y =  sin x
n
then y2,= sin 2x
0 < x < 2y.
sin 3xN
+
4 sin x
= ...(__
__ +
v
1
.
,
'
sin '3x..4. stn 5x)
.
3. ,
5
6
'4.
(a)
Find 4e periods of each of the successive terms of the series (13);
namely,
sin ..x
0$
sin 3x
,.
(b)
sin 5x
5
1.
'
What terms of the general series (1) are missing?
properties'of the fl.petion
From the symmetry
defined by (2) can ypu see a reason
fdr the absence of'certain terms?
40
I
.251
261.
.
.
37
5.
The symbol
[x]
the real number'
(a)
stands fOr the greateStinteger less than or equal to
x.
Graph the greatest integefunction
x ,[x].
(This function is sometimes called the "integer part" function.)
.(b)
Graph the periodic function
x 4x  [x].
Indicate its period and its maximum and minimum values.
(This function is known as the "fractiobal part" functiOn.)
(c)
Graph the periodic function
(i)
sents the distance from
where tx)
x 4(x),
to the nearest integer.
Indicate_
values of the function.
Sketch the graphs of
(ii)
x 4(2x)
and
On each graph indicate period, maxima, Oidlminima.
(iii); What is the period of
x ,(nx)?
What are its ...maximum and minimum values?
.
6.
Graphtthe periodic functions defined below in the interval,
[Note:
See No. 5(b) for definition of l
Ca)
f(x) = [sin tocl
(b)
f(x) = [cos tx]
0 < t < 2.
Best integer function.]
(c), f(x) = [2x]  2[x]
7.
The function
defineXi by the equation below is periodic.
1, x
rational
0, x
irrationala
Why ? 
f(x) =
4'
'r
AK
Chapter 4
14
DERIVATIVES OF CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS
In Chapter 2, we discovered that the,derivative of a polynomial function
is another polynomial function (of one lower degree), which can be obtained
.algebraically using the idea'of limit,
We can show that the derivative of a
Icirculaifunction is another circular function;
Using simple geometric
arguments we shall show that the derivative of the sine function As the cosine
function and the derivative of the cosine function is the negative of/the sine
function.
The first section of this chapter indicates how to obtain these
results for the particular cases at
x = 0,
using the same wedge method to
find eqUations 9f tangent lines employed initially for polynomial graphs.
These resultsoare interpreted in terms of limits of difference quotients
in Section 42.
terms of motion.
Later
hey are extended to pure waves and interpreted in
In Section 4, the idea of approximating circular functions
hoy polynomials is introduced,
The resulting approximation formulas are useful
for constructing tables and finding limits.
41.
The Tangenc'at the yIntercept
As was our approacil with the polynomial functions,, we begin our discus
sion of the calculus of the circular functions by considering the behavior of
.$' their graphs near the
First we want to find the best straight line
appro;imation to the.graph of y = cos x
cos 0 = 1,
at the point'where
we are talking about the point
X0,1).
x = O.
Since
We conjecture (from
*,,
Figure 41a) that
(1)
the line given by
graph of
y = cos x
y = 1 , is tangent to the
at the point
253
g63
(0,1).
Figure 41a.
Since the curve is symmetric with respect to the yaxis it is sufficient
. to consider positive values of x. We know, for .C.< x < 721
that
.
cos x < i
(2)
and hence the curve lies below the line given by y = 1 .in the interval
0 < x'<
2.
We now wish to show that near the yaxis the curve lies above
'the line given by
where
EX
Y =
(3)
E
is some positive number.
(See Figure 41b.)
I,
y = 1
I
Figure 4lb
Obr
Y = cos x
0. and near zero the graph of
lies inside'the shaded region.
*111
254
264
41
To establish this we use the inequality
(4)
1  cos x <
which we established in Section 32.
than
For
x2
2
the quantity
x / 0,
is larger
so we have
1  cos x < x2,
if
if
x / 0;
0.
This can be rewritten as
(5)
cos x > 1  x
2
,
that is,
cos x > 1 + (x)x,
It 0 < x < e,
if
x / O.
then we have
+ (x)x > 1  ex;*
whence we, have
(6)
cos x > 1  ex
for
0 < x < e.
In summary, we know thatTor any positive number
the graph of the
osi,ne function liesinside the wedge of Figure 4lb on the interval.
0
where
is the smaller of
and
Since we can make
as small as we please, we conclude that the line given by
y = 1
is indeed
the tangent to the graph of y = cos x
at (0,1).
established.
is the best straight linelapprdxima
The line given by
y = 1
Conjecture (1)is
tion to the cosine curve at the yaxis.
Having established conjecture (1), we now consider4ieproblem of finding
the equation of the tangent line to the graph of
point of intersection with.the yaxis.
the line,given by
graph of
at
(0,0),
its
We conjecture' (from Figure 41c) that
.y = x
y = sin x
y = sin x
is tangent tq the
at the point
(0,0).
..
,
255
265,
.10
sin
Figure 41c,
First we shall consider only points to the right of
lar we shall restrict our attention to the interval
lar
To establish our conjecture for
(0,0);
0 < x <
in particu
in the first quadrant we shall need
two inequalities for the sine function:
x(1  x2) < sin x < x.
We canderive'these inequalities using our unit circle definition of sine.
Since, for the moment, we are only concerned with the interval 0 < x <
we picture only, the'first quadrant.of the unit circle in Figure 471d.
..
D(1
sin xc
cos x
sin x
cos x
cos X
IA
. Figure 41d
Part of the Unit Circle
256
?66
The line trom
to
is perpendicular to the line from
hence is shorterthan the arc
BA
is
x,
sin x
AB.
to A
and
If the measure of the length of the arc
then,the measures of the lengths of segments
BC
and
OC are
respectively; therefore
and . cos x,
(8)
sin x < x.
This means that, in Figure 41c, the graph of the sine function lies below
the line given by
y = x
to the right of
as we have indicated.
(0,0),
Our second inequality uses an area argument.
again, weychoose
dicular to
radius
OA..
on the line through
sin x
be  .
cos x
and
The first coordinate Of D
sin x
OB
has slope  ,
cos x
so that
must be
Sidce
OA).
Referring to .Figure
EA is perpen
(the measure of
the Second coordinate of
Thus the region enclosed by triangle
1d
'
D must
OAD _has area.
xl
(9)
2
"cos xl.
2(1)/sin
24010(AD)
The area oc_ztp circular sector
the area of sector
OAB
x;
that is
is'constant.
To deter
OAB
is proportional to
mx,
where
is given by
mine
m,
.we note that if
x = T.
then the sector
OAB
is.oneeighth of
the area Of the unit circle; thus
i
1
.2.
8(71(1) )
jso that
m =
area of the sector
Thei.efore, the area of sector
OAB
OAB
is
is less than the area of triangle
aince. the region of 'sector
OAB
2 x.
Ot
x < 1 sin x
2 cos x
The cosine function is positive for
(10)
0 < x <
so we have
sin x > x cos x.
We know .front (5) that if
then
cos x > 1 'x
2
.
We use this'in (10) to obtain the inequality
(u)
tihst
is within the triangular region ,ODk), the
area of the' sector is less than the area of the triangle; that
1
Since the.
sin x > x(1  x2),
for
257
2d7'
0 < x < 12 1
Withinequality (11) we can show that
the tangent to the graph of
value' e,
= sin x
y = x
(0,0).
at
is indeed the equation of
Suppose, for some positive
we have the line whose equation is
y = (1  e)x.
If
< E
and
0 < x < 2 ,
1  x
then we have
> 1
E.
Therefore, we get
sin.x > (1  x2)x > (1  e)x.
In summary, the graph bf the sine function, to the right of
J
when
close as:me please to zero (that
between the linesgiven by y = x
y(1  e)x.
and
and
(0,0)
0 < x <lp
and as'_
must lie
(See Figure 41e.)
The graph
lies in here.
s.,
2.*
X"
Figure 4 le
The case when
x < 0
is now easily handled since the graph of the sine
.function is symmetric with respect to the origin; that is,
so,thet when re < x < 0
given by
y = x
and
(x, sin x)
any points
y = (1  e)x.
must lie between the lines
(See Figure 41f.)
258
268
sin(x) = sin x,
41
Figure 41f
We have now ettablished both conjectures:
(10: the.line given by
to'the graph of
(7)
the line given by
to the graph of
is the best straight line approximation
y = cos x at
y = x
(0,1);
is the best straight line approximation
y = sin Z
'296.9
0).
Exercises
1.
,a,
(a)
f
y = cos x
Write the equation of the tangent to the griph of
at
(0,1).
(b)
What is the slope of thetangent to the graph of
y = cds x
at
(0,1)?
(c),
2.
(a)
cos (0 + h)  cos (0),
h
lim
h 40
Determine
'Write the equation of the tangent to the graph of y = sin x
at
(0,0).
(b)
What is the slope of the tangent to the graph of
y = sin x
at
(0,0?
(b)
3.
Use the results of
aim
(a)
h 40
sin r(0 + h)
lim
h 40
Determine
and
cos h  1
h
 sin (0)
to determine
sin h
(a)
To the right is a portion of
the graph of
and to the right of
P
near
y = cos x
x = 0.
is the point on the curve
x = 0; Qi(i = 1, 2,
where
6)
are points on the,
curve where
.2,
x = .5,
.4,
.3,
11, ftirFffrTRe slope
'
of !!Q1' PC42;
the table provided.
PQ6 U
(b) lFind the equations (in the
form
y = b + mx,
is yintercept and
the
slope) of each of the lines
determined,by
Had
Cos
Sin
.5
.87758
.47943
.4
.92.106
.38942
95534
29552
..2
.98007
09983
.999995
.ol000
A
whard b
PQ (i = 1, 2,
.01
4).
,.
41
5.
(a)
To the right is'a portion of
the graph of
sin x,
and to the right of
near
x = 0.
is the point on the curve
.P
where
x = 0;
= 1, 2,
are points on the
..., 6)
curve where
x = .5, .4, .3,
.01.
of
Fi9dthe slope
PQ1, PQ2,
PQ6.
Use
the table provided in Number 1.
4
(b)
Find the equations 'of each of the lines determined by
PQi (i = 1, 2, ..., 6).
Assuming the following relationships established in this section
P
1  dos x <
()
cos x#>'1  x2
(8)
(10)
sin x < x
,.
x dos x,< sin x
...
show that the following inequalities hold:
(a)
xcos x < x
1  cos x
x
<
x
2
(b)
1  Cos
(ii)
>
x > 0
x <0
xi <,s
(iii)
(c)
(d)
sin x > x 
sin x

x3
7
o<x<
< I  cos )5.
ti
.1
261
271
1
lx1 <
41
4t
7.
Given (from Section 32)
2
0 < 1  cos
h < 7
and (from Section 41)..,,
h cos h < sin h < h,
for
0 < h <
show that
1 
8.
<
sin h
h
for 0< Ihl <2.
Using the premises of Number 7, show that
 cos hi
h
for
h / 0.
'
9.
Use the results of Numbers 7 and 8 to estimate
for
10.
h = 0.01
and
sin h
and
1  c os h
r
h
h = 0.001.
Use the results of Numbers 7 and 8 to determine
sin h'
(a).
h ,0
(b)
lim
cos h
h )0
II
27142
42
ik
42.
'1
The Derivative as the Limit of a Difference Quotient
The deriyatives of the sine and cosine fundtions are, res pectiv4l1, the
iCe
cosine and the negative of the sine functions.
These geweral results Trft
obtained by first finding the equation bf tangent lines to the graphs'of the
sine and cOsihe".functions and then discovering the slope functions (derivetives).
We shall, however, obtain these derivatives directly
askmit;'of
certain difference quotients.
First we shall show that for the sine function
f
x ) sin
we can obtain the derivative
f': x *cos x
by considering the definition of
(1)
f'(x) = the limit of
f'
given by
sin x
sin (3. + h)
h
as
approaches zero.
The geometric interpretation is that for some fixed Point
graph of
f,
(x,f(x))
the difference quotient
sin (x + h)  sin x
h
AA
is the slope of the line passing throughhe points
and
(x + h1, sin (x + h))
(See Figure 42a, where
(x
is shown negative and rather large.
slope = doses
tangent
line
s
slope
sin; (x + h)  sin x
iv)
x + h, sin (x + h))
Figure IP2a
j63
10
2 73
on the
y;
0:
1+.2
We wish to show that
J
r.4.
.
.i.
(2)
sin kx
..,
h)
 sin x
h )0
 cos x.
iThis c n. be shown:13y arguing (as we did in Section 41 for,x = 0) that the
graph of the sine function lies inside any given welge about the tangent when
is small enough.
ilif
.
We shall use a more direct method An which we employ
the results of Section 41.
Section 35.
We begin by usAng the addition.formula (6)
(6) se
Wa caniwrite
sin (x +'h)  sin x
Il
sin xicoS h + cos x sin h  sin x
,cos h  1%
sih
n h
) + cos x
h
= sin.xk
7,
.
We must now show that as
approaches zero, the first term approaches
zero and the second term approaches
cos X.
In other words we moist show that
lim
h) 0
..
cos h  1.0
h
In Section 41 we showed
'a 'nod
lim
Lii....12,
h i0 4,
7 1.1
t
'the horizontll line given. by
the best straight line approximation to the graph of
y.= cds x
y =i1
at
is
(0,1).
Since the.slope of the best straight line appro44mation (horizontal tangent)
to the graph of
y = cos x
is zero, we have
cos (0 + hr cos (0)
lim
x = 0
of
h ) 0
Therefore,
. lim
cos h  1
h 40
 o.
In Section 41 we also showed that the line given by
straight line approximation to the graph of
y ='sin x
at
y = x
is thg best
(9,0). ,Since the
c,
1 ke of
the tangent to the graph of
lim
h ) 0,w
y = sin x
at
sin (0 + h)  sin 0
x'= 0
1.
is one, We have
.442
Now we can conclude that
sin (k + h)  sin x
lim
(2)
cos x;
h ) 0
We have establiihed that
(3)
D(sin x) = cos'x.
The derivative of the cosine function at any point
(x ,cos x)
can be
obtained by calculating the limit of the difference quotient
co (x + h)  cos x
h
as
We leave it to the exercises (EXercises 42, No. 1)
approaches zero.
to sivi; that
D(co; x) = sin x.
...,0000m0.000
Example 42a.
sin h
Find the limit of
as
approaches zero; that
*
11, evaluate
sin 2h
lim
h 40
We can argue that since
sin h
for small
a 1
1h1,
.
it follows that
J
sin 2h
2h
ts 1
if
is small.
12h
We can write
sin 2h
h
 2
sin 2h
2h
g.
4
If
Ihl
is so small that
7iiil small, then
Ighl
sin 2h
a 2.
h
\
Alternatively, and more directly, we can say
I
sin 2h
.
 2
2(1)
= 2.
s
sin 2h
h t40
h to 0
lira
/
Example 42b.
Find the equation of the tangent line (best straight line
approximation) to the graph of the sine function at the point
It
'when
(a , sin a),
7t
7(
a =
We can write
so that
x =.a + (x  a).'
(6)
addition formula
of Sect
sin x =sin [a
(x  a)].
Using
n 35 we get
sin x = sin g Cos_f_x J.0) + eos a sin (x  a).
If we let x
approach
cos (x  a)
and
by 1,
sin (x  a)
and
fore, as we let
approximition t'o.
,
siiit (x
then
 a)
by
x..approach
sin x
x 
,approaches zero.
We can replace
by their best linear approximations:, cos (x
 a
a,
(7)
(from (1) and
..f Section 41).
a)
There
t14 expression which gives the best linear
is
sin a(1) + cos'a(x  a);
that is, the equation"' of'the tangent line
at
the
point
(a , sin a)
is
y = sin a + cos a(x C a).
When
When
the equation of the tange'nt to the sine curve is
F.
7,t71
e,
the equation of. th
tangent is
y=1;
that is, the tangent to the sine curve at
a =
It
,1)
the equation of the tangent is
is horizontal,
When
C'
1
266 \
`7;
42
It
57t
16
3:k
y = 1
sif
7 + 7`x
I
y =
5y.
1/
Td_7,
...
the tangent,at
the tangent at
the tangent' at
Figure 4,2a
Tangent lines to the graih of
y = sin.x.
Note that the slopes ofthese three tangent lines are
o,
and
AO
..
15
2
respectively.
As we should expect, these values of the derivative,
could have been obtained by direet substitution in (3).
p;
262 7
Exercises 42
1.
(a)
Use Addition formula (4) of Section 35 to show that the difference
quotient
cos (x + h)  cos x
doo.,
can be written in the form
(cos h  1.
cos x k
)
2.
sin x(2411).
(b)
Show that
(a)
Assume (from Section 35 ) that
D(Cos x) = sin x.,
Sin (a + 0) = sin a cos 0 + cos a sin 0
sin (a  0) = sin a cos 0  cos a sin
TAgt ,ei.j;. 0 = x + h
and a
0 = x.
e?
Show that
sin (x + h)  sin x = 2 cos (x
3.
f3
(b)
Use part (a) to show that
(a)
Given (from Section 3 5):
Isin (13).
D(sin x) = cos x. L
cos (a + 0) = cos a cos 0  sin a sin 0
0.
cos (a  0) = cos a. cos 0 + sin a gin 0;
0
4
Prove;cos(x+0cosx=2sin,kx+h9sin
2.
.
(b)
Use part (a) to show that
I
1
.s/
From the inequality
D(cos x) = sin x.
c
4.
sin (.01)
1,. estimate
.011
1(b)
1;
From the inequality
cos (.00 1)
0005,
cos. (.001).
2
5.
.(a)
(b)'
Using the i
quality
(i)
sin ( 1)
(ii)
sin ( 01)
(iv)
1 
cos (.1)
)1.
estimate
'Op sin (.001)
"Using the i equality/
Isi n h
< 777 < 1,
).
...
'sin (.0001)
2
h
f 5 cos h <1,
(iii)
cep i.01)
(1v)
estimate
cos (.001)
cos G0001)
28
(
278
sin (.01).
estimatq
6.
hi
11
(a)
a)
Using
ILL'
<
11 
the value of
h t 0,
and the results of Number 5(b) find
for
(i).
h = .1;
(ii)
h = .01;
h = .1
h = 7.01
(iii)
h = .001;
(iv)
h = .0001;
h = .0Q1 4.
"h = .0001
eS
2
(b)
1  11 <J2221 < 1,
By the use of the inequality
sih h
,E and
the difference between
as the values assigned to
becomes smaller and smaller
decrease.
!hi
Show this for the following values of
(i)
h = .1;
(ii)
h = .01;
h = .1
h.= .t/
)
7. The limit of
sin h
h:
(iii)
h = .001;
(iv)
h = .0601;
h = ;.001
h = .0921
,,
rs as
t symbolically as
illustrate that
lim
h )0
't
This may be stated
tends to zero is one.
sih
n h
lim
LE 2I
x 4 0
li
.Find the
1.
by two methods:
.
(a)
by u se of the inequality
(b)
by direct applicatioh
8.
1 
sin h
h < lo
sin 11
lim
 1
h ) 0
/)
.
When appeOpriate use
sin h
lim
h 40
1  cos h _
lim
and
 1
h 40
'
0
in evaluating the following:
sin x
3x
lim
(a)
(b) 'lim
x )0
lim
e
lim
sin 2t
lim edot 2e
' sin h ,
sin
lim
(f)
t 02t2 +t
e
lim
(i)
'x
h
tan 2x
lim
sin x
X 4 0
sing x
Jam 1,
(d)
1  cos, e
lim
X 4 0
7x
sin 3x
cos e
F
e
cos 7X
cos 3X
tiM
lib
(2)
x 40
269
279
sin 5x  Isin
xl
.44
r
42
9.
Evaluate
(a)
lim
x
(b)
sin x  sin a
x  a
Usk the result of part (a) to show that
lim sxX_1.
0
10.
Find the slope of the line tangent _to the graph of
(a)
y = sin x
at
the point 'where.,
(1)
X =
(ii)
(iii)
x =
IT
3
3v
(iv)
X = V
(y)
X =
(vi)
x = 0
graph of
Find the slope of the line tangent to the
(a)
a)
at
each of the points in part (S).
11.
y( = sin x
Write an equation) of the line tangent to the graph of
(b)
y = COS X
at
the point where
x =
(i)
(iii)
(iv)
x =0
21
(ii)* x
Write ari equation of the line tangent to the graph of_ y,= cos x
(b)
,
12.
at each of the points in part (a).
does the,graphof
.For what values of x
(a)
y ='sin x
have a
ft
tange t line?
.fiorizonta
4 '',S1
%
'r
For what
(b)
alueso
does the graph of
y = co: x
have a
horizontal tange t line?1,1
4'13.
(a)
For w
.tange
by
line given by
or a
y = x'
y = x?
sin x
have the
p iqa lel to the line given
x dOes the graph of
.(a, For what values of
( )
does the graph of
Answer the above question for the graphlf
/b)
14.
t values` of
Answer the abo
qubstion/for 'the:graph of
I
4
t
y = bin x
have the
or a:line parallel to the line given
y = x
tangent' line given by
.S
by y = x?
y = cos ,x;
270
280
y = cos x.
,
15.
(a)
For what value of
16.
or parallel to that line?
Answer the above question for the graph of
(a)
If
f : x + sin x,
f!(200%  i)
(b)
If
g : x )cos x,
(a)
If
(b)
If
f'
then
Find
x , cos x.
and
x o sin x,
: x o sin x.
g'
e( og 
x 11n x
S x.
tt
f' (640n),
0(600n),
iL).
'f' = h
show that
x o cos x
Find
and
h' = f.
g' = j,
f'..7 h,
show that
h = j'.
h' = j / and
(a)
,then
y =
f' (60n  4) .
g'(200n  g.),
18.
y = sin xs"have the
2y = x
(b)
17.
does the graph of
tangent line whose equation Is
4.2
In the interval
what values of
function,
< 2n
lx1
for
does the
I
x
x 0 cos x,
2n
increase?
n
For what values
2n
1
does the function decrease?
(b)
Sketch f
and
(on
f'
different graph's but uqing
the same scale) to illustrate
x
y
27t
2:t
your answer.
1
19, Without fihding'its'derivative, determine, for. lx1
values of
the function f : x *cos 2x
TO?kAshich
< v.
increases and for which
, 
.'g43.
this funttiOn"decrea es by the'fol owing two protOOliresv
t
(a)
Extend th
(b)
Inspect the graph of the function
solution of part ( ) of Number 1 to the pres nt problem.
0 cos 2x.
e4
20.
In the interval
erval
values of
determine 'by the following two procedures the
ILI
for which the function
x 0cos(2x
increases and
for which it decreases.
,,
(a)
Extend tile' solution of part (a) of Number
(b)
Snapect the graph of, the function,
1
.
I
I
,
x * cos(2x +
n%
2
0
4
\ 271
'r281.
21.
For what Value:, of
over the 'I terval
0 < x < 2y
tion and the cosine function both ncrease?
do the'sine func
For what values of
do
both functions decrease?
22.
For chat veil/esof
.
over the interval
functions al? increase?
d < x < 2y
do the following
all decrease?
(a)' x *sin ac2
23.
0,
(b)
(c)
x ) sin 2x
How large must the constant
be for the following functions
increasing?
(a)
f : x
ax  sin x
(b) 'f : x  ax + cos x
24.
(a) demonstrate the concavity (downward flexure) of the graph of
x sin x
at
x = .4
by showing that at
x = .3
the curve lies below the tangent to the curve at
(b)
and at
x = .4.
Demonstrate the convexity (upward flexure)Is. of the graph of
x *sin x
x = .5
at
x = .4
by showing that at
x = .3
and at
the'curve lies above.the tangent to the curve at x
0.
'282.
j
+VP
43
43.
Linear Substitution
Now we" urn to the problem of determining the derivative of a function
specified by an equation of the type
= k sin (ax + b).
Such*E1 function is obtained from
is,
= sin x
is replaced by the linear expression
To detetmine4 DEk sin (ax + b)),
by linear substitution; that
ax + b,
and
by
we try to obtain the limit, as
approaches zero, of to difference quotient
k sin [a(x + h) + .1)3  k sin (ax +io)
A
which can be written as
k sin [(ax + b) + ah)  k sin (ax + b)
h
Using addition formula (6) from Section 35, we can express the n
r of
the difference quotient as,k sin {ax + b) cos (ah) + k cos (ax + b) sin (ah)  k sin (ax + b).
',7actoring, we obtain for the numerator
a
k sin (ax + b)[cos (ah)  1) + k cos '(ax + b) sin (ah).
The difference quotient can be expressed in the more useful form
k sin(aZ
0(cos Tah)  11
o[sin (ah)1.
J +k cos (ax
As we prepare to take the limit as h
a proaches zero wm make one further
change (suggested by Example 42a and Ex rcises 42, No. 8) n the form of
t/
e difference quotient:
l
rcos
14,.
Ell .1
ak sin (ax + bfl.
ah "
,
.,0(sin (ah)1
l + ak cos (ax +
As
approaches .zero,
Section 41) that
,
ah
(ah)
approaches zero; ancrwe know (from (1) and (7).of
cos (al  1
approaches zero and
(ah
sin (ah)
(ah) 411
approaches one.
.i
We conclude that
1D(k sin ax +
b) = ak sin(ax+ b)1 Lim cos( .ah
ah).
h
in(ax+ b)
0 + Eik
sirx(ah)
+ alc cos ax + 1))
cos(Eix;+b)
n's
(, ah)
1
*go
= ak cos(ax+b) .
./
213 2 8 3
eq.
43
6
We can express Our result in the form
f
if
x )ic sin .(ax + b),
then
14)
ak cos .(a)t + b).
k cos (ax +
3.<
Similarly we 'could show that
if
(2)
cly
Using
sin (ax +
then ,gt :
and (2), we can obtain the slope of a tangent to any sinusoidal
curve directly.
Eiample 43a.,
If
find
3 sin 2x,
=6
x ) 3(2 cos 2x)
ft
f' (n)
From (1) we have
cos2x
so that
f' (n)
Example 143b.
cos 2n
= 6.
Find the'equation of the tangent line to the graphof
(71 ,
at tti9 point'
.ty = cos (x +
=6
2).
Using
to denote the value of
y'
the derivative, we use (2) to obtain
6
alt"
.
(37i ,2)
At the point
sin
(fik +
the slope of the tangent to the graph is
= sin i = 
I3
The equation of the tangent is
L,
II
'
.e>
Id'
Ir.
I.
We can use the  graphs of
y =, cos (x.4
geometrical interpretation of this result.
Example .43c.
(3)
.)
and
y = cos.
to give one
(SeesExerciees 435
NO. 8.)
Use (1) and the facts (from Section 32) ;that
cos x = sin
 x)
and
sin.,x = cos (ir 7 x)
to obtain the derivative of the cosine function.
/?.
We ha e from (3)
cos:
'x
We use (1) with
k = 1, a = 1,
cos':
and
h = i to obtain the derivatilie
(1) cos (i.  x) = sin x.
4104
Exarftple 43d.
ind the derivative of
.1
The function
x 4 sin x
sometimes written
o
is the functim wholue at
x
we carp express
x ) sin
is the siile of
degrees.
Since
..
2y
x
300
x,
radians,
as
Thus, formula (1) gives
icos
fit x
x).
The primary justification for defining
sin x
in termso'fferc length
rather than degree measure, is that we then obtit thesimple formul
....
4:..
n x = ,cos x
4 .6.%'1
If we had used,degree
4
formula
'asure then we would htive had the 14s satisfactory
.
,
...
r
silof
Scos4
l): =
'
.." \
...,.,..
.. .:',
,
.o.
.
11
Cif:
10*
43
Exercises 1111
Using formulas (1) and (2), find the following.
(a)
D[sin (3x 
(b)
D[2 cos,
(a)
Dr5 cos (i
(e)
D[l sin (x
;I)).
D[Ain (
(c)
2.
)]
3
) ]:
+ 721)]
D[n cos (2n  2x)]
I
(f)
For the following functions determine
(a), the slope. of the graph at 'the. point indicated for each:
.
(i)
77(
x 4 cos (x + 71)
x =   ,
3
(ii)
x 4 sin (2x 
(iii)
f :
(iv)
3 cos
1
x = g ,
X=
+ 2x),
sin (
3n
2
x.

