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## Herr iot, Slrah T.; And Others

Calc -ulus o (Elementary Functions; Part I.. Student,.
Text. Revi.se Edition,.
..'''
'Stanford Univ., Calif. School Mathematics Study

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## *Algebra; *Calculus; *InstructionallMaterials;

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## thorough knowleZge of college prepdratoi.Y mathatics, including

ralytiO geometry.
This text, PartI, contains the first five chapters of the course and
two appendices. ChaptrerS in)Arded are: 41Pclynomial Functions; (2)
The p'erivative of a .Polynoial_Function; (3-) Circular Functions; (4)
Derivatives of'Circular Functions; and (5) Exponential, and Related
Functirs. The appendices are: (1) Functions and Their,
Repres ntations; and '(2) Polynomials. (RH)
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^$.SCHOOL MATHEMATICS. STUDY GROUP .CA4CULUS ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS Part O Student Text .*(Revised Edition) DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH EDUCATIONS. WELFARE HATION??,L INSTITUTE OF EDUCATION ## HAS. f!E E.. T. SMSG P E PRO ## 0.,(E0 Exac tcP, AS OECE,vE0 rROM T.-4E PERSON OP ORGAN Zd707. OP &)N OP OP,N,ON5 PO, rS OP ...C., ## ,ratE0 00 NO* NE(EsSAR,Y PEPPE r As NA! aNAL, .4,,ru7E OP SEN.' OP POL .) Ni . I, .lz ,l_)1,,,( ,t-f) T. ' .11 '10 ", "T r; Tr / yr w, 4. t- CALCULUS OF ELE71)1EIVTARI.FUATIONS.: Part I 0, Student Text )(Revised Edition). 7 The following is a list of all those who participated in the preparation of this volume: . , . Sarah T. Hemet Desmond T. JAkins C. W, Leeds, III George R Richatdson Don'ald E. Richmond . Paul C. Shields ## , Gunn High School, Palo Alto, Calif. Palo Alto Senior' High School, Calif. Simon's Rock, Great Barrington, Mass. SMSG, Stanford University, Calif. Williams College (Emeritus), Williamstown, Mass. Wayrie State University, Detroit, Mich. 4 . .; ## Financial support for 'the School Mathematics.Study- Group has been provided by the National Science Foundatiop. ## Permission to make verbatim use of material in this book must be secured from the Director of SMSG.' Such permission will be granted except in unusual circumstances. Publications incorporating SMSG materials must include both an acknowledgment of the'SMSG copyright (Yale Univer. sity orStanford University, as the case may be)dnd a disclaimer of SMSG endorsement. Exclusive license will not be granted save in exceptional circumstances, and then only by specific aetlep Of the Advisory Board of SMSG. 1968 and 1969 by The Boiird of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Junior University All right reserved . Printed in the United States of America .., FOREWORD . ## The correspondence between graphs in the xy-plane and relations between x and y ## was one of the profound discoveries of mathematics. In particular, if no vertical line cameet a graph in more than one point, then the graph is that of a function f x -)y; that is, for .each first coordinate x of a : ## point on'the graph there is a unique number y such that (x,y) lies on the ## graph. A central purpose of this 7.5:t is to study the'relatiOnship between ## graphs of functions and'tbe expresSions which ,Define these functions. We, shall ## concentrate our attention on functions defined by polynomial, trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic expressions,, or by combinations of such expressions. ## These functions are usually referred to at elementary functions4 ## We should expect that properties of the graph of a function are related to the expressioh which defines the functions. F ' ## example, by analyzing the ## functional expressiqn we should be able to determ ne the location.of high and low points on the graph, and in addition answer q estions about the shape of the graph (such as illitervals of rise or fall and .ow the graph bends). Further- ## more,.if the function is related to some physical roblem involving motion i7 seems reasonable that an analysis of its expressi ## should enable us to deter-/ ## mine such aspects of the motion as velocity and ac eleration. Likewise,, ry might expect to be able to determine from the func iopal expression such/pr perties as the average value of the function and,t e area of a region b un d ?ed 7. . by the function. 04.4: aim is to develop some of the concepts and techniqqes.w*ch/wi 1 ## enable us to obtain important information about gra Theprimary et:Incept which we develop in Chapters 2, ## tangent line at a point on the graph of a function. of element ry functions. 6 is t t of the ## This tangent'line is des - ## cribed as the'apraight Line which best fits the grap ' and In ## near that/ ,point. - particular, formulas are developed for finding the sl tes of tangent lines to t14-graphs of various 'elemeneary functions. Fora gi en function ## formula defines a, new function called the derivative In particular, ## descrh bed.by the ## derivative.' Furthermore, high and low points of the g =p by,zeros of the derivative, while rise or fall can be d such a f. /Values of the ' derivative give 'a 'measure q the rate of change of the graph. ## such aspects of .motion as velocity and acceleration ar f, of e can be V,iven ined by thesign of the, derivative. . . , 0 0 ,-, ## Our fir4t task unctions, ## to analyze the simplest kinds of elementary namely polynomials, the sine and cosine functions, and simple power, exponential and logarithmic functions. ## These are discussed in Part One, while the ## ,more,difficult techniques associdted with various algebraic combinations (sums, products, quoNents, composition) of these, basiC.functiorls are left ## In additiond the concept of antiderivative ## to Chapter 8 (in Part Two). ## introduced in Part Two, the aRtideriptive of derivative is ## being a function whose ## f. "We shall show how antideri4atives can be used to calculate ## areas'and to solve such.prpblems as determining velocity given acceleration; Furthermore, this relationship between antiderivatives and area provides us ## with aowerful geometricIool for analyzing and approximating functions. . Chapters 1 and 2 discuss polynomial functions, with Chapter 1 Concearating on,definitions and simple algebraic and geometric properties: The .concept ## of tangent line at a point oncthe graph of polynomial function is introduced in Chapter 2 and formulas for the derivative of a polynomial function are . ## Applications of the derivative to graphing (such as finding high obtained. and lbw points and intervals of rise or fall); its interpretation as velocity ; or acceleration, and its use if gpproximationare also discussed .in Chapter 2., This same pattern is followed in the remaining four chapters of this volume. Definitions and simple properties of the sine and cosine functions and the power expohential and logarithm functions appear in Chapters 3 and 5, respec,. tively, while Chapters 4 and 6 discuss derivative formulas for these respec, ## tive classes,,as well as applications to graphing and approximations. FOr their tlioughtful comments we are grateful to Frank F. Allen, Lyons's ., , TOWnShip High ## chool; Leonard Gillman, University of Texas; David-W. Jonah, Wayne State Upiversityt; Albert W. Tucker, Princeton University; 'and the pilot .^ _, teachers and students at.Cubberley, Gunn, and Palo Alto High Schools in Palo Alto; California; St. Mark's School.in Dallas, Texas; .and Simon's Rock in ., ## Great BariOngton, Massachusetts. ## We are also indebted to previous SMSG writihg,teams,whose materials WO t considerable influence pn this text.' Many ideas and exercises were taken, ## directly or ada'ped from two earlier MSG texts: Calculus. ## Elementary Functions and In the first pgrt ofthis text. we borrow heavily from SNSG Elemen- tary Functions; Appendix 2 of ,this text contains Sections 2-12; 2 -6, 2 -8, and 2 -9, of Elementary Functions, Appendifes '1, 3, 4, 5,, 6,.7, and 8 wgre adapted ## 6; A3-1, 2; 10-3, 4, 5, 6; 6-1, 2, 3,.4; A6-1, 2p ## from SectionsA2 -1, ## 3-2, '3, 4,;A1-1,,,,,2; 5;3; and Alf-5 of SMSG Calculus.. ft ## we%expresq appreciation to Nancy Woodman, whose function as a 'typist was transcendental.. ' iv Y. *. TABLE OF CONTENTS Part 1 Foreword' 47.,"" Chaper 1. POLYNOMIAL 'UNCTIONS .) C ffntroduCtion'and Notation 1-1. Quadratic FUnctions _1:5. 7 24 ## Remainder and Factor Theorems 1 -7. RatiOna.1 Zeros 1-8.. Approximatj.ng Zeros 1-9. ## Degree oi'PolynOilial and Behavior of Graph ## Polynomial Functions of Degree Higher Than One 39 56 .t ,75 ## THE DERIVATIVE OF A POLYNOMIAL FUNCTION 81 ## The Tangent at the y-Intercept. of a Grapb 82 ## The Behavior of the Graph Near an Arbitrary Point . . The Slope as Limit of Difference Quotients, ,.. 90 22- ., 'The Derivative 105 ## Derivatives of GeneralyFolynomial Functions ## Applications of the Derivative to Graphing 2.7. Optimization Problems 2- Rate of Change: 2 -5j, ## The Secorid Derivative 98 . 2-1 : .. 111 123 136 e. ## Velocity and Accelei.ation 148 162 ..-. -... ## Newton's Method _.. 173 .. :. ## 2-11. Higher Derivatives and'Notation 'Chapter 3. 178 4, CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS " 187 ) 3 -1. ## The Sine and Cosine Functil6hs 3 -2. ## Properties of the Circular Functions 188, 3-3. ## Graphs of thecircular Functions 54. Uniform 3-5 34. ## The Addition Formulas 3-7. Pure 72 2-2. 2-4: 65 2-1. 2-3. 49 ## Locating Zeros of Polynomial Functions. ,:- ,e_ 1-4. 1-5. 1-6. Chapter 2. ## Constant andlinear Functi9ffs 1-2'. 207 217 '224 Circulir Motion . ,,. .\. 252. Waves 239 .... ## Analie-Of General Wave. Period 247 40, Chipter 4. ## DERIVATIVES OF CIRCULAR FUNCTIONS 4-1:- The ## angent at the y -Intercept' 4-2: The ## erivative as the Limit of a Difference Quotient ,.. 253 253 263 4-3. Line Substitution 4-4. ## 'Velocity and Acceleration 273 279 . 4-5. ## Higher Derivatives an; Approximations 287 0. Chapter5. ## EXPONENTIAL AND RELATED FUNCTIONS 303 Exponents 5-1. .t. 303 5-2. ## The'Exponentila Function, Growth and Decay: 5-3. More'About.Ratiosal Exponents 5-4.- ## Arbitrary Real Exponents 5-5. ## Powers of the Base 5-6. ## The Logarithm (Base 2) 5 -7. ## Logarithms (General Base) 'i Appendix 1. 308 313 ... 319 as Powers rs of 325 330 1.538 ## FUNCTIONS AND THEIR.REPRESENTATI04$

343
.0

343

A1-1.

Functions

A1-2.

CompositeFunctions

A1-31

Inverse Functiohs

A1-4.

## Monotone Functiohs ...... ..

A1-5.

Polar Coordinates

359

Appendix 2.
A2-1.
A2-2.

364

,n5

, ..... ..... .
.,
...... ,.

372

377

POLYNOMIALS

382

SignkficanCe of Polynomials
t
Number of Zeros

38a395

.A2-3., ciomplex.Zeros

402..

--_

------'-'04,-

Part II

, _ ..- - -

.,..- ,.

eo ,Foreword

,
_.

.-,..-

,--

:-_-,,

_-7.,--.1..

Chapter

!!.

6-2.

6-3.

-6-4.

.s

"S'*:-T51:,,t,

6-1.

6:5.

6-6.

6-7.

gri

1.

--,

t.

Chapter 7,

.....

7 -1.

7-2.

7-3.

## The Fillichmental Theorem of Calculus

7-4,

Properties of Integrals

7-5.

Signed Area

7-6:*

IntegrAion Formulas

C apter 8.
8'

-1.

## DIFFERENTIATION THEORY AND TECHNIQUE

Differentiability

8-2:

Continuous Functions

8-3.

8-4.

## 8.-5._ Sums and Multiples

8-6:

Products'

8-7,

Composite Functions

8-8.

''8-9.

8-10.

## The Quotient Rule

8-11.

Inverse Functions

8-12.

Chapter 9.
.

9-1.

9 -2.

Average Value

9 -3.

9=4.

## Estimation of Definite Integrals

.7_12,5.

Taylor Apprqximations

tAppendix 3.
A3 -l.,

t.

MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION

Appendix 4.

## kuRTHER TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION

A4-1.

Substitutions of CircularFUnctions

A4 -2'.

Intagration'by Parts

## Integration of Rational Functions

A4-4.

:4

Definite Integral;

vii.
9
r

Appendix

## THE INTEGRAL FOR MONOTONE FUNCTIONS

A5-1.

Introduction

A5 -2.

Evaluation of an Area

It5-3.

A5-4.

A5 -5.

Appendix 6.

A6 -1.

A6 -2.

## Definition of Limit of'a Function.

A6-3.

Epsiionic Technique

A6:4,

Limit Theorems

Appendix 7.

-t

CONTINUITY THEOREMS

AT-1.

A7-2.

Functions
A7-3.

A7-4.

Appendix 8.

A8-1.

A8-2.

Appendix 9.

## LOGARITHM AND pPONENTIAL'FUNCTIbNS AS SOLUTIONS

TO DIFFERENTIAL EQOATIONS

A9-1.

A9-2,

## The Exponential Functions

se

,V

iO
viii

Chapter 1
POLYNOMIAL FUNCTIONS

Here we An-

## centrqte on the deinitiati and simple algebraic and geometriF properties:of

polynomikil functions, leaving to the next chapter a discussion of tangents to
polynomial graphs.

## between the'graph of a polynomial

Our.concern is with the relationship
.
-

## function and the expres;ion which defines the function.

-i-

'

This relationships

## For quadratic' functions the graph is a

parabola whose locatioh and general slope can be easily determined by using
scale Change o

## After discussing these familiar cases we turn to polynomial functions

of degree three or .larger.

## thetic division serves initially'as a tool for plotting points (S

Later interpretations

Syn-

tion 1-4).

## between zeros end factors of the pblynomial is.discussd in Section 1-5.

In

Sections 1-6, 1-7, and 1-8 we discuss methods for locating, determining; and
.

## function which can be quick1ybbtained from its expression, includtng the

important result that the degree is'a bound for the number of iines its graph
crosses the x-axis.
ae

## We begin our'studyith'polynomial functions because they are the simp

The theory, and techniques employed in

.

## ours approach to the analysis or.polynomial func9tons be useful as we de31

yith oder functions; but the polynomial functions themselves will serve as
,approximations to other functions 'we shstll study.

'

1-1

1-1.

## In this chapter weshall be concerned with functions that are defined by

expressions of the form
*IN

+ 8 X + 8 x
2
1

E1.4

where

+ anxn

(i = 0, 1, 2.,

3,

n)

## functions they define are called polynomial functions.

We commonly denote funttions by a single letter
to denote the value of

f(x)

at the point

f(x) = a0 +a1x+

using the/symbol

f,

x:

-2

+anxn.

)1/4*

of ,f)

is given by

..
..

= 2+ x.-

(0f(x)

,.4The values

and

f(0)., f(-1)

f(0)

f(2)

+ 0-- 02 = 2

= 2

= 2 +. (-1)
f ( -)

x2.

= 2

1 2

- -

=o

(-1)2
= 2

(-2 )

.
.

## We can sUf)stitute other letters or.expressile for

5c;

for example

f(t) = 2 + t - t2,

f(2 - y) = 2 + (2 -

ti

.3y

f(a + b) = 2 + (a

## We may asso denote the function d

f

A
thus ,gtregsing thlit

a +

b.y -

4tined

In (1) by

x -*2 4 x - x

2
,

tv,

graphing.)

1-

+ b - a2 - 2ab

= 2 +

(2)

(2. - y)2

f(x).

## For example we may rewrite (2) as

We frequently intro-

x -*y,

where

(3)

y =

2.+x-x2

y = x3

+x2

y = 1

y = 1 + 2x

'

Figure 1-la
The graph of a function,

(x,f(x))

as -wel.pieture

Polynomial func-

.
_

..

Exambl.o.1-1a.

## is the volume function and

is the measure of

.1

where AT

In

.

.x..

(4)

.V

The expresion
volume ft5totion

-1;

nr

3.

nr

r.

The

r -41T

r > 0.
.1

## iadius is doybleid we can write

f(2r).= 1. n(2r)3 -

nr3

80- itr3),-.
3

S

Example.1-1b.

(5)

= 64t - 16t2.

This 2.unctin

## physiCal assumptions about velocity, acceleration and gravity.)

can bnly serve as an idealized model of the physical situation over a particuliir

Since

t.

s = 0

when

t = 0

0 < t,< 4;

the air for

Or

4,

the function

the ball is in

## To' find how many seconds it takes for the ball to

seconds.

reach its maximum height we can (by completing the square),write the function'
.

0'

in the form
t

64

and equals

)2 '4- 64.

64

Thus

cainot exceed

## Therefore, we conclude that the ball

only when ft = 2.

64

t = 2.

is negative unless

feet after

seconds.

.p71'.

64 ft

height of
ball after
t
seconds

feet

ground

(i)

1-1

'Exercises 1-1,
1.

## .In Example 1-la

we expressed the volume of a sphere as "a function Of its
.
.

2.

## Suppose that a vellet is projected straight tap"and after a while comes

,

straight down via the same vertical path to the place on the grotind from

After

feet of the

160t - 16t

2
,

## which defines the/function

'1'
t -41.60t - 16t2.

when

Za)

(b)

Evaluate

(c)

(d)

t = 4?

f(6),
4

seconds?

seconds?
4N

## Compare your answers for'parts (c) And (d).

(e)

Explain on physical

grounds.
f

## How many seconds is -the-'pellet in the air?

(g)

'(h)

.A
'

How long does it take the pellet to reach, its highest point?
How high does the pellet go?

of

32

64

ft.isac;

After

te,

The distances

ft. and

x = 32t
and

y. 64t
(a)

(b)

## What.is'the path Of the ball as Dick sees it from the platform?

(c)- Write

16t2.

y 'iriterms of

X.

IV

(d)

Name the curve that is the graph of your equation in part (c).-

(e)

-(f)

y = 2x
does

x2

a."
y = 0?

when x = 128?

(4)

What is

(h)

## After how many' seconds does ToM catch the ball?

ci)

How far down the platform from Dick'does.Tom catch the ball?

I.

1J2

1-2.

## Constant and Linear Functions

The simplest polynomial functions are cbnstaRt':futictions.

is any

k,

If

fi

f : x -)c,',

## The graph'of such'a'fUnction is a line parallel.

Some examples%of constant functions are

## units from the x-axis.

graphed in Figure1-2a.

o4

y .0/

2,

Figu e 1-2a

X
Constant functions are quite simple, yet they occd?frequently in mathe-

f

re

## Here the constant is the acceleration ..,

due to sravity,.that is2the constant
.-,,,

n distance is

## amount by which the velopity of fall increases each secoAd.

da.

'32: at sea

'measured ill feet and tie in seconds, this constant is very nearly
level.

feet

tions:

%if

is known,

(?-).

then

f(x)..-. f(a)

for all

f(0) ;,-,10,

x.

f(3)
f

is also

10.

## oP fare the same.

./-

1 7

1-2

A linear function
that is,

mx + b;

all

and

## such that for

f(x) = rot + b,

(2)

If

m = 0

tlen

is a constant function.

'(0;b),

m f 0.

since

i(0) = b;
b

The number

## and gives'a measure of the steepness of the graph.

sketched in'Figure 1-2b.

f,

\
\

/
/

/
.

-4

\ \

X(

/
-1

/
x

y sx

= 2x + 1,

y = -x + 2

x
t

Figure 1-2b
4

x
1

is given by

f(x2) - f(xl)

m -

( 3)

- x

'

that is,
of

f.

## (See Figure 1-2c)..

(x2,f (x2)

- f(xl)

- xi

angle of inclinatibn

Figure l -2e
A

1-2

f(x

(mx 4- b) 2

- f(x1 )

b)

x2 - xi

expression (2).

Example 1-2a.
1

the

(h,k)

with slope

(1,2)

and

*4.

2
-

,8
9

3
3.-

(- F)

(1,2,

by

5x.

y = x - 4

## Then we may "shrink" each abscissa by

The, new equation is

y = 5x - 4

4-.

t
o

as

1-2

9
x

-b t

lac.

I
r
ti

Fd

Q.

zs,

mo

4-)

40

38

.or

1:h.

Most

al

4

Problem 1.

Given a function

in its domain,

Given a function

f(

Problem 2
all numbe s
of

x 'for which

f(x) = y;

y = 0,

f.

## Later we shall study the second

Soon we shall also develop techniques for determining maximum and minimum
points, intervals of increase and decrease and behavior for large values of

## amples of the previous section these techniques will enable us to sketch

graphs of higher degree polynomial' functions very'quickly.
sider Problem 1.

values of

x.

## we may want the values

fCx)

x -,)3x

for different

'

- 2x

+ x - 6,

x = 0, 1, 2, 3, etc.

at

f(x)

Of course,we may

obtain thtse values by dirrect substitution, doing all of the indicated multi-.

Fortunately,

To under-

,.

.Example I

a.

## Find the value of

f(x) = 2x

- x + 3-'at

x = 4.

We write
f(x) = (2x - 1)x +

When x

this becomes

4,

114

(2(4)

3 = 31.

## Note that to evaluate our expression, we can"

i

40'

r.

Multiply

(i)

product to
(ii)

x2) by

(the coefficierit-of

(the coefficient of

-1

x);

Example l-4b.

Find

given

f(3),

## f(x) = 2x3 - 3x2 + 2x + 5.

We may write

f(x)

as

(2x2 - 3x + 2)x + 5

or

3)x + 21x + 5:

i (2x
,

## To find the value of this expression when

inside parentheses and

x F 3,

(i).

Multiply

.,

(the coefficient of

2
,

to

-3

x3)

by

## (ii,) Multiply the result of (1)-by

.

?
andedd this product:

a>

coefficient of

x);

../

,'

,.

64

4...

The result is

f(3) = 38.

-.
,.:,.

.-Ar,

## These steps can be represented convenient

consists of the coefflcien
order:

f the successive

owers, Of

ght is the pa

.n depcending

,yalueii5f, x

being

substituted.)
2

-3

cy

(0?..3)

(3 '3) =

,/

'

(11 .3) =

,/

33

38

11

.4 so

## When this tabular'arrangement is used, we proceed from left to right.

start the process by rewriting the first coefficient
Each entry in the second row is
preceding column.

2,

We

38,

## can be checked by direct substitu-

tion.

40

50

1-4
Now let us consider the general cubic polynomial
.46

lit

When x

c,

0,

we have
4

0'

## which may be written

f(c) = [(a c + a )c + 8 le +

'

0.

Again the steps employed in the procedure can be represented in tabulal form:
a2

a3

al

a3c + a2

c + a )c + a

(a

[(a3c + a2)c +

(a3c + a )c

a3c
a3

]e

f(c)

/

## of the entire array.

Example 1-4c.

Given T(x) = 3x

- 2x

+ x - 6,

14*,

-6

18

determine

f(2).
1 '2

12

Now 12

substitution:

'

24 - 8 + 2 - 6 = 12.

Example 1-4d.
that

= 0

f(2).

Given

f(x) =

3x

+ 2x - 5,

determine

f(3).

Note

1

-3

r5

9-

18

20

1,

60

55'

4,,oW

Thus,

## T(3)i= 55,whish..as.before, may be checked by direct substitution,

With a little care and practice, the second line in' the above work cart.,

often be omitted-when

1-4

## Example 1-4e. Given

for

f(x)

x = -3, -2,,-1, 0, 1; 2, 3, 4, 5.

## We detach the coefficients.

,,

evaluate

convenient to write them down at the bottom of a sheet of scratcli paper and
slide this down, covering pt each steget446he work previously done.