x = 0;
)
72
the equation of the line tangent to the graph of each function in
(b)
part (a) at the point indicated.
s
\....
.
.6
If two functions
there is a ,constant
..,
.
,
and
are directly proportional; we mean that
such that
g(x) ...cf(;)
1
(a)
Ijow are their derivatives related?
(b)
Illustrate your answer to part (a) when
'
f(x) =
sin
2x,
and
g(xi = 2 cos (2x  7;).
4.
(a)
(i)
For what value(s)
of x
0 < x < 2n
over the intP'rval
tie graph of the function
x *sin x + cos x
have a horizontal tangent
linefr
OA), ;Give the equation(s) of the tangent lineks).
(b) =Answer the questions, of.' part (a) for the function
g: x
;
,7
+ 'a.. cos
(c)." Answerthe questions or
off' (a) for tile function
4
Aih 4 ;
X 4 3 sin (2x 4 T) ,,4
3 ccs (2x +
4
1
2+6
does
43
5.
Show that if
f : x "k cos (ax + b)
then
f'
x ka sin (ax + b),
Employ the method of linear substitution used for the function
lix,ksin (ax
.+ b)
at the beginging of this section.
,
6.
In Example 43c we used the facts that
cos x = sin (1  x)
and
to obtain the derivative of
sin x = cos (i
x.
x)
Uge the same method to fihd the
derivative of
k cos (ax + b),
given that
D[k sin (ax
b)) = ka cos (ax + b)
o
_
.
(a)
(b)
Find the,limit of 'sing
(a)
On one set of
and
1:))
Find the derivative of
'f
8.
as a 'approaches zero..
coOrdinatir
x )cos x.
axes sketch the graphs of
x )cos,x
x )cos (x + r
Show that th
(11 'f0))
tangent line to,the graph of
is parallel to the tangent line to
at the poi
(12
at the point
he graph of
g(21),
12r,
9.. Use the difference quotient1definition of derivative as it applies to
the sine and cosine functions tOevaluate each of the following
sin (x + 11),  sin x
(a)
lim
h )0
(b)
li
cos x
cos
lice
cos (3,
(c)
+ h) 1 cos 3x
h
W."
witot
I
.5
43
3
sin
4,4
lim
* (d)
+ h) + 3 sin
2
(n
sin
lim
nl
x + n
h 4 0
(e)
+ k)
k
sin (i)
COS
h) 4. cos
lim
(f)
2h
k
o4
6
Sketch the graph, of each of the following on the
10.
val' [
n,n].
y = siryx
(a)
y = sin (x 
'(b)
y = sin x
y = sin

Y = cos x
Leos (x 
(g)
11.
 x)
sin
(e)
4x)
(h)
y = cos (JX)
(i)
y = cos (
Find
..."
for each of the following.
dx
y = sin x
(b)
y = sin (x
(c)
y = sin x
4
(d)
(e)
(9
(x)
y
=
 x)
sih,
Olt
y = cos x
.1A
(.,g)
(h)
= cos (x
y = cos
"y = cos
(xt
(121
..'*
II`
721)
 x)
278,
'
244. 4Velacity and Acceleration
In Section 3r4 we discussedkotion in a circle with radius
,
FigUre 448.)
If lobint
is moving'
(See
1.
;
Jr;
countercloCkwise _starting at
A(1,0)
he
and if the aA is,
't = '0
covered at the uniform
of
unit pAsecond,. the coordinate6 Of
at time t
are
x
(1,6)
0 cot Q *
A ( 1 , 0 )
X = cos t
y = sin t.
fir
'Let us draw a line thTugh
11
perpendicular t,o thel5caxis.
Q be the foot of the perpendicular.
Figure 4)la
We shall study the motion of theipoint
as
When
increllvs.
B on the yaxis and':
0 to
moves from
back to O.
t =
has reached
A' (1 ,0)
At' t = 2n,
ands forth on tile rxa3ti s
P ,hasqenhed .
(a* quarter circumference'',
As
0.
to t =
t = n
Er'om
2
As we see,
is back at A.
increases from
moves
to
n,
from
AT
oscilla/es back
This motion repeats b..t time intervals of
Let us find the velocity, of
point
at any time
at time
2n.
Todo this
we take the derivative of the functi n
f
(1)
t ) cos
which represents the poaritift of the point
derivative of
(2)
"4
During thi first halrrrevolution, (0 <, t
.which shosfs that
and . t =Tr.
At
As 4e know, the
t.
t.
is
t.
'n),
the velocity is negative
Is moving to, the left.". The velocity is
t = 5
then
Q = 0,
f' (i) = 1.
' absolute value of the Velocity, has its maximum value when. t =
During the qecond half  revolution
fg h t
(31) = 1
2
at
The sperm, which
(n < t < 2y),
the
is moving td.the
is the maximum velocity and speed during th'; time iner
The motion relleatt6.* after' t
ao,
2789
A.
44
at an3/ time
What is the acceleration,of' Q
The acceleration is the
t?
,derivative of the, velocity 'ft, that is, the second ilorivative
f.
f"
In this case, sitce
to
f': t
(2)
(3)
bl
t 4cos t.
'
The velocity decreases when the acceleration is negative and increases
decrease of
is negative but
f"
the.fi.rst quarterrevdlution,
During
Let us lee how this works out.
wnen the acceleration is positive.
is also negative.
f'
means,an increase in its absolute value, that is, an increase
f'
in:Speed.
Between
f' 'is'negative and
Hence,
Between
t = *
is positive;
f"
ancrthe speed decreases from
to
f'
is
positive.
1'to
increases from
10.
sin t
t = 21
and
is negative .and ;sin t
cos t
t =
and
t = 2
and .cos t' are both negative so
'
that both
t
0 to 1.
f'
and
are positive.
f"
Both velocity and speed increase from

Finally., for . /1_ < t < 2y,
f"
is negative and
f'
is positive K, that
Q slows down again to 0.
xample 44a.
Show thp't
In what quadrants is
f"
(a} positive?
'
(b)
negative?
.
f"(t1 = cod t
Since
f"(t)0= f(t).
f(t
and.
cos t.
fi(t) = f(t)
,
(more briefly,
fu
_f).
Hence, .f"(t)p'.is positive when` f(t) = x
quadrants II and III;
f"
is negative when x
is negative, that.is, in
is positive; that is, in iva
drants I and IV.
vcf
280
290
r".
.
Example 441o.
t =
wheri
To find the position, velocity and acselera
pn of
Wes have
3
)
.
cos
f'(3) = sin
% f
Henee, after
lc
(n)
 ". 0.86'
2
.cos 5
seconds, the point
is at xf
90
and is moving to the_
,/".
left at

distance units per second.
The
h acceleratlon is
.1 .
distance
2
units per second each second, which means that the velocity 1.s decreasing at
.
c
1
the date of
unit per second per second.
(The speed is increasing at this
2
2
...
rate.)
4%.
We cin'generalize oar discussion 'by considering uniform motion on a circle
of radius r Where the point P moves the
diatine4
in ,to seconds.
4 .4b.)
Let
AOP in
'radians.
(See Figure
be th4,Meisure of angle
Then
kt'
r
e =
As in Section 34 we let
so that
ci)
1;'
The coordinates of
are
x = r cos at
Y = r sin wt.
Figure 44b
We 'let
46
(.4)
r cos wt.
6
o
Q' is the projection of
If
P.
..1_
tion of
on the xaxis, then the velocity and accelerao
are given by the functions
..()
1:.
and
f': to4 wr sig,at
t..
(6)
4
..
f": t ) 2r cos wt.
281
29I
c_
r"
4'4
.'
Now
respectively,
o?cillates between'' A (r,O)
and
A' (r,0)*
The time
requtred, for One os,cillation back and forth.is obtained by. .....
using the circum.
T\\.:the 'period
this
We
call
ths
time
ference 2nr Ids the arc, so that kt'=
.,
'4of the motion. ..Then
r
2nr"
2n
%ff
.
Note that
f" =
(7)
f(x) = r,cos tut
4 r
which is called ,r; differential equation.. We say that
(I
solution'apf this equation.
moves on a circle of radits! 10 feet a the
,r
Find the position of its projection Q and the
rate of 2 feet per second.
1
k , 2
.tince w'=
velocity and acaeleration of 'Q after 5. seCondi
5 1.
10
.r.
A point
Example 4 4c.
is
 \,
t 410 cos
f'
'and
10
.i,
t"
5'
=:72
k
.,
sin
For
t = 5
cos t
we'have
f(5) = 10 cos
1:=
1.68
fe(5) = 2 sin 1
0 (5) =
cos 1...;z
since
`cos 1 tt 0.54
and
sin 3.
When
t = 5
seconds, cQ
1.68
moving to the left a
in g at
0.22
ft./
0.84.
ft./sec. approximately.
each second so 'that
O. .It'is
feet to' the right of
5.4
is about
Eli speeding
.
up ,at this rate..
t:
.,
r,
..
"Ow
fr kr
282
909
The velocity is decrees=
.
44
Let
P move around the cir.C1e, of radius, 'r
time let 'us study the motion of the projection
as in Figure 44b but this
R" of
P' on the yaxis
AI
(Figure 440.
The point
is at,
y = r sin 8 = r sin'cut..
.If
is the functiOn
g.
(8)
t )r sin wt,
then
4'
rm cop
(9)
and
2
(10)
=no
g11: t
sin cot.
v
The point
.
starts at
= 0
A
at the point
and. oscillates up
*.11
and down on the yaxis between
and . B' .
'
It completes an oscillation
2n
after the time 
V.gure 44c
Note that
"
g"(t)
?ej
tc2 g(t)
or more briefly
..c02
g"
We have discussed 'dthe motion of ecil of the pointi
in Figure
However, we may, interpret
and
g' (t)
ft(t)
Q and
indicated
'11
\,
4Q\
%%ZI
as the horizontal and
..
, '
vertical components of the 'motion of
itself.
i.,
Notice that
Ilkkt
f' (t)/ = closet),
'
IF
;
A
r
r
Figure 44d
04.
283
293
14
4( ,,
.
g'00 = co f(t)
,,'
,4
,
44
.4.

The poSition and velocityof
are giAn'by.
at time4 t
= r cos wtft(t1 = ru) sin cut;
and of
R
o g(t) = r sirr cat
'
The actua
Sngle
PQ
velocity 'of
0'0
rco cos wt.
using the Pythagorean Theorem in tri7
is feund
. .
liff'(t)12.4,[gt(t))2.
42[g(t)I2t+ 2[f(t)
cbi g(t) )2 4(f(t))2
cur.
Since
k
au =.k; ' so that as we iight expect,
a.) =
at "which
,t
e arc is changing with time.
that "the dire c ion of
motion Of
is the constant rate
You can easily convince yourself
is perpendicular to thi radius
OP,
so.that the
s in the direction of the tanvpt, as,it must be.
If we work with the horizontal and vetica
compoli
of acceleration
accelerpton
of P
in' the s Me way,.we find that
'
=If"(t))2
= 14032i(t)]2 +
)2
g(t1)2
irf.t) 12 4= [g(t)?
car'
and that the dire
ion of the acceleration is toward
0.
f
.P284'
2'
Exercises 4,4
e
1.
Suppbse
move's around the circle at the rate of
Ii
. It
arc Onite. per

second 'Find%le horizontal and vertical position, velocity, and
" ....6.
acpeitiation when the following values 'are &reit tM Adius and time.
,
r = 1
(a)
.
.
',
..
'
(I) i
t = 0
(ii)
t = 1.
iii)
t , 1.,
iN0
t = 2
% )
'
(t),
r = 2
,,
(c)
010%.
(i)'
t =0
(ii)
t ='rl
(iii)
t = 2
(iv)'
t = 4
6 ,
't
t =0
(iii)
(iv)
t = 3
Iting the result's of NuMber 1 compare the 'position, the horizontal
and the vertical Alocity, and the horizontal and the vertical acceleration of the following if
(a)
(b)
r =2 and
(C)' IL= 6
3.
t =
anis
f.N.1;.
and
ana
Using the results dumber 1 compare the horizontal 'and vertical
position, the horizontal and the vertical velocity, and the vertical
acceleration when
t = 0,
and again when point. P
has traversed 'the
entire circle far,
(a)
r'
(b) TS irk.=
2.
at
t = 0
(i.e.,' at
t = 0
and at 't = 2)
and at' t = 4)
,
{61
,
4.
r = 6.
(i.e.o;
at
t = 0' and at
t =.12)
Show that the square rOptIof the ,sum of the 'squares. of the acceleration
components is the product of the speed and the angular velocity;
4
prove that Ar(t)12+ Eg"()12 = s a),
<'..the angular velocity.
where
.t
.e
I
'
28
35
rC's
sr is the speed And 'co
11,
1,
.
Suppose a massis atached to'a spring as
5.
wall
spring
mass
surface
"'
GD
4
.
' When tiip spring is unstretched,!the Pointer i,s at
Suppose that wee'movethe mass
on the scale.
unitsto,the right and release it.
The mass wil4 oscillate back and forth,
..
s.
It aan be shown that the spring
acts fn such away thai the position of the pointer is given by
Pit
f(t) = A cos
where
and
is a certain number and
are doniants that measure,
.
the cart.
the stiffness of the spring and the mass
5
(a). What is 'the value of "A?
C
./.
14hatlis the'periad.6i the motion?
(b)
how that
(c)
f'01 = 0;
that is, the initial velocity of the sring
is zero.
(d)
Show thj
f"(0)_
(e)
Show that
1r! ...,Interpret the negative sign.
is asolution to the differential equation
_AO How far left doeb the  pointer move?
(g)
Showthat at title
t = li
ms
11 the'pointbr crosses the point
In what
What,are its velocity and acceleration at this time?
f" =
direction is the,mass moving at this time?i
(h)
,
at time does the pointer cross 0
and acceleration at this time.
moving; at thia time?.
i
1
At
again?
Find its velocity
In, what direction is theIlass
''..)
4'
,
6. Draw a figure to justify the,atatement that in the case of 'uniform motion
4.0.
in a circle, the acceleratton is toward the c enter.
the horiiontal,and vertical acaeleration;of
.
.
28t
296
P.)4
(the'? arrows to show
,
II.
45
%*
45. .Higher Derivatives and Approximations
,
,..
When we,differentiated a'polynomial function (Chapter 2). we got another
polynomial function.
We discovered that if we took the first, second and
'higher derivatives ofazpolynomial function, we eventually gota deHvative
with value zero for 611 values of
Th6. will not be the case for a circu
x.
lar function, since the derivative Of'a circular function is a circular function.
We shall see the
if we take the derivative of a circular funCtion, and
.
then the, derivative of
*
he derivative, etc., we will ?Soon obtain the very func70
.
_/:
tic)* with which we begA.
''
0,
For example, if we begin with the function
f
sin,x
we get:
tlie first derivative
.
at 4 cos x
the third derivative
Of
x ' cos x
,
and
derivative x 4 sin x
l t)pe `second
tin fourth derivatTrve
x 4 sin x.
As was the case for polynomial filnctions we can write ...Q9 = f', D 2 f = f",
f4,
fiv,,D5f
fv,
=
=
=
etc.
The Roman superscript notation becomes
..
cumbersome for high orders and it becomes more convenient to useHinduArab i'4
13
,.
order
, 
derivative of
as'
itself: ,f) = f.)
f,
e
...
,,
If we take successive derivatives`of the sine function we get
:
;,',
ft
X 4 cos x
1
f"
(1)
x 4 sin x
fm: x 0 cos x
(4)
f_
x .4
sin x.
%.,
Since the fourth derivative is the original function wecan see the pattern
,
4?
In Leibnizian notation we write 1
Dny =
(1:) y = 2.
dx
n
dx
This can be further,atbreivated:
we write
.4
' .
287
(13)
 numerals parenthetieally as D f = f
. ,Thus the nth derivative* of f
a
Ls written nDfFf (n) ., (It is also a, usIful convention to define the zero
"
(n)
',
when' we mean
n'''
D y.
',
4
45
f.= ff(4) = f
f=
0