As suggested

above, we omit thasecond line in each evaluation and write the value of x
we are using adjacent.to the answer.' The results appear in Table 1-4a.
0
e a table of f(x) and x. Note that the
The .last Two columns now bec
.

## as the sup entries as the, coefficient row.

x = 0

Table 1:4a
Coefficients of
1

-1

-4

) = x4 - x3 - 16x2 + 4x + 48

48

I- 4

16

-3

/..10

24

-2

-14

18

30

-1

48

36'

41.6

/
1

'

...3'7:'.

-2

-.---,,,-1

,1

I
-

-16

ON.,

-16

-12

-14.

-24

-10

-26

0 _
' -30

'1

- 4

-12

44

24

168

f(x)

''....

4

## The word "synthetic"

14tera3.ly means "put together," so You can see how it is that "synthetic

## (b), What is the slope of the tangent to the graph of

at the point

(f(a))?
(c)' Find the limit as h approatches zero OF

ence quotient
,
.

'f(X" +

at the point

(x,f(x))?

1 ,.1,4b4

- f(x)

2-4

The Derivative

2-4.

## Consider the function

ti

L 2

(11

x -,1 + x - 4X

..

nr

the previous section we showed that the tangent line to the 'graph of

(a,f(a))

(x,f(x)1

the point

isiven by

at

at

1 - 8x.

ti

The function/
,

x 1-41. - 8x

(2)'

value .1 - 8x

at a point

the graph of

of

since its

(x,f(x)).
f

: x -,1 + x - 4x

(x,f(x))

at the pint

f'.

## Thus the deriva-

tive 'of
2

1 + x - 4x

is the function
1 -

f :.x

f,(4.- at a point

The value
graph of

at

(x,f(x))

(x,t(x)).

## as. simply the slope of the/graph of

ft(x)

at- (x,f(x)).

Our purpose in this section and the next is to Ob'taina formula for the

derivative
function

f'

at the point

(3)

(a,f(a))

f'(a) =

f(x) - f(a)

lim
x

to be

x - a
a

## An alternate form will be more convenient here.

place of

in (3), and.substitute
f'(x) =

x'

lim

(x+) -2x

If we write

in place of

a,

(x + h)

in

(S) becomes

f(x + h) - f(x)
(x

h)

## which .simplifies to'

1*

oo

The name is reserved for this very special function, in spite of the
fact that there are many, functions which could be, derived in other ways from.
.
a particular function under consideration.

('

2-1p

f(x

'fqX)

/-4

-f(x)

h)
h,

f(x + hh ). - f(x)

Note that

PQ,' where P
(x + h.

ca d

..

f(x + h)),

and

(tft(x))

has coordinates

has coordinates

Figure 2-4a

TZ is

## It is clear from Figure 2-4a that the slope of

h) " ffx1

f(x

h
As in the-last section we define the slope' of the tangent to,be the limit of
-

P,

## that is, in terms of the new

s.
expression (4), as
and calling

f'

## We are denoting this limit by

h approaches zero.

the derivativi of

f.

piyeAsthe_function_f
find

f'(x),

_x

3x2 -2x+ 1,

use (4) to
f

at the point

(2,9).
J

f(x +

## h) = 3(x +h)2 - 2(x + h) + 1

2
2
= 3x + 6:th + 3h - 2x - 2b + 1

f(x) = 3x? - 2x + 1

f(x + h) - f(x)

lim
h
0

f(x + h) - f(x)
h

## The slope of the tangent at

-1

(2,9)

f' (x)

6x + 3h - 2

6x - 2 =''x)'.'.
'f

Is

f' (2) = 6

2 - 2 = 12 - 2 = 10.

.
2.4
Example 2-4b.

J
x -)x3

at

(1,1).
- x3

+
ft (x)\

h -*to

## (x + h)3 = x3% 3x2h + 3xh2 +h3.

0

Hence
+ ;03. + x3 = 3x2h +' 3xh2 + h 3
,

(x +

x3

## 3x2- + 3xh + h2,

and

fqx) = 3x2
The required tangent hsis die equation

y = f(1) + f.(1)(X - 1)
= 1 + 3(x - 1)

or
y = 3x - 2.

## This solutionhas the advantage that it enablei utto obtain tangents

at other points with little extra work.

the slope

.1

107

Thus at

(2,8),

## the tangent has

2-14-

Exercises 2-4
Consider the function

1.

(fi)

1im

Find'

## from part (a)...

f'(3)

Firid

- 1.

f(x + h) - f(g)

11, -.0

(b)'

-2

-4x

..

Find

(c)

as

f' (3)

lim
h -4 0

and also

f(3 + hh)

f(3)

using auccessively.

..

.4;(x) =
to find

(b)

f(x) =.3x2 + 14

(c)

f(X).= 2x2 - x +

If

ax

lim
h -4 0

f(x + h) - f(x)
h

## fpr each of the following:

f'(x)

f(x).= x2 - x + 1_

a)

where

+ bx + c

a, b,- and.- c

2ax + b.

f': x
14.

.

3.

'

(d)

h) - f(j)
h.

-1:

2.

f(3

v.,

f'

(X) =

to fl.nd' --the

"f(x) = x3 + x

(b)

(c)

2
f(x) = 2x3.+ x

f(x)

## 'eachok tkie following:

deiivitive

(a)

h)

li'm

41e

6x +

5.

If

f(x) = ax3 + bx 2 + cx

6.

If

f:

(a)' f'(a)
(b)

f1(0).

(c)

fl

(2) :

2x "-

xr2

d,

,evaluate

+ 2bx + c.

-'

2-4

7.

If

## find the slope of the tangent'to the graph of

x -4 I + 2x - x ,

f :

## at, each of the following points.

(0

(a,f(a))

(b),

(df(0))

(c)

(1,f(1))

(d)

(e) (710,ef-l0)).
.

If

(a)

x3 - 2x + 1,

find all

such that

f'(x) =

(x) =.22

(b)
tc.

9.

(c)

f'lx) = 0

(d)

ft(x) .F

Oi

,6x

X,N404.)4

(c)

(TheWrbol/"px,"

- a

in

(x + h)6

lim

:::

(10.)

x6

v.

I z.,-(c)

It

x - a

(b)

x."

x5 lim z5z -- x
Z )X

(d)

10.

lim

(b)

x3

(x + Ax),
DX

lim

.4

.

3.
: x -4 X ?

4
: x -4x ?

## What is the slope of (the tangent to) the graph of

at the point

x -4 x5

(x,f(x))?

"

11.

What

is

fr

if

Find
(a)

(b)

(c)" f

-4

ff(x)

(X +

if

x -4 x6?

1)2

x -4x(3x + 1)2
:

Ant

(x2 + 2x)(3x - 1)

(vria*'

J
0,7

The Oinph of

and

C.

2-5

2-5.

2

4 bx + c

x -%ax

f': x -e2ax + b,
g

x -+ ax

+ bx

14

3ax

g': x

.,then

+ cx + d

+ 2bx + c

## Such general,expressions allow us tb write derivatives of specific quadratic

and cubic functions by inspection.

the function

'

x --t

5x3

7x2 - i1x + 13

".
.

c:. -11

aAa' d = 13,

ti(x)

. -7,

## so we know ihmediately that

9 3(5x2)

4:?(-7x). t (-11)i'=

15*2

14x - 11. .

## These exa7led, and othet'exercises in SectiOri 2-4, suggest the following

general.expressions for derivatives of polynomial functions:
The monomial
sQ

f
(1)

x --t bxn

x -+ nbxn-1

f'

The-polynomial
f
ro

-4 170

b x + b x2
1
2

n-1

xr1-1 + bnxri

(2)

ft:

2b2x + 3b x

+ (n-1)b

n-1

3
;,4(

n-2

m-1

+ nb x
n

2'

## ecause derivatives are calculated as 'limits otdifference quotients, tHe

ocess of obtaining the derivative of'a function is called differentiation.
Observe, that (2) states..that the'derivative of

general .nth

degree

.44

J2 -5

## to (1). We are claiming t 'hatthe derivative of such a sum of terms is simply

;the sum of the derivatives of the terms.
writing the expakions f6r
Formulas (1) and (2) can both be derived
f(x +
- .f(x) using the Binomial Theorem, and taking the lirt as h
by

approaches zero. We shall derive (1) 'this way. Fortunately, however; we can

deduce (2) from (1) wirout a long algebraic argument by first justifying the
claim we made above, namely,that the derivative of a sum of functions Is the
sum- of theii-' derivatives.
To show

(i),

let f'

bxn.

## f(x + h) - f(x) = 'tinxte 1 h + n(n - 1)

(3)

+ hn1

and
- Pi

--

f(x +4h -

1)(n)th -1 +ri(n
.

0-1

Note that every term in (3) except the first term, bnxn-10,, contarns II at
(
zero1 all the terms in (3)
pr
least once as a eactor. Hence, as h approaches
w,

of

.except

bnxn-1

..-

t;-

also approach zero. We conclude that .lim f(x ,;I- h)h - f(x)

h- > 0
,

## and therefore, that the derivative"of f

unxn-1
u

is

x -+ bxn

f':.x

n-1

bnx

Now to see that (2) follows' from this rasa t we must fiiSt see why the
general property of derivatives mentioned above holds true . Suppose 's is
l
a function whose v alue s(x) eQuals fcx), 4- gx), wnere f anti' g , Eire'
functions of t x. (For exatnple, if ,f; x > 5x and :13.1 x -4 13x7, , then
s : x 5x + 13x 7.) Re may calculate the derivative.. of .s in general

5...

## 'directly frozethe definition, as follows:

,

lira

h) - s(x)

s(x

h -40
h
s (x + ,h) = (x + h)+ g(-X

## s(x) = f(x) + g(x)

and

so
A

112

122

*40
o

...

P-,
s(x) = 1:(x + h) - f(x)+ g(x

h)c

g(x)

'-Therefore

ax

s(x + h) - z(x)

h) - f(x)

in the

lizni as

'

carthe-d.:-

## numbqr of functions. 'Hence, we'see that we can differentiate the general

polynomial function
5
n

b0 + b x + b x2 +

.f : x

+, briX

2-

## term by term since it can be thought of as the sum of

From (1) we conclude that
f'(x)

(n d- 1)

functions.

A
1

+ -a; x

3b x2

...

4; nb'xn-l'

.

replace x by

x 7 a.

## To be concrete.we considet the function

x -42x

- 8x +

whose derivative is
f'

x -4

4x 4 8.

Let

be the function
2
g : x -42(x - a)- - 8(x - a)

a
that is,

+ 9,

40*

If a = -6,

*t4

graph Of

## six units to the left.

.313

.123

g. iS obtained by
(See Figure 4-5a.)

2-5

..
I,

.41
.

Y:

I,
,...,.4:

i
i

...

,,

St

Nlv

I
%

I.

%.-/
07-

""?

Figure 2-5a
-46

g : x

If

= 7,

becomes

X -4 2x

g : x

8x + 9
+

(2x + 6)2 =
2( X

of

Figure '2-5b.)

6) 4 9

8(-x - 7) + 9

7)2

4
4

## seven units to the right.

(See

-4-

;
Figure 2-5b

f:x
g

: X -4

2x?

+9

3.

2(x -

7)2
1114

8(x - 7) +.9.,
,

,4044111
142-5

Now under a-translation a line is carried into a parallel line, and thence, the
.

## slope of a tangent to a graph is unaffected by ranslation.

- a), /that is, the graph of 'g
1Pting the_graph of

(x,g(x))
gs"

point
g

f,

(x - a ,Ox - a)).

at

(10,3)

## ,slope of the graph of f: x -'2x2 - 8x + 9

2-54 since

is the image of

Tu

g, at the point
at tile corresponding

## For example, the slope of the graph of

7)2 - 8(x - 7) + 9

## (See section 1-2.)

at

(3,3),

ander a translation

as shown in Figure

7 Units to the

right. -

a"
Figure 2-5c
...._

## Since the slope of the,graph of a function is giv'en by its derivative, we have

concluded that
if

(5)

.X ,t4-f(x - a),

This conclusion en
rather easily.

then

f

2x

o.
- 8x
o +

f': x -44x- 8
and replaci

by x - a

to obtain

4(x - a) - .8.

115

125

2-5

Pt
we have

and
.

',.

11

.
.

## We can also justify conclusion (5) algebraically using difference quo.

tient'g.

.,..

We know that
f'(x) = slim

(6)

Replacing

by

x - a

in (6) we obtain

g(x) = f(x - a)

- f(x -.a)

f(x - a +

lim

f'(x.- a) =

Nov/ if

f(x + h) - f(x)
h

we can rewrte,this as

f'(x- a) =

+ h)

limb
lim
h

g(x)

g'(x).

## and the right-hand expression is simply the defiriition of

Hence,

fqx - a) = g'(x).
In general then,

## The polyriial function

g:x4c0+c 1(x - a)

02
c 2(x

+ c

g': x
t

Example 2-5a,.

## -find the derivative

(2j9)

a)2

+ 2c (x - a) + 3c (x
2
3

f'

+ nc (x -

con=1

x,

3x2 - 2x + 1,

use} (2) to

at the point

## Using (2), we obtain

The slope-of the graph of

f

at

(2,9)

is

f'(2) = 10.

10.

.Example 2-5b.

5-

Given

Sind
of

is

f(1) = -7,

- 3x

+ x - 6,

f.

## the tangent passes throper

'

x = 1.

The derivative

(1,-7).

4.

A -45x4- 6x + 1 '

f'

line'at. (1,-7)

(1,-7)

f1(1) s 0.

is

the tangent

Thes

## is Horizontal and has the equation

Y = -7.

Note how74Ch easier it is.to find the equation of this tangent by using
the derivative formula (2) to, obtain its slope at

themethod of expreglang

Exam 1

y =

2-5c,

x + 1

-.4x3

f(x)

in powers of

x - 1

x = 2,

(2,-45).

at the point

y',

so that

(2) gives

yt = -12x

's

- 7

(2'-45)

we, replace

To find

(x,y).

by

to

obtain
-12

- 7 = -55.

y = -45 - 55(x

Example 2-5d.

For f

x --)x

2).

- 3x

and

gi(1)
4

'We have
:

X -4 3x2

so that
.

x -4

- 2)2 - 6(x - 2)

12 7

x -if(x

find

and hence

gl(1) = 3(1

2)2

- 6(1 -

J'

Example 2 ..21.

Suppose

## t.ngent to the graph of

f : x -t(x + 1)10.

differentiate.

(x + 1),1

,

tfe

10(x + 1)9

so that
1

1024).

P(1) =

10 x 29 = 5120.

## Hence, the desired tangent has the equation

y = 1024 + 5120(x - 1).

1161

28

ands then

2-5

Exercises

1 (a)

Find

f'

if

(b)

Find

g'

if

(c)

Compare.

2 (a)

(b)

f'

x2

.4-

2:2

x (x + 1)2 using

(7).

and

(1)

(ii)

g 1: x

2(X + 6)2

(iii)

## g2: x -) 2(x . 7)2

- 8(x. -; 7) + 9

: x -) 2x

- 8x + 9

Find the slope of the tangent to the graph of each of the functiOns
in part (a) at the point: indicated:

(c)

(i)

f 'It

(ii)

g1

at

(-3,g1(-3));

(iii)

g2

at

(10, g2(10)).

(3,f(3));

f, g1, and g2

at the

(d)

## Indicate the function obtained by shifting the graph of each of the

functions in, part (a) as prescribed:

the graph of

the graph of

g1

the graph of

## two units to'the left;

four units to the right;

(i)

F : 2c-) x3 -43x

(ii)

(iii)
(b)

x -) (x

2)2 +

-p2) + 2

## 1)3 - 3(x + 1)2 + 2

(0)

(ii)

ft(0)

(iii)

gt (0)

What is the equation of the tangent to 'the graph of' each of the

functions

F, f,

and

at the y-axis?

11129
4

.9(x

Evaluate:
(i)

(c)

+ 6(x

x -4 (x - 2)'

2=5'''

and

F, f,

(d)

(a)

## 7nd the derivative of

g.

F.

(0- Determine

if

f'

x )x

+ 6x

+ 12x + 8.

f : x > (x + 2) 3.

lam

Evaluate

(c)

. h )0
,4

(d)

Evaluate

F*(1).

(e)

Evaluate

ft(-1).

(f)

Evaluate

lim

14,

(x +

2)3 -

(-1 + 2)3
x + 1

x,--> -1

5.

1)10.,

(x +

(a)

Find

(b)

Evaluate *f(0)

(c)

ft.

tt(0).

and

at the

y-axis?
ft(-1).

and

(d)

Evaluate

(e)

,where

f(-1)

at the point

x = -1.
and '.ft(-2)._

(f)

Evaluate

(g)

f( -2)

at the point

x = -2.

where

x ;(x - 2)15.'
1

f.

(a)

(b)

(c)

and

f!,t(3).

(4 ,32768).

at.the point

.D

t
f

: x )3(x + 2)2.

(a)

Find

(b)

(c)

Compare

(d)

For

(e)

f'

if

f with g,
:

with

and ,f*

## x 70(3x + 6)2 find

g'.

F'.

G : x.>9(x + 2)2.
,

P.
.

(f)

Compare F wi

G,

and

F'

with G'.

'11

120

130

8.

Find

f,1-

cif
2

(b)

X -)

x3

"
"nt",

(Note:

from 1

+.57..

x9

x4 + x

-2

x ) 1- +

3* x 4
+
x7

31.)

(c)

-x

+.

8
x

"11, faCtorial,"

= 1 .2 .3

...

n.

.(n - 1) .n.,

11Z.

For example,
9.

(a)

## Find two points where the slope of the grAeph of-

k
(b)

10.

5: = 1 .2 .3 .4 .5 = 120.)

x -,2x3

9x2 - 60x + 5

is zero.

-3

x -)x

3x

+ 1

x.

2
6

(a)

(b)

Evaluate

(c)

and

fl(1)

f'

and

g2.

e(1).

11.

x7-

x = 1.

(d)

(a).

Using

7
x = (x - a) + a

x'

-.)

in.

bt

x - a.

pok.;ers of

(b)

(c)

Evaluate

lira

(d)

Determine

(10

x 7 - a7
x - a

for

'

x / a.

x7 - a
X - a

7
xfbr

& / 0..

## (See No. 9, Exercises 2-4.)

2=5
(e)

As

increases by an amount

(x + 6x)7
'"change in

&c,

the change in

x7.

y."

Determine

is

representing.

"4,,"

OP.

ti

r
s.

symbolized by

y'

or

y = xer ,

'

and is often

3Y. .1

dx

,)

)
FI

122

182

2-6

2-6.

## *The derivative, f'

of a polynomial function-- f

,
very "Afful for

## , obtaining information'about the graph of

f' (x)

will enable us to determine exactly the int,ervari- over which the graph

of

is rising

or

44

of 'the zraph.

. .

2x

-12x-i. 2.

3x.

2

The value
point

f'(x)

(x,f(x)).

of

## the graph o.f

In factored forin
f' (x) = 6(x -1- 1)(x - 2),

'4
from which it fpllows that
ft(x).> 0

for

x < -1,

f'(x) = 0

for

x =

p(x)

ft (xi
and

0 for
= 0

f'(x) > 0

-1 < x < 2,

for:"

x = 2

for

x > 2.

## See Figure 2-6a for the zraph of .f :

2x

3x

- 12x + 2,

together with

these facts.

,
123

133

2 -6

i',(x)<o-4.4.1(x)

f'(x) > 0

fl(L1)

p
.

fr

(2 -18)

Figure 2 -6a
0

,,

The graph, of
.

Note that as

3
f : x -42x

- 3x

..

- 12x + 2.

....

which

f1(x) < 0.

Tat; is
41.

lines.

## We now show, for any function

f,

increases through

a.

is rising as

that if

124

134

f'(a) > 0,

Figure 2-6b
:By definition,
f'(a)

lim
h -4 0

Hence, if

f'(a) > 0,

f(a + h) - ffa)
h

then
f(a h)* - f(a)-

life

> O.

-40

* h) - f(a)
h

(1)

Suppose we take

ip (1) we have

or
(2)

f(a +

> f(a),.

right of

a.

## rises immeditptely to the

(Sea Figure'2-6c.)'

,.

125

135

2-6

1A

a + h

Figure 2-6c
f(a + h) > f(a)

for

## h sufficiently small and positive'.

Similarly,. if we take

h, (1)

becomes""
f(a + h)

Or

- f(a),< p

L

a.

iy

f
co,

f(a)

f(a + h)

a + h q.k a
..-

Figure 2-68

for

-h

126

1 .8 6

2-6

I-

If

then

fl(a),..> 0,

(a,f(a)),

## increases through the value

rises as

x e a.

NI'S A completely analogous argument.may be carried out for the case in which
ft(a) < 0.

If

then

ti(a) < 0,

'

f(x)

(a,f(a)),

falls as

x = a.

The graph of

(5)

only if

(a,f(a))

f'(a) =10.

(a,f(a)1,

## ing noX decreasing at

1'1(0:

x = a,

qc

then

f(x)

is neither- increas-

## according to (3), nor less than zero, according to (4).

Hence,

f'(a),

must

be equal to .zero.
f : x -)2x 3 ,- 3x

## Returning.to the function

- 12x + 2

we note that we

could ha4e predicted its intervals of increase and decrease without having
seen the graph in Figure 2-6;.

the to

of the poZt

(-1,9)

c lled a relati

,poin

## ban all the,values of

similarly calle
The point

is increasing).

maximum of the'function

ow
f

nearby.

The point

a, relative minimum.
(a,f(a))
a

maximum of

,

(i)
.(ii).
,

(iii)

f'(a) .= 0

i.,(x) > 0

for

x < a

fl(x) < 0

ftir

and 'close to

..

12

is

.

(iV(a))1

(2,-18)

'

at that

## f, if and only if in some

Ixpother,,w,ords,
e)Ipoint

./

is ellela&A,

Such a point is

,01F14.r;4..

a.

The point

(a,f(a))

the graph of

falls for

x < a

x > a.

In

other words,
oint
the point

(a,f(a))

(i)

f' (a') = 0

(ii)=

f'(x) < 0

for' x < a

and close, to

(iii)

f'(x) > 0

for

4 > a

and close to

a.
.

[a,b]

points

and

That is,l[a,b]

V.

[a,b]

(a,b),

derivative

of

f'

x -42x

- 3x2

[ -1,2]

and

such.that

a <x < b.

## from the open interval, denoted

That is, the interval

b.

(a,b)

- 12x + 2
(=1,2)

b,

to

Example 2-6a.

## Determine the relative maximum and minimum as well as

intervals of increase and decrease for -f i x 41-+ x - x2 - x 3 .
We have
,

"r,

j,ft

x -4 1 - 2x - 3x

= -(3x - 1) (x +.14)

The graph of

1
x = -5

and when

x = -1.

0
Qr.

Thus,

if

x < -1

f'(x) >'O

if

-1 < x < 1

f'(x) < 0

if

x >

decreases if

x < -1

or if ,x >

## and increase's when

between -1

and

1
.

In particular

f(-1) = 0

is a'r'Aative minimum

and

f(4
3

.3-2-

is a relative maximum.

27,

128

1 32,-

is

,
2-6

## This information ehables us to give a quick sketch of the graph of

shown.in Figure 2-6e.

f,

## Of course, further accuracy'is obtained by plotting

,more taints, but Such quick sketches are often all we need to have.

falling
27),

J, 31,

a relative maximum'

rising

(-1,0)

-2

a relative
minimum

4,

falling

Figure 2-6e
400

x - x2

X -)1

Example 2-6b. *The zeros of the derivative do not always lead to relative
maxima and minima of a function. 'Consider the function:.

x3.

3x

Its derivative is
f t

x = 0

of multiplicity

(0,0)

2.

The graph of

In this ease

s'

ft(x)
f

if

f,

therefore,

## but thispointisnot a high point or a

crosses its tangent

(0,0).

that is,

2,

at

x < 0

or if

x > 0;

1.29

2-6

r.

=x3

increasing-

## graph crosses its

tangent (which is
the x-axis) at
this point

increasin

Figure'2-6f
This

f

ft) and

## point is a relative maximum, minimum, or point of inflection.

Example 2-6c.

Graph

+ 4x - 13x2

18x3

9x4

first by

plotting points from the table below Figure, 2-6g,andconnecting them with a
smooth curve, then by finding the critical points and intervals of increase
and decrease.

1,

X30140

4.1

(.

(3,-.304)

Figure 2-6g
'Plotting points for
f : x -) 44 + 4x - 13x
.

## from the table

'
"f(x)

-2

'-1

-304

0
44

18xr -

9x

44

-304

We have plotted st,few points and connected them with a smooth curve in

## Figure 2-6g (using a compressed vertical scale for negative values of

f).

The graph suggests the possibility of a relative maximum point between X0,44)

and

(1,44).

f'

is

## We suspect that f'(x) will be zero somewhex'e in the interval

1
a
indeed gives
Testing x =

0 < x < 1.

= 0'

so that

factor of ft(
.

f'

Upon, factoring

2
- 2 -3ox
A

131

x -

+ 36x - 8).,

141

we obtain

2-6
We can factor further to obtain
f

*<.,

## (0,44)1i and .(1,441.

The product of three factors, will be positive if and only if all three factors
are positive, or exactly one is positive.

fl(x) > 0

Therefore,
1

<

if

f'(x) < 0

if

f'(x) >0 if
f'

< x < 1

(x) <

<x <

x >

if

2
3

We conclude that
f

is increasing for

, t

x <

and for

< x <

while
f

is decreasing for

< x <

and for

x >

2
3

(1
3 '

i(1))

(1,r(2)),

(i, 4).

f(3)) = 44

'

and

9i(1) = 44

i is

rises again to

(2

f(2))

2

t,

## f(-3 ) = 44 7 are relative maxima, while

Y

a relative minimum.

x.< 0

0 <'x < 1.

in Figure 2-6h.

## on this interval is sketched

132

,1 42 i/

2-6
4.

I.

3
FiguYe 2-6h

f:

x "4 44 + 4x - 13x2

+ 18x3.

tr

133/

2-6

Exercises 21,6
1.

[0,1]

x -41 + x - x

2,

- x

of the

## Does the graph confirm the conclusions of the text?

2.

For each of the following functions locate and characterize all extrema
(maxima, and minima).

decreasing?

3.

(q

(b)

4.

4oc3

## Prove that, for

is, let

8x2

14:x4

f : x 14x2

01,

is an increasing function.

(That

xk > x22 .)

## Employing information gathered by procedures suggested in the text,

sketch the graph of each or the following polynomial functions over the
interval indicated using convenient scales.
(a). f : x -4x3 - 3x + 1,

-2 < x < 2

f.a x -4x3 + 3x + 1,

-1 < x < 1

(b)

(c)

5.

(a)

'f

: x -4x4 - 4x3

8x2 + 6:,

-2 < x'.< 5

## Describe the behavior of the graph of

(Maxima?

(b)

Minima?

-12x

Intervals of increase, de

f : x -42x3

3x.2

- 3x

on

[ -1,27.

eRse

op J-1,

6.

(a)

(b)

x -4-35E4 f 8x3

on

.O 3
+ ox

on J-1,31.

[ -1,3].

p.

7.

## Determine the maximum ialuk of the function

f : x
k=

8.

8
2
x

.
le.

What is'the greatest possible number of points where the tangent to the
graph of a quadratic function

x -4Ax

+ tx + C

may be horizontal?

2-6
9.

f
(a)

-(b)

Find

x -4 Ax

+ Bx

f'.

can have?

(d)

If the graph of

If

f have?

## Explain or give. examples.

X

(e)

f'(xl) = fqx2) = 0,

determine

x2
1
2

and
.t(a)
(b)

11.

f'

(c)

## relative minimum point?

10.

A / 0.

+ Cx + D,

x -4(x + 1)3(x t 2)

## How are the functions related?

Sketch the graphs of

Suppose that

are zeros of

and. x

and

x -4Ax

+ Bx + C,

tts

A > 0. r

Show that

has a minimum at
x

x1 ,

x -0

12.

## Determine the relative maximum and minimum points of the graph of ,

f

N/43x

- 12x

12x

- 4.

2 -7

2-7.

Optimization Problems

## The post office limits-the size of a parcel post'package by requiring

that its length plus, its girth, may not exceed

72

inches.

## Is there a package, subject to such a restriction, which has greater volume:

than all other such packages?

## asking ifthere is a (rectangular) package with a squai'e'cross-section which

has maximum volume subject to postal regulations.' If we let

x -represent &-,

the width in inches of the square cross-section,,then the girth of the package is hoi: inches and its length is it most 72 - 4x iriches, accor4-ing40
the post office.
4

4'

,e

V.;

14 4
t,

2 -7

V =x

'(72:-.4x).

## This f4rmulg. defines a polynomial function

(1)

V : x -472x2 -'4x3,

do not restrict
as

if

x:

Note that

x < 0, V(x)

[0,18]

thiinterval

V(x)

between

and

because only in

18,

## sible positive lengths.

Hence, our idealized model of the probletris:

for

in

decreased by

32.

100

## A manufacturer can now ship 'a,mgo of

per ton.

tons at a profit of

20

## By waiting hesestimates he can add

tons per week to his shipment but that the profit will be reduced by

dollar per ton per week., When should he ship for a maximum profit?

I
f

11.65 (3'

2-7
35 A real estate office handles 80

apartment units.

unit is

## When the rent of each

If the rent is in-

the
.../.4

144

256

336

384

400

384

336

10

resistance.

.

''(a)

## Interpolate from'tqe data given to detefmine the height of the

projectile efter eight and nine seconds respectively.
using syminetry as your guide.)

(Guess,

of

s 'for,

or

t =11

## make sense_on physical ground's?

After how many seconds does the projectile appear to have reached
its makimum helig? What seems to be the maximum height?,

156

2-8
(b)

appea

Doe's

to be a,function of

t?
,

(c)

s = f(t),

(11)

## the first quadrant?

Does 'the dat4 suggest that the scale on the s-axis (vertical)

(2)

-

(d)

Keeping in min

axes.
(c)

drop to zero.

(d)

(e)

## Assume that the projectile returns to earth at a point

below the initial take off point'-1).

30

feet

impact?
10.

V2

11.
*

V0

hand is .4

feet.,

12.

64

ft./sec.

## Simultaneously a ball is dropped from rest at a height of

128,

ft.

When} does impact'occur and how fadis each ball going dt the time of
impact?
13.

Determine the average velocity of a car for a total trip if,it averages

14.

## miles per hour retjUtning.

Find the velocity of an object whose location along a straight line is-deacribed.by.the.equation

s = 128t - 16t2.

s vs. t

and

v vs.

(a)

the location
(b)

s = 0?

and

160

170

when

is a maximum?

2-8

41015:

height

in feet after

32

Its

## seconds is described by the, equation

s = 32f - 16t2.
(a)

What is the velocity of the ball when its height first reaches.
12

## When it again reaches

feet?

12

feet?

(b) 'How high does it go, and how long after being thtlOwn does th,e ba

16.

Its distance

s ='64t - 8t

2
.

seconds'is

## After the object reaches,its

highest point it slides back along its original path to the starting
s =

- t

Here

to

is the dis-

## the object toreach the highest poidt.

f
(a)

Determtnejhow long it takes for the object to make the up and down
trip.

(b)

Sketch the

s vs. t

of coordinates.

## Do the same for the

71.

v vs. t

graph'.

2-9
The Second Derivative

2-9.

## In the preceeding section, we found that the flunction expressing the

derivative of its

## velocity function, which is in turn the derivative of the function

cribing the object's position at time

t. Hence,

## can be obtained by differentiating' f

twice.

derivative of

f" and

e acceleration function

the

f'

tive,.denoted by

des-

f",

f.

f

x -' x3 - 3x.

x

-4 3x

- 3,

f":

and

Since

f"

'since

for

## Now to say that

increases.

x < 0,
f',

then

f'

is decreasing as

the derivative of

## an interval, is the same as saying that the slope of

that interval.

x < 0

f,

is decreasing over

is decreasing over

.T

From the

T
2

slopes of
I

graph of

are decreasing,

the graphza
f
4WA,

ii "bending

down."

function
3

2",

x -)x

3.

Figure ?-9a

- 3x

x < 0

increases, since

f"(x) < 0

.474a,

43.4o,

72

for

x < 0.

fr

2-9

given by
for

fqx),

f"(x) = 6x > 0

for

the slope of

x > 0,

f ,f

is increasing

x > 0.

of

Putting

## these two pieces of information

about the graph of

: x -) x

- 3x

f',

## obtain the following graph of

f.

Figure 2-9c
The 'second derivative,

f"(x) = 6x,

x = 0, f"(x) = 0

x > 0

f':"x -) 3x

x < 0:,

e

the graph of

upward.

At

Aa

we conclude that

x = 1

## has a relative maximum at

x..,= -1

and a relative
-

minimum at

x = +1.
/

163

173

Zi4

a-9
A more rigorous interpretation of "bending - upward" or "downward" uses the

## notion of the convexity and concavity of the function

tion is convex in the interval

[a,b]

*

## above each of its tangents in the interval.

which is convex in the'interval shown.
concave in an interval
in that interval.

[a,b]

## See Figure 2-9a for an example of a concave function.

s'

Some texts use concave upward in place of convex and concave downward in
place of concave.

## the flexure (bending) of curves.

e intuitive remarks motivating the use of

x3
(1)

f"

in graphing

a function
f"(x) > 0

la,b1

for all

between

and

and
(2)

a function
f"(x) < 0

for ail

between

and

[a,b]

if and only if

## An important consequence of these two characterizations is that if the

grgph of a polynomial
p(c,f(c)),

then

f"(c) = 0.

nt,

Figure 2-9d

The graph of f

## crosses its tangent at

P.

The reader familiar with convex regions from g geometry course will
observe"that we are defining a function to be convex over the interval in
which the region above the graph of f is convex.
4,

le

2-9

crosses

at

(c,f(c))

x = c

then7'near

## Figure 2-9d),'the graph must lie.above the tangent on one side of

below the tangent on the other side of
'one -side of

c.

e(x) > 0

Hence,

oh the other.

Thus,

and

for

f"(c) = 0

(see-

since a

negative.,

## If the graph of 'f, crosses its tangentatpoint of

tangency
of

tHen P

P,

is called a 'point ok

k.

of

f,

then

f"(c) = 0.

## The converse of this may be false, however.

f"(c) = 0 at points
of

f.

is a point of inflection

(c,f(c))

P

f

14,

at the origip.

(See EXehises

f"

f, fel, and

## affect the graph of

f.

f"

To.

show the relationships most vividly, we illustrate the graphs in Figure 2-9e
without y-axes.

4E
Alk

165

2-9

'

maximum

1
1

1
1

point of
i flectilrom

f"(#

6x

31

Figure 2-9e

3.661:7G

>

2 -9

e(c)

< 0,

(c,f(c))

when

f'(c) = 0

and

when

at

3000

'(c)

.(a)

A
(b)

12000

15g

(d)

5.
.

(a)

0 and

between

2g

16

13 g
4

(b)

7 g

11

17

(d)

3n

(--,-/.

6.

o4

terms of
(i)

(iii)

n (2g)' +

integer,

lal < 2g

n (g)

+a

integer;

kd <

n (2)

+a

integer,

jai <
2

28g
241v.

'5

In
,
7..

1..

(a)

2gg

12
lN

30-60-90P

cOs x

and

sin x

for

x,

by drawing a

multiple of
2

a,

-coordinates
For

## (cos x, sin x).

91, Q2,

9i2

(similar

to,ngure 3- lk)."

O.

'eco

(b)

IL

in Figure 3-1k?

3
(c)

.,

multiplies of

Qi, Q2,

9.

.44

196

.2013

411.2

## have coordinates for thee

3-1

Since

(d)

is midway between

and

## cis T by averaging the value of

cos ;

and

cos

y
?

' Can you make a general statement about reading off values of such
-A
functions fromthe drawing
it

91

it

cos

41 &)S
3

4 -,
ta)

sides of a
find

45-45-90

cos x

sin x

and

a multiple of

1.d

triangle,
for

x,-

by drawing

## a unit circle similar to the one

to the right and labelling the

cc.

(cos x, sin x)

coordinates k

,Ki, K2,

for

eee, K8.

(b)'

(,1)

sin 4:1

(2)

cos

1-1-

(3). sin 41
JAI. _cos

(5)

(6)

cos 135

(7)

sin 315

(8)

-cos (-225) .

72

sin ( - 21f-).

(10)

it 0 7

./

3-1
a

## Using the coordinates of the point

indicated on the unit circle to t
right answer the following:.
(a)

sin

&51

sin

sin

cos

COS

COS

v
;

14-

v.
.

## Wat is the relationship

between
.and

sin
ir

sin -5

sin

v
IT

cos

V
.

and

v
cos ;.1?

and

cos

&/-..

In this first qpadrant, what is the sign of the sine? of the cosine?
(b).

of

sin

5v

of

sin iT,,

an1_ d_of

sin 7 ;

of

cos

and,of

cos'--

5n

cos 7-6-

2v

3n

,-3n
7

2v
3

of the

cosine?-

sin

7v

of

0.

5v

sin --17
4

andof

sin T ;

of,:

cos

of

4v

cos

cosine?
(d)

ofithe

of

11v
sin -g- ,

cos

11v
,

of

sin

of

cos

7v
,,,

7n/

5v

and of

sin

and of

cos --i-..

t. 57(
',

cosine?

198-

203

3-1

(e)

(i)

(ii)

(iii)

sine n gative?

cos ne negative?

positive?

both

negative?
10.

(a)

P,

## indicated onthe,cii:cle to the

right, if the circle has a radius

of

(b)

l?' 2?

R?

1:47::T?

## indicated on the circle to the

right, if the arc measure is
and the radiug is

2?

7?

length

1;

has length

x?

## Given a circle of:Adius

An arc which measures
length

R;

has length
(a)
T

xR.

C

s = Rx

9V 9

3-1

## Hi- The minute hand of a clock is

far does its tip travel,in ''1.5

## (c)"A Circle has a radius of

measures

60 ?

inches long:

inches.

15

Approximately ho\

minutes?

72 0?

AB

measure of

is

A
(1)

AB

is

in.

in.

(ii)
3

(iii)

10 in.

(iv)

(v)
(e)

3x .in.

## What is"the radius of a circle if the measure of

the length

(f)

in.

of AI

x?

is

If an arc of length

2x?

12.

is

x,

lOx?

has a measure of

of an arc of a semi-circle?

Al,

14 ,

sectors 0

a,

Area sector AOQ

x
'

AOB =

2x

R x

Ir

Li
C

2002:14),

..
, r

3-1

(a)

## This formula can be re-stated in this way:

In a given circle the area of a sector
AOB = constant x arc measure

AB

.1

or

A = kx,

k,

is

where

that'is,

2
ac

## What is this constant of proportionality for a circle, of radius

2? 4?
(b)

1?

Ih a circle of radius

a,

m,

what is

## the area of the sector?

(c), In a given circle, how is the area of a sector 'affected if the arc
'

(d)

measure is doubled?

halved?

tripled?

AOB

AOB

sector

## is also proportional to the arc.length.

What is this

constant of proportionality?
(e)

## Wha4.is.the area of a sector of a circle of radius

the'arc of the sector is

(f)

(0

inches long?

tripled?

## sin (x -2n) = sin x

cos (x (b)

inches if

How is the area of the sector affected-if the arc length is doubled?
halved?

13.

12

18

= cosix.

ShoL that
sin (x . +"2n

= Sin x

where

an integer.

20r-

-4-

4.1

## The Use,S Tables

In a separate bookletewe give tables of approXimate values of

and

up to

,x

1.60

cos x

than

(The number

x,

arc length

## More complete tables: tables in

terms of degree measure and tables for converting from radian to degree mea.

## aUre are also foundvin the Booklet of Tables.

t,
The ,following,examplesindicate some of the ways of using these tables:

Example" 3 -lc.

and

cos .73.

sin, .73

.6669

Exarti le 3-1d.

sin 6.97

Find

cos 6.97.

and

6,97,

we do knew that
t

and

.

Using

6.28,

'11e. have

and

cos 6.97

Exam

e 3-1e.

Find

41

sin
,

Using

v ss 3.142

we have
v

ei

0 .524.

.tz

## sin .52:0 .4969

sin .53 0 .5055
,,Interpolatin , we obtain

202

.2 i 2 d;

3-1

.5003.

sin

Therefore,

## Oficourse, we can observe'that

'1i (radians) corresponds to

30 0

tin i

_1
- 2.

.3
'4

Example 3 -1-f.

Find

x.--r..1<-1 that

0 < x <

and

sin x

.885o.

sin 1.08 ;4

.8820

and

## sin 1:09 Ps .8866.

Interpolating we get
x

Example 3-1E.

Find

1.08 +

30 ,
(.01)

1.0865

sin 2:

1

14,7!.

\I\
t

q sin (3.14 - 2)

= sin 1.14
.9086

'Figyre 3 -lm

203
.

3-1

sin 100.

Find

## on the unit crcle,we ask how Many times

2v

divides

7=
"

guess that

2v p_6.21g3

Since

100.
100

In, fact'

lo.

16 x 6.283 m 100.528,.

16 x 2v

100 = l6 x 2v - .53.
P

-that point

so that

sin
100'

100

is

we

or

.53

units short of

16

-653.

revolutions.

sin.:53'm :5055
'Figure 3-2n
4

Find

Example 3-1i.

plus

.2.p

We have

## Five and one-half counterclockwise revolutions

,.
gives a point on the unit circle
20o - into the third quadrant..

2000 = 5 x.360 +
0

360

cos 2000. -

;-

x 360 + 20.

o.

## table of No. 5 of Exercises 371b to find that

-cos 20 m -.914C).

## radian tables we first note that '20, corresponds to

To use our

.35. (approximately)

s6 that

cos 2000

-0.9394.

.,,

o-

o.

204

21,4
e

'3-1
Exercises 3-lb
For problems 14 2, 3, 4

Find sin x

1.

(a)

0.73

(b)

-5.17

when

is equal to

x
41

(c)

1.55

(d)

6.97

2y .1 6.28)

(Hint:

and, .

(a)

sin x

0.i098

(c)

sin x

(b)

cos x a 0.9131

(d)

cbs'x v. 0.5403

Using

3.

cos x

Find

2.

and

0.6518

necessary.

11

(a)

s;in

-37

(c)

sirf 11.5'

(b)

cos :IT
5

(d)

cos 417

Find' x

where

4.

(a)

sin x = 0.2231

--,-(c)

sin x = .8714

Cb)

cos x = 0.7135

(d)

cos x =..1759
.

,-:.

5.

## Bela/ is a table giying values of

in degrees, .Sin'x

and

dos x

sin x

Pi

and

90

cos x

45

and

cos x

hen x
0

and

is given
459,

are

For example,

## 20 = cos 70p = 0.342.

4
4444016,

2sinc'x

0
COS' x

00.

50
10
150

20

Yr

0.000

1.000

0.087

0996

0.174-

0.985

0.259.

0.966

0.342

0.940
":"

25.

0.423

300

0.500

35

0.574

40

0.643-

0.766

45

0.707

0.707

''01.90e

o.866

vt
Using.4the table above find the valiteof the following:

6.

(a)

sin 75

(c)

sin .!;80?

(b)

cos 140

(d)

cos( -460)"

in degrees

(a)

lin x = 0.574

(b)

cos x = 0.643.

sin x = -0.8194

(0I

1

A/

\
\

4
.4

a
11.

2'06

ro

VI*

!%
3-2

'3-2.

## Properties of the Circular Functions

We have defined the circular functions,

+ v

cosiie

= 1.

by-measuring

perties.

v
....,

sine,

a few of these

and

and

P(cos x, sin x)

sin x

## were defined as the coordinptes (cos x,

sin.x).:0 a point
u

,%2',.
-1-1,

. 1

on 'the circle

must
u

## satisfy this equation, that is:

(1)

.cos

+ sin. x =1

4
This identity will often be useful.
We have followed the usual convention
'of writing
(cos x)

2 '
,

cos
in

Figure 5-2S

x
x

rathen.then
rather than

(sin x)2.

< cos2

x,

NI- sin

and

sin

x < cos

x + sin

x.

. cos

x < 1

and

sin2 x < 1,
Ns

(2)'

## Another_covequence of (1) which will be -useful in our approximation

disddsslons in the next chapter is the inequality
1%40.

(3)

## 0 < 1 - cos x <

4

2c2

x2
2

-e

3-2
o

*4,

To establish (3) we uses the familia_r distance, formgla to get (in Figure

'

sin2

- cos /C)

As.

....

Figore 3-2b
'''.3."

...(

.;

## s,rjee,the short e4distance Letween two

.
Thus
points is measure -along the straight i&ne joining tl4kit.4
A..
This distance can li-t exceed

lx10,

'

Scluating

/(1 1 cos x)

'

cos x),

## and th en multiplying out

/- t

4.

gives;

2
2
2 cos x 4- cos x 4- sin x < x2,

## and .hLnce (1) gives:

.

-" 2 cos'
' x < x2 .
2%-

4111* 0.41400

Di

0< 1

2
2, we get 1 - cos x < 7 ., jioting tkt cos x <
xviding

by

## cos x, we complete the proof of

.

(3)

..

X2

0 < 1 -- CO s X <
-7 2

2082

s8

and hence

--,

auk
...

3-2
Periodicity and.Related Results
t.

## Thee are several formulas which

relate the values

sin x

at different points.

and

'

cos x

For example, if

units,

the circle

+ v

= 1

## (See Figure 3-2c)

2g.

has circumference
Thus we have

'(4)

## cos (x + 21) = cos

Figure 3-2c
-Functions which repeat their values at equal intervals are said to be
periodic.

stichthat
o

then we say that
and_ cos

sin (x + 4rt

'21c.

a.

x?

sin

## = sin ((x + 2g) + 2g)

sin (x + 2g)

=sin x
and

.
sin (x - 2g) = sin ((x - 2g) +'2d)
= sin x
.In-fect, for.-any'integer

## nl we can make the general statements

4:7
sin (x + 2ng) = sin x

(5)
cos (x + 2nd) = cos x.

Other useful formulas can be "read qff" from the properties of the unit
circle given by

+ v

,
,

= 1.

Apnd *(u,-v)

that

## cos (-x) = cos x

sin .(.J1) = -sfn x

209

(u,v)

3-2

has coordinates
(cos X, sin x)

Q has coordinates
(cos(-x), sin(-x))

Figure 3-2d
Using the unit circle we can also derive the two familiar formulas:
,g

sin(- - x) = cos' x
2

(7):

cos(1 - x) = sin x
2

## It Figure 3-2e triangle

congruent to tr angle
Then

P(u,v) an

related so that

OQS."

Q(u1,v1)

U = v1

and

OPR

is

(Why?)

are

y= 91

It follows that
cos x = Oi = QS 7sin (i - x)
and

## sin x = PR = OS = cos (i - x)s.

'

'210

229

Ji

3-2
The useful formula

cos x = sin (x +

.
Q

Here we

## cos x = cos(-x) = sin

(- ;-x)]

= sin (x +

We have given but a sample of the relationships which can be derived' from
the unit circle.

ti

221
211

3-2

, Exercises 3-2
1.