(8Y
f(5) 2 p(9)
(1a)
f(10)
f(6)
f (7) = f (11) =
flit
etc,
4
This result is sdnetimes summarized by saying that each function
here
y = sin x, cos x, sin x
or
cos x
is a solution of the differential '.
equation
.
(0
y/(4)
where
(4)
= Y,
represents the value of the fourth derivative of
We know from our polynomial discussion that tale process of differentiation
lowers the degree of the pqlynomiar function., .Thus; if
x vy
is a poly
nomial functiOn of degree
then
(4.1)
n
e
(3)
is a solution to the equation
f(x)
Y.
,= O.
The first derivative can be interpreted as the slope of,a tangent line
or as velocity; the secondderiyative can be thought of as the rate of Olehge)
of,the slope function or as abcele'ration.
While physical and geoilittrical
interpretations of higher derivativesare more difficult to contemplate, higher
 :derivatives ere useful in approximation discuisions.
Approximations
We want to find a polynomial,function which approximates the sine faction.
To do tiis we turn to the problem of finding a polynomial function
to
whose firstand higher derivatives "fit" the sine function near zero.
precisely for each positive
polynomial function
'//integer
More
we shall show that there is a unique
11
which satisfies the conditions:
(a). ,the degree of .1) < n
(4)
(b)
*
,,,,..
p(0) = 0 = sin.0
tc)" ,the values of the first
are the same for
derivatives, of
x = 0.
and.the sine function
To construct such a polynomial function
cients:
a0, a
a2,
l',
'
p(x) = a
(5)
.
',.
we need to find the coeffi
for
+ a v+ a x + ..; + a
1,
x!t.
Since conditions (4b) and/(4c) determine thevalues
288
,298
ti
p(0),, 15'(0); p" ((S),,
only shold
. we need
p(n) (0),
that these values 'determine the coefficients of
P(x)
in
(5). ",
First try .to' approximate the sine functioK by. a first degree polynomial
function;.
i.e
we suppose that
n = 1
p(x)
so that
+ a x
1
.
7 a
0.
and
p' (x) = al
Therefore, we have
%ow
(6)
and
p(0) =a0
al.
pt (0) 7
1
,For f: x ) sin x,
f(x).= sin x
and
cos x
f 1(x)
we hate
ft(0)=
f(0) = 0,
(7)
.
If tthe polynbbial function" p
require that
is to satisfy the conditions of (b) we
,,,
'
p(0) = f(0)
and
fig).
p'(o)
Combining these requirements with (6) and (7), we conclude that
a0
and
al
Thus there is exactly one polynomial function
= f(0)
of degree
and ,p' (0) = fq0); and that functiop is given by
Consider now the case when
= 2 ' so that
13. has the form
p(x) = a0 + a x + a2x
,.
2
.
In this case, we have
and
pi (x) = al + 2a'2x
ph..
(x)
= 2a2
,.
,p,0
that
'p(0)
(8)
Sitice
ri < 1, such that
x + sin x,
ao,
p'(0) = a1 ,
p "('9)
wec have (from (1))
289
299.
2a
2 N
p(x) = x.
3
.
f(x) = sin x,
f"(x)
fl(x) = cos, x,
so that.
fq0)= 0,
.k)
If p
.
f"(0) =
f'().= r,
is to satisfy the conditions of (4) with 411 = 2
(10'
p? (0) = ft (0)
f(0),
p( 0)
we require that
= f" (
p" (
10) .with (8) and (9), we conclude thti
Combillingthe reqUArements of
=
Et
The cases
p(x) = x.
n = 1
0,
= 1, .and 2a
result in the same polynomial
n = 2
,and
'
2
p
given by
This result is not surprising since the Second derivative of.the.,
sine function is zero when
turn to the case for'which
Now
x = 0.
p. is'a polynomial function of degree
i.e., we suppose that
.p(x)
= 8
+.8 X
1
8 x
n = 3;
given.by
+ 8 xJ.
Differentiating, we get
.pt(x).= a
p"Tx) = 2a
et(x) =
and
For
x = 0
(11)
+ 2a2x + 3a x2,
+ 6a x.
3 4
6a3,'
we' hale
p'(0) = a
p(0). = a0,
p"(0) 7 2a2,
1,
Using (1) for
x = 0
"1(0) = 6a.
and
w,p obtain
'.
f'(0) = 1,
.,f(0) = 0,
"k
and 44"(0) f 1..
fill)) 's 0,
Comparing these values with (11) under the requirements of (4)., we get
1 .
a
= 0,
= 1 2a 2
Therefore, the only polynomial
and
= 0,
= 1.
6a
3
of degree
orless thich satisfies the
conditions of (4) is given by
,
,
3
p(k) = x
AS we attempt to express a result for arbitrary
1
notation
.
'
,kt = 1
'
3 ...k
We can show thai if'
.
290.
'3 0 0
V
and
Of = 1.
we shall use factorial
1
'45
.
A
p(x) = a
+ alx + A2x
n
+ a nx
then' we have 
=(09a0
p(0) =
p'(0) = al = (11)al
Z4b
,
p"(0) r 2a2
(29a2
p"(0) = (2
3)d3 = (3)
(4)(
0) = (2 .3 ,4)a: = (40a4
"
= (2 .3
p(n) (0)
f.: x0,sin x;
If
= (n! a
then, 'from (la), we can write
%k %
da0 46f10) = f
rt)a
1 =)ft OCI,
_i
(4)
N
(0) = f (8) (0/
= ;.
.
(5)
1
(0/
= f (9)
'
(01
,..;
(6)
'0 = f(p) = f
(01 = ji())(0) '. ..
.,
,.....1..!
01 = f'''.(0)
..,
To satisfy
fkm479Noryfk,1
4) we must have
.,
(0) =
v(0) =' f(0);.k,pq0)
= fl(0),''13"(0) = f"(0),
,
Nowwe observe that
(13)
all the coefficients Ofterdts in
of evenIdegree are
0..
The ocid.degree coefficients are
al = 1,
(14)
a3 =,
1
,
For exaniple, the polynomial
a, =
'
p ,of degree
10
or less which satisfies'
the conditions (4) iS given by
.
p(x) =
= x
tx3
X5
A. "5(9
 37 +51  71,4t
x3: x5
x7
'x9
120:: 5E76 + 362,880
In summary, for each positive integer
function
of degree not exceeding
n
la,
to
there is precisely one poly4omaal
such that
andits f
st
n.
45
derivatives agree
n. derive
with the sine function and its first
x.=
tives.
The polyp
ials
are known as the Taylor approximations at
to tie sine function.
.
A similar process will yield the Taylor approximatons to the cosine
.
1
factiod:
'
it
x
1
1,
2:'
x4
41'
2:
you
In Exercises 45, Number 8
Approimation Error
e asked to obtain these.approximations.
.
.
4

Now we wa nt to determine the accuracy of successive Taylor approximations.
The.approximations,
y = x,
y 7 x
x3
,
y = x 
x3
x5
+ 5T ,
y = x
Y = x
.
Qt
to' y = sin x
.
x5
x7
,
and
x3
,3
x9
x3;1
,t5
x7
r
7
5.
7 + T
9.
3.
are graphed in Figure 45a.
7.
,,
Note that as the degreeOncrease0 s,
the Taylpr approximations become better in the sense that subsequent approxi,
mationsdmprove the "fit" near zero and also give better approxictions
further away from zero.
0 10
292
302
Jr
)
Y1
pi
y., = x
x5
x3
x9
x
x7
.
/
1

' ;4
II.
/
I
y = sin x
S .... ...."
t.
3.
\\
'
\\
\
X
3
X
Y
Y2 'x
3t
\\ ,
\
.\
X3
X5
X7
'51.
7!
+  

Figure 45a
Wye shall prove in :chapter 7 that these approximations are alternately to
large and
In fact, for ,x > 0,
small.
ti
ix.> sin x,
.
'
x3"
x   < sin x,
3.
.
x 
x3
x5
> sin x,
Hence, the error made in using any oneof:these approximations is easy tcs
estifate.
For example, if we use the,approiimation
.
x,
'sin x r.. x , 7.,
In practice
5
since there is no need to compute values of sin x to /.
the 'result is too small Py an amount which is less than
x is.less than
X
>
1,
In this case, each of the successive terms
4.
.. .
e?
.*+.
.
x5
x3
' k
'
3'.
t
x
is smaller than the preceding one..Morreover, since r <
'
we can approximate
sin x
7 when
large
as closely ds we please by choosidg n
4
enough!
x < 1,
'
k
;Similarly, it will be shown that the approXimations
,
..
'
1,
'It
to
cos x
x > 0,
are alternately too large and too ,small so that, for
. .1 > cos x,
2:
< cos x,
4
FF+ u>,cos x,
1 
mo9
.
fir
,Henge, for example, the error in using the approxigtion
0 .and
1 
2
2:
,
is between
x4
Example
4ta.
Use Taylor approximatiohs to estimate
sin 0.5.
Let us begin with the approximation
sin x 2 x
which gives
x3
.0.125'
sin 0.5 z 0.5.
The result is too large by an amount less than
0.020833...
If wd use the approximation :sin x z x
x3
"\;
we obtain
sin 0.5 2 0.5  0.020833:.. = 0.479166",
small by an amount less than
cludp that to
x5"
0.03i2 5
Tr. =
120
decimal place accuracy
2914N
0.00026.
This estimate is too
We can therefore con
in 0.5 Z_10.479.
45
2
Example
45b
Use the approXimq ion
,x
for
cos x. to estimate
2'.
cos 0.2.
Also estimate the error pommitted in using this approximation.
(0.2)2'
cos 4.2 %. 1 .
,27
o.o4
7 0.
The error is less than
0. 0016
0.000067:
It is often uleful to irite our results in thrms of a remainder
'
R.
Pot
example,,
3',
sin x =yx
lo
where
and
0 < R<
2
co s x =
'
31 +
4
< RI < rx
where
4.
We can Use,the Taylor'Etpproximations to determine certain limits.. Let
us beginwith some familiar ones.
Example
45c.
To find
lie
x>0
We can write
sin
x
and
1  cos x.
lip
x.
x0
where 0 < R <
sin x = x  R,
3t
Asin x,
1 
"x
0 <
Since
R'
x2

2:
we conclude that
approaches zero and
approaches '1.
Similarly;
.
cos x = 1 
+ R',
<
2
Hence,
1 ' cos
x
x= Tr
4
r
29g 0.5
0,
R'
Since
1  cos x
x
and
2i
and
R'
x
1
both approach zero
x,
lim
x
0
lim
To find
Example 45d.
x
.
1  cos x
sin x
0%
x
cos x = 1
Since ,
1  cos x
 0.
x
(0 < R' < E)
+ IV
' .
'.
(0 < R <
sin x = x 7 R,
and
,
x2
  R'
x 
sin x
R'
1  '
The numerator approaches
the required limit is zero.
This prodess can be abbreviated by:recognizing that
1 
cos x
2
and
sin x = x.
ti
Therefore,
_,,X2\
which approaches
as
x2
2/, _
x
approaches
0.
re
296
30
1.
(
.
1  cos x
'sin x
and the denominator apprdaches
2'
Hence,
45
This example may be done in still another way.
1  cos x = 1 cos x
simx
1  cos x
x
sin x
approaches
approaches
sin x
We can multiply these two limits to obtain the required limit.
FVom the previous example
1.
We may write
and
It can be shown that the Taylor approximations are the best polynomial
approximations near zero.
For example, if
f : x 'sin x
an
then
f(x)
p(x)1',.
as
approaches
and
0;
approaches
is the only pblynomial of degree
with this property.
or less
x3
it
45
I
Exercises 4
(b)
(i)'
(ii)
f(1)(x)*
(x)
(ii,i)
.(iv)
) Cos
Given:, g
(i)
determine
x,
8(31)(x)
g
2.
(.1)
determine
' sin x,
(a)"
(42).
(
x)
fr,
f
(35). xi'
(18) (x)
g', g", gm,
g
(20)
thin find
),
g(14),
then find
(x)
g(101)(x)
'
deterdine the value of
x,
(i)
(iii)
fm(ii)
(iv)
(ii)
(b)
Given:'
(i)
3.
(a)
(0
given:
(10)
5g.
(6)
gt(i)
(iii) 011(1)
8"Pir)
(iv)
f : x
A sin ax,
(ii)
f"(X)
(iv)
x4B
cos bx,
(4) 5g
((7)
find
(iii)
'Given:
(4)
find
x ) cos x,
f'(x)
find
81(;)..(ii)
(a)
(i)
"
r(i)
Given:
(iv)
g"(x)
f
x >3 sin nx,
(it)
g
,
(*)
find
(i)
ft(x)
(iii)
fftl(x)
(ii)
e(x)
(iv)
fiv(x)
g*(x)
(iii)
gm(x)
g"(x)
(iv)
giv(x)
Giventz .g f
2 cos 2
(i)
298
1047
45 .
5.
If
) 3 sin (i +
f(0)
(al
ft(x)
(b)
(c)
(d)
'
(e)
6.
If
find
(i)
f"(x)
(i)
fm(x)\
(i)
f(4)(x)
g
4a)
2 cos (2x +
'find
g(Q)ti
().) 7,(,i)
g'(x)
(:k1(1)
e
811(:)
(d)
ii). g"'(x)
(e)
(1.)
04)
g'(v)
(ii)
g"(
(ii)
g'"(0)
12
8()*
(x),

7.
Find a formula for the nth derivative Of the' sine function.
8.
Show that the Taylor approximations to
. x t
x2
2!
2!
cos x
are given: b3
+7
and, in general, by
1
where
is even,and
9.
(a)
9,
k xn
(4'1)
n!,
k =
$N
.1
For Numbers
10, and 12, use the Taylor approximation for
using
Calculate iin(0.2)
= 4.
sine
aria...t
s.
1.
1.
(b)
`.
Estimate the error.
.
10.
(a)
Calculate pos(0.2)
(b)
Estimate the error.
using
n
.
r
4
k
.299
309
cosine.
;,
11. (a) "Calculate
cos
using'
n = 2
(i)
'(iii)
r
=4
=6
In each case estimate the error, ascertaining the number of places
.
of accuracy in the approximation of
cos
1
a .
Show that the sine function is not equal to a polynomial function onlpany
.
interval; i.e., given
x
a < b
and any polynomial
p,
such that
there is a number
.,
11
a < x"< b
sin x = p(x),
Suppose
(Hint:
and
sin x #
a < x < IS
p(x).,
and differentiate 'several
times .)
Find the limits of the following expressions as
(sin
approaches
0.
(a)
X
sin x
2

x6,
(b).
4x2 .sin. 4x
(c)7
te
x2 =
{Let,
4x2
and find the limit as
),0) /
6
3x  sin 3x
(Let
(Let ....3x .= t)
6x
2
1  cos .x
x
1
x3
Ps,/
(f)
".
300
I .
14.
Use Taylor approximations for 'sin x
cos x
and
to evaluate each of the
following limits (if the lithit exists).
NN

sin'x
cos x
'''''''
lim
(a)
x 4 0
lim
(b)
7
cos x  sin
x
x 4 0
P
V
lim
(c)
4.4p+
4x )0+"
(Note:
15.
means that
approaches zero from the right only.)
C_
Find the limit, of each of the folloying'expressions'as
approaches
0.
sue_
x
(a).
x_
sin x
 cos x
(b)
nt
x
i
sin
x
t
(c)
cos X)2
(1
16.
Show that the Taylor approximations to
replacing
17.
by
2x
inthe approx4tions fox
Taylor approximations at
(a)
xl )sin 2x
x.
n,
there is a unique poly 
such that
deg p
(i)
a /,0
Show thpt for each positive integer
nomia4
can be obtained by
p(a) '= sin
(iii)
the first
values at
x = a
derivatives of
have the same respective
as the first
derivatives pf
x 14sin x.
These polynomials are called the Taylor approximations of
the sine function at x=ja.
(b)
Show that for
(c)
g'n a
p(x)
'
si n a
+ (cos Fa)(x ,a)
2!
(x, .a
4
Show that, in general,
'
.p(x) = f(a) + fT(a)(x.a) +
f"(a)
* f (n) (a)
2
(x  a). +
(x.. a)n.
it
d) Derive a formula corfesponding to that 4n part (b) for .the cosine
Taylor approximationS.
501
A
J
''
1
3 1 I
t
51
41,
Chapter 5.
EXPONENTIAL AND RELATED FUNCTIONS
Ak.
the preceding four chapters we studied polynomial and circular functions, the former being defined algebraically, the latter in terms o& arc
lelith bn the unit circle.
In this and the net chapter we take up the study
of exponential functions'and several otherfunctioni which can be described
in terms of exponentials.
x
In brder to define an exponentialfunction, such as
x
,.,
we must showhpw.iptational powers are defined.
Then we must obtain
the properties of these functions.
.
In order to provide a basis for our'dvelopment of exponential furictions
and their inverses, the logarithm .functions, we beginAhis chaptei with
Peview of thailaws of exponents..To assist us Pin our discUssion`of exponential functions, we Show in Section 52 how.the function x uN2x _serves as a
model for growth.
The laws'of rational exponents and the fact that
increases as
(rational) increases are established in Section5.
method fon defining irrational powlSof
2x
is indicated in Section 54,
4 where,it is noted that laws of exponents for arbit*ry real numbers hold and
that the graph'of the resulting function x 42x is rising and has no gaps.
These facts are used in Section 55 to obtainthe definitions and propertiet
of the general exponential function.
The final two'sectiOns use the inverse
eoncept to define and analyze the logarithm functions.
1.
'
Exponents '
You are doubtless familiar with the,behavior of exponents.
.
Since, how
ever, we shall need to use them extensively, it seems wise to put our know,
ledge of theM in order.'
Le
s consider the sequence of.numbers
2,*2 X 2, 2 X 2 X 2, 2 x2,x 2 x 2,
...
which we abbreviate as
(1)
,using thel'exponents1 1
1
,
3
,,o2s
.4
, 2
3, 4, to indicate the number of equal factors.
I.
3,01
Can we give meaning to
0
2
1
2
,
2/2, 22/3, t
or to
equal factors or
2
Certainly we cannot talk sensibly about
equal
4fdtors0
If
to the exponent
look at the list (1) we note that aftiltion,of '1
results in a multiplication IL
24
Thus
2.
this principle by saying that subtraction of
1
result which is
23+1 = 2 23 We can restate
from the exponent gives a
Thus,
the otiginal one.
23 = 1(24),.2.2 = 1(23),
2
from the exponent
in
We can get to
represent?
20
What number
20,
by subtracting
Therefore, if we areto'maintain the principle,
we should have
2
]..;
.=
t
from the exponent, We get
Subtitcting another /
2
1
0
1
= fke
Continuing in this fashion we find successively
2
2
=3
2 ,
4
1
=
=
g1
= 7,
'
and generally'
2
n
1
=
1
2n
,for every positive integer
To interpret
1/2
2
n.
.
we shall assume that equal increasmin the exponent
correspond to equal ratios of the numbers.
%w7
With integer expoffents this prin
ciple takes the form that each incr.ease'of
in the exponent cotrespondi to
a ratio o,'
What ratio corresponds to an increase{ of
2.
this unknown ratio
r.
Then
.
304jQ
(.1
1
?
Let A call
51
.
t
t t
21/2 ='
+1/2
2i1
and
r 2 = r 1 = r
r
21/2 +1 /2
/But
1/2_ r2
r
916
21
61.
Hence:
4
r.,,
and
1.
....

.,
'>
'
= /E.
.
We reject the possibility
which wouldnot t nicely do the
r = 1/
(See Figpre 51a.)
grapild
Po.
4.4
FigUre 51a
Powers of
2
,
similar argument shows
that to maintain regulartty we should take
21/3 = 3AT
22/3 .
andso on.
3.
Generalizing, we are led to define
2=
p /4
12 /75
where,p
and
are positive integers.
1%0
We can reverse our principle and say that every time we st.lberact a given
amount from the exponent we divide theaiiimbelby a fixed amount.
clude that
.3953
t
i4
Then we con
51
1/2
1
=
2/2
, 1
ig
JE
3/2
'
1*
: 27..:::
'2
end so on.
.
,,
`
ac
..,
With these interpretations of negative integral exponents and functional
exponents,, we see that if
and
are_.any
two tational numbers then
a
g
..
2r
'
2s = 2
r+s
'
and
(2r)s
More geprally, if ,a
2rs.
4
is any positive number and if 'r
rational numbers then it turns out that
'
(2),
eras = a
r+s
and
(3),
c(ar)s.
arS.
These equations express the familiar laws of exponents.
4,0''s
are two
Elercises,51
Write each of the following as a positive power of one number
1.
(a)
x5
x.?
(a3/5)5/3
(b)
'
(g)4 ;TLIU
107
.169
62/3
(c)
a3 /5.
a5/3'
(h)
3 .2
1/2
32
32
2 24
(d)
2 (73).
(11
 o
1/2
ti
22
i(i)
(e)
1.1
814/3'
23/4
r.
(J) '25 2755 (125 )2/3
Find the value of
2.
if:
14mr _442/3;
= (23)2;
(a)
8rn
(b)
8m .=
(c)
2(45) = 16m;
(a)
(24)5 = 16m;
2(32);
/
if)
571
= 0.2;
(g)
(pm
(h)
17m = 1
I;
O
.
Eva
'3.
1000182/3)
ex.
3(9)3/2.
)4. Area ge the following in order of magpitude:
22/3,
5.
(1)=riti;
..
Show that if
x =
22 ..7
then 7x = 4
23,
(2 2/9)9
10,7,
.,.
.
.
(45/2)01),
6.
Carry out an argument, like that in the text 0 show that
.0.
31/4
(b)
43 =
41/31.
43
(c)
2:1/2
500"
307
31G'
'41
2
The Exponential Function, Growth and Decay
52.
In this and the next three sections we shall be concerned with assigning,
a meaning to
where
a > 0
and,
is an arbitrary real number.
This
will lead us to the general exponential function
x
'where
is a constant
The number
kax
is called the base of the exponential
function.
./
An exponential function can serve as acidealized mathematical molel for
growth and decay.
Suppose a biologist grows a colopy
Let us consider growth.
/
He wishes, to study, how the number, of bacteria
of a certain kind of bacteria.
Under favorable circumstances he find:, that so long as
changes with, time.
the food holds out, the time required for the number of bacteria to double
His
does. not seem to depend on the time at, which he starts the experiment.
hypothesis is that .the time required for the bacteria to double does not
depend upon the time when the initial count is made. 'This is one instance
of a general growth principle which 'is important in social, phytic0s, and.
biological science.
(
N0
To be concrete, let us .suppose that on a given day there are
bacteria
presentsand that the number of baoteria doubles every day,' Then there will be
2N0
,twice
present one day later.
2N
the number
22Nd after three days twice
or
.After another day the number of bacteria will be
0
23..2,:.
After
v
of bacteria present will be given by.tne';qs,tat'ion
N(n)
2 N.. ;or
days
ti
0
N(n) = No2
(2)
__where
n
,
is a positive integer.
If we asamme that the number of bacteria increases steadily throughout
/
any given day,,ye might want to determine how many bacteria are present
after the s
rt.o; how many were present
1
2 .f
II*
1f
day
days before th'e initial &mint
was made.
To answer these questions we must generalize equation (2) to
N(r) = NO2r,
where
pity take any rationalvalues, positive or negative.
expressions as
to
and
J5.
271
If such
are to have meaning, we must generalize further
308
3j7
r
52
where
is an arbitrary real number.
Let As suppose that (3) serves as a model for the growth of the bacteria
colony.
Can we 44duce from this growth equation that the time required for
the bacteria to double doesn't depend on the time. the initial count is made?
Since thiswas thgAnitial_hypothesia, it should be true if (3) is to serve
as a model.
SinCeye_pan be certain of the meaning of 2
only, when
is
rational '(from SeZtion,51)we begin with that case to check the'hypothesis.'
Suppose we take a count
take another count
days after the 'start of the experiment and then
days later:
x and
Here
numbers, positive, negative, or zero.
may be any "rational
From,(3) we have
N(x + t) = NO2x4t.