Using

f(31)

(a)

and

x cos x,

.1

find

f(?-567-1)

(e)

f(171c).

(f)

f(_ 121.c.)

2; If
3.

xj

'f

(if'any) will

(a)

sin x = cos x?

(b)

sin x = -cos x?

(c)

(a)

0,,m401101(

Hint:

unit circle.
4.

(a)

of

cos e

csc e

and

sec e
sec e - csc e
(b)

sec 6 and

## Using only the definition that

is identically equal to

sin

tan e

A#
is

(1)

sin e
cos 9

and .cot e

tan e + sec e
sin e c6t.8

can be changed

1 + sin e
cos

show that
to

tan 9.
4

## show that the expression

to

(ii)

is the reciprocal of

1 + cot e
csc e

1 + tan e
sec e

and

show that

sin e csc e,

cos 8 sec e,

and

tan 9 cot e

1.

212

222
a

3'-2

5.

(a)

Formula (1)

sin

e + cos

## changing the form. of many trigonometric expressions. As_ing -this

relationship,
show thdt

cos2 e

sin2

can be written as

2 cos

- 1

or _1- - 2 sing 0;
(ii)

show that

(iii)

shOW that'

2 csc

## -can be expressed as- csc e

cos 0
-

1 - cos e

can be expressed as

1 +- cos e

and

0;

(iv)

show thEZt'Qth

cot

csc e

and

cos 61

## are both equivalent to

sin
(b)

is simple to prove

sec 8 - cos e

and

## (Why?). With these relationships, those of Exercise '(b)(iii), and

others developed earlier, prove the following:

6.

(a)

(i)

(1 -;lin2 0)seC2 e = 1

(ii)

(1 - cos2 e)csc2 e = 1

(iii)

## coe e (1.= cost e) = cos2 e

(iv)

eq2 e (1

cos2 e) = tang e

Starting
with the relationship
.
cally that

(b)

1 + tan

e = sec

sin

e + cos

2
e.

## By considering iAT and.

the unit circle to the right,
prove geometrically that
1 + tang e = sec

DW

213

223

e = 1,

prove analyti-

3-2

(c)

analytically that
(d)

1 + cot

proVe

sing e + cos2 e = 1,
2

e = csc

e.

to the

show that

(ii)

establish that
sec

(iii)

show that

identically
ct

1;

+ csc

is equivalent to

sin

e kl
(1 + cot

9) + cos

Okl + tan

2
e)

is

2.,

sin(x + h)

Isii(x + h)

prove

(b)

'tan e
cot e

sec

e csc 2 0

always
(a)

sec e
cos 0

(1)

- sin(x) <1h1 .

'cos( x + h)

P(cos x, sin(x)

and

are

right.
(a)

## read off the coordinates of

Q;

i.e., prove

cos(x + y) = -cos x,

sin(x + y) =
(b)

and

x.

Similarly, prove
cos(y - x) = -cos x,
sinfy

x) = sin x.

214

224

and

3-2
9.

(a)

## Using the figure to the right

read off the coordinates of

to show that

Q'

cos(x

= -cos x,

sin(x
(b)

y) = -(sin

and

x.

## Use formula (6) to extend the

results of (a) 'to show that
(i)

and
(ii)
10.

to show

2

sin(x +

,cos x.

f4

11.

(7)

(a)

prove

(b)

prove
(i)

- x) = cos x,

## cos(-x) = cos x, sin(-x) = -sin x;

cos(

- x) = sin x,

cos(x+ 2) = -sin x;

cos(x + y) = -cos

and
(ti) sin(x + y) = -sin x;
(c)

prove
(i)

cos(x

411

y) = cosky,- x)

-cos x

)

P3-5

225

-sin x

and.

phis- /section.

0 < 1 - cos x

(3) in
x,

let

## us n w investigate this relationship

Using the table which gives the cosine of angles expressed in radian
measure, complete the following table.

X
1 - cos x

cos x

0.1

0.15

0,36
0.5

'

0.6

Q.7

0.8

0:9
1.0

1,42

1.5
2

6
i

this

13.

cos x -and

(a)

sin 2x

(12)

sin --x
2

(c)

cos 4x

(d)

cos 2.x

than

2v.

2v.

x -4

14.

sine

and

cosine

216

226

Ars,
3-3

3-3.

r Functions

## The sine and cosine functions have been defined in terms of

arc length
on the unit circle give
functions, the graph

by- ua,+ v
f these f

1.

## our primry procedure for graphing is the plotting of points.

Fortunately
we can make use of the results of the previous section to simplify pur procedures.

(1)

.y = sin x,

0 < x < A.

'sin x

## which were obtained in .the previous

These points are plotted in Figure 3-3a.

section.

Table 3-3a
,Values of

y = sin x

y = sin x

ir

1,

2
A
--ig-

= '71

If

74.,

3:

rt

2A

.17

3g

'V

2A 3A

-3

2.1!:
b

87

2..

,e

I--

17

..11

.71

"7

5A )*'::

1.

*-6-

Figure 3-53a.

Values of yt sin X) 4
plotted from Table 3-3a.

0
If we connect these points
with a smooth curve we obtain the graph shown in
Figure 3-3b.

A more com-

## tained.using more points

but this will suffice for
rt

Figure 3-3b

## o'ir present purl:loses.

217
t

)9

.3-3
Now we can make use of the properties obtained in the previous section
0 < x < yr.-The, identity

-

## sin( -x),= -sin x

11

.(2)

',

_,-

is' the
tells us,thatthe graph is symmetric with respect 1.o_the origin;_that
(Such a functionAl also
if it contains --(x,y).
graph contains (-x,-y)
,

## function by a polynomial function with o ly odd degree terms.)

t enables us to obtain Figure-3-3c froM'Fi

Equation

re 3-3b.

-n

sine function.

Figure 3-3c.

## Next we use the identity

sin(x + 2ng) = sin x,

(3)

## which holds for all integers

graph shown in Figure 3-3d.

x,

nits'

2ny
.

7'

to obtain the

..,

tive integer).
't.

Figure 3-3d.

218.

y = sin x

228

n lea posi-

{Arr.^ 4,

3-3

.
.

## n.a ..-aimilar. manner, ,

for we knowthat

(4)

----44-........=..=-J--- -,0,,,,.,,
.

cos x = sin (x + 2) .

x
2

units to

## In Figure 3-3e we indicate this relationship by superimposing on the same

axes the graphs ig the sine and cosine functions.

cos
sin'

Figure 3-3e

## Translation and Stretching

We havebbserved that the Cosine .functioh can be obtairied from the sine
A

The graph of

-y = sin (x + C)

where C
of

y = sin x

33d)

ICI

on the x-axis.

units to

y = sin -(x -

y =

sin

y = sin

x,

3,-=

in (x + 2) *and

## to show how .each can be ob.

by an appropriate translation.

,.
r

219

.2 6

= qin(x + 2)

.....

.0"
....

Figure 3-3f
In Figure 3-3g we picture the graphs of

y = sin x,

y = 2 sin x,

and

y = sin 2x.

y =sin x
y = 2 sin x
y = sin 2x
"o

er-,---

Figure 3-3g

y = 2

An

graph of

y = sin 2x

factor of

2,

## being obtained by.'"shrinking" each abscissa.

M3-3
The graph of
y = A sin (Bx + C),

## called the general sinusoidal curve, can be obtained by combining translation

and scale change.

## FQr example, to graph

(5)

y = 3 sin (2x + i)

we observe that
sin (2x + ir) = sin (2(x + V)
1

graph

frorn'that of

y = sin x

5;16= 3 sin 2x

y = 3 sin 2x

by shifting the

can be obtained

2.

## (See Figure 3-3114)

y = sin x
y = 3 sin 2x
1
y = 3 sin (2k + .11)
2

Figure 3-3h

ti

221

231.

.........

and

3-3
-

Exercises 2:1
For egth of the following, sketch the graphs bf the three equations on

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

'7.

0 < x

y = 2 cos x

(0)

y = 3 cos x,

(c)

y= 2

(a)

y = cos 2x

(b)

y = cos 3x

O < x < 2v

(c)

Y = cos

(a)

y = cos (x

(b)

Y = cos ()

< x < 3v

(c)

y = cos (x +

(a)

y = -cos x

O < x < 2v

(b)

y = -2 q.b,rx

O < x < 2v

(c)

y = -cos 2x

-(a)

y = -sin 2x

O <x<2n

0< X < 2v

COS X

0 < x < 2v

(b)

y = -2 sin 4x

(c)

y =-

sin

< x < 2v

O < x < 2v

ye= -cos (x -

O < x <.47(

O<x

Y = 6os (x + 2)

O < x <_47(

(a)

y - 1 = cos x

(b)

y + 2

=sing

(c)

y +

1t'in I

2x

< 476.

CJ

132
'V

2v

(a)

0,

3-3

8.

,P
(a)'

y = Isinxl

(b)

y o=

(c)

y = iisin

(a)

ilsin 2x1
4

5 xl

'

.9.

O <x <2n

= -Icos xl

## O < x < 2v,

.
'(b)

y = Isin (x - i)I

0 <.x
_ < 2v

10.

(c)

y = !sin (x - 2)1

(a)

y = sin

(b)

y = cos

2
2

(c)

y = sin

IcOs xl

0 < x < 2v

0 < i < 2v

x + cos

0 < x < 2v
2

0 < x; < 2v

.s.

.
I

CO.

..;;:'

.J

tf

41,

A-

-'233

3-4

3-4.

units pr second.
After one second

seconds

after

point

(r,0).

2s

and similarly

P0;

st units

which is

P(u,v),

after

## units from its starting

is

will be an arc-distance

P.

## represent the initial position of

(r1,40)
0
will be an arc-distance s .units away from P0'

We let

will be an arc-distance

seconds I)

from P

+ v

= r

2
.

Figure 3-4a

## We wish to describe the coordinates

the sine and cosine functions.
x

x
u

2
+ v = 1

of

(u,v)

r < 1.)

st

and

## some constant factor

x
'k?

directly proportional to

if

crosses

x.

What

What is
t.

OP

The line

happens to

r > 1,

in Figure 3-4a.

and

x -*sin x

## our reasoning will also hold for the case where

in terms of values of

when

## st = 2Ar? We know that

It follows that
224

23i

x.

st

is

is directly proportional to

3-4:
t;

that is, if

is a constant,

,st = 2nt

u2

x = 2o

we have

2
v

= r

When

x = kt.

then

## has completely traversed

it follows that when

st = 2or;

units).

2o

Tthes.we have
,2or.

'2y = kk---),
s

st

2o

we get

x = kt,

Since

kt
2n

st.

2or,

k =

(u,v)

at any time

u = r cos (2-)t
r

'and
s.

v = r sin ()t.

k = r

## The constant of proportionality

is called the angular velocity of

the measure of

w =

In

t, seconds

moves an arc-distance of

P.

POOP

central angle

## OP rotates through an angle measure of

st

units.

If we let w =

wt

as

we can write

u = r cos wt'
v = r sin wt.

When wt = 2y,
the point from Po

back into

Po

Po.

## again is called a cycle.

This motion of
The time inter-

val during .which a cycle occurs is called theperiod; in this case, the
perivd is

21

## when we refer to the alternating current in our homes as "60-cycle", an

abbreViation-for "60' cycles per second." .

225

3-4

Example 3-4a.
3

Suppose that

in the uv-plane.

w'=

Since

u = 2'cos (i)t
2g

TT

the period is

2g

## the angular velocity

P(u,v)

and

around a circle of

units

are given by
'v = 2 sin (i)t;

.4;7

## To visualize the behavior of the point

the motion of the point
P

Q

on the v-axis:

As

## -- assuming that the paper is fixed in position.

paper is drawn from right to left at a constant speed, then the feribil will
trace a curve, something like Figure.3-4b.

4-

Figure 3-4b.

Wave MotiOn

wave motion.

tion

such that

y = f(t),
y = cos wt

of

y
t,

or

y = sin at;

## tions may be looked upon as desctlfoing a pure wave or, as it is sometimes

called, a simple harmonic motion.

## wave Motion when it is disturbed. -Anothet familiar example is furnished by

the electromagnetic waves used in radio, television, and radar, and modern
physics has even detected wave-like behavior of the electrons of the atom.
222

1:

A I.

3-4

## One of the most interesting applications of the circular functions is to

the theory of sound (acoustics).

(2)

p = A sin at

where

positive.

andthe constants

## The equdtiot (2) for the acoustical pressure,

and

A
p,

are

!o

is exactly in

the form of one of the equations of (1) even thoUgh no circular motion is
involved; all that ocwirs is a fluctuation of the pressure at a given point
df space.*

## pressure and its square is a measure of the loudness. 'The number

portional to the frequency and is .a measure of pitch; the larger

a)
a)

is pro-,i,
the more

## The effectiveness of the application of circular functionqlto the theory

of sound stems from the principle of superposition.
individually produce acoustical pressures
produce the pressure

the sum

+,p

pl + p2.

If

pl

## has the same period.

pi

and

If two instruments
p

## and p2 have a common period then

This is the root of the principle of

## harmony; if two instruments are tuned to the same note,,thOy"will produce no

4o
strange new note when played together.

Let us suppose, for example, that two pute tones are produced with
individual pressure waves of the same frequency, say
u = A cos mt
v = B sin at
,where

A, B

## tion, the net pressure is

p = A cos at + B sin mt.

## We shall aqpwer this question

by reducing the problem to two simpler problems, that is, of kraphing (3) and
(4) above.

For each

t,

graphs, ,since

## The acoustical pressure Is defined as the difference betwetn the gas

pressure in. the wave and the pressure of the gas if it is left unOisturbed.

227

37

3-4

u + v.

and

w;

A, B

let

A = 3,

B = 41 vw =n.

## Then we wish to graph

p = 3 cos,nt + 4 sin .nt.

(5)

## Equations (3) and (4) become

(6)

u = 3 cos itt,

(7)

v = 4 sin nt.

By drawing the graphs of (6) (Figure 3-4c) and (7) (Figure 3-4d) on the same
set of axes, and by adding the corresponding ordinates of these graphs at
each value of

t,

nates.

You will

## are labeled with their coordi-

These are points which are either easy to find, or which have some

special interest.

'

;,.
0

2g
-2"

Figure 3-4c.

311

Figure 3-4d.

Graph of

211'

Graph of '

v = 4 sin.gt.

u = 3 cos itt.

228

238

3-4

The points

and

(0.29, 5 )

(1.29,-5)

u = 0

and

or

and zeros of

The points

v.-2.0.

(1.79 ,0)

are easy to

'(2,3)

(0.79, 0)

## To find the maximum and minimum points

ipmplves:the use of, tables and herice we shall put off a dis-

cussion of this matter until Section 3-6, although a careful graphing should
produce fairly good approximations to them.
V

,/
p,u,v
6-

(0.29, 5)

5-

(9.514)

4
ee

and

0.3)

(2,

%
%

3(

%
%

1-

%
%

\'
i

%
%

i\

0.791

,
,
,

.r%

(1,-3)

/2

il
/

\.

-3-

(1.79,0)

/A

1%

/11

-45,-4)
- 5(1.29,--5)
s. .

-6-

Tr

Figure 3-4e.

211

Dashed curve:
u
Full curve: p =
are not the same
in order to shoW

## = 3 cos yt. Dotted curve: v = 4 sin yt.

3 cos Itt + 4 sin yt;
0 < t < 2.
(The scales

## on.the two axes; this distortion is intipduced

the detaili more clearly.).
'

229

239

3-4

1.

Exerciges 3-4

Sketch graphs A' each of the following curves over one complete cycle;,
. and state what the period is, and what the range is, if you can.
(a)

y = 2 sin 3t 

(b) 7 = -3 sin 2t

2.

(c)

y = 4 cos

(d)

y = 3 cos (-x)

(e)

y = 2 sin x - cos x

(a)

(b)

(1)

t = 4

(ii)

tom= 2

Fora given w

t = to

(iv)

tripled?

ir
(i)

r = 5

(ii)

r =

if

t = 6

IIN

rs= 3,

3.

(iii)

r = 10,.

(iv)

r = R

if

t = 3

- *

/
(d)

## For a given w and a givemtime, how is the arc length affected

if the radius is halved?

(e)

doubled?

,...

.
o

(ii)

(iii-)
..

--

5-

(iv)

if

W ''.ia'doubled?

J.)

).

. _..

-i

(i)- period.

:.

(iii)

(a)

y = -

(b)

y = 2 cos

221 sin 2x

(c)

## 0 < x < 2v.

y = 2Icos

.0

42-.

If theotime is given and the circle fixed how is the length of the
arc affected if

cIS = g

(f)

r = 10:

0
.

(i)

4
-; 230-,

240-

,),

3-4
4.

(a)

On one set of axes, using the same scale over the interval

(b)

## Sketch the graphs of

(i)

y = sin X

(ii)

y = cos x

(i)

Using the sketches and the scale in part (a), sketch on the
same graph

(ii)

sin x + cos x.

## From the graph of

y = sin x + coS'x,

## and the maximum and minimum point(s).

(c)

(d)

(i)

Sketch y = I cos(x

(ii)

Sketch y =

sin(x

## Compare the,graphs of (b) and (c).

Have you any conjectures?

tt,

to.

231

241

3-,5

3-5

t -) 3 cos it

and

t.-4 sin it

at each valve of

of
f

0 < t < 2.

f

nt

t -) p

more

in the form

## t -)p = A sin (lit + a) .

In this section we shall derive formulas Which will enable us to show that,
for all real values of

t,

where.

A = 5,

## cos a = 11, and

sin a =

The formulas that we shall derive will also hepo us to discuss tangent
lines to the graphs of 4trcular functions and areas beneath them.
We begin by deriving the basic formula
cos (a - 0) = cos a cos 0 + 'sin a sin 0. .

Q(cos a,sin a

cos 0,sin

o
"
V

AEI

4
To begin our deriva-

P to

"

_ _

is

c-

p.
232

2.4

3-5

## PQ = Acos, 0 - cos a)2 + (sin 0 - sin a)2

(2)

444

We now use the principle that arplengthon a circle"depends only upon the
unit of measure and not on the choice of axes.

the coordinates

If we choose the

(1,0)

and

u'

and

v'

has

Q(cos

0) sin(a

- 0))

P(1,0)

Figure -3-5b

to

is

PQ = 141 -4os(a

(3)

-,

## We,equate this with (2) and square both sidesto obtain

(Fos 0 - cos a)'4- (sin 0 - 0110)2 = (1.- coS(a- 0) 12 + to - sin

0)12:

## Expanding and regrouping, we get,on the left

!'

11

(cos2 0 + siri2 0)

V._11.11,1

',1,4-JcOs26Z -

sin (a -

233.

243

2 cos(a

- 0) .

3-5

x,

sin

x + cos

we have

x = '1,

## Therefore, we conclude that (1) holds; i.e.,

cos(a - 0) = cos a cos 0 + sin 0 sin a.

## While we could use a similar argument to derive the formula for

we elect to use (1).

cos(a + 0),

Replacing

by

-$in (1) we have ## cos(a + 0,)= cos(a - (-0) *.t ## = cos a cos (-0) + sin a sin(-0). . ... cos(-0) = cos 0 Sine ## and, sin(-0) = -sin 0 owe have .... .. ( 4) ## cos(a + 0) = cos a cos 0 - sin a sin 0. ## Earlier we showed that, for all real sin x =, cos ( - x) (5) and x, cos x = sin - x). ## We cap use (1) and (5) to obtain sin(a + 0) = cos - (a + 0)] cos a) *CP 13] St, = cQs - a)co 0 + sin (2 - a) s in' 0 4 ox ) ## sin(a + 0) = sin a cos 0 + cos a si (6) ,Replacing by ## -0- in (6) we. get ## sin(a - 0) = sin a cos 0 cos a sin O% A ## The following examplleshoW some of the many fordulas which can be deril/ed froth the foregoing addition (sum and difference) formulas. ## Show thatfor all real ,ExamPie 3-5a. cos (8) ## We use (4) with a = 0 = x 2 . x, 1 + cos 2x 2 to obtain'l 2 2 cos 2x = cob x cos x - sin x sin x = cos ,x - sin x. 1 Since cos x + sin 2 x '= r,' ## can r,Oritee this as 11 3-5 cos 2x = cos cos2 x Solving for x - cos2 x) =2 cos2 x - 1. we ,get (18). ## Show that for ali real Example 3-5b. sin (x- + (9) = sin x + cos x ## We use (6) with a= x, to obtain 0 = sin ,(x + + sin x cos, ) = cos x sin r. Since x n cos '' = sin -.= we get cos, x t sin x sin (x + sin x + cos x = Thereforej ). ## A slight generalization of this ## processkyill be used in Section13-6 to rewrite. (from Section 3-4) 3 c s Itt +,4 sin nt . as ## 5 din Ott + a), Example 3-5c. (11) cos 11. sin 5' a= ## Show that for all,geal numbers a, b, and ## sin ax cos bx = ifsin ((a + b)i) +,sin'((a - b)x)]. (10) We let 'where = ax and f5 = bx to obtain sin((a + b)x) = sin (ax +1'bx) = cos ax- sin bx + sin ax cos bx. go ## Formula (7) gives: (12} sin((a - b)x) 4 sin (ax - bx) so sin ax cos bx,- cos ax sin bx. ## Adding (11) and (12) we get sel((a + b)x) 'Dividing by ## cos((a + b)x) = 2 sin ax cos bx. we obtain (10): 235 : 245 fi 3 -5 Exercises 2:21. ## Show that for all real sjn (a) sin 2x- = 2 (b) cos 2x = cos x cos x x - sin = 2 cost x - 1 = 1 - 2 sin (c) 2. si,2. n x Sketch (a) 1. - cos 2x 2 ## and show that ## (0 < x < 2n) if cos x- + sin x = sin (x + Ii) = 1ff cos (x - *(b) c os if cos (x + p = -4 cos x - sin x = 4. sin(x li) -741) -I) = ,r2 s in (x + 341) 3. ## Using formulas (1), (14), (a) tan . (b) (c) tan (a r3) (a 4.-43' tan 14. tan a 2 =- 1 L tan + tan 0 tan (3 a tan2 a 2 tan 1 - (d) ## and Exercise 1 show that tan a - tan 13 1 +'tan a tan (3 tan 2a - (6), (7) 1 + co 1 -'cos sin a sin a 1 + cos ## Use the law of cosines to derive formula Show that for all numbers a, b, (3). and 'x .01 (a) sin ax sin bx = c 2-1 cos(a,- ## b)x - cos(a + b)x] 1. 1. (b) ## cos ax cos bx = --LcOs(a 2 b)x + cos(a 2 236 6 2 4: ,tt 4:. b)x) fi it "J 6. ## Using any of the formulas developed in this chapter, find: sin (b) ;COS (Hint: 12. 12 ,0 21' 1 fl lig .. cos .15- (d) Tr. ir (a) .. . 7. Using Iiriy of the formulas delloped in this chapter, show that for all ## values where the functiondare defined the following are identitiesj cos4 e - sin4 e = cos 2e (a) tan e + sin e 2 tan e tos2 31 e 2 (b) 1 1 %2 (sin -a + cos -a 2 , (c) 1 + sin a = (d) ## (sin e' +, cos e) (e) sin 2e _ 2 tan e + tan + cos e sin e () 8. = 1 + sin 2e sin e 1.+ cos e sin ## You derived the formula: cos 2x = 2 cost x Solve this for (a) cos function of 1. thus expressing cost x as a linear 2x. Consider (b) cos4 x as (cost x)2 ## and. by the-iame methods as used ---, , ## in (a) show that 4 cos . x = 5.0 + ## x,,..derive the formula for x: . 1- ('''''' ..-,_._.., Thin (.. ,.. ## cos 2x + cos' 4x) . cos 2x = 1 - 2 sin ## 9. "-Using the forthulEi sin ._ 1, ,. or ## x = 513 - 4 cos12x-+ cos.4x). f, 237 4.7 T 3-5 10. " that is, they are true for all ## Show that the f llowing are identities: values for whi (a) sin 2e co (b) sin(x - (c) '(d) ## cos 2e sin e = sin' e ## cos z + sin(y - z) cos x = sin(x - .z) cos y 1-kcos , ## sin .3x sin 2x = cos e .7. ("0sin3 6 (f) ## the functions are defined. sin 13 tan 2e d< x - cos 5x) cos 36 cos 20 3e) 114(3isin 144 ## sin x + sin 2x + sin 3x = sin 2x (2 cos x + 1) + tank \ 2 1_ 1 + sin 2x 1 - sin 2x Aft .4 238 48 Pure Waves 3-6. ## We promised thatformulas derived in the last section would enable us to write .P = 3 cos nt + 4 sin nt (1) in the form (2) ## p.= A sin (at + a). We apply the formula'(6,of Section 3-5) for the sine of the sum of two numbers to (2) to obtain A sin (wt + ## = A sin at cos a + A cos at sin a = A sih-a cos wt + A cos a sin wt. . ## NoW if this ins to be the same as (1). we must choose w = n, A s trr a = 3 4 A cos a = 4. . .a To find ## we .take ifie sum of the squares irk' (3) to obtain 2 L2 ## A2 sin a + AA2A. costa = 3, +, 4. A -2 2, N. A ksin a + cos a) = 25, . A2%., 25. . ## Thus we can choose A= 5 air; 6 = (14) ## aqd then choose- a^ so that and cos a= "A ## From tables we get a g .643. .. ## We have..seown that, for all-'real Nglues of we can write t, b (5). fr o' ## 3 cos nt + 4 siti nt = 5 sin(nt + a) ... r .r .: ... where a .1: .6143. :.' ,. We can use the same procedure which we have followed for' our articular . ## numerical example to express any equation of the type . (6) ## y =,B cos wt +46 sin at in the foria (7) ti ,y = A sin(wt.-.) ## By using the such formula for sin(wt + a) A sin v = B, r 4.4 ## we obtain the two equation A cos a = c, , ?39., r :4 " d. ## which can be solved by putting (8) d A'= choosing a so that (9) cos a.= - sin a = -A ## Neer a such that ## We can choose exactly one ## We know from (8) ## 0 < a < 2y. that 2_ '= (1A-3) t. that 2 P +,v = 1. ## on the circle given 0 < a < 2y ## There is then a unique a on the inl-erval ## a units around the unit circle from is 13 % (- ,-) A A by with coordinates ## so there is a unique point (1,0); so ## that is,, so that (9) hOTds. Consider thefunCtion. (10) ## y = A sin (wt + a), 1 where A > 0 and ## a <7a < 2n. The graph of ## is called a pure wave (or ' ## sine outve)." We call of the wave. The amplitude MiniOnvaque.of (9r minima) (11) the amplitude; 2y ## the phase; and to, ## is the maximum vallie of and the period, -A is the ## The period is the distance between successive maxima f. ## We can rewrite the eglAtioli_of (10), as y = A sin (w(t 4. C. Fr,om this,we see, that the graph-9f (10) can be obtained from, the gr&ph'Of (12) ## by shifting the y-axis y= A sin cot. .w ## unitsto the right. , 1.rated in Figure 3-6a for the graph of ## 'his ibformation is illus- la = 5 sin4(Itt + 0, where 4a .643. sc 4 . a 1,* 24.0; r 12 ti maximum ## the period is 2. Maximum 44 minimum Figure 3-6a ## y = 5 sin (at + a), a E' .643 We have seen that ingeneral thgre Ts a better way to sketch the graph ## y,= B cos &V+ C sing ## than to_add the ordinates .octhe.graphs of 4 . y = B cos wt and y = C sin at. To discuss a fUnctiOn .defined by 4 4 aV4 y = B cos wt + C sin ut expediently aid to be-able to graph it quickly, we can write y = A sin (at + a). If we write the function in this form we can tell by inspection the period (-1), the amplitude (IA1), ## the maximum and minimumvalues (tIAI). Since ## A sin (wt + a) = A sin w(t + 2), ,a) ## we can obtain the graph by shifting the, graph of y = A sin wt _units to the ## .eft or right according,as a w is,positive or negati. ve 22 1,-,1 41-, .44 y = B'cos wt + C sin wt ## -ft'wou10 be just as convenient to express ## the form y = A cos (wt 0). in ## We leave this for the exercises. ## We wish to discuss and sketch the graph of the function Example 3-6a. ## given by the equation y = 2 sin It (13) - 3 cos*2 t . ## We want to write (13) in the form y = A sin (it + a). Our addition formula enables us to write A sin (it ;I- a) = A sin ## For all real values of a.2 cos a+ A cos t sin a. we require that A sin 3 t cos it 3 + A cos t sin a = 2 sin 3 - 3 cot 3t 2 ## Therefore, we must have ## A cos a = 2' and ## A sin a,= -3. ## Following our earlier procedure we write 2 12 ,...(cos whence we get that the point A = A7. a + sin a) = (2) + (-3) ## Referring to the unit circlp of Figure 3-6b, we see .= ## lies in the fourth quadrant. il3 a ID 242 252 4' 4. We/now find Figure 3-6b a' our.talaes we get at so that 7,1 .98. cos a/ = 2 '--- and sin a/ = From wehave ## Since a = 21t - a' ## _a s", 6,28 - .43 = .831. 5.30. - _14 ## Therefore, we can write (13) In the Convenient form (14) Y4,71.447 sin it a), where a *60. att. ## By insp ction we can'tel that the period is 241. the amplitude 3. 2 is 1/1.5, the phape is 5.30. ## A sketch appears in Figure 3-6c. "3 214'3 9. 5 3 Figure 3-6c Graph of y = 2 sin 3. t 2 - 3 cos 21t = ## sin (1t + a), where a L. 5.30. 'nercises 1. ' ## Sketch each orf-the following graphs-over aeleagt-twOeits Periods.* ## Showtheaoplifude And period_of each.:_ = 2 cos 3t (a) ,y (b) y =2 cos (4) (c) y = 3 cos (-2t) (d) y = -2 sin (e) y = -2 sin (2t + v) (i-) ## (f) 'y = 1 cos (3f + 244 t, 2 4 3-6 4, 2. ## Without computing the value of a, ## find the amplitude and the period of . eadh. (a) (b) ) --- y = si:;*\3t ' + cos 3t i,: ,,, ## y = -2 cos itt + sin\yt I (c) y = 2 sin (d) y = 8 cos t - 2 cos lt 2 + 6 sin ICI 3 (e) y = 6 sin (f) y = 2t 4'1', - 2 cos cos 2.1iL - 4 sin 57rt Express each of the following equations in the form of. y = A sin (x + a), (where 4. 0 <'a.< 2n): (a) y = sin x + 1/ (b) y = -sin x + cos x (c) y = (d) y = sin x---cos x sin x - cos x ## Express each equation in Number 3 in the form (where (1) cos x ## 0 < a < 2y), y = A cos (x + a), by two methods: ## Use the formula for the cosine of the sum of twoangles;.i.e.; cos (0 + cp). ## (ii): Convert the answers of Number 3to A cos (x + a) trigonometric identities, suchas sin (e + 2n) = sin 0, (a) ## sin 4:p = cos (- ## cos (-e) = cos 0, ## Using the addition formulas, show that by the use of - (p), etc. ## y = 914T sin Tit- 3-16 cos ni.' may be put into the. form of any one..of the following '(0 < a < 2y) H (i) y = A sin (at + 0) (ii) y = A sin (wt - a) ## (.ii) y = A cos (wt - a) (iv) (b) y = A cos (wt + a) r. ## By the use of trigometric identities show that the four expressions of part (a) are equivalent. ## Sketch the graph indicating the period :r the amplitdde ## (using the form y = A sin (wt + a))1 indicating the phase., ... A,' and 3-6 ,6. ## Express each bf the following equations in the form A ## for some appropriate real numbers (a) and y = A pbs (nt - a) a. - y = 4 sin nt - 3 Cos nt ## (b)'y = -4 sin /ft + 3 cos nt, 7. 3 cos nt ( c ) y = -4 sin /ft (d) y = 3 sin Tut 4 cos rut (e) y = 3.sin /ft Ycos nt, and a and the coefficients can be d---rmtwi...frO sin at ## show on a diagram how a, ## Without actually computing thagalue of and of cos at ## if each of the fo lowing expressions of the form B cos at + C sin at is made eq ## A cos (at - a). '1 to Compute a, and find the maximum and minimum values of each expression, and its period. ## Give .reasons for yotir ansWers. in 2t + 4 cos 2t (a) '3 (b) ## 211in 3t - 3 cos 3t. (c) 7sin ce + cos (2) ## Verify that the superposition of any two pure waves and B cos (at - p) A cog (at - a) ## is a pure-wave of the same frequency, that is,' ## that there exist rehl values and such that ## A piwt (at - a) + Bcos (at - p) = C cos (at - y). 9. ## Show that any wave of the form y p B cos (gt - a), (g # 0), ## can be written in the' form$.

y = A cos (at - a)

where A

246

25G
1

3-7

3-7.

## Analysis of General Waves.

Period
2v

We.have seen that the superposition of two waves, each with period

--

y = B cos at

and,

y ='C sin at

## gives a pure wave

y = A sin (at + 0)
AKOh

11,

(1)
.

The period of

sin 3x

is

av

--

the period of

cos 2x

is

then

2a,

f.

?1(

-- = v.
2

At this

is...a period of

3

two

I)

3

2v%

-

.
foe'

,27(

## sin 3(x + n( --)) = sin 3x

and
cos 2(x + rig) = cos 2k:

In particular, we have:

## sin 3(x + 2v) = sink

cos 2.(x + 2v) = cos 2x

so that

2v

## defined by (1) has period

of the respective periods

2v.
2v

sin -3x

The number
and

and
2v

v.

247r,

z. 5'T

cod 2x?-

*-

ow.

3-7

## - In general, suppose that

=4_

y = A sin (at + a) + P si

(2)

bt +. (3).
9

If

,a = b,

a
period

. If

a /.-

then

v,-

Suppose

as a

;

27t

but th t

,2t

and

'4 a

and

(3)

holds.

m and

such that

2n

= n

b
2n

we can choose

M = 3,

n = 2

is not periodic.

a = 3,

2n
.

This

0 = - 2, ,b = 2

and

so that
2rt

tic

m a

n 17

2n

(2n)

- en,

case (2)

2n
a

2n

and

## For example, the function

y = sin nx + cos x
notp ;periodic.

## we can conclude ih general-about (1).

to.sketch separately the graphs.of

v = 3 cos 2x
4
The result is shown by the three curves in Figure 3-7a,
u = 2 sin 3x,

and

y = u - v.

As
2 5,, 3;

* 3 -7

Al

y, u,v

I
1

v =3
I

u =2
'At
1

2 'TT ?(

v=-3

t%

Figure 3-7a
u = 2 sip 3x,,,,y = 3 cos 2x

y = u - v = 2 sin3x -

-cos 2x,

## any periodic function can be approximated arbitrarily closely as a sum of a

finite number of sines and cosines. The subject of harmonic analysis of
tt

way.
,

of period

f(X)

AO + (Al cos

211x

+ (A2 cos
a

oi
o

47tx

+ B
2

sin ax)
a

..

Spicifically,

2eX '

+ Bi

(1)

+ (A

a.

44g+

cos

2n7tx

2nxx.

n a
e

+ B

cos *--).

4.

.--1

259
21'

by

-n < x <11

function

This

0, ife = -n
=

## For all other values.of

we define

if i= 0

0,
1,

-n < x < 0

if

1:00

f(x)

(2)

if 0 < x < v.
.r
f(x) .by the, periodicity condition.

t.

x

(3)

11'

sin 3x

sin 5x

sin(2n - 1)x\.
'
2n - 1

0
qi

Figure

3-7b

.

0,

x =

if

x -4f(Z) =

0,
-1,,

Fourier series.

f(x +

x = 0

if

= f(xr..

if -v < x r 0

4 s n x

iinja

sin 5x

....4..,.sin(2n

1)xN.

2n - 1

y = f(x).
Q.

250

260,
-

f(x)

by

## sive.graphs approach the graph of

"

.S:1

-,
.

...

---NN,

Exercises 3-7
,

:-

1.

Without setcfling,
find the periods,of the functions defined by the
.
following expressions
.

## :.(a) 2 sin x + cps"gic

'

ti

.
-

(b)

(c)

cos i -,sin

-sit; 71- gx -

cos ItX 1r

.
j cos 12x,- 2 sin* 3 x
1."1

(e)

...(f)

1 - 2 sing x + 2 sin
Icos xl + sin

cos

x
2

rr
(g)

(h)

41simp4

11cos 4v xl:

2.

y.=

sin x + sin 2x

## by Urst-ketching y1 = 2 sin' x,4

axes for the interval
'3.

(a)

(b)
.

1x1 < v,

sin x
n

y = - sin x
n

sin 3xN
+

4 sin x
= ...(_-_
__ +
v
1
.

-,

'

.

3. ,

5
6

'4.

(a)

namely,

sin ..x

## appro;imation to the.graph of y = cos x

cos 0 = 1,

at the point'where

## we are talking about the point

X0,1).

x = O.

Since

We conjecture (from
*,,

(1)

graph of

y = cos x

at the point

253

g63

(0,1).

Figure 4-1a.

## Since the curve is symmetric with respect to the y-axis it is sufficient

. to consider positive values of x. We know, for .C.< x < 721
that
.

cos x < i

(2)

and hence the curve lies below the line given by y = 1 .in the interval
0 < x'<

2.

We now wish to show that near the y-axis the curve lies above

where

EX

Y =

(3)
E

I,
y = 1
I

Figure 4-lb
Obr

Y = cos x

## 0. and near zero the graph of

lies inside'the shaded region.

*111-

254

264

4-1

(4)

1 - cos x <

than

For

x2

2
the quantity

x / 0,

is larger

so we have

if

if

x / 0;

0.

(5)

cos x > 1 - x

2
,

that is,

## cos x > 1 + (-x)x,

It 0 < x < e,

if

x / O.

then we have
+ (-x)x > 1 - ex;*

(6)

cos x > 1 - ex

for

0 < x < e.

## osi,ne function liesinside the wedge of Figure 4-lb on the interval.

0

where

is the smaller of

and

y = 1

is indeed

at- (0,1)-.

established.

## The line given by

y = 1

Conjecture (1)-is

## tion to the cosine curve at the y-axis.

Having established conjecture (1), we now consider-4ie-problem of finding
the equation of the tangent line to the graph of
point of intersection with.the y-axis.
the line,given by

graph of

at

(0,0),

its

## We conjecture' (from Figure 4-1c) that

.y = x

y = sin x

y = sin x

is tangent tq the

at the point

(0,0).

..

,
255

265,

.10

sin

Figure 4-1c,

## First we shall consider only points to the right of

lar we shall restrict our attention to the interval
lar

(0,0);

0 < x <

in particu-

## two inequalities for the sine function:

x(1 - x2) < sin x < x.

## We canderive'these inequalities using our unit circle definition of sine.

Since, for the moment, we are only concerned with the interval- 0 < x <
we picture only, the'first quadrant.of the unit circle in Figure 471d.

..
D(1

sin xc
cos x

sin x
cos x

cos X

IA

. Figure 4-1d

256

?66

to

BA

is

x,

sin x

AB.

to A

and

## then,the measures of the lengths of segments

BC

and

OC -are--

respectively; therefore

and . cos x,

(8)

sin x < x.

This means that, in Figure 4-1c, the graph of the sine function lies below

## the line given by

y = x

to the right of

as we have indicated.

(0,0),

again, weychoose
dicular to

OA..

sin x
be ----- .
cos x

and

## The first coordinate Of D

sin x
OB
has slope ----- ,
cos x

so that

must be

Sidce

OA).

Referring to .Figure

EA -is perpen-

(the measure of

-1d

'

D must

xl

(9)

2
"cos xl.
2(1)/sin

## The area oc_ztp circular sector

the area of sector

OAB

x;

that is

is'constant.

To deter-

OAB

is proportional to

mx,

where

is given by

mine

m,

x = T.

OAB

is.one-eighth of

i
1
.2.
8(71(1) )

jso that

m =

OAB

OAB

is

OAB

2 x.
Ot

x < 1 sin x

2 cos x

(10)

0 < x <

so we have

then

2
.

(u)

tihst

## is within the triangular region ,ODk), the

area of the' sector is less than the area of the triangle; that
1

Since the.

for

257

2d7'

0 < x < 12 1-

## With-inequality (11) we can show that

the tangent to the graph of
value' e,

= sin x

y = x
(0,0).

at

## is indeed the equation of

Suppose, for some positive

## we have the line whose equation is

y = (1 - e)x.

If

< E

and

0 < x < 2 ,

1 - x

then we have

> 1

E.

Therefore, we get

---J

when

y(1 - e)x.

and

and

(0,0)

0 < x <lp

and as'_

must lie

The graph
lies in here.

s.,

2.*

X"
Figure 4 -le

x < 0

given by

y = x

and

(x, sin x)

any points

y = (1 - e)x.

## (See Figure 4-1f.)

258

268

sin(-x) = -sin x,

4-1

Figure 4-1f
We have now ettablished both conjectures:
(10: the.line given by

to'the graph of
(7)

to the graph of

y = cos x at
y = x

(0,1);

y = sin Z

'296.9

0).

Exercises
1.

,a,
(a)
f

y = cos x

at

(0,1).
(b)

y = cds x

at

(0,1)?
(c),

2.

(a)

h

lim
h -40

Determine

at

(0,0).
(b)

y = sin x

at

(0,0?

(b)
3.

aim

(a)

h -40

sin r(0 + h)

lim
h -40

Determine

and

cos h - 1
h

- sin (0)

to determine

sin h

(a)

the graph of

P

near

y = cos x

x = 0.

## is the point on the curve

x = 0;- Qi(i = 1, 2,

where
6)

curve where
.2,

x = .5,

.4,

.3,

## 11, -ftir--FffrTRe slope

'
of !!Q1' PC42;
the table provided.

PQ6 U

## (b) lFind the equations (in the

form

y = b + mx,

is y-intercept and

the

determined,by

Cos

Sin

.5

.87758-

.47943

.4

.92.106

.38942

95534

29552

..2

.98007

09983

.999995

.ol000
A

whard b

PQ (i = 1, 2,

.01

4).

,.
4-1
5.

(a)

the graph of

sin x,

near

x = 0.

.P

where

x = 0;

= 1, 2,

..., 6)

curve where

.01.

of

Fi9dthe slope

PQ1, PQ2,

PQ6.

Use

4

(b)

## PQi (i = 1, 2, ..., 6).

Assuming the following relationships established in this section
P

1 - dos x <

()

cos x#>'1 - x2

(8)

(10)

sin x < x

,.

...

(a)

xcos x < x
1 - cos x
x
<
x
2

(b)

1 - Cos

(ii)

>

x > 0

x <0

xi <,s

(iii)

(c)

(d)

sin x > x -

sin x
-

x3

7-

o<x<

ti

.1

261

271
1

lx1 <

4-1
4t
7.

2

0 < 1 - cos

h < 7

for

0 < h <

show that

1 -

8.

<

sin h
h

- cos hi
h

for

h / 0.

'

9.

for

10.

h = 0.01

and

sin h

and

1 - c os h
r
h

h = -0.001.

sin h'

(a).

h --,0

(b)

lim

cos h

h --)0

II

27142

4-2

ik
4-2.

'1

## The Derivative as the Limit of a Difference Quotient

The deriyatives of the sine and cosine fundtions are, res pectiv4l1, the
iCe

## These geweral results Trft

obtained by first finding the equation bf tangent lines to the graphs'of the
sine and cOsihe".functions and then discovering the slope functions (derivetives).

f

x -) sin

f': x -*cos x

(1)

f'

given by
sin x

sin (3. + h)
h

as

approaches zero.

graph of

f,

(x,f(x))

## the difference quotient

sin (x + h) - sin x
h
AA

and

(x

## is shown negative and rather large.

slope = doses
tangent

line

s
slope

sin; (x + h) - sin x
iv)

x + h, sin (x + h))

Figure IP-2a

j63
10

2 73

on the

y;

0:
1+.2

## We wish to show that

J

r-.4.
.

.i.

(2)

sin kx

-..,

h)

- sin x

h -)0

- cos x.

iThis c n. be shown:13y arguing (as we did in Section 4-1 for,x = 0) that the

graph of the sine function lies inside any given welge about the tangent when
is small enough.

ilif
.

Section 3-5.

(6) se

Wa caniwrite

Il

,cos h - 1%
sih
n h
) + cos x
h

= sin.xk

7,
.

cos X.

lim
h--) 0

..

cos h - 1.0
h

'a 'nod

lim

Lii....12,

h -i0 4,

7 1.1
t

y.= cds x

y =i1
at

is

(0,1).

to the graph of

y = cos x

is zero, we have

lim

x = 0

of

h -) 0

Therefore,

. lim

cos h - 1

h -40

- o.

## In Section 4-1 we also showed that the line given by

straight line approximation to the graph of

y ='sin x

at

y = x

is thg best

c,

1 ke of

## the tangent to the graph of

lim
h --) 0,w

y = sin x

at

sin (0 + h) - sin 0

x'= 0

1.

is one, We have

.44-2

## Now we can conclude that

sin (k + h) - sin x

lim

(2)

cos x;

h -) 0

## We have establiihed that

(3)

D(sin x) = cos'x.
The derivative of the cosine function at any point

(x ,cos x)

can be

## obtained by calculating the limit of the difference quotient

co (x + h) - cos x
h
as

## We leave it to the exercises (EXercises 4-2, No. 1)

approaches zero.

to sivi; that

D(co; x) = -sin x.

...,0000m0.000

Example 4-2a.

sin h

as

*

11, evaluate

sin 2h

lim

h 40

sin h

for small

a 1

1h1,

.
it follows that
J

sin 2h
2h

ts 1

if

-is small.

12h

We can write
sin 2h
h

- 2

sin 2h

2h

g.
4

If

Ihl

is so small that

Ighl

sin 2h
a 2.
h
\

I-

-sin 2h
.

- 2

2(1)

= 2.
s

sin 2h

h t40

h -to 0

lira

/
Example 4-2b.

## approximation) to the graph of the sine function at the point

It

'when

(a , sin a),

7t

7(

a =

We can write

so that

x =.a + (x - a).'

(6)

of Sect

sin x =sin [a

(x - a)].

Using

n 3-5 we get

## sin x = sin g Cos_f_x -J.0) + eos a sin (x- - a).

If we let x

approach

cos (x - a)

and

by 1,

sin (x - a)

and

fore, as we let
approximition t'o.
,

siiit (x

then

- a)

by

x..approach
sin x

x -

,approaches zero.

We can replace

- a
a,

(7)

a)

There-

is

at

the

point

(a , sin a)

is

When

When

F.

7,t71

e,

## the equation of. th

tangent is

y=1;
that is, -the tangent to the sine curve at

a =

It

,1)

is horizontal,

When

C'
1

266 \

7;

4-2

It

57t

16

3:k

y = 1

sif

7 + 7x
I

y =

5y.

1/

Td_7,--

...

the tangent,at
the tangent at

the tangent' at

Figure 4,2a

y = sin.x.

o,

and

-AO
.-.-

15
2

respectively.

## could have been obtained by direet substitution in (3).

p;

262 7

Exercises 4-2
1.