mSeetion51,_tlie_exponent la
'r
,(2r +s
= 2 2
for r
and
rational)
gives
N(x + t) = N0 2x
Replacing
by
N 02
N(x)
(4)
414
we obtain
N(x + t) = *2tN(x).
In words, if 1N(x)
number N(x + t)
The factor
isrthe bacterial count after .x
of bacteria after x + t
does not depend upon
depends only upon
t,
x,
days
is
days, then the
2s times as great.,
the time of tfie,first count; it
the time interval between counts.
For example, suppose that there are one million baiteria ruSent initi,a1g4r;
i.e.,
N0'= 10
6
.
Then the number of bacteria onehalf datlater is given by
N(2),=
106(21/2)
=10
Aftegone,and onehalf days the number of bacteria in the colody is
;
N(p.... 106(23/2)
r= 106 (21,2)
r%
= 200 6Y2)
= 2 N(t)
309
318
d
1'
52
If we use (4) we obtain the same result:
N(i) t N(i" + 1) =2N(2).
ea:
Assuming that the conditions of growth were the.same prior to the initial
count, we Stu:mid expect, that the number of bacteria one day before the' initial
cdunfis taken would be
,t!(=1), = 1.06 ,
1
= 500,000.r
An exponential function.with any positive base can serve as a griowt,IN
model.
If,wereplacie the assumption that the number of bacteria dolpot each
day by the assumption that the number changes by a factor of
a_
each day, we
obtain the model
N(x) = Noax.
Si ce the laws of exponents hold for rational exponents and an arbitrary
base w
obtain the relation
N(x + t) = at N(x).
We see that it is also true in the general case that the growth factor
depends onlyupon the length of the time interval
observation time
(x).
3100
(t)
(at)
and not on the first \,
4,
LI
Exercises
In the first four exercises consider the equation
N(n) = 106(2n),,
where N,(n)
represents the number of bacteria present at the end of
1. ) Plot the points for which, n =,0, 1, 2, 3, 4
smooth curve.
days.,
and connect them yith,a'
(The unit chosen for the vertical axis may be one million.)
7*
2.
The bacteri'a count at theend of
as the count
3.
n + 5
day's is how many times as great
days after the beginning of the experiment?* 
n + 2
Onp week after the inftial count was made the number of bacteria present
was h& many tunes as great
the number present three days before the
experiment began?
4.
bacteria present after
If there are
days, after how many days
;.00
weri there k present?
5.
200,000
Suppose that in a new experiment there are
at the end'of I4ree days and
Compute:
days.
(a)
the number present at the end of
(b)
the number present at'he end Of 1
days;
1
days;
(c)
bacteria pFesent
1,600,000 present et the end of 47
the number of days at the end of which there are
806,000
bacteria present.
issume that the number of baCteria present at the IINginning of
Hint:
the. experiment is
and that at the end of
a N0
24
6.
hours the count is
The number of bacteria in a certain culture is obseryed to double every
day.
If t
reewere
105' present at the first count, the number of
bacteria
fl.t after
days is given by
N(t) = 105
days?
(a)
How many Were there after
(b)
HOw many were there one day before the count?
2 days?
2t.
two days before the
count?
.
(d)
How many were there onehalf day before the count?
aftpr the count?
ti
What is the ratio of
,311
320
N(2)
to
onehalf day
N( 2)?
52
7:
Suppose `N(t).= Noa
(a)
is 'the number of bacteria present at time
If this formu a is to represent growth, can
.
la with
Use the/for
a =
1
,
a = 1, . and
besmeller tlian
a =
t.
1?
, to ;stetch graphs  '
illustrati g your answer.
(b)
Calcula
41,
N(t'+ 1)
NM'
77.7,
N(t + 2)
N(t + 3)
N(t + /) ' __N(t f 2)
(c)
Ie general whbi is the value of
(d)
Suppose that
MItr + n 4,1) 9
N(t +..n)
,
N(1) = 105
and
N(2) = 106.
Find _N0
'
.....
and
a,;/
radioactive substance (such as radium) decays so that the amount
8.
/present,
N(t)A
.,
at time
is satisfactorily given by the same I
formula as growth:
N(t) = N at,
0
where a
is a positive real numberr=
(a)
What is the amount present at :time
t = 0?
(b)
If this is to represent Aecay, can
(c)
Show that the ratio .of the amount present at time
t + 1
amount present at time
and .is smaller
than
exceed
doesn't' depend /upon
1?
to the
1.
No
lttt
If .N(t) = N0( )
find the value of
for' which 'N(t) =
JO
312
0 2
.7
...
_
'53
1
More About Rational Exponents
sr
Before attempting to define irrational exponents we shall further examine
the'function
r 4 a
where
a > 0
and
a = 2;
r' is a rational number.
r ) 2r,
r
and
To be concrete let us suppose
we consider the ?unction
( 1)
For
rational.
r,
rational, the laws of exponents are
2r2s
+s
(2)
04_6
2rs
(2r)s
We can show that the function (1) is increasing; that is,
2
< 2
if
and
are rational and
r <'s.
We firsts observe that
if
(3)
a > 1,
where
then
> 1, a 3 > 1,
4.., a
> 1,
is a positive integer.
.r:
Similarly we'note that
(4)
a = 1;
if
/'
then an = 1,
and
0 < a < 1,
if
(5)
Now we assert that
m/n
2
were equal to
which is false.
m/n
1,
> 1
then
for any positive integers
If, on the other hand,
neither'less'than nor equal to
r
and
m and
n.
'If
wouldleaa to the result an` =.2m = 1,'
then 0) vwould
2m/fl
would lead to the result 'Ian = 2m < 1,
Now let
0 < an < 1.
were less than
it must be greater than
1,
1, .then,...(5..)
which is also false'.
Since
be any.twp rational numbers such that
s tis.a positive rational number
2m/fl
is
1.
r < s.
In conclusion we have
Then
d
/
2s
r
. 2
m/n
2r(2sr)
2s > 2r.
32.3
3.22
> 1
2r
r )2.,, where
Is rational,
unc ion.
is aryfcreasing
... /
'
If
is a large lager then certainly
Ailk
is very large.
Estimates
'
can be obtained by usIng the binomial theorem to,expand
2n
of the size of
n >
(1 t f)n. .For example, we have, for'
(14 1)n = In An In 1 .1 + n(n
12 +
1) In 2
All of these terms are positive, so if we cmit any terms we canonly decrease
ms we
In partibUlar, omitting all but the first and second
the size.
obtain
>
2n = (1 + 1)
6,(6)
+ n.
Consequently, ifwe go farenough to the right the graph of
x
y = 2x,
(7)
rational
must lie above any given horizontal line.
An6ther consequence of (6) is the
fact that the, negative xaxis is an asymptote fot the graph of (7); that is,
the graph of (7) approaches the xaxis for
k negative and
Ix!
large..
,
show this we can take reciprocals 1(6) to obtain
:(8)
Since
n
r and since
= 2
.0
1 + n
2**
approaches zero as
Inl
increases, then
1 + n
y,= 2x
1:.g.
approaches zero as
becomes negatively infinite.
\In summary, the graph of
!x  axis (when
x < 0
iises rapidly for
and
!xi
y = 2x,
rational, increases from nearthe
is large), crossing the yaxis at
(0,1),,
and
x > 0.
.;.tr.
314
323
*.
5i
.'
r,
4

Table 53. . Values of
) 2r
.001
1.000 693 4
.005
1.003 471 7
.01
1.006 955 6
..02
0.999 307 1
0.99
54o 2'
0.993 092 5az
0.9vo 23
)1
1:01 3 96
.03
1.021:01 
0.979 42
.64
1.V 11
0.972 66
..05
1.106
.10
o
.15
26
0.965 94
1.071 77
,0.933 03
1.109 57
0.901 25
1.148'70
0.870 55
to
"J
.20
.25 .
1:189 21
0.840 9b
.30
1.231 14
0.812 25
.35
1.274 56
0.784 58
.40
1.31951
0.757 86
:45
1.366 04
0.732 04
1.414. 21
...0.707 11
.50
.55
1.464 08.
0.683 02
.6o
1.515 72
0.659 75
.65
1.569 17
0.637 28
1.624 5o
0.615 57
1.681 79...$
0.594 6o'
.70
.75
.1
.8o
1.741 lo
_85 
1.862 5o
0.554 78
.9o
1.866 07
0.535 89
.95
1:931 87
0.517 63
a.
1.00
Rational Values of
2.00o 00
0.574 35
6.560 00
2r
Wile 53 gives rational powers of
use the entries to three place accuracy.
used to find
'
2.
Ordinarily it is sufficient.to
The laws of exponents (2) can be
2r for values not,listed in the table.
"a.
>
3!S2 4
53
DiT2212 538. Find
21'68.
de
We note that
2(1 +
21.68
=
1.
1..1
Find
Example 53h.

2r
0.65
000,
4 .03)
20.03
20.65
21
2(1.569)(1.0021)
0.57
write
+.0.63
20.31 =
2...(2o.6o oro.03)
11213.6o)
0.03)
'U*516)(1.021)
2
EITIP12, 53" Find
Note that.
22,
0.774
43'21.
so that
"43.21
22x3.21
(22)3.21
26.42
26
20.02>
21374o
64(1.320(10314) = 85.663.
Later we shall be able to use Table 53 to maculate
expressions as '3r.
general positive
a,
8r, 16r and such
(In Section 55 we shall show how to define
in terms of powers of
2.)
ax, tfor
.
316
325
4.
.
fi'
53
Exercises 2:2
1.
(a)
.(b)
2.
5 4
2/
Calculate
by using the data in Table_ 53;
by noting that
2514 = 2
21/4
= 2 .
liding.the data in Table 53?' calculate
(a)
('0
21.15
.y.65
(c) 20.58
(d)
3.
4.
2Q.72
With the aid. of Table 53, compute
0. 84
(a)
(b)
0.250:83
Extend Table 53 by completing the following table.
Table 22 (extended)
Values of
2r
2r.i
'
3.6
3.2
2.8
2.4
r..
2.0
1.6
1.2
ft
..
1.4
'1.8
2.2
'
'
?6
3.0
e
Ak
Plot the points
(x
2x)
for the rational values of
shown in
1%.,._
e
Eibie 53 and Table 53 extended (Number 4).
6.
(a)
For what positive values of the constant
f
increasing?
decreasing?
r tar
constant?
317
32G
is the function
53
(b)
For whht positive valus of
is the function
0r
increasing?
(c)
z.
we.
constant?
decreasing?
For what positil7e values of
is the function,
r 2
f
increasing
(d)
If
decreasing? constant?
for what values of
+3
r '
.ShowAhat if
n > 2
is the function
(2b + 3)r
then
2
>
MO.
nkn  1)
2
I'
(b)
constant?
decreasing2
increasing?
(a)
(a)
'
Use (a) to show that
100
2
99
100 > 2 r
210,000
116,000 >
(ii)
(e)
As
9, 99
2
becomes large does
2"
n
become large?
Justify your'answer.
ti
3.
318
327
54
onents
Arbitrary Real
ctions, we dealt with the properties of
In the preceding
for
We want to give meaning to these expressionSif
rational.
irrational.
ax
and
is
'For example, we want to assign meaning to
n,
3
x
To be specific, we want theexpression
irrational values of
x;
to be defined in a natural way for
that is, we need to extend the function x )a
that its domain is the set of all real numbers
suppose
2x
a = 2.
x.
To be concrete let us again
In the next section we shall show how to define
general positive
a,
in terms of powers of
(X
for a large number of rational values
ax,
for
2.
Of course, the meaning of "in a natural way" is ambiguous.
however, what we wish to do is clear.
so
Geometricqlly,
After plotting the points
2X)
then we just connect these points
x,
with a smooth curve and oetain the desired graph of `
x
x ) 2
Then, for example,
2 2
is calculated by measuring the second coordinate of
t11, point on this graph whose first coordinate is
(See Figure 548.)
(2,4)
The second coordinate of
this point should be.,
2
(0,1)
if
Figure.54a.
Finding
"holes" in
by filling in the
x 742x,
319
rationat.
'
s/
This graphic prooess js not quite satisfactory es it doesn't lead to pre.
cision as to the meaning of
We shall outline an approximation procedure
which will enable us to define 2if
and in general
2x
for irrational
x.
The function so obtained is increasing everywhere; that is
)
if
u < v,
then
'2u <*iv.
In fact, there is only one increasing function which has the values
all rational numbers
r.
u+r '= 2 u 2 v
hold for,all real numbers
and
and
for
(2u)v,= 2uv
(rational or irrational).
The graph of
x 2x. has no "gaps"; that is..
for any positive number
(3)..
For this function the laws of exponents
(2)
this function
such that
y,
there is an
2x = y.
. In the sequel lie shall assume that indeed
is so defined that,
(2) and '(3) are true and examine the consequences of these
assumptions.
Now we turn to outlining the process used to define
If we wish the '.
.increasing property (1) to hold, then for all rational numbers
such that,
and
s,
r<
we musthave
8,
(5)
...
2F < 2
< 2s.
Obviously this places a severe restriction on the value we assipto 2
and,,.
as,we shall see", determines it completely.
The ordinary decimal approximations...,
,
to V give us_a handy .collection of values.f16r
.
4'.
,
and
s;
we know that.
'
,
1
)..4
1.401,
.
fit
'
< 1f < 1.5
.
<12 < 1.42
1.414: < 1 <'1.415
,1,414'2
_1.411121
< Vg,< 1.4143
< If
<1.41422
and so qn.' The iriequa ities (4) and (5) then show that
2'7 must sattsfyethe
'4
320

54
1.4.
< 2
21..41
< 3
1.414
< 2
21 4142
If
if
< 2
if
< 2
1.42
1.415
21.4143
21rf
1.41421
1.5
< 2
if ) 1.41422
2
< 2
<
and so on.
We replace the rational powers of
appearing in the last set of
inequalities by appropriate deciffial approximations and arrive at the following
.
estimates for
if
1.4
2.639 <
2.657 < 2
2.664.< 2
2.665 < 2
and sa'nn.
2
if
< 2
1.41
< 2
1.414
If
< 2
< 2
<
1.4142
< 2
,/,"f
< 2
1.5
1.42
1.415
1.4143'
< 2.829
< 2.676
< 2.667
< 2.666
Thus;' if (1) is to hold, we know that, to
decimal places,
ff
= 2.665
The pinching down process that we use to estimate
if
is indicated
in Figure 54b.
V
1.4142
1.41
1.41
1.415
21
.
4 2
1.42
21
4,
.2.6
2:7
2.8
Figure 54b
,,
Pinching down on
TI:0 generalize to any real number
rl, r2, r3,
Yn,
decreaSing sequence
than X
x,
2'6.
we choose,any increasing sequence
ofrationalnumbers all less than
si, s2, 53," ..., so,
such that the difference
r l'i
can be made arbitrarily small.
,.,,
',
3?).
'it
and any
..., of rational number's all'greater
330
,
r1
1.We:compute the sequence of numbers
s
sequence of numbers
,
intervals
< y
1
,
3
,
r2
r,
and the
, 2 J, ..., 2 n,
,2
and then look at the
..., 2 n,
sn
.
s3
2 q
pinching down on
2
x
r
crowding in on x.
41,
fi
rn
r
s2 sl
n
Figure 54c
Pinching down on' 2x.
It ip a, prdpertY,of'the,teal. numher.qstem tIlat as x
s
confined by
to successively smal4r intervals, the corresponding intervals
and
on the ya is pinch down to a uniquely determined number, which we shall
define'as
he number
2x.
The number obtained is independent of the particular
.
choice
n"
of
the sequences
rn, ...
ri, r2, r3,
;..
3223
and
si, s2, s3,
r'113 "*
1
SHIM
... ....
OS.
.....
..............
::: ::::::::::::
SS
MSS
......
SS
OS
S OY
113
sass
.....
11
1.1
Is
r1
...
T:fin:2112
SEIM
.... ....
::: :
MEWL.
" " .......
31U.
..........................
....
WRENN
111
COO
NA
.....
..
.......... . :
'11::..... SS .........
:
I
I
WIN
e:
........
1:11:313:13
L..13:1111'11..
....... elas
..............
Wan ...............
%SS
.........
SW=
...........
....................
e.
3111:1'13111111:11:11
................
/Il :
i..
....... ............
....................
00
...
00
.....................
Of ......
..... ........
.......................................
..........................................
II ............................. g
........
.........................................
.......... :
RS
........................................
II
......
1/8
54
4 Exercises 2:4
1.. Use the graph of
2
2
2
x )2x
t5) estimate the value of:
1.15
2.65
0.58
2*72
2.
Compare your results in Number 1 with your answers to Number 2 in
Exercises 53
3.
se the graph of
(a) 2
(b)
x )2
to estimate the value of:
17 f
2g
(c) .2g/4
4.
Is there any value of
for which
= 0?
Gie reasons for your
answer.
5.
Use the graph of
x )2x
r.
to estimate the vilify of
if:
(a)
(b)
23c
= 6
'II.
(d)
2x = 3
(e)
0:7'
,4
!I
= 0.4
(c)
iim
'
= 3.8
= 2.7
*a
6rL
Fl
324
55
55 Powers of the Bape
as Powers of
We have concentrated on the function
f
x )2x.
You are now familiar'With its graph andhave worked with a table of its Values.
We shall now study the function
f
where
x )a
is any positive real number.
from1scratch because we scan express
Fortunately we do not have to start
as a power of
as lie proceed to
2,
show:
o
The graph of
right.
Also,
x )2
f(x) = 2x'
lies above the xaxis and rises from left to
becomes arbitrarily large for
sufAficiently ,far
to the right on the real number line, and arbitrarily close to zero for all
..
sufficiently far.to the left on the real line.
The graph has no gaps.
sequently, if we proceed rrom left to right along the graph,
steadily in such a way that any given positive.number
once and. only once.
a,
increases
will be encountered
That is, there must.be one and only one valueof
for which
a=
(1)
(See Figure 55a) and therefore
may be expressed as a power of
a
Figure 55a
Graph of x
Con
showing that
325
334
= a.
2.
x,
say
**)
55
We can find the value of a
by means of the graph (Figure 54d) or
Table 53.
Example 55a. Find the value of a. for which
We loo
1.11 = 2a.
1.11
or
in the second column and read backward to find the
0.15
corresponding value of a in the first column. Thus, .1144 = 2
(approximately).
J
Exam le
Welhave
3.25
Example
7c.
Find the'value of a for wh'ich' 2a = 6.
x .2
The result is
6.
we look for the abscissa corresponding to the
2.6
(approximately).
./if we use Table 53 to express
,
6 = '22(1.5).
2a.
21.70.
21 (20.70)
2(1.625)
On the graph of
ordinate
3:251in.the form
Express
'
as a power of
2j
4 first write
Interpolating in Table 53 between the entries for
and 0.60 weobtain
20.58 m 1.50.
Therefore a Z 2.58,'
by itterpolation.
The expression. a
for
o= 2
!fence,
irrational and
x = 0.55
2 . 0.5 8).
A 2.58
0..50) ,S4'2 k2
4 d
2.
a / 2
has not yet been
defined.
We Could follow the Kocedure of Section 54 to assign meaning to
ax when
is irrational.
the function
x ,ax
Since we can write
a = 2, we can simply define
by
x
{2)
ax
where
a =115.
The laws of exponents will holt
)
and the graph of
ax
axa"and
( x)Y = PxY
will have no g p
These dre consequences of (2),
as is. the fact that
If
13)
a >1,
thee X*ax
To prove (3), for ezamplei note that if.
a <'0
(for 'if
'2a1 < 2a7;
then
that is,
2a < 1).
Thus tf
a > 1
x < y
y.
E9. < a
is increasing.
32d3
= 2'
then ax <ay
where
a > 0,
so that
(55
The graph
a;
scale by,,the factor
where
a'= 2a.
then we just "shrink" the
= 2,
end
is obtained from the graph of
a = 2a,
then
For example, if
a = 4
scale by a factor of
Roy changing
so that
0 < a.< 1
x
In this case the graph ,of x *a
will be negative.
is obtained by changirig scale in
x ,2x
If
2.
and reflecting the g'faph in the
vertical axis. /Three cases are illustrated, in Figure ,;b.
These considera
tions will be useful in our subsequent discussion (Chapter 6) 9f tangent, lines
to graphs of exponential functions.
(i)x
x )2x
Figure 55b
,
The following examples illustrate the use of formula ,(2) Table 53 in
0
calculating
ax.
'
'
4 4 4.
i,
.
(0
.
Example 55d. Express
value of
t
To
3.7
as epower of
0.7
2,
and find the approXimete
'
;:d
the value of 30T ''W first eZpi.ess i 3 as a power of 2. 'Thus,
1, 0.58
1.58
3 = 2 (1.5) =.2 (2
)
',2
(approximately). :(Verify :tili's from Figure
in#
'
\.
54d.).
'30.7
Now
(21.58) 0.7
*106
21.11
a
.
m 2
(1+0.10+0.01)
= 2 (2
0.10
m'n1.072)(1.007) = 2.159.
)(2
0 01
,'
327
3 3.6
." p
5 5
Example 55e.
Calculate the value of
(6.276)0.4.
We note that
//
6.276 = 4(1.569)
22(1.569) z 22
(Verify this from_FigureZ4d.)
(6.276)'!1
22.65
=
Hence,
2(2.65)(0.4)
(22.65)0,.4
(20.65)
(1+0.05+0.Q1)
= 2
21.06
20.05
2(1.035)(1.007) = 2.084
20.01
2
(approximately).
Exercises LI
1.
Express
2.
Write
"A
3.4 in the form 2a
of
2.64
in the form
2.64 = 2a
and then find the approximate value
(2.64).3.1
.
3.
Find the approximate value of (6.27)0.6.
4.
Find the approximate value of
(5.2)2.6.
5.
ShoW that if
6.
By finding a suitable value of d,
0,< a <%.,4
and
v > u,
then
express each of the following
i
function's in the form of
X) 2
(a)
x o 4x
(b)
(c)
x 3 (5.736)'
(d)
x 3(0.420)x
aV < au.
QX
.
(3.66)x
328
337
55
oV.
7.
_ are positive and different from
a ,and
Suppose
Consider the
1.
two functions:
x
and
ax
bx
'
which cpn be respectively written as
x
(a)
If
(b)
Su pose
a < b,
_,2ax
and
what is the relationship between
close to
b.
Is
close to
and
(3.
Illustrate your
(3?
ans er by completing the following table:
For these values
of b
8.
2.0/.44
2.3
.1
ax
ax = 2
Given:
ax
(D)
(b)
If
(c)
ShoW that
Igt
is increasing/ what is the 'sign of
a?
is decreaping, what is the sign of
a?
is independent of
f(xf,(+x)1)
x.
.)
If
(1)
10t
what ban we conclude(about the a*vtiuotientt
> 0,
'
(ii)
(d)
'
9.
(a)
If
a > 2,
If
what can we ;c
z,
q ,< 0,
Where, does
a ,,
(2
he graph_of
e.
,441
lude' about the above quotient?
xs:,
:show that
.for
> 0.
Jai .> ,Q)
`*
.cross the y axis?
Does
,..,
your answer depend upon
,, ,
(b)
%;
c ',t'
J. '
i
."
Find the' point(s) of inte_, ectTon,,if `any, of the two grapl2s.; ,
.
(c)
a?
.7
W,
.'..
)
aZ and
.x
x , 2(2a) .
.
Find the pctint(s) of' intersection,
I.
if any, of the
.!
,,
f ,,4 %,
.
.,..
two graphs:
es.
r.
,..
x > ax' and
is a real number greater than zero).
(where
St
x ,b(ba)X
u.
.
(d) ,Find the paint(s) of intersection, if any, of tlft twographs:..
x i4x
(where
and
and
x > b
n.
,x
Om)
are real numbers, greater than zero),.
I.:
:'
.'
56
The Logarithm (Ease_21
56.
4 Since the exponential function
every horizontal line
y = b
where
x 02
is,increasiAg, its graph crosses
b > 0.
Therefore, the inverse function
.
is increasing, its gr .K h has no gaps, it becomes arbitrarily large as
be
comes large and it comes arbitrarily close to the xaxis for
lx1
large.
In particular, if
x > 0,
negative And
there is exactly one real number
such that
...
JO%
2y =x.
This 'number
by
is called the "logarithm of
to the base 2 ".and is denoted
Thus the function
log2 x.
log2 x
log2 : x
x > 0
is definedonly fkz.
With base
2.
and is the inverse of the exponential function
These two functions are related by
log2(c) = d if and only if
(1)
2d = c.
'
In terms of graphs, this tells us that
If '(c,d)
lies on the graph of
x 4kog
then
(2)
(d,c)
lies on the graph of
and conversely.
X' '2x
As was tha case for other functions and their inverses that we have
studied, the graph of
x 32x
x olog2 x
over the line given by
can be obtained by folding the graph of
y = x.
(See figure 56a.)
139
.
56
Calculations involving
log2
can be carried out using the relation,(1).
For example, since
' 23 = 8,
we know thAX
log2 8 = 3;
and since
6
2
1
"we have .log2(.alo= 6.
In fact, any table of valuet..of the exponential.functton .6 the base
also give.4tUes of
log2.
will
For example, Table' 53 gives
2
.20
= 1.14870
so that
log
1.14870 2:
A number of useful properties, of
log2
can be derived from propertiea
of the exponential function by using the relation (1).
Some of these are
ti
331
'140
."
(a)
(3)
log2 1 = 0
(b)
1og, 2 = 1
(c)
log2
((i)
log2 x > 0
(e)
log2 x < 0 'if
is an increasing function
x > 1
if
0 < x < 1.
The properties can be observed in Figure 56a.
example, let us prove.(c).
Y1 = log
Suppose
They can also be proved.
x0 < xl. 'Put
y0 = log2 x0
For
and
so that
If yo
were not*fess than
= 2Y
yl
and
= 2 1.
we would have
increasing function, the condition
y0 > yi
2y0 > 2
y1;
y0 > yl.
Since
is an
implies that
.
,)
.,
so we are
contradicts the assumption that x < x
0
1
This
log
is an
log2'x0
<
log2
xl.
This
proves
that
forced to conclude that
that in,
5:
0 ?
x1.
increasing function.
\,..
The laws of exponents
x+y
x y
= 2 2
and
(255Y = 2xY
give rise to the following logarithm laws:
(a)
log2 xy = log2 x + log2 y
(b)'
log2 xY = y log2 x.
(4)
For example, to prove the first of the;e (4a) we let
c = log2 y
b = log2 x,
a = log2 xy,
(5)
4g,
so that
2c.
2b,
Observe that
xy
is then also given by
so
= 2b
2c =
2b +c
so that
0}
b+c
= 2
332
3 41
56
Wp.conclude that a = b + c;
that is (from (5)),
log2,xy = log2 x + log2 y.
Formuld,,(4b) is left to Exercises 56, Numbel 3.
These formulas can be
used with Table'53 to calculate logarithms of numbers not appearing in the
table.
'
Example
Find
log
3,25.
Upon looking at the second column of Table 53 we see tOlt
3!25
doesn't.
4T
.appear.
Note however that
3.25 =2(1.625)
so that
log2 3,?5 = log'114,+ 16g2 1.625.
'
Reading from t.he second .column to the first column in Table 53 we obtain
log2 2 = f,
log2'1.625 r. 0.70,
so that
log2 3.25 z 1.70.
. The next example shows how inequalities for the logarithm to the base
are obtained from inequalities for the exponential.
EXample.56b). Show that if n
is a positive integer then
lbg2 n < n.
)
Since.
and log2
is an increasing function we must trete
log2 2n >.log2 n.
Formula (14b)
gives
,
log2 2n = n log
Since
log 2 = 1
2
we must have
n > log2 n.
tr
333342
56 ,
Example 26c.
The function
1
can write
f :
Sketch the graph of
f
is defined for
log2(1  2x). = log2 [2(x
LI
x elog2 12(x  VJ
in four steps.
: x elog94  2x
1  2x >0;
'''
)J.
can be obtained from the graph of
'
by
We
g :x elog2 x
we begin. with the graph of
Second, replace
Third,
The graph of
(See Figure 5,76b.)
First,
x < 5
1.,

thatj s, for
2x...
fold the gfgph over the line given by
x = 0.
(the yaxis)
Fourth; shift the graph onehalf unit to the right.
2/
1 og2
4
log2 (px)
T6g21 2(x 22:)
es
Figure 56b
56
2.6
Exercises
1.
Prove that for any real number
/1%
log2(X)
that
log2(x
0,
x1)
= 0,
and hence.
= log2 x.
Prove that for any real nurnber'xi > 0,
x2 > 0,
x
1
log2 (x2) = log2, x1  log2 x2.
.log2xY = y log2 x
38""ffProwe foimula 14(b):
4.
.(a)
For what values of
is
log2 x
.(10,)
For what values of
is
y=
log2
(iv)
(ii)
y=
log2 (x)
(v)
y=
log2 (x
5.
1)
less than
less than
(i)
(iii)
114,
(vi)
0?
greater than
0?
= log2 (1
y=
1og2(gx
= log2
greater than
0?
0?
x)
 3)
(3 
Graph the following functions on one set of axes over the interval
5 < x< 5.
r
ea
X 4
6.
lipg
X 4 log2 (1  x)
x 4 log2 (x)
x 4 log2 (x + 1)
x,+Aog2 (x
x 4
 1)
log2g(1 + x)1
On one set of axes sketch the graph of each of the following functions
< x < 8.
over the interval
x
log2 x
log2 (2x)
4 log2 (2i)
log
x 0
(31)
lg2 (
On one set of axes sketch the,graph of each of the following ftmcti6ns
<x< 8
over the interval
(i)k:
(b)
x 4 log2 2x
4 log2 (2x  2)
(c)
x 4 log2 (2x
(d)
x 4 log2
335
34
(7
 7)
 2x)
6'
Write each logarithmic statement in exponential form:
110i2
(b)
3 log2 x = 5k
(d)
;2 log23 = t
Write each exponential statement in base
(a)
2x,=
(b)
4k =
logarithmic form:,
2.
(c)
(2)3 = mn
{,d,)
= xy
Evaluate each of the following:
10.
(a)
log2 2
(e)
log2 1
(b)
log2 4
(e)
log2
(c)
log2 8
(8)
log2
(d)
log
(fi)4
log2 g
1
T;
1
7
4
1
16
Using'the results (and extensions) of NlaMber'10 abover bat without the
11.
use of tables, locate thevalues
of eachlbf. the following between conA
,
.
stcutive integers (e'g.,
log2 11 < 4,
(e) 1082 S.
t( i)i
since
23,< 11 524).
log2 31
.
ti
;'(c)' log221+ log2 14= 4
(a)
t:.
(b)
log2,5,
(j)'
idg2 34
log2 6.
(k)
log250 ..
(.0,
log2 99
'
e)
(d)
ldg2
gip
(m)
(f)
(n)' log2(i)'.;
(g) log2 13
(h)
12.
r;
.(eY 182 2
log2 10
log
18
2
(o)
log2 (4)
(p)
log2 (0.18)
In evaluating the following, first estimate your answer from your
solutions to Number 11, then make a closer'estimate from the use of
Table 53.
(a)
lOg2
(b)
log2, 5
(c)
/
log2 131,
336.
3'4 5)
5 6
13.
iUsing the results of Numbers 10 and 12, estimate
(e.g.,
=3
log2 72 = 1og2(23)(32)
2+
loge
3z
2 log2
6.28)
each of
the following.
,(a)
(b)
(f)
log2 12
2
(c)
log2
24
'.(d)
log2.
(e)
14.
1282
(b)
1282 54
(h)
log2 36
log2 27
which makes the following assertions true.
Log2 x = 0
log2 x =
(c) slog2 x = 1
15.
..(g)
log2 52
Eirid a 41ue for
(a,)
log2 169
Show that, if
log2 x
(e)
log2 x
ti >. 1,
1
2
1
log2 x =
then
log2 n(n
(Hint:
(a)
Use the fact. that . 2
1) < n + 1.
( n(n  1)
>
;s
'
4
set
3,37
:3 4
57
o.
'57.
Logarithms (General Base)
a >'0
If
is defined analogously to
loge,
denoted by.'
a 1 1 .then the logarithm to the base la;
and
log2.
Thus
log
ay
= x.
is defined onl
for
x > 0 and is given by
loge x = y
(1)
if
The techniques and ideas of the previous section extend easili to this more
For wthple, the graph of
general case.
loga x
x.ax over the line given by
is obtained by folding the graph of
y = x.
We summarize other easily obtained properties:
(2)
(a)
loge 1 = 0
(b)
log 'a = 1
a
if
(c)
then
0 < a < 1
is an increasing function and if
a > 1, loge
is decreasing.
loge
The laws of exponents
,JVCPy
axay,
(ax)y
axy%
give the correaponlifig logariithra'formulas
..
log
.(a)
my = log
(3)
log
a id'
(b)
_
x + log
x ).0
and
y,> 0
x,
= y, log
for , x > 0.
a,
Logarithms tp the
for
y,;
are very useful incalculatfons, due t8Fthe,
base 10
act that our number systeb is the decimal sys1ei.
Logarithms to the ,base
are of increasing importance due to the use of the binary/' system in computors
and in information theory.
In the next chapter, our discussions of tangent
lines. will establish the importance of the
base e,
where
is the symbol./.
for the (irrational) number, which correct to two places, is giyen'by
2.72.
Toconirert.'from one base to another the following formula is usefUi.
a, b
and
are each positive and unequal to
).
logc b
r.
(4)
logab
log
e
To prove this wellet.
logc; b
so that
338
S
CI A '7
CY 4k
1 then
If
57
a
Now take the logarithm to the base
= b.
of each side.
This gives
loge ax = loge b.
Formula 3(b) gives
loge ax = x loge a
ea that
x loge a.= loge
Unce loge a / 0
we can divide by'it to obtainv(4)
Another formula of interest is
4
If
and
are both positive and not Olual to
loge' b =
logb a
then
The proof of this is left to Exerqises 57, Number 18.'
Exercises
1. Write each eiptession in simpler f
loga3
log,5
(a)
(d)
(e)
16
(f)
32
7..",
2 logn3
(b)
(c)
log 2
1/2 loga3
log54.
2, What is She value of
r,
3.
If
ath. =
(a2)m,
4. Prove that for
hence
5.
Prove that
'
s,
x if
52= 4x?
what is the value of. ml
any real.numbpr > 0,,
loga(x
= 0,, and
loge x.
log
(N
x
2
= log x  lo r wax
a I
2'
'339
57
Write this equation,in exponential fdrm.
loge a = 1.
6.
Show that
7.
Express in exponential form
8.
(a)
log10 35 = y
(b)
log2 25 = x
(c)
2 log10 5 = x
Given. log10 2 = 0.3010
find
128%
logio.5,
9.
logla(5).
Express each of the following in logarithmic form.
.
(a)
3 17
(b)
102 = 0.01
(c)
274/3 = 81
(d)
'0.043/2 = o.o08
= 5
(e)
log6 (x + 9) + log6 x r: 2
in terms o,
Express each of the, following` g
r, s, "p,nd
t,
ig
A
r = log10 2, s
(a)
logia 4
(b)
to o
(c)
logio4
(d)
loglo
lOgio 10
= log10 5.
(e)
(f)
1og16 2.5
kJ
(g) jgto 9 13"
.
(h)
log10 8 3,6535
.11
ov
14
517
12: Write the_ following logarithms as numbers.
log10 1000
(f)
(b)
log0.01 0.001
(g). log2
23
(c), tog3 (k)
(h)
logio Ar)
log4
(i)
log81 27
(,j)
log2
(d)
32
(e)
13.
logo.
(a)
,(0.0001)
In each case determine the value of
log 5
log '5
(a)
10810
x.
log 3c
 2 log10 (x  1) = login 3
log 5
x
14.
=5
Solve_ the following equations.
(a)
(b)
(c)
,
.1.5'.
10810 x = 0
10810 X*+ 1 = 0
10810 x = 1
t'.
For what value(s) of
(0)
log
(e)
logio, ?c + 3 = 0
(f)
log10 (2x  1) + 2 = 0
10
(x  2)
=3
does it hold that
(a) :loge x= 0
(b)
logx x = 1
(c)
logic
= c
3.0gx 2x =2
16.
17.
(a)
Show that if
(b)
Show that
(a)
How are the graphs of
(Hint:
(b)
18.
Use
then
0, < a < 1,
log
then
is an increas.ing function.
x 4 logs X,
x 'loge x
and
is a decreasing function.
logb x
related?
(10.)
At what point does the graph of x
Prove formula
(5)
of the.text:
not equal to
1,
then
if
a > 1,
log
if a
and b
cross the xaxis?'
are both positive and
1
logb a ,
t
341
'o/
,A11
,'1
Appendix 1.
FUNCTIONS AND THEIR REPRESENTATIONS
A11.
Functions
The precise definition of function can be formulated in many ways;
as asset of ordered pairs (usually, ordered pairs Of numbers), as an pasociation or correspondence between two sets, etc.
But no matter what definition
wg choose, for a function, three things are required:
a set called its domain,
a set called its range, and a way of selecting a member of the range for each
member of the domain.
EXampleA11a. The multiplication of integers by
defines a function.
The domain of this function is the set of all integers; the range of the
function is the set of all even integers.
We choose to define a function as an association between elements of two
sets; thus the function of Example Alla associates with 'each integer its
double.
If with each element Of a set
element of a set
from A
to
andthe set
B.
C
B,
there is associated exactly one
then thisassociation is called a function,
The set
iscalledthedomain of thefuncLijn,
of all members of
assigned to members of A
by the function is called the range of the function.
In what folloWs weshall be exclusively concerned with functions whose
domains are subsets of real numbers and whose ranges are also subsets of,real
numbers. More complicated functions (like 'vector valued functions;) may be
built fromthese.
c.:
The range
may be the whole set
B,
in which case the function is
called an onto function, or it may be a proper subset of
we generally take for
=
usually specified before its range is considered.
343
351
4
B.
Inany case,
the whole set of reals, because a function is
.7"
A11
It is common practice to repres ent a function by the 1
letters such as
g,
f,
associates with
x.
AUSTotion
at
f,
or simply
x,"
"f
takes
"f
function
into
relation between
and
x,'
takes
takes
or
9,
defined as follows:
Thus, if
takes
is an element.of the
associates
with
3.
Coltcisely
represents any number'in the domain of
f,
lat
lik
x:
Is merely a symbolic description'Ofthe
it
x;
into
into
x.
x. ")' An aiics.,C,cs
f(x }.
In general, if
f(3) = 9,
then
of
This notation tells us nothing about the
each number of the domain into its square.
domain, then
is an
C9nsider a function
Example Allb.
"the value of the
f(x)
or "f
with
(other
denotes the element of
f(x)
(Read for
f(x)
f(x)").
or the element
tten
'at
used to suggest the association of
(read
used). If x
etc , will also be
0,
h,
element of the domain of a function
the range which
7
F,
er, f
f(x) = x
or
2
.
,Thefunction isnot adequately defined uttil we spedify its domain.
domain iS the set of all integers
If t
(..., 2, 1, 0, 1, 2, ...), then
the range is a subset of nonnegative integers,
(0, 1, )4, 9, 16, ...).
If
we choose the set of all real numbers as domain, then a different functionis
defined, even thipigh the rule of,associationis the same; in this case the
range of the function is the set of, nonnegative real numbers.
1
Observe that a function from A
reverse association from B
and
Example Allb, f(3) = 9
would assign both
and!,3
while the reverse association
f(3) = 9,
to
is a one way association;, the
is not necessarily a PUndtion. , In t
to
to
9,
violating the definition of a function.
It is often useful to think of a function as a mapping, and We say that a
function maps each eldm4ntof its domain upon.one and only one element of its
In t1is vein,
range.
f(x)
x(x)
is called the image of
canbe read, "f
under the mapping, and
maps
x
upon, f(x)";
is called a
preimage of f(x).. This notion is illustrated in Figure Alla, where
elements of the domain
and range
are represented by points au ,the
4,
mapping is suggested by Arrows from the, points of the domain to corresponding
points of the range.
8
r.
341;
'52
'
Al1
A.
A
f
Figure Alle
Note that 'each element. of the domain is mapped into a unique element of the
range; i.e., each arrow starts from a different point in the domain.
This is
the requirement of our definition, that with each element of the domain there
is associated exactly one element Of the l'ange4
definition of function contains the rather vague phrase, "there
is associated."
The manner of association must be specified whenever wewe
'dealing with a particular function
In this cour
be defined by a formula giving its value:
g(x) = x2 + 3x +
7.
for
Other ways of definin:
, a.function will generally
xample,
f(x) = 3x
5;
function include verbal de
scription, graph, and table.
The notation
f(x)
is particul
ly convenient when we refer to values
t
of a function; i.e., elements Ln the range of the fdnction:
We illustrate
(this in the next example.
'Example A$le. ,Consider the function
f
x 03x
2

who,se domain is the set of all real numbers.
;.(x)
f(2)
a + 1/17
=,3(2)
is a real nUmber, then
Then
5,
= 3x2
5 =
f(0) = 3(0)2
and if
5 = 5,
f(a + 4.) ,= 3(a +
AN 2
5:
I
,r
345
353
Al 1
We note, since
3x2
25
> 5,
less than
y be any nonnegative real number, that;
and hence
e range of
is the set of ail real numbers not
5.
a
As mentiviii earlier, a function is not completely defined unless the
lh
domain is specified ., If no'Other'information is given, it is a convenient
practice, especially when defiling with aNfunction defined by a formula, to
assume that the domain includes all real numbers for which the formula
describes a real number:
function
real numbers except
g(x) =
1x2,
domain is
2
(x.
to
Fo4 example, if a domain is not specified for the
2x
f :
ti
then the domain is assumed to be the set of all
ll
= 9
and
3.
Similarly, if
is a function such theK
we assume, in the absence of any other information, that the
2 < x < 2);
that is, the set:of all real numbers
from
inclusive.
We note here that two functions
and
they have the same domain and f(x) = g(x)
are identical if and only if
for each x
in their domain.
The graph of a function ISperhaps its most intuitively illuminating
representation; it conveys importarit information about the function at a
glance.
The graph of
is in the domain of
is the set of all those points
and
y = f(x).
Example Alld.' The graph of the function
tr
the semicircle shop in Pigure Allb.*
(x,y)
for which .x
'
x spy =
477x7
is
The graph gives us a clear picture
of what the function is doing to'the elements of its domain, and we can,
moreover, usually infer from the graph any limitations on the domait'and range.,
Thus, it is easily determined from Figure Allb that the domain of
is the
sdt of all
that
such that
0 < y < 5.
5 < x.<:'5
and the range is the set of all
such
These sets are represented by the heavy segments on the
x and 1axis, respectively.
* In this figure a complete graph is displayed. The graph in Figure Al lc,
as well as most of the graphs in the text, are necessarily incomplete.
Al1
j
Figure Allb
We remind you of the fact that not every curve is the'graph of a fundtiOn.
In particular, oar definition requires that a function map each element of
its domaincnto only one Element of its range.
In terni's of points ofa graph,.
this means that the graph of a function does not contain the points( (xl,y1)
and '(x ,y ) if y
y
1
1
2' i.e., two p nts having the same abscissa bat .,
diffeient ordinates. This is the a' s fJer the "vertical line test":
if in
xyplane 'we imagine _41 possible lines which are parallel to the ylvis,
'and if any of,,thete lineS'cuts the graph in more than onepoint, then the
graph represents a relation which is not a function.
Conversely, if every
line parallel to the yagis intersects a,graph in at'most.one point, then the
graph is thet,of a function.
,
t 
Example Alle.
radiuS
+ y2 = 25, whOse graphis a circle with
and center at the origin, does not define'a function.
5'
interval
The equation x
5<_x<: 5, every vallie of x
an
(34)
On ike open
is associeifeci with `two different
Wiluestd". y,'cbht43.ry to the definition.Of functibn:
Specifically,
,(3,4>,
..,
are two points of the circle; they determine.a line parnllel"t6
1#.
the yaxis and intersecting the 'circle intwo points, thus illustrating that
t'
he circle is the graph.oft.
the
latioh that is not a
1
separate the circle into two
X
.)
We can, howevt,, '..
 .. 4 5.
1 circles the graphs of
the functions
.,,
(Example Alld)
and
tc
127577
....
'",)
''i
o
'
^.
ft.
'
1,
Throughout this diACussion we have used dthe letters
'
,,.
mi
'
x and 'y.
Specifically, if
c'
f. ls therfunction
.
.,
,,,.
..
a'
',_represent elements of sets.
*
,..
 = f(),
: x..?
'
,...k..
14
..4!
r
e
TT
.347
,
3 5 Lit
4_
'74
od ,
'
A11
.
then
.represents an element (unspecified, in the domain of
represents the corresponding element.in the range of f.
and
f,
In many textbooks
are called variables, and since a particular value of
range depends upon a particular choice of
the independent variable and
in the domain,
in the
is called
the dependent variable. The functional
OP
relationship is then described by saying that "y is a function of x."
y
For the most part this language is not used in this textbook.
. r
We =elude this section with a summary of several different special
functions; you 'are undoubtedly acquainted with some of them.
The Constant Function.
function
is an arbitrary real number, then the
If
which associates with every real number
is called a constant function.
f :
the value
Morse generhlly, spy function
whose range contains exactly one number is a constant function.
a constant function, say
to and
: x..c. for ali real x,
b,
The graph of
is a line parallel
units fro:1i the xaxis.
icl
The Identity Function.
each number
in A,
...
function whose domain is
...
Let, A be the set of all real numbers; 'With:
associate the number a.
..
.
and whose range is
A,
This association definei a
A
A, namely
More generally[.for /any domain such a function is called the identity function.
If the domain is the set of all real.numbers, then the graph of
line with equation
is the.
y = x.
\.
_ TT
,
The Absolute Value Function.
With each real number the absolute value
*
function associatesits absolute value :,.
._..
'1
.
x for.
f'
x > 0
...
....
ili
f 4 x....1x1 .
x
for
X <'0;
Alternative definitions:
x
f
f
lxi = max (x,x);
I
X . Ixi =
x..
3118
5.13
A'
A11
.
Thegraph o
is shown in Figure Allc,
it is the union df two rayS____/
issuing f4qm the origin.
Figure Allc
The Integer Part FunCtion.
the sum of an integer
Eve
al number .x
and a real
can be represented as
such that
110
x = n +
and
r < 1.
1
,
For example,
5.38 = 5
+.38,
3 =.3
O.
. +
We call nthe integer part of
.6
and denote it by
it follows
[x] = n ;
Ix] < z <[x] + 1.' Tliwe see that to each real number
that
corresponds a unique integer part
[x],
there.
and this correspondence defines the
integer dirt function
f
0$
/t
*
Sometimes called the greatest integer function.
I
"/
349
3 57 v
ff`
A11
A graph of this function is shown in Figure Alld; it is called a step graph;
i.e., the graph%of a step function.
Figure Alld
The Signum Function.
With each pos.'iice real number associate the number
40#0.
+1,
wiith zero associate_the number
associate the number
symbolized by
1.
sgn x.
0,
and with each negative real number
These associations define the signum function,
Thus
1, x
0.0
S gfl X
0,
1 0,
x = 0 ,
1
x <0.
We leave it as ah exercise for you to sketchthe"'graph of this function.
EVen and Oda FuncfrOns.
"whenever it contains
x.
Let
f be a function whose domain ccbfitains
The function
f is said to be even if,
f(x) = f(x).
x
For example,, the runction f with values f(x) = x
ip
2
%
( x)2 = x
for all x. Geometrically the graph of an even
even since
function Ls, symmetriC with respect to the yaxis.
The function
functiOn
said to be odd if
with values .f(x) =X3
f(,
r f(x)., For example, the
is odd. since
(;x)3 t4. x3
for' all x.
Geometrically the graph. of an odd function is symmetric with respect to the
'origin.
350
es
35
.4
t4
Periodic Functions. 'Certain functions have the property that their
function values reptit themselves.in.the,same order at regular/ intervals over
the domiin (FiKure_Alle).
'14
Figure Alle
Functions having this property are called periodic; included in this important
class are thg circular (trigonometric) functions, to be discussed in Chapter 2
3.
and
A function
is periodic and has period
for all 4 in the domain of f,
x + p
p # 0,
p,
if and only if,
is also in the domain and
f(x + p) = f(x).
(1)
From the definition we note that each successive addition or subtraction
O
of
I;
bripgs usback to
f(x)
For example,
again.
f(x + 2p) = f
(cxi p) + 4
= f(x
p)
= f(x),
and
f(x  p) = f ((x  p) +
= f(x).
Ingeneral, we'infer that any multiple of a period of
is also a per
that is,
for :ny integer, n.
'f(X + np)c:_f(x)
For a constant function
f
it is obvious that' f
111'
is periodic with any period
f(x + p) = c = f(x),
_.
351
0
359
'1D,
since
A141
,
'It can be. shown that for nonconstant periodic functions (continuous at
one point at least) there is a least positiye value of
true.
for which (1) is
This is called the fUndamental period, or simply the period, of'such
a function.
44'
Example Allf.
xwx  (4
x = n + r
*
,part,
then
If
where
real, is a periodic function:
*
is the integer part..of x and_x1 its fractional
o
n
..;t
f(x) = f(n + r)
= (n + r)  [n
r]
=n +'r  n
= r,
and
f(x +I) = f(n + 1 + r)
.= (n+ 1 + r)  [n + 1 + r]
qv
= n + 1 + r  (n + 1)
= r.
Thus, as was asserted,
i6 periodic and its period is
1,
gas shown in its
graph (Figure Alif):
9
 Figure Ailf rf
the fractional part of
We note That since' f(x) ='r,
is sometimes called the fractional part function.
.k
x,
this 'function
352
36.0
.t,
A11
Exercises Al].
1.
'Below, are given examples of associations between elements of two sets.
Lecid/w4ther each example may properly represent a function.
requires you to specify the domain and range for each function.
This also
Note that
no particular variable has to be the domain variable, and also that some
of the relations may give rise to several functions.
(a)
Assign to each nonnegative integer
(b) .Assign to each real number
the number
the number
7.
the real number
r.
2n  5.
ti
(c)' Assign to the number
(d)
10
Assign tOeach pair of distinct points in the plane the distance
between them.'
(e)
Y = 3
(f)
x = 4
(g)
x + y =4""2
(h)
y = 2x2 + 3
(i)
y2  4 = x
(for all
x)
(for all
and
z)
y"< 2x  1
(k)
f(x)
,x2
1/217
y2
I
16
2.
3.
Sketch the graphs of equationsl(e)  (i) of Number 1.
A function
is comp/4tely defined by the table:
x
f(x)
4'.
'
311
13
(a)
Describe th
(b)
Write an equation with suitably restricted domain that defines
If
domain and range of
x2 + 3x
4,
_f.
'find
f(I)
(a)
f(0)
(b)
f(2)
(e)
f(2 
(c)
f(1)
(f)
f(f(1)
(Hint:
of
ti
X353
.316
''This is the value
at
f(1).)
A11