(a)

Use Addition formula (4) of Section 3-5 to show that the difference
quotient

cos (x + h) - cos x
doo.,

(cos h - 1.
cos x k
)

2.

sin x(2411).

(b)

Show that

(a)

## Sin (a + 0) = sin a cos 0 + cos a sin 0

sin (a - 0) = sin a cos 0 - cos a sin
TAgt ,ei.j;. 0 = x + h

and a

0 = x.

e?

Show that

3.

f3

(b)

(a)

## Given (from Section 3 -5):

Isin (13).

D(sin x) = cos x. L-

0.

## cos (a - 0) = cos a. cos 0 + sin a gin 0;

0
4

Prove;cos(x+0-cosx=-2sin,kx+-h9sin
2.
.

(b)

I
1
.s/

## From the inequality

D(cos x) = -sin x.
c

4.

sin (.01)

1,. estimate

.011

1(b)

1;

cos (-.00 1)

0005,

cos. (-.001).
2

5.

.(a)

(b)'

Using the i

quality

(i)

sin ( 1)

(ii)

sin ( 01)

(iv)

1 -

cos (.1)
)1.

estimate

Isi n h
< 777- < 1,

).
...

'sin (.0001)

2
h

(iii)

cep i.01)

(1-v)

estimate

cos (.001)

cos G0001)

28
(

278

sin (.01).

estimatq

6.

hi

11

(a)
a)

Using

ILL'

<

11 -

the value of

h t 0,

## and the results of Number 5(b) find

for

(i).

h = .1;

(ii)

h = .01;

h = -.1

h = 7.01

(iii)

h = .001;

(iv)

h = .0001;

h = -.0Q1 4.
"h = -.0001

eS

2
(b)

1 - 11 <J-222-1 < 1,

sih h
--,E-- and

decrease.

!hi

(i)

h = .1;

(ii)

h = .01;

h = -.1
h.= -.t/
)

## -7. The limit of

sin h

h:

(iii)

h = .001;

(iv)

h = .0601;

h = ;.001
h = -.0921

,,

--rs- as

t symbolically as

illustrate that

lim
h -)0

't

## tends to zero is one.-

sih
n h

lim

LE 2I

x -4 0

li

.Find the

1.

by two methods:
.

(a)

by u se of the inequality

(b)

by direct applicatioh

8.

1 -

sin h

h-- < lo

sin 11

lim

- 1

h -) 0

/)
.

sin h

lim

h 40

1 - cos h _

lim

and

- 1

h 40

'
0

sin x
3x

lim

(a)

(b) -'lim
x -)0

lim
e

lim

sin 2t

lim edot 2e
' sin h ,-

sin

lim
(f)

t- 02t2 +t
e

lim

(i)

'x
h

tan 2x
lim
sin x
X -4 0

sing x

Jam 1,
(d)

1 - cos, e

lim

X -4 0

7x

sin 3x

cos e

F
e

cos 7X
cos 3X

tiM

lib

(2)

x 40

269

279

sin 5x - Isin
xl

.44

r--

4-2
9.

Evaluate

(a)

lim
x

(b)

sin x - sin a
x - a

lim sxX_1.
0

10.

(a)

y = sin x

at

(1)

X =

(ii)

(iii)

x =

IT

3
3v

(iv)

X = V

(y)

X =

(vi)

x = 0

graph of

(a)
a)

at

11.

y( = sin x

(b)

y = COS X

at

## the point where

x =

(i)

(iii)

(iv)

x =0

21

(ii)* x

Write ari equation of the line tangent to the graph of_ y,=- cos x

(b)
,

12.

does the,graphof

(a)

y ='sin x

have a
ft

tange t line?

.fiorizonta

4 '',S1

%
'r

For what

(b)

alueso

y = co: x

have a

4'13.

(a)

For w
.tange

by

line given by

or a

y = x'

y = x?

sin x

have the

( )

/b)

14.

t values of

## Answer the abo

qubstion/for 'the:graph of
I

4
t

y = bin x

have the

y = -x

.S
by y = -x?

y = cos ,x;

270

280

y = cos x.

,
15.

(a)

16.

(a)

If

f : x -+ sin x,

f!(-200% - i)
(b)

If

g : x -)cos x,

(a)

If

(b)

If

f'

then

Find

x -, cos x.

and

x -o sin x,

: x -o -sin x.

g'

e( og -

x 11n x

S x.

tt

f' (640n),

0(600n),

iL).

'f' = h

show that

x -o cos x

Find

and

h' = -f.
g' = j,

f'..7 h,

show that

h = -j'.

h' = j / and
(a)

,then

y =

f' (60n - 4) .

g'(-200n - g.),

18.

2y = x

(b)

17.

4.2

In the interval
what values of
function,

< 2n

lx1

for

does the

I
x

x -0 cos x,
-2n

increase?

-n

2n

-1

(b)

Sketch f

and

(on

f'

x
-y

-27t

2:t

-1

values of

TO?kAshich

< v.

, -

.'g43.

t

(a)

Extend th

(b)

-0 cos 2x.

e4
20.

In the interval
erval
values of

ILI

x -0cos(2x

increases and

,,

(a)

(b)

1

.
I

I
,

x -* cos(2x +

n%

2
0

4
\ 271

'r281.

21.

0 < x < 2y

## tion and the cosine function both ncrease?

do the'sine func-

do

22.

.

d < x < 2y

do the following

all decrease?

23.

0,

(b)

(c)

x -) sin 2x

increasing?

(a)

f : x

ax - sin x

24.

## (a) demonstrate the concavity (downward flexure) of the graph of

x -sin x

at

x = .4

by showing that at

x = .3

(b)

and at

x = .4.

## Demonstrate the convexity (upward flexure)Is. of the graph of

x -*sin x
x = -.5

at

x = -.4

by showing that at

x = -.3

and at

## the'curve lies above.the tangent to the curve at x

0.

'282.
j

+VP

4-3
4-3.

Linear Substitution
Now we" urn to the problem of determining the derivative of a function

## specified by an equation of the type

= k sin (ax + b).
Such*E1 function is obtained from

is,

= sin x

ax + b,

and

by

## approaches zero, of to difference quotient

k sin [a(x + h) + .1)3 - k sin (ax +io)
A

## which can be written as

k sin [(ax + b) + ah) - k sin (ax + b)
h

Using addition formula (6) from Section 3-5, we can express the n

r of

the difference quotient as,k sin {ax + b) cos (ah) + k cos (ax + b) sin (ah) - k sin (ax + b).

a

k sin-(aZ

0(cos Tah) - 11

o[sin (ah)1.

## a proaches zero wm make one further

change (suggested by Example 4-2a and Ex rcises 4-2, No. 8) n the form of
t/

e difference quotient:
l

rcos

14,.

Ell -.1

## ak sin (ax + bfl.

ah "

,
.,-0(sin (ah)1
l + ak cos (ax +

As

approaches .zero,

,

ah

(ah)

## approaches zero; ancrwe know (from (1) and (7).of

cos (al - 1
approaches zero and

(ah

sin (ah)
(ah) 411

approaches one.
.i

We conclude that

1D(k sin ax +

ah).

h
in(ax+ b)

0 + Eik

sirx(ah)

cos(Eix;+b)

n's

(, ah)

1
*go

= ak cos(ax+b) .

./

213 2 8 3

eq.

4-3
6

f

if

then

14)

k cos (ax +

3.<

if

(2)

cly

Using

sin (ax +

then ,gt :

curve directly.

Eiample 4-3a.,

If

find

3 sin 2x,

=6

ft

f' (n)

cos-2x

so that
f' (n)

Example 14-3b.

cos 2n

= 6.

(7-1- ,

at tti9 point'

.ty = cos (x +

=6

2).

Using

y'

6

alt"
.

(37i- ,2)

At the point

-sin

(fik +

= -sin i = -

I-3-

L,

II

'

.e>

Id'
Ir.

I.

y =, cos (x.4

## geometrical interpretation of this result.

Example .4-3c.

(3)

.)

and

y = cos.

to give one

(See-s-Exerciees 4-35

NO. 8.)

cos x = sin

- x)

and

/?.

We ha e from (3)
cos:

'x

k = 1, a = -1,

cos':

and

4104

Exarftple 4-3d.

## ind the derivative of

.1

The function

x -4 sin x

sometimes written
o-

x

we carp express

x -) sin

is the siile of

degrees.

Since

..

2y
x
300

x,

as

icos

fit x

x).

## The primary justification for defining

sin x

in terms-o'fferc length

## rather than degree measure, is that we then obtit the-simple formul

....

4:..

n x = ,cos x

4 .6.%'1

If we had used,degree
4

formula

## 'asure then we would htive had the 14s satisfactory

.
,

...

r
silof

Scos4

l): =
'

.." \

...-,.,..

.. .:',
,

.o.
.

11

Cif:

10*

4-3
Exercises 1111
Using formulas (1) and (2), find the following.
(a)

D[sin (3x -

(b)

D[-2 cos,

(a)

Dr5 -cos (i

(e)

;I)).

D[-Ain (

(c)

2.

)]
3

) ]:

+ 721)]

I

(f)

## For the following functions determine

(a), the slope. of the graph at 'the. point indicated for each:
.

(i)

77(

x = - -- ,

3
(ii)

x -4 -sin (2x -

(iii)

f :

(iv)

3 cos
1

x = g ,

X=

+ 2x),

sin (

3n
2

x.
-

x = 0;

)
72-

(b)

## part (a) at the point indicated.

s

\....

.
.6

If two functions

there is a ,constant

..,

.
,

and

such that

g(x) ...cf(;)
1

(a)

(b)

'

f(x) =

sin

2x,

and

4.

(a)

(i)

of x

0 < x < 2n

## tie graph of the function

x -*sin x + cos x

linefr

## OA), ;Give the equation(s) of the tangent lineks).

(b) =Answer the- questions, of.' part (a) for the function

g: x
;

,7

+ 'a.. cos

## (c)." Answer-the questions or

off' (a) for tile function
4

Aih 4 ;

## X -4 3 sin (2x 4- T) ,,4

3 ccs (2x +

4
1

2+6

does

-4-3

5.

Show that if
f : x -"k cos (ax + b)

then
f'

lix,-ksin (ax

.+ b)

,

6.

## In Example 4-3c we used the facts that

cos x = sin (1 - x)

and

sin x = cos (i
x.

x)

derivative of
k cos (ax + b),

given that

o

_
.

(a)

(b)

(a)

On one set of
and

1:))

## Find the derivative of

'f

8.

as a -'approaches zero..

coOrdinatir

x -)cos x.

x -)cos,x

x -)cos (x + r

Show that th
(11- 'f0))

at the poi

(12

at the point
he graph of

g(21-),
12-r,

## the sine and cosine functions tOevaluate each of the following

sin (x + 11), - sin x

(a)

lim
h -)0

(b)

li

cos x

cos

lice

cos (3,

(c)

+ h) 1 cos 3x

h
W."

witot
I

.5

4-3
-3

sin

4,4-

lim

* (d)

+ h) + 3 sin

2
(n

sin

lim

nl

x + n

h -4 0

(e)

+ k)
k

sin (i)

COS

h) 4. cos

lim

(f)

2h

k
o4
6

10.

val' [

-n,n].

y = siryx

(a)

y = sin (x -

'(b)

y = -sin x

y = sin
-

Y = cos x
Leos (x -

(g)

11.

- x)

sin

(e)

4-x)

(h)

y = cos (JX)

(i)

y = cos (

Find

..-."

dx

y = sin x
(b)

y = sin (x

(c)

y = -sin x
4

(d)

(e)

(9

(-x)

y
=

- x)

sih,

Olt

y = cos x
.1A

(.,g)

(h)

= cos (x
y = cos
-"y = cos

(-xt
(12-1

..'*

II

721)

- x)

278,

'

## In Section 3r4 we discussedkotion in a circle with radius

,
FigUre 4-48.)

If lobint

is moving'

(See

1.
;

Jr;

countercloCkwise _starting at

A(1,0)

he

't = '0

of

at time t

are

x
(1,6)

0 cot Q *

A ( -1 , 0 )

X = cos t
y = sin t.

fir

11

Figure 4-)la

as

When

increllvs.

0 to

moves from

back to O.

t =

has reached

At' t = 2n,

P ,hasqenhed .

As

0.

to t =

t = n

Er'om

2
As we see,

is back at A.

increases from

moves

to

n,

from

AT

oscilla/es back

point

at any time

at time

2n.

To-do this

f

(1)-

t -) cos

derivative of

(2)

"4

## During thi first halrrrevolution, -(0 <, t

.which shosfs that
and . t =-Tr.

At

As 4e know, the

t.
t.

is

t.
'n),

t = 5-

then

Q = 0,

## f' (i) = -1.

' absolute value of the Velocity, has its maximum value when. t =
During the qecond half - revolution
fg h t

(31) = 1
2

at

the

is moving td.the

ao,

2789

A.

4-4

at an3/ time

t?

f.

f"

to

f': t

(2)

(3)

bl

t -4-cos t.

'

## The velocity decreases when the acceleration is negative and increases

decrease of

is negative but

f"

the.fi.rst quarter-revdlution,

During

## wnen the acceleration is positive.

is also negative.

f'

f'

in:Speed.

Between

Hence,

Between

t = *

is positive;

f"

to

f'

is

positive.
-1'-to

increases from

10.

sin t

t = 21

and

cos t

t =

and

t = -2

'

that both
t
0 to 1.

f'

and

are positive.

f"

-

## Finally., for . /1_ < t < 2y,

f"

is negative and

f'

is positive K, that

## Q slows down again to 0.

xample 4-4a.

Show thp't

In what quadrants is

f"

(a} positive?

'

(b)

negative?

.
f"(t1 = -cod t

Since

f"(t)0= -f(t).

f(t

and.

cos t.

fi(t) = -f(t)

,
(more briefly,

fu

_f).

## Hence, .f"(t)p'.is positive when f(t) = x

quadrants II and III;

f"

is negative when x

is negative, that.is, in
is positive; that is, in iva-

vcf

280

290

r".
.

Example 4-41o.

t =

wheri

pn of

Wes have

3
)
.

cos

f'(3) = -sin

% f

Henee, after

lc

(n)

- --". -0.86'
2

-.cos -5

is at xf

90-

,/".

left at

--

## distance units per second.

The
h acceleratlon is

.1 .

distance
2
units per second each second, which means that the velocity 1.-s decreasing at
.
c
1
the date of
unit per second per second.
(The speed is increasing at this
2
2

...

rate.)
4%.

## We cin'generalize oar discussion 'by considering uniform motion on a circle

of radius r Where the point P moves the

diatine4

in ,to seconds.

4 -.4b.)

Let

AOP in

(See Figure

be th4,Meisure of angle

Then
kt'
r

e =

## As in Section 3-4 we let

so that

ci)

1;'

The coordinates of

are

x = r- cos at
Y = r sin wt.

Figure 4-4b

We 'let
46

(.4)

r cos wt.

6
o

-If

P.

..1-_

tion of

..()

1:.

and

t..

(6)
4--

..

281

29I

c_

r"

4'4
.'

Now

respectively,

## o?cillates between'' A (r,O)

and

A' (-r,0)*

The time

requtred, for One os,cillation back and forth.is obtained by. .....
using the circum.
T\\.:the 'period
this
We
call
ths
time
ference 2nr Ids the arc, so that kt'=

.,

r
2nr"

2n

%ff
.

Note that
f" =

(7)

4 r

(I

## moves on a circle of radits! 10 feet a the

,r
Find the position of its projection Q and the
rate of 2 feet per second.
1
k , 2
.tince w'=
velocity and acaeleration of 'Q after -5. seCondi
5 1.
10
.r.
A point

Example 4 -4c.

is

- \,

t -410 cos

f'

'and

10

.i,

t"

5'
=:72

k-

.,

sin

For

t = 5

cos t

we'have
f(5) = 10 cos

1:=
-1.68

fe(5) = -2 sin 1

0 (5) =

cos 1...;z

since

cos 1 tt 0.54

and

sin 3.

When

t = 5

seconds, cQ
1.68

## moving to the left a

in g at

0.22

ft./

0.84.

ft./sec. approximately.

O. .It'is

5.4

Eli speeding
.

t:

.,
r,

..

"Ow

fr kr

282

909

-.

4-4

Let

R" of

## P' on the y-axis

AI

(Figure 4-40.

The point

is at,

y = r sin 8 = r sin'cut..
.If

is the functiOn

g.

(8)

## t -)r sin wt,

then

4'

rm cop

(9)

and
2

(10)

=no

g11-: t

sin cot.
v

The point
.

starts at

= 0
A

at the point

and. oscillates up

*.11

## and down on the y-axis between

and . B' .

'

It completes an oscillation
2n

V.gure 4-4c

Note that

"

g"(t)

?ej

-tc2 g(t)

or more briefly

..c02

g"

in Figure

and

g' (t)

ft(t)

Q and

indicated

'11

\,

4Q\

%%ZI

..

, '

itself.

-i.,

Notice that
Ilkkt

'

IF

;
A

r
r

Figure 4-4d
04.

283

293

14-

4( ,,
.

g'00 = co f(t)

,,'

-,4
,

4-4
.4.
-

are giAn'by.

at time4 t

## = r cos wtft(t1 = -ru) sin cut;

and of

R
o g(t) = r sirr cat

'

The actua

Sngle

PQ

velocity 'of

0'0

## using the Pythagorean Theorem in tri7

is feund

. .

liff'(t)12.4-,[gt(t))2.

42[g(t)I2t+ 2[f(t)
cbi g(t) )2 -4-(f(t))2
cur.

Since
k

a.) =

at "which

,t

motion Of

OP,

so.that the

compoli

of acceleration
accelerpton

of P

## in' the s Me way,.we find that

'

=If"(t))2
= 14-032i(t)]2 +

)2

g(t1)2

irf.t) 12 4= [g(t)?
car'
and that the dire

0.

f
.P284'

2'

-Exercises 4,4
e

1.

Suppbse

Ii

. It

-

## second- 'Find-%le horizontal and vertical position, velocity, and

" ....6.

acpeiti-ation when the following values 'are &reit tM Adius and time.
,

r = 1

(a)

.
.

',

..

'

(I) i

t = 0

(ii)

t = 1.

iii)

t ,-- 1.,

iN0

t = 2

% )

'

(t),

r = 2

,,

(c)

010%.

(i)'

t =0

(ii)

t ='rl

(iii)

t = 2

(iv)'

t = 4

6 ,
't

t =0

(iii)

(iv)

t = 3

## Iting the result's of NuMber 1 compare the 'position, the horizontal

and the vertical Alocity, and the horizontal and the vertical acceleration of the following if
(a)

(b)

r =2 and

(C)' IL= 6
3.

t =

anis

f.N.-1;.

and

ana

## Using the results dumber 1 compare the horizontal 'and vertical

position, the horizontal and the vertical velocity, and the vertical
acceleration when

t = 0,

## entire circle far,

(a)

r'

(b) TS irk.=
2.

at

t = 0

(i.e.,' at

t = 0

and at 't = 2)

and at' t = 4)
,

{61
,

4.

r = 6.

(i.e.o;

at

t = 0' and at

t =.12)

Show that the square rOptIof the ,sum of the 'squares. of the acceleration

4

## prove that -Ar(t)12-+ Eg"()12 = s- a),

<'..the angular velocity.

where
.t

.e
I

'

28

35
rC's

11,

1,
--.

5.

wall

spring

mass

surface

-"'

GD

4
.

on the scale.

..

s.

Pit

f(t) = A cos

where

and

.

the cart.

5

C

./.

(b)

how that

(c)

f'01 = 0;

is zero.
(d)

Show thj

f"-(0)_

(e)

Show that

## _AO How far left doeb the - pointer move?

(g)

Show-that at title

t = li

ms

In what

f" =

(h)
,

## and acceleration at this time.

moving; at thia time?.

i
1

At

again?

## In, what direction is theIlass

''..)

4'

,
6. Draw a figure to justify the,atatement that in the case of 'uniform motion
4.0.

.
.

28t

296

P.)4

,

II.

4-5

%*

,

,..

## When we,differentiated a'polynomial function (Chapter 2). we got another

polynomial function.

## 'higher derivatives of-a-zpolynomial function, we eventually gota deHvative

with value zero for 611 values of

## Th6. will not be the case for a circu-

x.

lar function, since the derivative Of'a circular function is a circular function.

.

*

.

_/:

''

0,

f

sin,x

we get:

.

at -4 cos x

## the third derivative

Of

x -' -cos x
,

and

derivative x -4 -sin x

l t)pe second

## tin fourth derivatTrve

x -4 sin x.

As was the case for polynomial filnctions we can write ...Q9 = f', D 2 f = f",
f4,
fiv,,D5f
fv,
=
=
=
etc.
The Roman superscript notation becomes

..

cumbersome for high orders and it becomes more convenient to use-Hindu-Arab i'4
13

,.

order

, -

derivative of

as'

f,
e

...

,,

## If we take successive derivatives-of the sine function we get

:

;,',

ft

X --4 cos x
1

f"

(1)

x -4 -sin x

fm: x -0 -cos x

(4)
f_

x .4

sin x.

%.,

Since the fourth derivative is the original function wecan see the pattern
,

4?

Dny =

(-1:) y = --2.
dx
n
dx

## This can be further,atbreivated:

we write

.4

' .

287

(13)

- numerals parenthetieally as D f = f
. ,Thus the nth derivative* of f
a
Ls written n-DfFf (n) ., (It is also a, usIful convention to define the zero-

"

(n)
',

when' we mean

n'''

D y.

',-

4
4-5

f.= ff(4) = f

f=

0
---

(8Y

f(5) 2 p(9)

-(1a)

f(10)

f(6)

f (7) = f (11) =

flit

etc,

4
This result is sdnetimes summarized by saying that each function
here

or

-cos x

equation
.

(0

y/(4)

where

(4)

= Y,

## We know from our polynomial discussion that tale process of differentiation

lowers the degree of the pqlynomiar function., .Thus; if

x --vy

is a poly-

then

(4.1)
n

e--

(3)

## is a solution to the equation

f(x)

Y.

,= O.

The first derivative can be interpreted as the slope of,a tangent line

## or as velocity; the secondderiyative can be thought of as the rate of Olehge)

of,the slope function or as abcele'ration.

## interpretations of higher derivatives-are more difficult to contemplate, higher

- :derivatives ere useful in approximation discuisions.

Approximations
We want to find a polynomial,function which approximates the sine faction.

## To do tiis we turn to the problem of finding a polynomial function

to

whose firstand higher derivatives "fit" the sine function near zero.
precisely for each positive
polynomial function

'//integer

More

11

(4)

(b)

*
,,,,..

p(0) = 0 = sin.0

derivatives, of

x = 0.

cients:

a0, a

a2,
l',

'

p(x) = a

(5)
.

',.

## we need to find the coeffi-

for

+ a v+ a x- + ..; + a
1,

x!t.

288

,298
ti

only shold

. we need

p(n) (0),

## that these values 'determine the coefficients of

P(x)

-in

(5). ",
First try .to' approximate the sine functioK by. a first degree polynomial
function;.

i.e

we suppose that

n = 1

p(x)

so that
+ a x
1
.

-7 a
0.

and

p' (x) = al

Therefore, we have

%ow

(6)

and

p(0) =a0

al.

pt (0) 7

1
,For f: x ---) sin x,

f(x).= sin x

and

cos x

f 1(x)

we hate

ft(0)-=

f(0) = 0,

(7)

.
If tthe polynbbial function" p

require that

,,,

'

p(0) = f(0)

and

fig).

p'(o)

a0

and

al

= f(0)

of degree

= 2 ' so that

## 13. has the form

p(x) = a0 + a x + a2x

,.

2
.

## In this case, we have

and

pi (x) = al + 2a'2x

ph..