If
5.
2x
is a function defined by g(x) =
find, if possible,
477
(a)
g(0)
(d)
g(2)
(b)
g(1)
(e)
g( 3)
(f)
g(15).
*(c)
Which o \the following mappings represent functions?
6.
(a)
(d)
(c)
7.
Given the functions f : xx and 'g
.
number, are
x7....
..,
and
the same function?
x
x
8.
and
the same function?
(it.)f : x I 2x
10:
and ,g : x0.
What number or numbers have the image
( 6)
h': x  ,1)711.;.
x1 x2
:11.
x  2
Why or why not?
If
a : x. Ix  41
(e)
0 : x[x]
Which of the following statements are always true for any function
asgumingthat xl
and
x2
atb...tin the domain of
(a)
If
xi = x2, 'then .f(xl) = f(x2).
(b)
If
xi / k2, then' f(xl) / 1(x2).
(d)
If
f(xl) = f(x2), .then
xl = x2.
(d)
If
f(x1),/ f(x2),
xl / x2.
then
x ,is
10 under the follOwing mappings?
(d)
N.,
(b)
is a real
Given the functions f : x.
,. x + 2
real, are
9.
Why orwhy not?
If
1'6 2
fi
f,
Insert page 355
11.
A11
If, 1(x) = Ix',
which of the following statements are true for all real
numbers
t?
and
is an odd function.
1(x2) =
f(x)2
f(x  t) < f(x)  f(t)
f(x + t) <f(x) + f(t)
12.
.
Which of the followkfirfUnctions are even, which are odd,
a4d which are
neither even nor'odd?
(a)
(e)
(f)
(g)
t : x
(h)
x4x3 + 4
.
'.(b)
(c)
2x2 +
2
x..x
 4x + 4
xx3
 2x
(d)
x=..
'
2x,'+ 1
...
13.
Which of the fo_lowing graphs could repesen't functions?
`..)
Y
:
(a) ;
IY
(c)
0
r
(b)
6
3363
(f)
14.
Suppose that
xef(;)
is the function whose graph is shown.
Sketch the graphs of
15.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
A function
is defined by
for
x /
for
x =
f(x) : {1234
0
Identify this function and sketch its graph.
16.
ir
Sketch the graph of each function, specifying iil''.domain and ranget.
(a),
f : x
(b)
(c)
f: x. il  xi
(i
(d)'
C : x1 1  lx1
(j)
f :_sx..x[x]
(k)
(/)
Fc2
ixi
(g)
(h)
sgn, x
St]
f: x o....Ca
x,,,
(e)
(f)
.f.
2 xo ixi  x
.f
x :r,... 1x1 + ix 11
(Hint: Consider separately
x < 0, 0 < x < 1,, and
x > 1.)
I
356
3 t'S
x41x2  2x: 31
4240,
the 'three :,possibilities:
: xo 11  x
x21
AlI
)
Sketch the graphs of the functions in Exercises 17 to 19.
which are periodic, indicate their periods.
For thOse functions
Indicate those functions which are
even or. odd.
17.
2x2
EA
f:
2x2
42]
18.
x 
[c 
2x2  2[X]2
(a). f
ax
4f
a > 0
Ca)2
[2x]
Dx].
x(1/5' + 1) 
.1 + sgn x
2
[x]
This function is also called the Heaviside
unit function and is designated
(b)
(c)
(d)
f4
(F)
20.
.(g)
If
x44.11(x)
x
:
H(x, 2)
(x  2)2
4i(X)
x a. H(x) + H(x  2) t H(x  4)
H(x2
and
2.)
( sgn x)(x  1)2 t Egn(x
.f
+ H(x  2)
(f) f : X
Ah
are periodic functions of periods
(m, n integers), show that alto and
21.
m and
n.
m and .n,
respectively
f g are also periodic.
. ,examples to showethat the peTni of _f + g
than both of
Ir
2)]x2
Give
oan either be greater or less
Repeat the same for the product
f g.
(a), Can a funCtion be both even and odd?
(b)
What can you say about the evenness or oddness of the product of:
(1),
an,eve!T'function by an even.fUnction?
(2). an 'even function by an odd function?
(3)
(c)
an odd function by an odd functio
Show that every function whose domain
contains
ontains
x
whenever it
can be expressed as the sum of ah evep function plus
an odd function./
357
365
22.
Find functions
f(x)
satisfying
2,(x)
Suggestion:
23.
f(_x) = 1
(called a functional equation).
Use 21(c).
Prove that no periodicunction other than a constant can be a rational
function.
functions.)
(Note:
A rational function is the ratio of two polynomial
el
358:
a t3
4:2
A12.
Composite Functions
Given two functions
and
with domai s whose intersection is non
empty, we can construct new functions by usir
any of the elementary rational,
operationsaltion, subtraction, multiplication, divisionon'the given
l'unctiona.
Thus, the sum of
and
f+g
is defined to be the function
x;.f:),17.((.)x)
which has for dotain those elements contained in the intersection.of the
domains of
f and g.
Similarly there are definitions for the difference,
product, and quotient of two functions; there is, in fact, a whole algebra
of functions, just 8.6 there is the familiar algebra of real numbers.
In this algebra of functions there is one operation that has no counterpart in the algebra of numbers:
the operation of composition.
This operation
isbest explained by'examples.
Let
g
Old
2x + 1 4"
4x
2.
We observe that
g(l) =, 3. and
f(3)
g(2) = 5
f(5) = 25,
and, in general, the value of
f(g(x))
and
at
g(x)
is
= f(2x + 1) = (2x + 1)2.
We have constructed it new function which maps
(2x + 1).' this function}, defined by the mapping
by fg,
is called a composite of
and
g.
represent the value of the function
fg, by
Either symbol means the'value of
at
onto the square of'
x...f(g(x))
and denoted
Hereafter we shall usually
fg(x)
rather than f(g(4.
g(x).*
The symbol fg, denoting the composite of the functions t and g
must not be confused with the product of the funCtions. In this text we
distinguish the latter by use of t
of for.multiplication; i.e., f .g.
3 6 7:
A12
An immediate question arises as to the or in which two functions are
composed:
is the composition of functips a commutative operation; i.e., in
general, are
that
gf(x)
fg(2) = f(5)
fg(x)
arid
equal?
In the example above we have seen
and we calculate.
= 25,
gf(2):
fg(2)
gf(2) = g(4) = 9
Thil counterexample is sufficient to prove that in general
The operation of composition applied to two functions
produces two different composite functions
order in which they
fg
and
gf,
generally
depending upon the
are composed.
A word of caution must b /injected at this point.
defined only if
gf(x) # fg(x).
and
is in the domain of
and
The number
fg(x)
is
.is in the domain of
4(x)
f.
For example, if
f(x)
and g(x)'43x  9,
= Li'
then
fg(x) = f(3x '9) =
and the domain of
fg
is the set of,real numbers
nonnegative; hence the domain is the set of all
for which
3x  9
is
x > 3.
For the other composition of the same functions
and
g,
we have
gf(x) = g(1/) =3IX' 9
,which is defined for all nonnegative real numbers
(x.
We define composition of functions formally.
The composite
fg
of two functions
fg
The domain of
of
fg
for which
and
fg( x) = f (g(
is the set of all elements
is in the domain of
g(x)
is the function
g.
x
f.
in the domain'
The operation
of forming a composite of two functions is called composition.
The definition may be extended to the composition of three or more
functions.
Thus, if
h are functions, one composite is
and
f, fig,
fgh
6
In order to evaluate
h(x),
fgh(x) =
fgh(x),
and finally the value of
we first find
f
at
(g(h(x)))
.h(x),
then the value of
gh(x).
36o
368
(l
at
te
,
r:
% Alr2
.
0
,
Exercises, A12
a.
Given that
x. x
and
': xx
le0 4F(2) + g(2)
.
,
'
(e)
+ 1. for all real
find
x,
"
f(x) .4.4.rgSx')., :
l*
(b)
g(2)
f(2)
:(f) ff(x)
ro
g(x).
.
.,
2.
3.
fg(2).
(g)
(d)
gf(2)
(h)... gf(x)
If
f(x) = 3x + 2
(a)
fg(x).
(b)
gf(x).
and
fg(x) (and
..
find
g(x). = 5,
f(x) = 2x +1 and
If
(a)
g(x) = x2, find'
gf(x).
'
(b) A For what values/
4.
fex)
(c)
if any, arf :fg(x)
x,
For each pair of functions
g,
and
and
gf(x)
equal?
find, the composite functions
fg,
and gf and specify the domain (and range, if possible) of each.
f
( a)
g: x
x
1
(b)
(c)
x
x
2x  6
'
: xx2
x
 4
'
ir
(a)
x\;.. x2
(e)
f :
x2
(f)
f x 5(2 1 ,,.g
g : x
x A  x
g, :
16C
5.
Given that
f(x) = x2+ 3
and
g(x).= 1/)77.7,
solve the equation
'fg(x) = grflx).
6.'' Solve problem 5 taking
7.
Describe functions
g(x)
and
such that gf will equal
'
(a)
3(x + 2)  4.
%
(b)
(c)
(2X
5)?
'
(a)
(e)
 41,
(42;
2x  5
am=
J
361.
.a6 9
<o
,0
.
For each Air or :fUnctions
' and, gf
.f
g ;find the composite functions.fg
and
Also,
r.
sketch the,graph of each, 'and give the period (fundamental) of those
and specify the domain (and range; if pPssible) of each.
which are peribdic.
f
(a)
x4sgn(x  2)
4,
xsIXI
(b)
9.
x4=2 sgn(x  2) 1
What can yoou say about the evenness or oddness ofthe composite.of
an, even function of an even function?
(a)
an even function of an odd function?
At(b)
10.
(c)
an odd function of an odd function?
(d)
an odd function of an even function?,
If the function
is periodic, what can you say about the periodic
character of the composite functions
11.' T? the functions
fg
and,
and
gf
gf
assuming these exist
Illustrate by examples.
are each periodic, then the composite func
(a,se?Imed to exist) are also periodic.
of*either one be less than that of both
12.
and
is an arbitrary functiOn (ilot periodic)?
and, g
tions
fg
A sequence. at), al, a2,
an+1
an,
.,
and
Can the period'
g?
"is defined by the equation
f(an), n = (i) 1) 2, 3,
wher
is a given function and
and
is a given number.
a0
If
ao = 0
.then
al
f(a0)
11
a2 = f(al) = ff(a0) =
a3 = f(a2) = Mai) =,fff(a0) = )2 +
12717
Show that for any
(a)
an < 2
(b)
N.
> 2
.2
n1 '
n > O.
4'
I
*.f
th
A12
13.
e0
If c+1 = gan); n = 0, 1, 2,
of
and n,
g
f
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
g,
for tne folloNing functi'Ons
find
,n
a's a function.
a + bx.
(a)
xm.
irxT:
z

x)1.
ti
se.
..1.4
363
all
V
A13
A1.3.
Inverse Functions
Recall the vertical line test for the graph of a function (Section.A1 1):
if every line which is parallel to the y axis intersects p graph in at most
one point, then the graph is that of a function.
Thus in FigUrp A13a, (i)
and (ii) illustrate graphs of functions, (iIi) is the graph of'a relation that
is not a function.'
1
(i)
(ii)
Figure A13a
This figure also illustrates an important distinction between two classes of
functions:
for graph (i
there is at least one line parallel to the xaxis
which intersects the graph in more than one point; this is not the case for
graph (ii).
The latter is typical of a class of functions called onetoone
'
each element in the domain is mapped into one and only one image
functions:
iii the range, and each element in tl* range corresponds to one and only one
preimage in the domain.
In other words, a funCtionof this kind establishes
a'onetoone correspondence between the domain and the range of the function:
,
A function
is onetoone if w enever
f(xl) = f(x2):, the
xi = x2.
Note the distinction between the definition of function and this defirli
The former states that any function
tion.
xl.,,='x
2'
.function
then f(xly= f(x2),
is such that
has the property that 4
whereas the latter states that a one=toone
f(xl) = f(x2)
if and only if
xi. =x2. .
The class of onetoone functions is important because fo; each ember
,
of ihis
class we can specify a function that, in a, loose way of speaking,
,
.
.
undoes #107a6V7:5r7.70 Win 4unctI64.#04, fo4example, if
,
II.
04 ri,
g; i
.
is the
0.1
31
4,
,
,
,,
364
3 7 2
7,
......k
104
C],
....
.:..,
.
;,
A13
function which maps each real number onto its double, then there is a function
g,. called 'the inverse' of
number onto its half:: f
If a. function
g
x,
which reverses this mapping and takes each real
f,
2x;
f(x)
y
2,
1
is onetoone, then the function
whose domain is the range of
the inverse of
is called
f,
f.
The functions
and
represent the same association but considered
from opposite directions; the domain of
of
is the domain of
inverse is
It
f; Furthermore,
and the range
is itself one to one and its
f.
Is instructive to lOok at the composites of two funbtions
inverse to one another.
into
is the range of f
If
maps
in other words, if,,y
x;
''gf(x)= g(y) = x,
f(x),
into
then
then
y,
maps
and
back
x = E(y). Fgrice,
for all
for all
y in the range of
in the domain of
f,
and
0 fJ
fay) = f(x) = Y.,
Observe that thp restriction of the domain of
of
1\
to coincide with the range
part of the definition of ,the inverse.
Example Al 3a.
Consider the onetoone function
what is its inverse?
Here
must add
3,"
In ordertoreverse this' procedure, we
and then divide by .2.
.is tile function
<,
This'suggests that the inverse of
in thd domain of
1(x)
g' is the inverse of
f.
into
Furthermore, in the Opposite direction,
f.
in the domain of
as expected.
f(x)
(2x  3) + 3
= g(2X  3)
'
I
g `maps
.4
By substitution,
fg(x) .'f(2472) 
to prove this fact, we nattst show that
satisfies the definition of inverse; i.ee, show that
for all x
f.: x0. 2x  3;
is described by the instruction, "Take a. number,
double it, and then subtract
for all
f%
g%
Hence,
is t4 inverse.of the functi n
'
365
3 73
Insert page 366,
Al 3
The graph bf the inver e
graph of
f.
If
maps
of a function
into
is easily found from the
then.g maps
b,
(a,b)
is on the graph of
Figure4A13b shops three poidts
is on the graph of
h of a function
(4,,40) 01, on the gr
f,
It
a.
,e,
if and only if
f,
g..
into
A
follows that the point
(b,a)
(1,3), (2,1),
and
and their corresponding points, obtained
by intercha 1140/P
of coordinates, on the graph of
g.
y =1g(x)
= x
4
Ye
(1,2)
= f(x).
/,
(4,2)
4
3
2
(2,1)
1
// 0
1
2\
o.
(1,3)
3
Figure A13b
FroM this figure we see that the points
with res ect to the line
y = x;
(a,b) k and
two poin s is perpendicular to," and bisected by, the line
(b,a)
the reflection of
(a,b)
(b)a)
are symmetric,
that is, the line segment determined by these
inthaline 1y
y = x. We call
..= x.
,
mt5,
Example Al;
g :
2
x )..x ,. 2.
.Consider the functions
The function
cannot be the inverse of
ing the domhin of
xi> 0
x... 1777, .x > 2 and
f is one to one;
as it stands.
is not and, hence,
This can be restri ted by restrict
to, x > 0; i.e., the id;rerselof
(Figure A13c).
inverse to oge another:
51
is
The composite functions verify that, f
: x
and
.X2
g' a'e
 2,
fg
fg(x) = Ax2  2) + 2 =
x > 0;
gf
gf(x) = (477)2
x >c2.
 2.= x,
T./
, Y
/
x > 2
x2  2
x > 0
1
/ 1
//
O
` Figure Al 3c
The relationship between the coordinateS of a point ' (a,b)
coordinates of its reflection
(1?,a)
in the line
= x
and the
suggests a formal
method tor obtaining an equation' of the inverse of a given function assume
that the in
exists.
Example A13c
'Consider2the function
4
f ; x
y = 3x + 5
for all real
x.
Yf 'we ,d4tercigginge
and
.
,
(3.)
in the equation
y = 3x 4. 5,
, r
.
we obtair7
1'
(2)
x = 3y + 5.
 For every 'pair of numbers
f"
(a,b)
is,in the solution set of (2).
in the solution set o
Hence, (2). is an equat
(l), a pair
(b,a)
n defining implicitly
441
the inverse of the given ,function
we 'solve (2) for
1 e\
in terms of x
In order to obtain. the explicit .form,
and obtain
.1
367
0'17 r
t)
s)
A13
The inverse of f
is, therefore,
g :
gi(a) = a
You shopld verify the fact that
and that
fg(b) = b.
Example Al 3d,
for any
for all. real x.
3 5
for any
(range of
in the domain
in the domain of
f,
f).
If the given equation defines a quadratic function, the
In the first place, the
problem of finding an inverse is more coipplicated.
.
given function must be restricted to a domain which gives a onetoone
function; in the second place, the technical details of interchanging the
variables
and
are more
in the given equation and then ,solving for
1
involved.
Consider the function
^
2
f
+ 2x + 3
for example, we..restrict
function fl
fl
is
(r
to the domain
and opening upward.
(1,2)
whose graph is a parabola with vertex at
(x
then we have 'a
x > 1),
gl.
and this will be the domain of
We proceed to.find a formula defining
2
The range of
gl.
which is onetoone and hence has an inverse
y =4i'1(x) 2: 2),
If,
We are given
+ 2x + 3,
y = x
nd We,int rchange the variables to.obtain'
61
+ 2y + 3.
= :pc = y
We now solvefoi y
in the quadratic equation
+ 2y + (3  x) = 02
obtaining
or
y"'=. LI + )x 52
y = 1.IT72 .'
;e4
0
ation
Which of these formulas defines the
gl?
Since
,
here represents
any element in tile range of the inverse func'tiox, and'sinde the rage must be
the same set of Lumbers
as
t he domain of J fl,
we see that .x > ,1,
ig
required. 'Hem
4111
ggf
a.
/4
pEN=1=1.
.
A13
y = 1 + 167:7
defines the inverse function
whosedomain
is
(x :x > 2).
(Note, again,'that this is the range of
,
fi;)
It is helpful to sketch the graphs of the two inverse functions in Order
to see more clearly the relationships between their domains and,ranges.
Figure A13d.)
more clearly
as many diffe
In fact, if you graph the original function
you may_see4
ow its doma.n may be restricted in infinitely many ways to give *
nt onetoone functions,, each of which has a unique inverse
function.
f,
(See'
;(
r.
r.
369
377
A13
ercises
/
1.
What is the reflectiOn'of
ria e
line
y = f(x) = 3x
Write An equation defining the inverse of
in the line
y :..
x?
f.
",/'
et
2.
Which,points are their own reflections in the ling y = x?
What is the
grapheof all such paints?
.3.
Find the slope of the segment from
(a)
(a,b)': to
the segment is perpendicular to the line
Prove that th
(b)
What is the reflection of
(a)
(b). y = 0?
'(e)
to
y = x.
(b,a). is bisected by the
in thl line
(1,1)
x = 0?
(a)
y
x = 3?

= x?
(c)
5.
(a,b)
and prove that
y = X.'
line
4.
segment from
(b,a),
Describe any function or functions you can think of which are their own
inverses.
6. }in equation or an expression (phrase) 'is Said to be symmetric in
y
and
if the equations or the expressions remain unaltered by interchanging
x and y;
e.g.,
x 'xy + y.
about the
+ y ,= 0,
x.3
+ y3.= 3xy,
lx  yl = lx + yl,
It follows thaegraphs of symmetric equations are symmetric
y = x line.
Geometrically; we can consider the line y = x,
behaving as a. mirror, i.e., for any portion of the graph there must also
be a portion whichisithe mirror image.
The equation 'x
is
+ y
bviously symmetric with r spect
to the line
y = x.
What (4h r
axes of'Symmetry Zmirror type
does it have?
r.
/
7.
The expression
a'+ b+
 b
obviously symmetric in
and
Hint:
+
a
re.'+
and
b+ la  to! :ITC
Show that it is also symmetric in
c:
67104 six cases (i) a
c,
p.1)
a < c <
b, < a
<t,,C,
ato.
'
370
I'
87
4
A13
Fnd,the inverse of eadh ,function.
9.
(a)
(b)
(c)
3x + 6
 5
2
 3
Which of the follOwing functions have inverses?
Describe each, inverse by
means of a graph or equation'and give its domain and range.
x2
,(a) "f :
CP"
(b)
(c)
10./As we have seen,
( d)
(e)
4: x.xixl
(f)
[x]
sgn x
for all rea4 t does not have an inverse..
Do the following:
(a)
Sketch graphs of,
x < 0,
(b)
I',
: x x
for
x > 0 sand ,_f
and determine the inverses of
f 1,
0x2
: x
for
'ane ft.
2
What relationship exists among the domains of
and V?
fl,
f,
(f1
is called the restriction of
to the domain
(x
x > 0)
';
'
and 7,f
is similarly the restriction of
to the domain
(x': x < 0).)
11.
Sketch a graph of
(a)
f :
and show that
does not have
an inverse._
Divide the domain of
(b)
f
(c)
into two parts such that the restriction of
to eitAr part has an inverse.
Write an equation defining each'inverse of part (b) aria sketch the
graphs.
1
12.
DO Problem 11 for
13:
Giv9 that
fg(x)
: x. x
f(x) = 3x =72 and
ge(x).
 4x.
g(x) = 2x + k,, find
For this value of
are
and
such that
inverse to one
another? 'Give reasons for your answers.'
14.
Show that
for
S.
x _> 1
f :
x2  4x + 5 for
x...
yl in the domain of
of
x > 2
and gliix.. 2.+ 1/7:.77717
are inv'erse to one another by showing that
f .
'ig,
and that gf(x) = x
for all
If f(x) =12x3 + 1 7
/..
for all
in the domain
'
.
15.
fg(y) = y
find at least two functions
f0x) = gf(x)
e'
371
su h that
'
8
A14.
Monotone Functions
increasing, oft&functIons
If we examine the behavior, for x
7olt
as
1G and
g :'x b. sin x,
we note that the values of f
g, are sometimes increasing and kme
increases, while the values of
Geometrically this means that the graph of
times decreasing.
increase
is con
tinually qsing as we survey it from left to right (the direction of increasing
x), ,whereas the graph of
like a wave, is now rising, now falling.
g,
The
graph _of a function may also contain horizontal portions (parallel to the
xaxis), where the values of the function remain constant on an interval.
.
function such as
illustrates 'this, and also points up the fact
that the graph of such a function need not be continuous.
Example A14a.
The function
x
defined by
2
,
0 < x < 1;
1 < x < 2;
h(x)
7
x3
x,
0.
has the graph shown in Fgui'e
Ad
It is easy to see that the function decreases as
interyal
(1,2]
increases except on the
on which it remains constant.
Taken as a class, the increasing, decreasing, strictly. increasing, and
strictly decreasing functions
called monotone (compare with monotonous).;
becaesethe changes in the values of the functions as
increases are
always in one direction.
irection.
Let
be a function defined on an ;interval
yl ..f(x1),
y2
f(x2)
'pair,of numbers
(2)
21
x2
in 'I,
with
and let
If, for each
I.
y_satfsfy the, ineclualitY
then
is a strictly decreasing function;
(3)
Y1 < Y2,
then f
14, an 'increasing function;,
{4)
y1
then
is a degreasing function. 
Y2'
the
< x.
2'
is a strictly increasing function;
.2?
Y1 > Y
in
then
.< y
xl, 2c2
and
corresponding values of
y
for
Briefly, this definition states that a function which preserves order
.
relations is increasing; a function which reverses order relations is
decreasing. Note.particularly that a Strictly increasing functi on is a special,
'case of an increasing function; siMilarly"a strictly decreasing function is:a
speciril case of a decreasing function.
A funCtionwhich is either increasing or deCreasing is called
monotone. Wunction w
is tither strictly increasing or
r
strictlydecreasing is e lledstrictly 'monotone.
Of
For examp
.k
the function
f EXample Allfa'iss monotone over its
entire domain and ,strictly monotoiieori.:the.nosed.'interyal 02X: < 1
well as on the interval
as
x >2.
The graph'of a strictly monotone functiOns
the function
must be onetoone, hence must have an inverse;/4
.
t:
s. 1
i ,1;.Y
c.
'
In some texts the term "nondecreasIng" ,.s useo instead 46, "increasing";
"nonincreasing" is used instead df "decreasing4,.., ,ii Volume 1 'of this book we
usually drop the phrase "str,intly" from these defiriitions Y ,u4ing (1) or (3)
'las the definition of "increab.ing."
0, 1'.
...s..
,
'
'
03
4.
/.
N;
J
.
'
Al 1+
If,a function is ,strictly monotone, then it has an inverse,
THEOREM
which is strictly monotone in'the same sense.
We treat tne case for
Proof.
strictly increasing; the proof for
If
strictly decreasing is entirely similar.
f(xl) < f(x2); 'that is;
1 ,
Hence,
f(xl) # f(x2).
x2,
take
xi <'x2,
is onetoolie,and
f
then
has an inverse
f(x)44x
defined for all 4alues
domain of g and
less than
yl < y2,
then
Y1 = f(x1),
and
are in the
and
y2 = f(x2)
must be
g(y2).
g(y1) = xl < x2
Therefore,
(Why?)
x2.
f.
is strictly increasing, for if
Finally,
in the range of
f(x)
Example Alltb. 'The,function
,.
...
/76
f : x .,..xn,
n a natural number, is strictly moftotOne (increasing) for all real
Hence,'
f. has the inverse function
x > O.
,*
1K >0.
x,
g :
For an arbitrary element
.which is alsq an increasing function.
domaIh
of
g;', we denote
by
g(y)
r147;:
thus (1) may be rewritten\
jg
(2)
y > 0.'
CoMpailng (1) and (2), we see that
of the equation
ri,g
n2`'
we call
xn = Yr;
in the
is the unique. positive solution x,
'
the nth root of
for all real
'y
If the natural number
is odd, then tlae function. f
strongly monotone for all real
x,. as is its inverse 'function.
that every.real number_ has a unique nth root or
odd.
This means
For` example,,
'
is:
for n odd and
real,' 9/7171
n
If
is even,
incrtaginifor.all real
dothaim x >0 and
f2
x'7.
x >0.
If
is ddcreasing for all real, x < 0,
f
is the, restriction of f
is the rest iction of
I
these kunCtions has an ,inverse, n
ily .
f "to x < 0,
and
to the
theh eaCh,of
A14
and
n,for
n even and all real y > 0.
For n *even,. the positive nth.root
of
a nonnegative real, number is sometimes called its principal
n 1h root.. The,
symbol 9
always meacs,the principal nth root.
rr.
Exercises A14
A
1.
o'
Prove that
' (Hint:
2
1
Let
> x
x a. x2
for ,x > 0
xi > x2 > 0;
then
 x2 >.0.
2 ;
From this shoW that
2
.)
2.
is a strictly increasing function.
..
Which of the following functiOns are decreasing?
_
decreasing?
strictly in
real numbers unless oth
.f1
(b)
xac,
easing?
7ise restricted.
& constant
(h)
f8
(i)
f9
(J)
fit)
+ IX'
0,1x1
3
(d)
(e)
f 5 :'
strictly
In each case the domain is the set of
f2 :
:(c)
0
increasing'?
(k) .fis
X IX
441
gl
(2)
(r)
f6
(g)
f
7
x < 0
x > 0
(4c g2
f'3f4(
X.''6'f4f3(X)
3;
For each function in Probla
2 which is not monotone, divide, its
into parts such thatIthe re triction of
a monotone or strictly.mono onefunctiom4
4
totany.of the,he parts,gives
A14
C
4.
We are given that the function.
is increasing,
#,
is strictly increasing,
g,
.g4
14Aecreasing,
is strictly detrpasing,
in a common domain., What is the monotone, character, if any, of the
.7 0
followingfunctions:,
(a)
+ f
f
1
(b)
f2 + gi.
(k)
(c) ,g1 + g,.
(d),,
g2 4 fl,.,
(e)
fl
(1.)
f2
6(2)* glf#21..
f2
(m).. glg2'
Y g^c
(g)
ga.
g2
(I;)
g2
fl
g2fi.
(P)
flg2'
,
or# if
(0)
.
.
"
7
at
4.
...
it has coordinates
(r., e + g)
also.
(rye)
= 0'
(Lr,8)
(r,e + n)
ft
Figure Al 5b
In a cartesian
pair of coerdinates
coordinate system every ppint in the plane.has a unique
(x,y),
is not tae; a given point
In a polar coordinate system, by contrast, this
representation.
in the.plane does not have a unique
In both coordiP' in Figure A15a)
in,polar coordinates (see point
specifies a unique point in
nate`systeTs, however, a given pair of coordinate's
the,plane.
A relation between
and
y may be represented by a graph in a .
r and e may be replesented
cartesian coordinate plane. A relation in
and only
coordinate system; a point lies on the'graph if
,by a graph ip a polar
satisfies the given relation:
if it.has at least one coordinate pair which
by equations. ifffiolar
We discuss the graphs of a few functions defined
coOrdinates.
'43
.370 8 (i
A15'
..'.
.....
47,;, 'if. A is one angle,
IThere are infinitely many such angles for each point
Thus; a point may be
are the others.
(n = 1, 2', 3, ...)
then 8,.2ng
,4entlfied by infinitely many pairsof polar, coordinates.
(4,21),
(FigureA15a), point P with polar coordinates,
(4 , ZE),
(4, . 271),
and,, in
gener4
3 3
The pole (origin) is a special.qase:
pair (0,A),
e
(4
, 3 +,
2ng)
For example
also has coordinates
for any integer
n.
to it we absign.as polar coordinates any
".
any real number.
it is customaty to
When we assign polar coordinates to locate a,point,
is located
(1,.8)
r > 0, the point
ff.119w 'r alp tobe negative.
with respect to the origin (Figure AL 5b);
symmetrically'to the, point (r,A)
it has coordinates
,
(r', e + g)
also.
,e)
8 = 0'
(r,A + 1)'
Figure Al 5b
in the plane. has a unique
In a cartesian coordinate system every ppint
by contrast, this
pair of. coardinates (x,y). In a polar coordinate system,
have a uniqpe representation.
is not tPUe; a given point in the.Plane does not
P' in Figure A15a), In both coordiin,polar coordinates (see point
specifies a unique point in
natessysteTs, however, a given pair of coordinate's
the,plane.
,AI
A relation between
and
y may be represented by a graph in a
r and 8 may be reprresented
cartesian coordinate plane. A relation in
only
coordinate system; a point lies on the'graph if and
iby a graph ip a polar
satisfies the given rethion:
if Lt.has at least one coordinate pair which
by equations, id1Polar
Wd discuss the graphs of a few functions defined
coOrdinates.
'
A1:5
The graph of the eqpation
,
r = c
.
contairis:all point
(cie), e
anY'Nlleal,
hding 4t; center at the pole.
number; it is a circle of radius
The equation
r = c .describes the same
1.
circle.
The points for which
e = c
.
lie on the line'passing through the pole which formi an angle of
c
radians
with the polar''axie;each point of the line has coordinates (r,c) for some
.
.
real r. For r positive, the points form
.
the ray in direction e, for r
negative,' the ray has, direction 8 + It.
The0line has infinitely many equations e . c + nrc,. n an integer.
.
The circularfunctions of` e
polps'coordinates be
are 'especially conveniently represented in
use the entire graph is traced out,in one period.
We
shall illustrate a
ifocedure for 'sketching a' graph of such a function.psing
polar.coordinate graph
I
r.: Note that the function specifies the graph; a
.,.
function
however, cannot be recovered from its graph in polar coordinates:,
Example Al 5a,. Sketch a...graph of the function def4inedby
r =4 cos e.
.
Since
r .is a function of
A the 'correspond.ing
at e=
valUe '0
valospf
rt
f
to '1
Hence, in this.interval,
t:,
Since
=2.
increases from 0
and the curVefor
the point

to
(4 cos(e
<4 <
5
and,then decreases.to
1) ,e) 'is the same as
is the entire graph.
4
To 's16

values of
1' the graithofsthe function, we calculate
:0 ( 
e 'and calculate
:r. We,ktiow that the cosine increases from,the
at e = 0 and then decreases to 0 at e
cos(e +.x) = cos e,
(4 cos 0,,e),
we consider values of
e,
for a few convenient
x
T,E, etc.),
locate the corresponding Points on polar
coordinatepaper, and sketch the graph (Figure Al 5c); it appears.to be a
circle and we shall presently verify that it is.
4i
%.
379
3 87
..
A15 ,
(
Figure Al 5c
in the plane has both rectangular end polar coordi
Since each point P
nates (Figure Al 5d), for
r > 0,
we
have froth the trigonometric functions
of angles
(1)
x = r cos e, y
r sin e.
We leave it to'you to verify that
equations (1) hold for
r< 0.
Thus
the rectangulaand polar coordinates
ofeackpoint in the plane are related
by (1).
(2)
It folloWs that .
x2
2
= r .
Figure A15d
O
380
,388
. A15
<
Now we reexamine the function defiried by
and ptov6that its graph is It circle.
r = 4 cop e
(Example A14a)
We shall do so by transforming the
given equation into an equation involving rectangular coardinatqs
Nbil the given equation
(3)
r = 4 cos a
and
y,
has the same graph as the equation
r = 4r cos e,
r2
for if
r 1 0,
we may divide both members of. the equation by
given equation
= 0
to obtain the
corresponds to the fact that the pole is on both
graphs.
This may notle immed' tely obvious since only 'Certain pairs of.
..
coordinates representing the' le will satisfy the equation r'= 4 cos e.
e
Forexample, both
(0,0)
of.these pairs satisfies
and (02) represent the pole; yet only the latter
0
r = 4 cos e.
We use (1) and (2) to obtain from (3) that
2
x. + y
or
(x  2)2 + y2 = 4,
911
an equivalent equation in rectangular coordinates,,
equation of the circle with center at
r
(2,0
We recognize this as an
and radius
2,
verifying tne
graph in Figure A15c.
Example Al 5b. .Find an equation in polar coordinates of the curve whose.
I
2
2 2
y2)2
(x2
y2).
.
equation in cartesian coordinate's is' kx
(x2 + y )
=
.
Applying Equations (1) and (2),weJnave
t
r4 ...a2r2(cos.20
2 2
= a r
sin2e)
cos 2e
This is equivalent to'
r
Since
'r2 ,= a
= 0
(th4cole)
and r
cos 20' is satisfied by
(9,t),
cos 29.'
a set of'polar coordinates
for the pole, we see that r2 =\0 contributes no points not in the
2
2
ra cos 2e. Hence', the latter lean equation in polar.form
whie
381
389
S
of
is the
A15
of the given one,
caly the
Thegraph of this equation is
lemniscate of Bernoulli and is displayed,ln Figure Al5e,
Figure, Al5e
We now develop an equation which, for suitable choice Of a parameter',
For this
will represent either a parabola, an ellipse, or a hyperbola.
purpose we need the definition of these curves
(conic sections)' in terms of
Every conieCtion (other than the
focus., directrix, and eccentricity.
,circle) maybe defined to be thetet (locus) of all points
such thiit the
and a fixed point
ratio ofthe distance between
(the focus) to the
;'distance between
et:ant
and a fixed line
(the directrix) is EipcNitive con
e;'called.the eccentricity of the conic section. _If
section is a parabola, if
a hyperbola
the conic
it is an'ellipse,.and if 'e > 1
0 < e < 1
i,
is
*
I
In order to dgrive an evation in
polar coordinates of aconic section,
it is convenient to place the focus
.
/ F at the pole (origin)
direetrio .12
and the
perpendicular to the
extension of the polar axis at distance
p > 0 ?from t}\e pole, as s own
in Figure A15f.
(Other orients
ons
= o
,
1.0,COS*e
are possible; see.EXereises Al=5;
%
Nos: 8104
isaby
Of the conic section.
FigUre Al5f.
.
This Curve is defined as the set (locus) ofpoints''P. such that the
product of the"distapces of P from two fixed points is the square. of half
the: distance %etWeerrthe two f1Xed points.
f
382
A15
1.
I..
Tft lei
/.
(r,9)
FP '= r' and
be a'n'y pair of'bolar coordinates of',P
ifOr which r > 0;
DP
+ r cos 6 (Figure A15f). The definition of the
FP
conic sections requires that, Bis.
e or
 e.
SolV,Igg for r
p + r cos 8
1,11A1
we 'obtain
ep,
(4)
r,
e, .
e cos 0
wilizh we take to be the standard form of the polar equation of conic sections..
.
' having focus and directrix oriented as in Figure Al 7f.
if
e < 1
(ellipse or parabola), then
r > 0;
if
From Equation(4),
e > 1, (hgerboli), 'r
may b'e neggtive and these values give us the branch pf the hyperbole lying to
the left.of the directriSc.
,,
.
\
Describe and sketch the graph otthe equation
Example Al_....
5!'.
16
114
5. 3 cos e'''
may put this equation in the standard form
16
r
r  1 cos e
5
.
16.
1 
,r)s 4
from which
and pi=
e =
Since
e < 1,
the graph is an ellipse with
'3
focus
F1' at' the pdlesand Major axis on the polar axle:. By giiiing
values
2,n).
0 ,and
g, we find the ends of thj major axis to be
(8,0)
.9 the
and
Thus the length Of the major axis is
10,
the center of the ellipse
is the point (3,0).; and the other focus is, the "point F (6 0). Since
'
16 ?
p =
(the distance betyeen. a focus and corresponding directrix of the
3
ellipse); the equation of the directrix
pole is
r cos e = 
16
3
the direqriX 12
21
corresponding to the focus at the
s(sge Exercises A15, No. ea.), and the equation of
corresponding to
F2(6,0
is
r cos 9 =
3
.
Uhen
e =
then
r =
,16
16
, and we have the point
(latus rectum)
through F1.
y,
(5, .51
at one end of the focal chord
The other.andwnthas polar coordinates
16 .311
(75 2 )f
these points help us to skdtch the ellipse,as shown
4
'3&3
419
3p,
A15

Exercises A15
l'. ,Find all .polar coordinates of each of the following. points:
i).
(a)
(6
(b)
(6 ,,'i).
(c) (62  ?).
(a)(6,  'i).
%
2.
A)
Find, rectangular 'coordinates of the joints iri Exercise i.
Find polar coordinates of each of the following points given in rectangu.
lar coordinates:
ea(
'
(4, 4).
(a)
'
(e)
(.3
(f)
(3 , 4).
, 0).
(b)
(:22'a
(c)
(2
(d)
,.
i).,
2iD.
*(g)
(9, 10) 7
(h)
1,
1)
; ,/).'
(,/'
,,
4.
Given the cartesian coordinates
polar coordinates
(x,y)
of ca point, formulate unique
(r,e). for Q < e < v. '(Hit:
t:
use arccos 1
r.
,,'
5.
Ane
Determine the polar: coordinates bf the three vertices of an equilateral
triangle if a side of the triangle has length
L,
the centroid ot the
triangle coincides with tlie pole, and one angular coordinate of a vertex
is

radians.
Find equations inpolar coordinates of th,foidowing curves:
(a) .x = c,
a constant.
(b)
'a constant.
y = c,
%,
(c)
ax +by = c.
(c1)
x2 +.(y1 k)2
(f)
7.
xx
W.
10
= k2,
..
aa
= 'a2,
'Fineequations in rectangular coordinates of the following curves:
(a)
r . a.
(b)
r, sin:e
(c)
2a,sin B.
(d) r
(e)
=5.
1
1, cos e
r i.2 tan B.
385
393_
I
Al5'
8.
Derive an equation in polar.coordinates for conic sections with a focus
at the. pole and directrix perpendicular tothe polar axis and
.
units
to the rightetthe pole.
9.
Repeat
Number(8 if the
ireetrix.is parallel to the polar axis and
units above the focus at the pole.
10.
is
Repeat Number 8 if the directrix
parallel to the polar axis and
units below thg focus at the pole.
Discuss and sketch each of the following curves.in polar coordinates.
11.
Example Ai.5c and Nos.
8', 9,
10.)
8
r'
1 7 cos
.*
5
12
36

sin
1.4.
16
(d) "r
5+3
sin
(e)
"
 3 cos
pin 0
= 1  r
1.2., Certain types c7f symmetry of curves inpolar coordinate's are readily
detected.
For example, a curve is symmetric about the pol4 if the equa
tit?n is unchanged when
1
is replaced by
r.
What kind of symmetry
occurs if an equation is,unchanged when
(a)
is replaced by
0?
(b)
is replaced by
7(
(c)
and
(d)
1.s replaced by
13.
0?
CI
are replaced by
r
and
'N.
respectively?
n + 0?
Without actually sketching the graphs, describe the symmetries of the
graphs of the following equations:
r2 = 4 sin 20.
. (a)
(
k
e,
(b),r(1  c6s19).= 10.
(c) ,r = cos
201
Iair
38 9
Al5
Sketch the follol,iing curves in polar coordinates:
(a)
(b)
r= a.(1, co's 0).
= ae.
(d)
r = a sin20 cos 8.
(e)
re = a.
,
(c) r 'a sin 20.
,
15. In each of the .following, find'all
pairs/of equations.
points of intersectiQh of the given
(Recall that the polar repiesentation of a point is
x.
'snot 41.11..te.)
(a),` r= 2
2 sin 0,
'r = 2 sin420,
(c)
A'
r = 4(1 4., cos'
r = 2
2 cos.
;
r = 2 cos 0
0,
 cos
e)
'p
L
38
395.
Is.
A21
4
Appendix 2
POLYNONIAIIS
A21.
'
Signiance of Polynomi,pls
The importenceof,polynomials in applicatiots to engineering and the
'natural sciences, as well as in the body of mathematics itself, is not an
accident.
The utility of polynomial6 is based largely on mathematicq proper.
ties that; for all practical purposes, PermAt the replacement or much more com:plicated functions by polynomial functions in a host of situatfolls.
We shall
enumerate some of these properties:.
(a)
Polynomial functions are among tEe'simplest fudttions to manipulate
formally.
The sum, product, and compositetof polynomial functions,
the determination of slope End area, and the location of zeros and
!k*
maxima andtnima are all'within the reach of elementary methods.
0)1
Polynomial.funotions are among the simplest functions to evaluate.
It is quite easy to find:the value of ,f(x),
x *a
+ alx + a2x2 .+
given
+ anxn
k
with a specific 'set of coefficients
number for
x.
a0, al, ...an and a specific
Nothingmore than multiplication and addition is
involved, and thecomputation'can be shortened by using the method:
of synthet,ic.substitution..
The foregoing two properties or polynothial functionsare those that mat e
them valuab
'as replacements for mare.complicatedfunctions.
(c) requently an experimental scientist makes a series of measurements,'
'plots them as points, and tiren tries to find a reasonably simple
continuous curve that will pass through these points.
The graph, of
a polynomial function can,always be used for this purpose, and because it has no sharp changes of direction, and only a:limited number
of upA and downs, it is in many.ways the best curve for'the. purpose.
'4er
Thus, for the purpose of fitting a.continuous,graph to a finite number of
points, we wou\III, prefer,to#Nork with polynomials and we need not, look beyond
the polynomials, as we shall prove.
follows:
We can state the prOhlem formally as
389
o.
396
4if
4
.A21
Given
and corresponding values
x1, x2, ..., xn
distinct numbers
that a function is supposed to assume, it is /5ossible,to,find
y2,*..., yn
y1,
a polynomial,: function of degree at most
i = 01." n.
'.points
n'
whose graph contains the
Y4Ltshave already done this for
you
n = 2:
or(constant function whose graph contained two given points
founda
(x3:,y1), (2,y2), x2./ x1.
the result is'
is alsodiffere'ntfrom. yr,
y2
If
4t,
it is a constant function.
y2 = yr,
a linear function; if
One way of doing this is, to assume a.polynomia1,9f,the stated form,
,4
2
n1
,
+
f(x) = ao + alx + a2x +
.
,r
f
.
and write the
.,
equations
yi, i = 1, 2, ..., n.
f(xi)
1
.
'o,$This giVes.
n lineae equations in the
unknowns
...
0'
l'
and
a'
41,
in these circumstances such a system will always have a solution.
%
,,,
Example A211a.
ft
Suppose that we want the graph of a function to pass
through the points
(2,2),'(143), (2,1),
and OM. We know that therys
a polynomial graph of degree no greafer tlian, 3
poi&s.
Assume, therefore,
,
aix + a2x 2 +a3x3.
f(x) = a0
Then, if the graph of
which gAs through these
is to go hrough the given points, we must have
and
f(2) = 2, f(1) = 3, f(2) =,1,
f(4) = 1;
that it,
ao  tai +.4a2  8a3 = 2,
a0 +
a
a
,
Solving these, we find, a0
0
0
al +
a2 +
+ 2a 14 "4a
16a
4: 4a
1
a3 =
+'8a3 = 1,
2
2
+ 64a 0 to
20
3)
31
37
a2
and
, al
11
a3
Hence
4.
f(X)
= 44160
62X
37X2..4
The labor of solving systems of linear equations such as thede can be
rather discouraging, especially if there are many equations.
For this reason,
various methods have been worked,out for organizing and reducing
vplyed.
labor in
One of the most important of these methods, called the Lagrange Intl"
pOlation Formula, is based On the fglloWi4 simple line of reasoning.
f
390
6 Z)
We can
A21
easily write down a formilia for a polynomial of degree
at *n  1
xis.
of the,
that is zero
ti
ti
Figure A2la
A set of values to be taken on by a polynomial function.
instance, that we have four points
(xl,y,1); (x2,y2), (x3,i3)
as in Figure A216.
The polynomial
(1)
g (x) = C,(x ,2)(x  x )(x  x
has zerosat.i x
81
(x ),= y 1
1
2'
3'
and
By proper choice of
x4.
Let us do so!
Take
C1
such that
Suppose, for
and
(x4,y4)
we can take
Ci,
40.
= g (x ) = C
1
X2)(X1
x4)',
x3)(xl
4
that is, take
(2)
Cl  (x1
If we substitute
C1
yi
x2)(xi  x3)(xl  x4)
from (2)into (1), we get
(x  x2)(x. x3). (x  xl;)
, 81(x)
(37;
= y
(x1  x,c )(x,
 x3),(x1  x4)
It
y,
If
at
/ 0
Equation (3) defines a polytomial of degree
that has the value
XLI'
and is zero at
x2, x3,
and
x4.
Similarly, onp finds that
.(x
(4)
f35(x) =
x4)
x)(x
(X2  xl)(x2
x3)(x2  x1.4)
'
4
3
391
3 9
e
A21
N
( 5)
g3(X) = Y3
(x 
 x2) (x  x4)
 x1)(x3  x2)(k3  x4)
(x
'
,.1
and
*
(x  xl)(x  x2)(x  x3)
. (6)
g4(x)
(xi: x15(x4  x2)(x4 = x3)
Y4
are alsg'polynomitlp, ,each having ,the property tlot it is zero at three of the
four given values of
x, 'andis the appropriate
at the fourth
This
x.
F.
is shown in the talplp below.
The Lagrange Interpolation Formult /Illustrated.
Values of
dingy
Corr
Value of
g (x)
Value of
x4,.
Y4.
Y4
'
0 .
P2(x)
`N.
`Value of
g3(x)
Value of
g4(x)
3
10
' 0
y
1
Y4
'
If we form the sum
.1;
=, g1(x)+ g2(x) + g3(x) + g4(x),
g(x)
'(T)
.'
L.
..,
then it is clear from the table that
,1
g(xi) = ;Y1 + 0 + 0 +0 =,y1,
g(x2) = 0
+ Y2 + + p
.
T2'
g(X3) = 0 + 0 + y3 + 0 = y
g(x4) = 0 + 0 + 0+ y4 = y4.
.,
41r.
.
From .Egillatlons (3), (4), (5), and (6) it is also dealt that
in
.*'
whose degree is At most
polynomial of degree < 3,
3.
_
is a polynomial
Hence Equation (7) tells us how to find a
whose graph contain s the given points.
Example A2 lb.
tains the points
Find a polynomial of degree at most
(1,2), (0,0).1 (2,1),
and
whose graph con
(4,2).
We find that
,
g (x)' =