(x)

= 2a2

,.

,p,0

that

'p(0)

(8)

Sitice

x -+ sin x,

ao,

p'(0) = a-1 ,

p "('9)

289

299.

2a

2 -N

p(x) = x.

3
.

f(x) = sin x,

f"(x)

fl(x) = cos, x,

so that.

fq0)= 0,

.k)
If p
.

f"(0) =

f'().= r,

(10'

p? (0) = ft (0)

f(0),

p( 0)

we require that

= f" (

p" (

## 10) .with (8) and (9), we conclude thti

Combillingthe reqUArements of
=

Et

The cases
p(x) = x.

n = 1

0,

= 1, .and 2a

n = 2

,and

'

2
p

given by

Now

x = 0.

## i.e., we suppose that

.p(x)

= 8

+.8 X
1

8 x

n = 3;

given.by

+ 8 xJ.

Differentiating, we get
.pt(x).= a

p"Tx) = 2a

et(x) =

and

For

x = 0

(11)

+ 2a2x + 3a x2,

+ 6a x.
3 4

6a3,'

we' hale

p'(0) = a

p(0). = a0,

p"(0) 7 2a2,

1,

x = 0

"1(0) = 6a.

and

w,p obtain

'.

f'(0) = 1,

.,f(0) = 0,

"k

## and 44"(0) f -1..

fill)) 's 0,

Comparing these values with (11) under the requirements of (4)., we get

1 .
a

= 0,

= 1 2a 2

and

= 0,

= -1.

6a
3

of degree

,

,
3

p(k) = x

1
notation
.

'

,kt = 1

'

3 ...k

.

290.

'3 0 0
V

and

Of = 1.

## we shall use factorial

1

'4-5
.

A
p(x) = a

+ alx + A2x

n
+- a nx

then' we have -

=(09a0

p(0) =

p'(0) = al = (11)al

Z4b

,
-p"(0) r 2a2

(29a2

p"(0) = (2

3)d3 = (3)

(4)(

0) = (2 .3 ,4)a: = (40a4
"

= (2 .3

p(n) (0)

f.: x0--,sin x;

If

= (n! a

## then, 'from (la), we can write

%k %

da0 46f10) = f

rt)a

1 =)ft OCI,

_i

(4)

N
(0) = f (8) (0/
= ;.
.

(5)

1
(0/
= f (9)
'

(01

,..;

(6)
'0 = f(p) = f
(01 = ji())(0) '. ..
-.,
,.....1..!

0-1 = f'''.(0)
..--,

To satisfy

fkm-479Noryfk,1

4) we must have
.,

(0) =

## v(0) =' f(0);.k,pq0)

= fl(0),''13"(0) = f"(0),
,

(13)

## -all the coefficients Ofterdts in

of evenIdegree are

0..

al = 1,

(14)

a3 =,-

1
,

a, =

'

p ,of degree

10

## the conditions (4) iS given by

.

p(x) =

= x

tx3
X5
A. "5(9
- -37 +51- - 71,4-t

x3: x5

x7
'x9
120:: 5E76 + 362,880

function

n
la,

to

## there is precisely one poly4omaal

such that

andits f

st

n.

4-5

derivatives agree

n. derive-

x.=

tives.

The polyp

ials

.

.

-1

factiod:

'

it

x
1

1,

-2:'

x4

41'

2:

you

## In Exercises 4-5, Number 8

Approimation Error

.
.

4
-

## Now we wa nt to determine the accuracy of successive Taylor approximations.

The.approximations,

y = x,

y 7 x-

x3
,

y = x -

x3

x5
+ 5T ,

y = x

Y = x
.

Qt

to' y = sin x
.

x5

x7
,

and

x3
,3

x9

x3-;1

,t5

x7

-r

7
5.

-7 + -T
9.

3.

7.

,,

## Note that as the degreeOncrease0 s,

the Taylpr approximations become better in the sense that subsequent approxi,

mationsdmprove the "fit" near zero and also give better approxictions
further away from zero.

0 10

292

302

Jr
)

Y1

-pi

y., = x

x5

x3

x9

x
x7

.
/
1

--

' ;4

II.

/
I

y = sin x
S .... ...."

t.

3.

\\

'

\\

\
X

3
X

Y
Y2 'x

3t

\\ ,
\

.\

X3

X5

X7

'51.

7!

+ --- -

--

Figure 4-5a

large and

## In fact, for ,x > 0,

small.

ti

-ix.> sin x,

-.

'

x3"

x - -- < sin x,

3.
.

x -

x3

x5

> sin x,

Hence, the error made in using any oneof:these approximations is easy tcs
estifate.

.

x,-

## 'sin x r.. x , 7.,

In practice
5
since there is no need to compute values of sin x to /.

x -is.less than
X

>

1,

4.

.. .
e?

.*+.
.

x5

x3

' k

'

3'.

t
x

## is smaller than the preceding one..Morreover, since r <

'

we can approximate

sin x

7 when

large

4

enough!

x < 1,

'

-k

,

..
'

1,

'It

to

cos x

x > 0,

. .1 > cos x,

2:

< cos x,
4

FF+ u>,cos x,

1 -

mo9
.

fir

0 .and

1 -

2
2:

,
is between

x4

Example

4ta.

sin 0.5.

sin x 2 x

which gives

x3

.0.125'

0.020833...

x3

"\;

we obtain

## small by an amount less than

cludp that to

x5"

0.03i2 5

Tr. =

120
decimal place accuracy

2914N

0.00026.

## This estimate is too

We can therefore con-

in 0.5 Z_10.479.

4-5
2

Example

4-5b

## Use the approXimq ion

,x

for

cos x. to estimate

2'.

cos 0.2.

(0.2)2'

cos 4.2 %. 1 .

,27
o.o4

7 0.

0. 0016

0.000067:

'

R.

Pot

example,,

3',
sin x =yx

lo

where

and

0 < R<
2

co s x =

'

31-- +

4
< RI < rx

where

4.

Example

4-5c.

To find

lie
x-->0

We can write

sin
x

and

1 - cos x.

lip

x.

x-0

sin x = x - R,

3t

Asin x,-

1 -

"x

0 <

Since

R'

x2
---

2:

we conclude that

approaches '1.
Similarly;
.

cos x = 1 -

+ R',

<
2

Hence,

1 '- cos

x
x= Tr

4
r

29g 0.5

0,

R'

Since

1 - cos x
x

-and

2i

and

R'

x
1

-x,

lim
x
0

lim

To find

Example 4-5d.

x
.

1 - cos x
sin x
0%
x

cos x = 1

Since ,

1 - cos x
- 0.
x

+ IV

' .

'.

(0 < R <

sin x = x 7 R,

and

,
x2
-- - R'

x -

sin x

R'

1 - '

1 -

cos x

2-

and

sin x = x.
ti

Therefore,
_,,X2\

which approaches

as

x2

2/, _
x

approaches

0.

re

296

30

1.
(

-.

1 - cos x
'sin x

## and the denominator apprdaches

2'

Hence,

4-5
This example may be done in still another way.
1 - cos x = 1-- cos x

simx

1 - cos x

x
sin x

approaches

approaches
sin x
We can multiply these two limits to obtain the required limit.

## FVom the previous example

1.

We may write

and

It can be shown that the Taylor approximations are the best polynomial
approximations near zero.

For example, if

f : x -'sin x

an

then
f(x)

p(x)1',.

as

approaches

and

0;

approaches

or less

x3

it

4-5
I
Exercises 4

(b)

(i)'

(ii)

f(1)(x)*

(x)

(ii,i)

.(iv)

-) Cos

Given:, g
(i)

determine

x,

8(31)(x)
g

-2.

(.1)

determine

-' sin x,

(a)"

(42).
(

x)

fr,
f

(35). xi'

(18) (x)

g

(20)

thin find

),

g(14),

then find

(x)

g(101)(x)
'

x,

(i)

(iii)

fm(ii)

(iv)

(ii)
(b)

Given:'

(i)

3.

(a)

(0

given:

(10)

5g.

(-6-)

gt(i)

(iii) 011(1)

8"Pir-)

(iv)

f : x

A sin ax,

(ii)

f"(X)

(iv)

x-4B

cos bx,

(4)- 5g

(--(7)

find
(iii)

'Given:

(4)

find

x -) cos x,

f'(x)

find

81(;)..(ii)

(a)

(i)

-"

r(i)

Given:

(iv)

g"(x)
f

(it)
g

,
(*)

find

(i)

ft(x)

(iii)

fftl(x)

(ii)

e(x)

(iv)

fiv(x)

g*(x)

(iii)

gm(x)

g"(x)

(iv)

giv(x)

Giventz .g f

2 cos 2

(i)

298

1047

4-5 .
5.

If

-) 3 sin (i +

f(0)

(al

ft(x)

(b)
(c)

(d)

'

(e)

6.

If

find

(i)

f"(x)

(i)

fm(x)\

(i)

f(4)(x)

g-

4a)

-2 cos (2x +

'find

g(Q)ti

().) 7,(,i)

g'(x)

(:k1(1)
e

811-(:)

(d)

ii). g"'(x)

(e)

(1.-)

04)

g'(v)
(ii)

g"(-

(ii)

g'"(0)

12

8()*

(x),
-

7.

8.

## Show that the Taylor approximations to

. x --t

x2

2!

2!

cos x

are given: b3

+-7

and, in general, by

1
where

is even,and

9.

(a)

9,

k xn
(4'1)

n!,

k =

$N .1 For Numbers ## 10, and 12, use the Taylor approximation for using Calculate iin(0.2) = 4. sine aria...t s-. 1. 1. (b) . ## Estimate the error. . 10. (a) Calculate pos(0.2) (b) ## Estimate the error. using n . r 4 k- .299 309 cosine. ;, ## 11. (a) "Calculate cos using' n = 2 (i) '(iii) r- =4 =6 ## In each case estimate the error, ascertaining the number of places . ## of accuracy in the approximation of cos 1 a . Show that the sine function is not equal to a polynomial function onlpany . ## interval; i.e., given x a < b ## and any polynomial p, such that there is a number ., 11 a < x"< b sin x = p(x), Suppose (Hint: and sin x # a < x < IS p(x)., and differentiate 'several times .) ## Find the limits of the following expressions as (sin approaches 0. (a) X sin x 2 - x6, (b). 4x2 .sin. 4x (c)-7 te x2 = {Let, 4x2 ## and find the limit as ),0) / 6 3x - sin 3x (Let (Let ....3x .= t) 6x 2 1 - cos .x x 1 x3 Ps,/ (f) ". 300 I . 14. ## Use Taylor approximations for 'sin x cos x and ## to evaluate each of the ## following limits (if the lithit exists). NN --- sin'x cos x ''''''-' lim (a) x -4 0 lim (b) 7- cos x - sin x x -4 0 P V lim (c) 4.4p+ 4x )0+" (Note: 15. means that ## approaches zero from the right only.) C_ ## Find the limit, of each of the folloying'expressions'as approaches 0. sue_ x (a). x_ sin x - cos x (b) nt x i sin x t- (c) cos X)2 (1 16. ## Show that the Taylor approximations to replacing 17. by 2x ## inthe approx4tions fox Taylor approximations at (a) xl )sin 2x x. n, ## there is a unique poly - such that deg p (i) a /,0 ## Show thpt for each positive integer nomia4 can be obtained by ## p(a) '= sin (iii) the first values at x = a derivatives of ## have the same respective as the first derivatives pf x 1-4sin x. ## These polynomials are called the Taylor approximations of ## the sine function at x=ja. (b) ## Show that for (c) g'n a p(x) ' si n a ## + (cos Fa)(x -,a) 2! (x, -.a 4 ## Show that, in general, ' ## .p(x) = f(a) + fT(a)(x-.a) + f"(a) * f (n) (a) 2 (x - a). + (x.. a)n. it ## d) Derive a formula corfesponding to that 4n part (b) for .the cosine Taylor approximationS. 501 A J '' -1 3 1 I t 5-1 41, Chapter 5. ## EXPONENTIAL AND RELATED FUNCTIONS Ak. the preceding four chapters we studied polynomial and circular functions, the former being defined algebraically, the latter in terms o& arc lelith bn the unit circle. ## In this and the net chapter we take up the study ## of exponential functions'and several otherfunctioni which can be described in terms of exponentials. x ## In brder to define an exponential-function, such as x ,., ## we must showhpw.iptational powers are defined. ## Then we must obtain ## the properties of these functions. . ## In order to provide a basis for our'dvelopment of exponential furictions and their inverses, the logarithm .functions, we beginAhis chaptei- with Peview of thailaws of exponents..To assist us Pin our discUssionof exponential functions, we Show in Section 5-2 how.the function x -uN2x _serves as a ## model for growth. ## The laws'of rational exponents and the fact that increases as ## (rational) increases are established in Section-5-. ## method fon defining irrational powlSof 2x ## is indicated in Section 5-4, 4 where,it is noted that laws of exponents for arbit*ry real numbers hold and that the graph'of the resulting function x -42x is rising and has no gaps. These facts are used in Section 5-5 to obtain-the definitions and propertiet of the general exponential function. ## The final two'sectiOns use the inverse ## eoncept to define and analyze the logarithm functions. -1. ' Exponents ' ## You are doubtless familiar with the,behavior of exponents. . Since, how- ever, we shall need to use them extensively, it seems wise to put our know-, ledge of theM in order.' Le ## s consider the sequence of.numbers 2,*2 X 2, 2 X 2 X 2, 2 x2,x 2 x 2, ... which we abbreviate as (1) ,using thel'exponents1 1 1 , 3 ,,o2s .4 , 2 ## 3, 4, to indicate the number of equal factors. I. 3,01 ## Can we give meaning to 0 2 -1 -2 , 2/2, 22/3, t or to equal factors or -2 ## Certainly we cannot talk sensibly about equal 4fdtors0 If to the exponent ## look at the list (1) we note that aftiltion,of '1 results in a multiplication IL 24 Thus 2. ## this principle by saying that subtraction of 1 result which is ## 23+1 = 2 23 We can restate ## from the exponent gives a Thus, ## the otiginal one. 23 = 1(24),.2.2 = 1(23), 2 ## from the exponent in We can get to represent? 20 What number 20, by subtracting ## Therefore, if we are-to'maintain the principle, we should have 2 ]..; .= -t ## from the exponent, We get Subtitcting another / 2 -1 0 1 = -fke ## Continuing in this fashion we find successively 2 -2 =3 2 , -4 1 = = g1 = 7, ' and generally' 2 -n 1 = 1 2n ## ,for every positive integer To interpret 1/2 2 n. . ## we shall assume that equal increasmin the exponent ## correspond to equal ratios of the numbers. %w7 With integer expoffents this prin- ## ciple takes the form that each incr.ease'of ## in the exponent cotrespondi to a ratio o,' ## What ratio corresponds to an increase{ of 2. ## this unknown ratio r. Then . 304jQ (.1 1 ? Let A call 5-1 . t t t 21/2 =' +1/2 2i1 and r 2 = r 1 = r r 21/2 +1 /2- /But 1/2-_ r2 r 916 21 61. Hence: 4 r.,, and 1.- .... - ., '> ' = /E. . ## We reject the possibility ## which would-not t nicely do the r = -1/ ## (See Figpre 5-1a.) grapild Po. 4.4 FigUre 5-1a Powers of 2 , ## similar argument shows ## that to maintain regulartty we should take 21/3 = 3AT 22/3 . andso on. 3. ## Generalizing, we are led to define 2= p /4 12 /75 where-,p and ## are positive integers. 1%0 We can reverse our principle and say that every time we st.lberact a given amount from the exponent we divide theaiiimbelby a fixed amount. clude that .3953 t i4 Then we con- 5-1 -1/2 1 = -2/2 , 1 ig JE -3/2 ' 1* : 27-..:::-- '2 end so on. . ,, -- ac .., ## With these interpretations of negative integral exponents and functional exponents,, we see that if and are_.any two tational numbers then --a g .. 2r ' 2s = 2 r+s ' and (2r)s More geprally, if ,a 2rs. 4 is any positive number and if 'r ## rational numbers then it turns out that ' (2), eras = a r+s and (3), c(ar)s. arS. ## These equations express the familiar laws of exponents. 4,0''s are two Elercises,5-1 Write each of the following as a positive power of one number 1. (a) x5 x.? (a3/5)5/3 (b) ' (g)4 ;TLIU 10-7 .169 62/3 (c) a3 /5. a5/3' (h) 3 .2 1/2 32 32 2 24 (d) 2 (73-). (11 -- o 1/2 ti 22 i(i) (e) 1.1 814/3' 23/4 r. ## (J) '25 2755 (125 )-2/3 ## Find the value of 2. if: 14m-r _442/3; = (23)2; (a) 8rn (b) 8m .= (c) 2(45) = 16m; (a) (24)5 = 16m; 2(32); / if) 571 = 0.2; (g) (pm (h) 17m = 1 I; O . Eva '3. 100018-2/3) ex. 3(9)-3/2. ## -)4.- Area ge the following in order of magpitude: 22/3, 5. (1)=riti; .. Show that if x = 22 ..7 then 7x = 4 2-3, (2 -2/9)9 10,--7,- .,. . . (45/2)0-1), 6. ## Carry out an argument, like that in the text 0 show that .0.- 31/4 (b) 4-3 = 41/31. 43 (c) 2:1/2 500" 307 31G' '41 -2 ## The Exponential Function, Growth and Decay 5-2. In this and the next three sections we shall be concerned with assigning, a meaning to where a > 0 and, ## is an arbitrary real number. This ## will lead us to the general exponential function x 'where is a constant The number kax ## is called the base of the exponential function. ./ ## An exponential function can serve as acidealized mathematical molel for growth and decay. ## Suppose a biologist grows a colopy ## Let us consider growth. / ## He wishes, to study, how the number, of bacteria ## of a certain kind of bacteria. ## Under favorable circumstances he find:, that so long as ## changes with, time. the food holds out, the time required for the number of bacteria to double His does. not seem to depend on the time at, -which he starts the experiment. hypothesis is that .the time required for the bacteria to double does not depend upon the time when the initial count is made. 'This is one instance of a general growth principle which 'is important in social, phytic0s, and. biological science. ( N0 ## To be concrete, let us .suppose that on a given day there are bacteria presentsand that the number of baoteria doubles every day,' Then there will be 2N0 ,twice ## present one day later. 2N the number ## 22Nd after three days twice or ## .After another day the number of bacteria will be 0 23..2,:. After v of bacteria present will be given by.tne';qs,tat'ion N(n) 2 N.. ;or days ti 0 N(n) = No2 (2) __where n , is a positive integer. ## If we asamme that the number of bacteria increases steadily throughout / any given day,,ye might want to determine how many bacteria are present after the s ## rt.o; how many were present 1 2 .f II* 1-f day ## days before th'e initial &mint was made. ## To answer these questions we must generalize equation (2) to N(r) = NO2r, where ## pity take any rational-values, positive or negative. expressions as to and J5. 271 If such ## are to have meaning, we must generalize further 308 3j7 -r 5-2 where ## is an arbitrary real number. Let As suppose that (3) serves as a model for the growth of the bacteria colony. Can we 44duce from this growth equation that the time required for the bacteria to double doesn't depend on the time. the initial count is made? ## Since thiswas thgAnitial_hypothesia, it should be true if (3) is to serve as a model. ## SinCeye_pan be certain of the meaning of -2 only, when is ## rational '(from SeZtion,5-1)we begin with that case to check the'hypothesis.' Suppose we take a count take another count ## days after the 'start of the experiment and then days later: x and Here ## numbers, positive, negative, or zero. ## may be any "rational From,(3) we have N(x + t) = NO2x4t. - m-Seet-i-on-5-1,-_tlie_exponent la 'r ,(2r +s = 2 2 for- -r and rational) gives N(x + t) = N0 2x Replacing by N 02 N(x) (4) 414 we obtain N(x + t) = *2tN(x). In words, if 1N(x) number N(x + t) The factor ## isrthe bacterial count after .x of bacteria after x + t does not depend upon ## depends only upon t, x, days is ## days, then the 2s times as great., ## the time of tfie,first count; it ## the time interval between counts. For example, suppose that there are one million baiteria ruSent initi,a1g4r; i.e., N0'= 10 6 . ## Then the number of bacteria one-half datlater is given by N(2),= 106(21/2) =10 ## Aftegone,and one-half days the number of bacteria in the colody is ; N(p.... 106(23/2) r= 106 (21,2) r-% = 200 6Y2) = 2 N(t) 309 318 d 1' 5-2 ## If we use (4) we obtain the same result: N(i) t N(i" + 1) =2N(2). ea: Assuming that the conditions of growth were the.same prior to the initial count, we Stu:mid expect, that the number of bacteria one day before the' initial ## cdunfis taken would be ,t!(=1), = 1.06 , -1 = 500,000.r ## An exponential function.with any positive base can serve as a griowt,IN model. ## If,we-replacie the assumption that the number of bacteria dolpot each ## day by the assumption that the number changes by a factor of a_ each day, we ## obtain the model N(x) = Noax. ## Si ce the laws of exponents hold for rational exponents and an arbitrary base w ## obtain the relation N(x + t) = at N(x). We see that it is also true in the general case that the growth factor depends only-upon the length of the time interval observation time (x). 3100 (t) (at) ## and not on the first \, 4, LI Exercises ## In the first four exercises consider the equation N(n) = 106(2n),, where N,(n) ## represents the number of bacteria present at the end of ## 1. ) Plot the points for which, n =,0, 1, 2, 3, 4 smooth curve. days., ## and connect them yith,a' (The unit chosen for the vertical axis may be one million.) 7-* 2. ## The bacteri'a count at theend of as the count 3. n + 5 ## day's is how many times as great ## days after the beginning of the experiment?* - n + 2 Onp week after the inftial count was made the number of bacteria present ## was h& many tunes as great ## the number present three days before the experiment began? 4. ## bacteria present after If there are ## days, after how many days ;.00 ## weri there k present? 5. 200,000 ## Suppose that in a new experiment there are at the end'of I4ree days and Compute: days. (a) ## the number present at the end of (b) ## the number present at'he end Of 1- days; 1 days; (c) bacteria pFesent ## 1,600,000 present et the end of 47 ## the number of days at the end of which there are 806,000 bacteria present. ## issume that the number of baCteria present at the IINginning of Hint: the. experiment is ## and that at the end of a N0 24 6. ## hours the count is ## The number of bacteria in a certain culture is obseryed to double every day. If t reewere ## 105' present at the first count, the number of bacteria fl.t after days is given by N(t) = 105 days? (a) ## How many Were there after (b) ## HOw many were there one day before the count? 2 -days? 2t. ## two days before the count? . (d) ## How many were there one-half day before the count? aftpr the count? ti ## What is the ratio of ,311 320 N(2) to one-half day N(- 2)? 5-2 7: ## Suppose N(t).= Noa (a) ## is 'the number of bacteria present at time ## If this formu a is to represent growth,- can . la with Use the/for a = 1 , a = 1, . and be-smeller tlian a = t. 1? ## , to ;stetch graphs- - -' ## illustrati g your answer. (b) Calcula 41, N(t'+ 1) NM' 77.7, N(t + 2) N(t + 3) N(t + /) ' __N-(t f 2) (c) ## Ie general whbi is the value of (d) Suppose that MItr + n 4,1) 9 N(t +..n) , N(1) = 105 and N(2) = 106. Find _N0 ' ..... and a,;/ ## radioactive substance (such as radium) decays so that the amount 8. /present, N(t)A .,-- at time ## is satisfactorily given by the same I formula as growth: N(t) = N at, 0 where- a ## is a positive real numberr-=- (a) ## What is the amount present at :time t = 0? (b) ## If this is to represent Aecay, can (c) ## Show that the ratio .of the amount present at time t + 1 ## amount present at time ## and .is smaller than exceed ## doesn't' depend /upon 1? to the 1. No lttt ## If .N(t) = N0( --) ## find the value of ## for' which 'N(t) = JO 312 0 2 .7- ... _ '5-3 1 ## More About Rational Exponents sr ## Before attempting to define irrational exponents we shall further examine the'function r -4 a where a > 0 and a = 2; ## r' is a rational number. r ) 2r, r and ## To be concrete let us suppose ## we consider the ?unction ( 1) For rational. r, ## rational, the laws of exponents are 2r2s +s (2) 0-4_6 2rs (2r)s ## We can show that the function (1) is increasing; that is, 2 < 2 if and ## are rational and r <-'s. ## We firsts observe that if (3) a > 1, where then > 1, a 3 > 1, 4.., a > 1, is a positive integer. .r: ## Similarly we'note that (4) a = 1; if /' then -an = 1, and 0 < a < 1, if (5) ## Now we assert that m/n 2 were equal to which is false. m/n 1, > 1 then ## for any positive integers ## If, on the other hand, ## neither'less'than nor equal to r and m and n. 'If ## wouldleaa to the result an =.2m = 1,' then 0) vwould 2m/fl ## would lead to the result 'Ian = 2m < 1, Now let 0 < an < 1. ## were less than ## it must be greater than 1, 1, .then,...(5..) ## which is also false'. Since ## be any.twp rational numbers such that ## s -tis.a positive rational number 2m/fl is 1. r < s. In conclusion we have Then d / 2s -r . 2 m/n 2r(2s-r) 2s > 2r. 32.3 3.22 > 1 2r r -)2.,, where Is rational, unc ion. is aryfcreasing ... / ' If ## is a large lager then certainly Ailk is very large. Estimates ' ## can be obtained by usIng the binomial theorem to,expand 2n of the size of n > ## (1 t f)n. .For example, we have, for' ## (14- 1)n = In An In -1 .1 + n(n 12 + 1) In -2 All of these terms are positive, so if we cmit any terms we can-only decrease ms we In partibUlar, omitting all but the first and second the size. obtain > 2n = (1 + 1) 6,(6) + n. ## Consequently, if-we go far-enough to the right the graph of x y = 2x, (7) rational ## must lie above any given horizontal line. ## An6ther consequence of (6) is the fact that the, negative x-axis is an asymptote fot the graph of (7); that is, ## the graph of (7) approaches the x-axis for k negative and Ix! large.. , ## show this we can take reciprocals 1(6) to obtain :(8) Since -n r and since = -2 .0 1 + n 2** approaches zero as Inl increases, then 1 + n y,= 2x 1-:.g. approaches zero as ## becomes negatively infinite. ## \In summary, the graph of !x - axis (when x < 0 ## iises rapidly for and !xi y = 2x, ## rational, increases from near-the ## is large), crossing the y-axis at (0,1),, and x > 0. .;---.tr. 314 323 *. 5-i .' r, 4 - ## Table 5-3. . Values of ) 2-r .001 1.000 693 4 .005 1.003 471 7 .01 1.006 955 6 ..02 0.999 307 1 0.99 54o 2' ## 0.993 092 5az 0.9vo 23 )1 1:01 3 96 .03- 1.021:01 - 0.979 42 .64 1.V 11 0.972 66 ..05 1.106 .10 o .15 26 0.965 94 1.071 77 ,0.933 03 1.109 57 0.901 25 1.148'70 0.870 55 to -"J .20 .25 . 1:189 21 0.840 9b .30 1.231 14 0.812 25 .35 1.274 56 0.784 58 .40 1.31951 0.757 86 :45 1.366 04 0.732 04 1.414. 21 ...0.707 11 .50 .55 1.464 08. 0.683 02 .6o 1.515 72 0.659 75 .65 1.569 17 0.637 28 1.624 5o 0.615 57 1.681 79...$