1.
(x
4)
2(1  0)(1  2)(1  4)
g(x) = 0,
J
392
399
2x(x  2)(x. 4)
1,
)
A21
1)(1)2(x  4)
(x
g3(x)
(x t 1)(x)(x  2)
g4(x)
(()14c
))((lct.
and
i
2
...gfx),,,,,  15 x(x  2)(x  4) + 1(x + 1)(x)(x  4) + 2,(x + 1)(x)(x  2)
,
12
20
.
 ix).
1".(x2
The right hand sides of Equations (3), (4),.(5), and (6Y have the
.
4 ;
following structure:
4
Ni(x)
gi(x) = yi
'
i = 1, 2, 3, 4:
,....s,
Tile numerator of the fraction, is the_product_of.41.but .one, of the factors
"(x 1 xi), (x  .x2), (x :: g3);
and the missing factor is
(x  x ).
and
(x  x4),
The denominator is the value of the_
numerator at
x4t...x
41)/.. N (x.).
This same structure.would still hold if we had.more (or fewer) points given.
(d)
Instead of a finite set of pdints to whixh a Simple continuous func'
tion is to be fitted, a mathematicitn4s_sometimes 2gonfronted with a
continudus but very 'complicated function that he. wOUld14etA,,,..
approximate by a simpler function.
Fortunately,. there is an extremely
powerful theoresof higher, mathematics that enlarges the breadth of
aploliCation oflgiynomials to this situation.
In a_sense this theorem
16;.i*
permits the "fitting" of a polynomial graph'tb any continuous graph.
In'other words, any continuous function whatever can be aeproxithated
by a polynomial function over a'finite interval of its domain, with
preassigned accuracy.
is continuous over
Mote specifically, if the functiori, x 4f(x)
a < x < b,
exists,a polynomial function
If(x)
 g(x)I < c
and
g
for all
such that
x
in
Akt.
393
is any positive number, there
400.
a < x < b.
A2 1
% ,;
t\C4
../
//
vs
.
Figure A2 lc
A strip between
f(x)  c
and
f(r) + c.
This is known as the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem.
pretation of the theorem
ir indicated in Figure ,A21c
continuous curve,
may 'have
The febmetric inter
..
and minima between x= a
and
But Suppose that we introduce a
Xhe graph of
is a
jarp corners or even infl.nitely ,many maxima
x = b.
atci.p,
No polynomial graph behaves like that
centered on the graph'
f, extending
between the.graphs of the functions
st
x f(x) .,c
and
X
where
4.f.
(X) +
is any preassigned positive number, however small.
Then the theorem
guarantees that there is Al polynomial function
g : x ;,g(x),
whose graph on, a < x < b *lies entirely inside "this strip.
cise meaning of the statement:
o.
This is the pre
"Any continuous function whatever can be
approximated by a polynomial function over a finite interval of its domain,
with pfeassigned accuracy."
Exercises A2,1
1.
Carry out the computations in 'Example A'2 la, above.
Simplifyl the expression for
3.
in Example A21b,.. above.,_
Find a polynlixiiial function of degree less than or equal to
graph contains
4.
g(x)
points
and
whole
(4,2), (0,1),,(2,3).
Find a polynomial function whose graph contains the points
(2,91,(3;307
'( 1,6).
O7,
394
4'0
TO
(0,1), (1,0),
, A22
vt;
A22.
Number of Zeros
One could get, the impression that every polynomial function of degree
n > 0 'has exactly
zeros.
This is 'not quite right4, what we say in Sedtion
n zeros.
19 is that every suchfunction has at most
Let us exhibit a poly
.nomial function for which the numberof zeros is less than the degree:
V
quadratic function
f
has only one zero, namely
factors
x  3,
x2
3.
But since the quadratic has two identical
, 6x + 9 = (x  3)2.
14e say that the zero
has multiplicity two.
Wedefine the multiplicity of a zero
expogntof the highest power,of
f(4) = (x  r)
where. ,q(x)
is a zero of
is a polynomial, and if
f
The
of multiplicity
of a polynomial
that diVides
f(x).
to be the
k > 0,
q(x),
noes not divide
x  r
That is, if
q(x),
then
k.
The proof of the general theorem abput the number of zeros of a'poly:
nomial function depends on !She fact that every such function has at least one
zero.
.7.
This fact, often referred tq as Gauss's Theorem, is stated as follows:
pie
The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.
Every polynomial function of
degree greater than zero has at least one zero, real or complex.
This is the simplest form of the Fundamental Theordm of Algebra.
(As a
matter of fact, the theorem isicorrect even if some or all of the coefficients
of the polynomial are complex numbers.)
The first known proof of the theorem was published by the great.German
mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 = 1855) in 1799.
has written an inteieSting'accoUni of Gauss.
(Eric Temple Bell
See World of Mathematics, Simon
and Schuster, 1956, Volume 1, paget7295339, or E: T. Bell, Men of Mathematics,
Simon and_Schuster, 1937, pages 218 269.)
The proof was cdntained in'Gauspis
A
doctoral dissertation, published when he was
A translation of his second
22.
proof (1816) is in A Source Book in Mathematics, by David Eugene Smith, McGraw
Rill Book Co., 1929,pages 292310.
Gauss gave a total of four different ,.,
proofs of the theorem, the last in 1850. 'None of the proofs is sufficiently
9
395
14Q2
122.,
elementary to be given here.
There is a. proof in Birkhoff and MacLane, A Sur
Lei of Modern Algebra, Macmillan, 19531 pages 107109.
A pro3f is also given
in L.. E. Dickson? New First Course in the theory of Equations, John Wiley and
Sons, 1939..
We now state and prove the general theorem.
The General Form of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.
a polynomial function of degree
and at most
Then
n > O.
Let
f be
has at least one
complex zeros, and the sum of the multiplicities of
the zeros is exactly
n.
From Section 19 we know that
has at least one zero, 'say
(recall the Factor Theore) there is a polynomial
rl.
Then
of degreern  1
q(x)
such that
k:I^e
f(x) = (x  r )q(x).
(1)
If
.o.fs q
1,
is
is of degreezero and we have finished.
n  1
and'is.positive...Then
could'happen that
r2 = r1)
If
n > i,
the degree
has at least one zero, r2
(it
and
q(x) = (x  r2)s(x),
(2),
where
s *is of degree
n  2.
Combining (1) and (2) gives
1,
(3)
If
f(x) = (x
n = 2,
then
ri)(X  r2)s(x).
in Equation (3) is of degree zerostand we have finished.
Otherwise, the proCess may be continued until we arrive at the final stage,
(10
f(x) = (x  ri)(x
where the degree of
r2)
n  n = O.
is
(x  rn)z(x),
Hence,
z(x)
is a constant.
Compari
son of the expanded form of Equation (4) with the equivalent form
f(x) = anxn + a
*shows that
(5) '
z(x) = a
/ O.
n1
xn1 +
+..a
0,
ti
Hence,
f(x) =
(x  t )(x 'r2)
.n
(x  r ).
396
x + a
A22,
Now, if we substitute any complex; number
r
in.place of
2"
different from 'r
r2,
In.Equation (5), we get
te
f(r);:= a n(r.r r 1)(r  '2)
(r  r )..
Since every factor is different fr4m!zero, the product cannot be zero.
no number except
;
r2,
r
1,
r
'
is a zero of
f,
and
Hence,
hasat most
zeros.
Since it is possible.that soine of the r is
zeros of
f may be less,than
may be eqUal, the numbei. of
n.. ,But Equatioli 5) shows that
n factors of the form. x  r.
has exactly
and therefore the sum of.the multiplicities
'of the zeros must be
`n.
Example A22.a..
f
x 4x5 + x
5x,
has zeros of multipli.city greater than one.
+ 8x  4
Find the zeros and indicate the

multiplicity of each.
Since the coefficient of the term of" highest degree is
any rational zeros of
we know that
1,
f 'must be integers thdt are factors of
4.
'
Section 17.)
(Refer to:.
Uiing synthetic substitution and the'polknomial of reduced,
degree obtained each time a zero is found, we discover that
multiplicity three and
2
is a zero of multiplicity two.
is a zero of
Note that the sum
of the multiplicities is fide, which is also the degree of the given.polynOml:al.
It may be helpful to show a practical way for putting down the synthetic
substitutions by which we obtained the zeros and their multiplicities.
This
is.done'in Table A22.
Table A2.2
Finding the Zeros of
5x
.4 x
1
4
3
4
3
4
a
4
ta,
4._
x 4x
 x
+ 8x  4
fs a zero
1
1....1...4
0.
4
0
'4
3.
4
of
three.
40'4
of
multiplicity
397
in
it',
A22
The entries
,3, 4, 4
1,
1,*4, 4
sixth row, and
in the third row,
degreA four, three, and two, respectively.
2
x 4x
2
x
+ 4x + 4
+ 4x + 4
has
1, 3, 0, 4
in the
.
In the lastrow
are coefficients of polynomialsof
The quadratic function
as a zero of multiplicity two since'
2
(x + 2)2.
Thus,'the zeros, of
(of multiplicity three) and
are .1
(of
2
multiplicity two).
two):
."
viP
The graph of
is. shown in Figdre A22a in 'order to give you some idea
of its shape in the neighborhood of the zeros. 2
and
(points
and
ti
f (x)
arc
Ffgure
Graph_Of
f :,x :4Z
8
4'
398
94 4:
L.
sr
t..)
A2=2
\'
.
>,
'
.
, The Fundamental TheorelA of Algebra implies that the.range ofany_,poncon
stant polynoMial function includes zero when its domaih is the set of ail
cm
.;
plex numbers.
The range does not always include zero "wh' en the domainis the
,
set of real numbers.: For example, if
f :.x *.y
x2 + 1,
R,
p
AT"
then the range of
is the set.
(y
When the domain of
f
is > 0,
y > 1).
is the' set of complex numbers, and the degree of
then its range is also the set of all complex numbers.
suppose that
plex number.
f' is a polynomial of degree
n > 0 'and
a + ib.
Foe,
is any com
Then the equation
f(x)
a + ib
is equivalent to
(6)
a  ib = 0.
f(x)
'
This is a polynomial equation of degree
of Algebra, Equation (6) has a solution.
complex number
that is mapped by
hence, by the Fundamental Theorem
n;
That is, th4re exists at least one
f into
a + ib:
'
f(x) = a + ib.
Moreover, there may be aamany as
map into
a + ib,
will be exactly
n_
different' numbers in the domain that,
and the sum of the multiplicities of the solutions of (6)
n:
.1
The Fundamental Theorem does not tell Us how to find even one of the zeros
of
f.
Yt just guarantees that they exist.
The general problem of finding a
cdmplex zero o on arbitrary Polynomial is ,quite difficult.
'In the '1930's the
Bell Telephone Laboratories built a machine, the Isogiaph, for solving such
,
problems when the desee
g
is
1Q kr less.
See The Isograph  A Md6'anica1
RootFinder, by R. L. Dietzold, Bell Labs ReCord, 16, December, 1937, page 130.
Nowadays, electronic computers are used to do this*job, and many others.
Numerous applications of computers in science and industry are discussed in a
series of articles in the book The Computing Laboratory in the University,
University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1957, edited by Preston C.
Hammer.
'
The followyg quotation is taken from a book called Mathematics
and CoMputers,ty GeorgekRiptibitz and Jules A. Larrivee, McGrawHill Book
4.01
Co., Net; York, 1957, page 37:
399
406
A22.
"There is an interesting use for the roots of the 'characteristic equation' of a vibrating system in the dynamics of electromagnetic and mechanical
systems Where many.of the properties of amplifiers, filters, servos, airfo21s,
and other devices must be determined.
If any one of the complex roots of
characteristic equation for a system has 0 positive real part,the system
will be'unstable:
amplifiers will howl, servos will oscillate.uncontrolla
, bly, and bridges will collapse under the stresses exerted by the winds.
..
The
prediction of such behavior isof great importance to designers of the amplifies that boost your voiceare ktdcrOsies the country over telephone lines,
and the servos that point guns at an attacking,plane."
Exercises A22
Assume that the equations given below are the'characteristic eqUations of
1.
some mechanical or electrical system.
According to the quotation' front
,"tstabitz and Larrivee, are the systems stable or Astable?
3
 x
(a)
(b)
x3. 3x2 + 4x  2,= 0,
(c)
x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 2 = 0
(d)
x311 x2  2 = 0,
(e)
x3 + 6x2 +.13x + 10 = O.
"S.
+ 2 = Q,,
The following equatiips have multiple roots.
12.
Find them and, in eachcase,'
snow trat the s.m oP the malti.%licities of the roots equals...the degree of
the
olynomial.
(01 x3  3x  2 = 0,
(b)
x3  3X + 2 = 0,
13
x4
5x3
9x2
7x + 2 = O.
Find the roots and their multiplicities of each of the following equa
3.
tions.
.
Compare the solution%ets of the two equations.
(a)
x5 + 4x4 + x3
(b)
X5
X4
5X
10x2  4x + 8 =
+ 8x 4 =0
0'
4 0,7
'
A22
4.
A number system is said to be algebraically closed if, and only if, every
polynomial equatipn of degree > 0,
68E: solution in that system.
with coefficients in that system,
Which of the following number systems are,
and which are no:t, algebraically closed?
(a)
The integers:
Give reasons for your answers.
1, 0, 1, 2; 3,
(b). ThetrationaI numbers.
Thfreal numbers:
5,
(d)
The pure imaginary numbers b
(e)
The complex numbers.
os,
You may have heard that it was necessary for matheMatic4ans to invent
.and,other.complex numbers in order'.to solve some ,quadratic equatiohc.
Do you4suppose that they needed to inve.nt,something that' might be called
"supercomplex" numbers t6 expressXach things ap
pp?
Gives reasons for youransyers.
,,10.
14
71.1'
tw
401
i0g
11
Y1, 6, and so ''
A24,
A23.
Complex Zeros
We know that a iladraticequation
A
ax + bx + c = 0,
(1).
has roots given by the quadratic formula
4.
x
'(2)
The coefficients
a, b,
and
)
t 42 
C
.
2a
if O.) are here assumed to be real numbers.
The quantity under the radical in (2) 16 called the discriminant.
The roots are
determines the nature of the roots of (1).
imaginary if
 4ac j 0,
 4at < 0.
What are the roots
EXagple
a.
bg = 4ac > 0,
real and unequarif
real and equal if
Its sign
cff
2'
= 0'?
'
The roots are4
1  i 4
1 + i 4
2
'
We notice that these roots are complex conjugates; that 1,e, they have the
.1,
form
A
11
1.r+ ty
u  iv,
and
and v=
where .0
and
are real., In this example,
,/
,,
2 '
Let
Is it just a coincidence that these roots are complex con:lugates?
us look at (2), and suppose thatfa, b,, and
discriminant is negative, say
d
2
.
are real nuottb76s and that the
Then the roots of
ax
+ bx + c = 0
are
, d,
b
b
.d.
conjugates. Thus, if a,
 ik). Thes'e are
+ i(2a) and 2a
2a
2a
2a
t.
c are real and if the roots of (1) are imaginary, then these rbotsand
b,
.
are Complex conjugates.,,,TE/r3is true of polynomials of any degree, as we
shall now prove.
(In the following theorem, the letters 'a
and
represent
.
the real and imaginary parts of a complex root of an equation of any degree,
and do ngt refer to the coeffIcientSin a Oadraticekpression.)
*4.5106
:,.._
4
I
1402
409
...1,r
A23'
Complexconjugates Theorem.
coefficients, and if
imaginary part
If. f(x)
a + tb
b /0,
is a polynomial with real
is a complex root 'of
then
f(x) = 0,
is also a root.
 ib
with
(Another way of saying this is that if' f(ac44) = 0, ,with
a
and
real and
b # 0,
then
f(p
ib) = 0.)
We give two proofs of this result.
First PrQof.
The key to this proof is the use pfd the quadratic polynomial
tt ,
that is the product of x + it)
and x
(a  ib). We show ,that it
.
dies f(x).
We can then conclude that
f(a  it) = 0
and we have com
pftted the proof.
Thd..3. let
(3)
fx
p(x)
1(4
(a + ib)][x (a  ib)]
a)
 it2lf.(x
+ ib)
a)
;
K
.N
Note that' p(X)
with real lioeffients
ic; a quadratic pAyhomial
Now
a polynomial ic divided by a quadratic, a remaindet of degree les, thab
obtained,
q(x)
Henc4, if
and a remainder
'k
where
f(x)
h, k,
is divided by
f(x) = p(x)
This is an identity in
p(a + 1.0 = 0.
is
of dowiree
(but no greater),
.L,
and all the coeffic Ats
(4)
we get a polynomial quotient
p( ),
ossi
r(o* xli= hx +
whet
are real.
Thus,
+ k.
q(x)
f(a + ib) = 0, and from Equatpn
By hypothesisa
Therefors, if we substitute. a + ib
for
in Equation
(4), we get
0 = 0 + ha + ihb + k.
Since real and imaginary parts most both be
4
0,
we have
ha + k
(5)
and
hb = O.
(6)
Since
b / 0
tion (5) gives
0
* , 4 0 P`'
(by,);lypothesis), Equation (6) requires fiat
k = 0.
h = 0.
Then Equa
Therefore, the remainde7441ix + k in Equation (4) is
zero, and
4.10,
fr.
A23
Since
p(a  i
f(x) 4 p(x)
q(x).
by Equation (3), it follows from Equation (7)/that
= 0
172.
f(a  ib) = 0.
Let
Second Proof.
f(x) = a xn + anlx
(8)
n1
and suppose that
Equation (8),
f(a + ib) = 0.
we can expand
+.a lx + a
When we substitute
(a + ib)
(a + ib)3,
0'
a '+:tb
for
in
pnd sb on, by the Bino
mial Theorem.
We can prove the complexconjugatps theorem, however, without
actually carrying out all of these` expansions, if we observe how the terms
behave.
Consider the first few poWers of
(a + ib)
a +
= a + ib,
.,:
)
(a +'ib)
 a
+ 2aib +
(a2
iO3
(a
a3
.2.
b )
i2b2
'
+ i(2ab),
3a2ib 4:3a(i2b2),.4. i3b3
= (a3  3ab2) + i(3ab  b3).
Now observe where
b
b 'occurs in the above expanded forms.
In the real parts,
either does not occur at all, or it)occurs only to even powers.
imaginary part40 b
that all evri powers of 'i
In the
This follows prom the fact
always occurs to odd powers.
are real and all odd powers are imaginary.
If we
change the_sign of
b,
w:e therefore leave the real part unchanged and chadge
the signyof the imaginary part.
f(a ib) = u  iv.
Thus, if
f(a + ib) = u + iv,
then
tut by hypothesis,
'f(a + ib) = 0;
so that
u + iv = 0,
and therefore
u = V = 0..
f(a  ib)
Hence
0. r.
.404
o
A23
What is the degree of a polynomial function
,ExamRle A24a.
of mini
and
2 + i, 1,
mum 'degree if,
3  2i 'are zeros of
f?
6
I
If it is not required ,that the coefficients of the polynomial be real,
then we may take
'f(x) =,(x  (2 4 i)1[
= x
+ (6
In this case, the degree of
can have
zeros, so
coefficients of
l][x  (3
i)x2 7 (13  2i)x 4 (8 + i) .
is
3.
NO polynomial function of lower degree
is the answer.
However, if it is required that the
be real, thert the answer to tile question is
f(x)
For
5.
41
then the conjugates of ,2 + i
and
3  2i..
polynomial function of degree less tan 5
2 + i, 2
(9)?,
must also be zeros of
can have the
f.
No
zeros
1, 3  2i, 3 + 2i.
11
But
(10). [x
(2 + ink
4 a polynomial of degree
i)][x  l][x .(3  20][X,
(2
5,
(3
2i)]
with real ,coefficients, that does have the
numbers listed in (9) as its zeros.,
Exercises A23
1.
Multiply the ,fa tors in (10) above to show that the expression does have
real coefficients.
What is the coefficient of
%
What is the constant term?
in your answer?
Compare these with the sum and the product
of the zeros listed in 4(9).
2.
Write a*Iklynomial'function of mininillin degree that has
(a)
if imaginary coefficients are allowed,
(b)
if the coefficients must be:real.
2 + 3i
as a zero,
A2",1
3.
Find all roots of the following equations:
r,
(al
x3  1 = 0
(b)
x3 + 1 = 0
(c)
x3
(d)
(e)
x4
(f)
(g)
x6
x2 + 2,C= 8
+ 5x

2x3 + 10x2. 18x + 9 = 0
+ 2x

+ 4 = 0
+ 3x
2x5+ 3x4
+ 4X

+ 3x
+ 2x t 1 '=0
(
4x3 + 3x2  2x + 1 = 0
What is the degree of the polynomial equatoion of minimum degree with
4.
real coefficients having
2 + i, 2 + i, 2  1, 3 + i, 3 + i
as roots?
I
arl b1,
Considerthe set of numbers of the form
5.
a  big
rational\ Then
where
is called the conjugate surd ,of
and
a + big.
are
Prove
the follo4dg theorem on conjugate surds:
If
a + b1 is a root of
f(x) = 0,
that if, u = v1 = 0,
and
then
apd
Otherwise, we 'could solve for v = numbers.
is a polynomial with rational coefficients, and if
f(x)
a  big
is also a root.
are rational, then
,
(Note
u = v = 0.
the quotient of two rational
But we know that V is irrational.)
6. .Find a polynomial with rational coefficients and minimum.degree'hpving
3 + 2V as a zero.
7. /State and prove a theorem similar to that in Exercise 5 abOve for numbers
of the form
a + b 1. Is there a comparable theorem abOut roots Of the
'ford a + 1)4 ?" Give reasons for your answers.
Write a polynomial:function of minimum degree that has
8.
1
and
3 
as zeros, if
, ...
irrational oerficients are allowed;
(b)
thecoefficie is must be rational.
0
4
9.
,t
)
('a)
Find,a,polynomial of
inimum degree with rational coefficicents having
If as a zero.
10.
What is the degree of a polynomial, of minimum degree with (a) real, and
(b) rational coeffici ents having
'
as a zero?
(1)
i + ig
(2)
1 + i1 as a zero?
(3)
if +
as a zero?
406.
413
.