0.594 6o'

.70
.75

.1

.8o

1.741 lo

_85 -

1.862 5o

0.554 78

.9o-

1.866 07

0.535 89

.95

1:931 87

0.517 63

a.

1.00

Rational Values of

2-.00o 00

0.574 35

-6.560 00

2r

## Wile 5-3 gives rational powers of

use the entries to three place accuracy.
used to find

'

2.

Ordinarily it is sufficient.to

"a.

>

3!S2 4

5-3

## DiT2212 5-38. Find

21'68.
de

We note that
2(1 +

21.68
=

1.

1..1

Find

Example 5-3h.
--

2r

0.65

000,

4 .03)

20.03

20.65

21

2(1.569)(1.0021)

0.57

write
+.0.63

2-0.31 =

2...(2o.6o oro.03)

11213.6o)

0.03)

'U*516)(1.021)
2

## EITIP12, 5-3" Find

Note that.

22,

0.774

43'21.

so that

"43.21

22x3.21

(22)3.21

26.42

26

20.02>

21374o

64(1.320(10314) = 85.663.

## Later we shall be able to use Table 5-3 to maculate

expressions as '3r.

general positive

a,

## (In Section 5-5 we shall show how to define

in terms of powers of

2.)

ax, tfor
.

316

325
4.

.
fi'

5-3

Exercises 2:2
1.

(a)

.(b)

2.

5 4
2-/

Calculate

by noting that

2514 = 2

21/4

= 2 .

(a)
('0

21.15

.y.65

(c) 20.58
(d)
3.

4.

2-Q.72

0. 84

(a)

(b)

0.25-0:83

## Extend Table 5-3 by completing the following table.

Table 22 (extended)

Values of

2r

2r.i
'

-3.6
-3.2
-2.8
-2.4

r..

-2.0
-1.6
-1.2

ft

..

1.4

'1.8
2.2

'

'

?6

3.0
e

Ak

(x

2x)

shown in

1%.,._
e

6.

(a)

f

increasing?

decreasing?

r -tar

constant?

317

32G

is the function

5-3
(b)

is the function

0r

increasing?
(c)

z.

we.

constant?

decreasing?

## For what positil7e values of

is the function,

-r 2
f

increasing
(d)

If

decreasing? constant?
for what values of

+3

r '-

.ShowAhat if

n > 2

is the function

(2b + 3)r

then
2

>

MO.

nkn - 1)
2

I'

(b)

constant?

decreasing2

increasing?
(a)

(a)

'

100
2

99

100 > 2 r

210,000
116,000 >

(ii)

(e)

As

9, 99
2

2"
n

become large?

ti

3.

318

327-

5-4

onents

Arbitrary Real

In the preceding
for

rational.

irrational.

ax

and

is

n,

3
x

## To be specific, we want theexpression

irrational values of

x;

suppose

2x

a = 2.

x.

## In the next section we shall show how to define

general positive

a,

in terms of powers of

(X

ax,

for

2.

## Of course, the meaning of "in a natural way" is ambiguous.

however, what we wish to do is clear.

so

Geometricqlly,

## After plotting the points

2X)
then we just connect these points

x,

x
x --) 2

2 2

(2,4)

## The second coordinate of

this- point should be.,
2

(0,1)

if

Figure.5-4a.

Finding
"holes" in

by filling in the
x 742x,

319

rationat.

'

s/

and in general

2x

for irrational

x.

## The function so obtained is increasing everywhere; that is

)

if

u < v,

then

'2u <*iv.-

In fact, there is only one increasing function which has the values
all rational numbers

r.

u+r '= 2 u 2 v

## hold for,all real numbers

and

and

for

(2u)v,= 2uv

(rational or irrational).

The graph of

## x -2x. has no "gaps"; that is..

for any positive number

(3)..

(2)

this function

such that

y,

there is an

2x = y.

## . In the sequel lie shall assume that indeed

is so defined that,

(2) and '(3) are true and examine the consequences of these
assumptions.

such that,

and

s,

r<

we must-have
8,
(5)

...

2F < 2

< 2s.

## Obviously this places a severe restriction on the value we assip-to 2

and,,.
as,we shall see", determines it completely.
The ordinary decimal approximations...,
,

.

4'.

,-

and

s;

we know that.

'

,
1

)..4

1.401,
.

fit

'

.

,1,414'2

_1.411121

## < Vg,< 1.4143

< If

<1.41422

and so qn.' The iriequa ities (4) and (5) then show that

'4
320
-

5-4

1.4.

< 2

21..41

< 3

1.414

< 2

21 4142

If
if

< 2

if

< 2

1.42

1.415

21.4143

21rf

1.41421

1.5

< 2

if ) 1.41422
2
< 2

<

and so on.

.

estimates for

if

1.4

2.639 <
2.657 < 2

2.664.< 2
2.665 < 2
and sa'nn.
2

if

< 2

1.41

< 2

1.414

If

< 2
< 2

<

1.4142

< 2

,/,"f

< 2

1.5

1.42
1.415
1.4143'

< 2.829
< 2.676
< 2.667
< 2.666

decimal places,

ff

= 2.665

## The pinching down process that we use to estimate

if

is indicated

in Figure 5-4b.
V

1.4142

1.41

1.41

1.415

21
.

4 2

1.42

21
4,

.2.6

2:7

2.8

Figure 5-4b
,,

Pinching down on
TI:0 generalize to any real number

## rl, r2, r3,

Yn,

decreaSing sequence

than X

x,

2'6.

## ofrationalnumbers all less than

si, s2, 53," ..., so,

r l'i

,.,,
',

3?).
'i-t

and any

330

,
r1

## 1.We:compute the sequence of numbers

s

sequence of numbers
,

intervals

< y

1
,

3
,

r2

r,

and the

, 2 J, ..., 2 n,

,-2

## and then look at the

..., 2 n,

sn
.

s3

2 q-

pinching down on
2

x
r

crowding in on x.

41,

fi

rn
r

s2 sl
n

Figure 5-4c
Pinching down on' 2x.

s

confined by

and

define'as

he number

2x.

.

choice

n"

of

the sequences

rn, ...

;..

3223

and

r'113 "-*
1

SHIM

... ....

OS.

.....
..............
::: ::::::::::::

SS

MSS

......

SS

OS

S OY

113

sass
.....

11

1.1

Is

r1

-...

T:fin:2112

SEIM

.... ....

::: :
MEWL.

## " " .......

31U.

..........................

....

WRENN

111

COO

NA

.....

..
.......... . :

'11::..... SS .........

:
I
I

WIN

e:

........

1:11:313:13
L..13:1111'11..

....... elas

..............
Wan ...............
%SS

.........

SW=

...........
....................

e.

3111:1-'13111111:11:11

................

/Il :

i..

....... ............

....................

00

...

00

.....................

Of ......

..... ........

.......................................
..........................................

II ............................. g

........

.........................................

.......... :
RS

........................................

II

......
1/8

5-4
4 Exercises 2:4
1.. Use the graph of
2

2
2

x --)2x

1.15

2.65
0.58

2-*72
2.

Exercises 5-3
3.

se the graph of

(a) 2
(b)

x -)2

17 f

2g

(c) -.2-g/4
4.

for which

= 0?

5.

## Use the graph of

x -)2x

r.
to estimate the vilify of

if:

(a)

(b)

23c

= 6
'II.

(d)

2x = 3

(e)

0:7'

,4

!I

= 0.4

(c)

iim

--'

= 3.8

= 2.7

*a

6rL

Fl
324

5-5

as Powers of

## We have concentrated on the function

f

x -)2x.

You are now familiar'With its graph andhave worked with a table of its Values.
We shall now study the function
f

where

x -)a

## Fortunately we do not have to start

as a power of

as lie proceed to

2,

show:
o

The graph of
right.

Also,

x -)2

f(x) = 2x'

## becomes arbitrarily large for

sufAficiently ,far

to the right on the real number line, and arbitrarily close to zero for all
..

## sequently, if we proceed rrom left to right along the graph,

steadily in such a way that any given positive.number
once and. only once.

a,

increases

will be encountered

for which

a=

(1)

## may be expressed as a power of

a
Figure 5-5a

Graph of x

Con-

showing that

325

334

= a.

2.

x,

say

**)

5-5
We can find the value of a

Table 5-3.

We loo

1.11 = 2a.

1.11

or

## in the second column and read backward to find the

0.15
corresponding value of a in the first column. Thus, .1144 = 2
(approximately).
J

Exam le
Welhave

3.25

Example

-7c.

x -.2

The result is

6.

2.6

(approximately).

,

6 = '22(1.5).

2a.

21.70.

21 (20.70)

2(1.625)

On the graph of
ordinate

3:251in.the form

Express

'

as a power of

2j

4- first write

## and 0.60 we-obtain

20.58 m 1.50.

Therefore a Z 2.58,'

by itterpolation.

The expression. a

for

o= 2

!fence,

irrational and

x = 0.55

2 . 0.5 8).
A 2.58
0..50) ,S4'2 k2
4 d

2.

a / 2

defined.

ax when

is irrational.

the function

x -,ax

by
x

{2)

ax

where

a =115.

)

ax

axa"and

( x)Y = PxY

will have no g p

If

13)

a >1,

thee X-*ax

a <'0

(for 'if

then

that is,

2a < 1).

Thus tf

a > 1
x < y

y.

E9. < a

is increasing.

32d3

= 2'

then ax <ay

where

a > 0,

so that

(5-5
The graph

a;

where

a'= 2a.

= 2,

end

## is obtained from the graph of

a = 2a,

then

For example, if

a = 4

scale by a factor of

Roy changing

so that

0 < a.< 1
x
In this case the graph ,of x -*a

will be negative.

x -,2x

If

2.

These considera-

## to graphs of exponential functions.

(i)x

x -)2x

Figure 5-5b
,

The following examples illustrate the use of formula ,(2) Table 5-3 in
0

calculating

ax.

'

'

4 4 4.

i,

.
(0
.

value of
t

To

3.7

as epower of

0.7

2,

'

;:d

## the value of 30T ''W first eZpi.ess i 3 as a power of 2. 'Thus,

1, 0.58
1.58
3 = 2 (1.5) =.2 (2
)
-',2
(approximately). :(Verify :tili's from Figure
in#

'

-\.

5-4d.).

'30.7

Now

(21.58) 0.7

*106

21.11

a
.

m 2

(1+0.10+0.01)

= 2 (2

0.10

m'n1.072)(1.007) = 2.159.

)(2

0 01

,'

327

3 3.6

." p

5 -5

Example 5-5e.

(6.276)0.4.

We note that
//

6.276 = 4(1.569)

22(1.569) z 22

## (Verify this from_FigureZ4d.)

(6.276)'-!1

22.65
=

Hence,

2(2.65)(0.4)

(22.65)0,.4

(20.65)

(1+0.05+0.Q1)

= 2

21.06

20.05

2(1.035)(1.007) = 2.084

20.01
2

(approximately).

Exercises LI
1.

Express

2.

Write

"A

of

2.64

in the form

2.64 = 2a

(2.64).3.1
.

3.

4.

(5.2)2.6.

5.

ShoW that if

6.

0,< a <%.,4

and

v > u,

then

i

X-) 2
(a)

x -o 4x

(b)

(c)

x -3 (5.736)'

(d)

x -3(0.420)x

aV < au.

QX
.

(3.66)x

328

337

5-5
oV.

7.

a ,and

Suppose

Consider the

1.

two functions:
x

and

ax

bx

'

x
(a)

If

(b)

Su pose

a < b,

_,2ax

and

close to

b.

Is

close to

and

(3.

Illustrate your

(3?

For these values
of b

8.

2.0/.44

2-.3
---.1

ax

ax = 2

Given:

ax

(D)

(b)

If

(c)

ShoW that

Igt

a?

## is decreaping, what is the sign of

a?

is independent of

f(xf,(+x)1)

x.

.)

If

(1)

10t

> 0,

'

(ii)
(d)

'

9.

(a)

If

a > 2,

If

what can we ;c
z,

q ,< 0,

Where, does

a ,,

(2

he graph_of

e.

,44-1

xs:,

:show that

.for

> 0.

*

Does

,..,

,, ,

(b)

%;

c ',t'

J. '

i-

."

.

(c)

a?

.7

W,

.'..

--)

aZ and

.x
x -, 2(2a) .
.

I.

if any, of the

.!

,,

f ,,4 %,
.

.,..

two graphs:

es.

r.
,..

(where
St

x -,b(ba)X

u.
.

x -i4x
(where

and

and

x -> b

n.

,x

Om)

I.:

-:'

.'-

5-6

5-6.

## 4 Since the exponential function

every horizontal line

y = b

where

x -02

b > 0.

.

be-

## comes large and it comes arbitrarily close to the x-axis for

lx1

large.

In particular, if

x > 0,

negative And

such that

...

JO%

2y =x.
This 'number

by

## Thus the function

log2 x.

log2 x

log2 : x

x > 0

is defined-only fkz.

With base

2.

## These two functions are related by

log2(c) = d if and only if

(1)

2d = c.

'

If '(c,d)

x -4kog

then

(2)

(d,c)

## lies on the graph of

and conversely.

X' --'2x

As was tha case for other functions and their inverses that we have
studied, the graph of
x -32x

x --olog2 x

y = x.

## (See figure 5-6a.)

139

-.

5-6

Calculations involving

log2

## For example, since

' 23 = 8,

we know thAX

log2 8 = 3;

and since

-6
2

1
"we have .log2(.alo= -6.

## In fact, any table of valuet..of the exponential.functton .6 the base

also give.4tUes of

log2.

will

2

.20

= 1.14870

so that
log

1.14870 2:

log2

ti

-331

'140

.--"

(a)

(3)

log2 1 = 0

(b)

1og, 2 = 1

(c)

log2

((i)

log2 x > 0

(e)

## log2 x < 0 'if

is an increasing function

x > 1

if

0 < x < 1.

## The properties can be observed in Figure 5-6a.

example, let us prove.(c).

Y1 = log

Suppose

y0 = log2 x0

For

and

so that

If yo

= 2Y

yl

and

= 2 1.

we would have

## increasing function, the condition

y0 > yi

2y0 > 2

y1;

y0 > yl.

Since

is an

implies that

.
,)

.,

so we are
contradicts the assumption that x < x
0
1
This
log
is an
log2'x0
<
log2
xl.
This
proves
that
forced to conclude that
that in,

5:

0 ?

x1.

increasing function.
\,..

x+y

x y
= 2 2

and

(255Y = 2xY

(a)

## log2 xy = log2 x + log2 y

(b)'

log2 xY = y log2 x.

(4)

c = log2 y

b = log2 x,

a = log2 xy,

(5)

4g,

so that
2c.

2b,

Observe that

xy

## is then also given by

so

= 2b

2c =

2b +c

so that
0}

b+c

= 2

332

3 41

5-6

Wp.conclude that a = b + c;

table.

'

Example

Find

log

3,25.

3!25

doesn't.

4T

.appear.

## Note however that

3.25 =2(1.625)
so that
log2 3,?5 = log'114,+ 16g2 1.625.

'
Reading from t.he second .column to the first column in Table 5-3 we obtain
log2 2 = f,

log2'1.625 r. 0.70,

so that
log2 3.25 z 1.70.

. The next example shows how inequalities for the logarithm to the base

lbg2 n < n.

-)

Since.

and log2

## is an increasing function we must trete

log2 2n >.log2 n.
Formula (14b)

gives
-,

log2 2n = n log

Since

log 2 = 1
2

we must have

n > log2 n.

-tr

--333342

5-6 ,
Example 2-6c.
The function
1

can write
f :

f

is defined for

## log2(1 - 2x). = log2 [-2(x

LI

x -elog2 1-2(x - VJ

in four steps.

: x -elog94 - 2x

1 - 2x >0;
'''

)J.

'

by

We

g :-x -elog2 x

Second, replace
Third,

The graph of

First,

x < 5

1.,
-

thatj s, for

2x...

x = 0.

(the y-axis)

2/

1 og2

4
log2 (-px)

es

Figure 5-6b

5-6

2.6

Exercises
1.

/1%

log2(X)

that

log2(x

0,

-x1-)

= 0,

and hence.

= -log2 x.

## Prove that for any real nurnber'xi > 0,

x2 > 0,

x
1
log2 (x2) = log2, x1 - log2 x2.

.log2xY = y log2 x

4.

.(a)

is

log2 x

.(-10,)

## For what values of

is

y=

log2

(iv)

(ii)

y=

log2 (-x)

(v)

y=

log2 (x

5.

1)

less than

less than

(i)

(iii)

114,

(vi)

0?

greater than

0?

= log2 (1

y=

1og2(gx

= log2

greater than

0?

0?

x)

- 3)

(3 -

Graph the following functions on one set of axes over the interval

-5 < x-< 5.

r
ea

X -4

6.

lipg

X -4 log2 (1 - x)

x -4 log2 (-x)

x -4 log2 (x + -1)

x,-+Aog2 (x

x -4

- 1)

log2g-(1 + x)1

On one set of axes sketch the graph of each of the following functions

< x < 8.

x

log2 x

log2 (2x)

-4 log2 (-2i)
log
x -0

(31)

lg2 (-

<x< 8

(i)k:

(b)

x -4 log2 2x

-4 log2 (2x - 2)

(c)

x -4 log2 (2x

(d)

x -4 log2

335

34

(7

- 7)
- 2x)

-6'

110i2

(b)

3 log2 x = 5k

(d)

;2 log23 = -t

## Write each exponential statement in base

(a)

2x,=

(b)

4k =

logarithmic form:,

2.

(c)

(2)-3 = mn

{,d,)

= xy

10.

(a)

log2 2

(e)

log2 1

(b)

log2 4

(e)

log2

(c)

log2 8

(8)

log2

(d)

log

(fi)4

log2 g

1
T;

1
7-

4
1

16

11.

## use of tables, locate the-values

of eachlbf. the following between conA
,

.-

log2 11 < 4,

(e) 1082 S.

t( i)i

since

23,< 11 524).

log2 31
.

ti

(a)

t:.

(b)

log2,5,

(j)'

idg2 34-

log2 6.

(k)

log250 ..

(.0,

log2 99

'

e)
(d)

ldg2

gip

(m)

(f)

(n)' log2(i)'.;

(g) log2 13
(h)

12.

r;

.(eY 1-82 2

log2 10

log

18
2

(o)

log2 (4)

(p)

log2 (0.18)

## In evaluating the following, first estimate your answer from your

solutions to Number 11, then make a closer'estimate from the use of

Table 5-3.
(a)

lOg2

(b)

log2, 5

(c)

/
log2 131,

336.

3'4 5)

5 -6

13.

## iUsing the results of Numbers 10 and 12, estimate

(e.g.,

=3

log2 72 = 1og2(23)(32)

2+

loge

3z

2 log2

6.28)

each of

the following.
,(a)

(b)

(f)

log2 12
2

-(c)

log2

24

'.(d)

log2.

(e)

14.

1282

(b)

1282 54

(h)

log2 36

log2 27

Log2 x = 0
log2 x =

(c) slog2 x = -1
15.

..(g)

log2 52

(a,)

log2 169

Show that, if

log2 x

(e)

log2 x

ti >. 1,

1
2
1

log2 x =

then
log2 n(n

(Hint:

(a)

1) < n + 1.-

( n(n - 1)

>

;s

'

4
set

3,37

:3 4

5-7

o.
'5-7.

## Logarithms (General Base)

a >'0

If

is defined analogously to

loge,

denoted by.'

and

log2.

Thus

log

ay

= x.

is defined onl

for

## x > 0 and is given by

loge x = y

(1)

if

The techniques and ideas of the previous section extend easili to this more

general case.

loga x

y = x.

(2)

(a)

loge 1 = 0

(b)

log 'a = 1
a

if

(c)

then

0 < a < 1

a > 1, loge

is decreasing.

loge

,JVC-Py

axay,

(ax)y

axy%

## give the correaponlifig logariithra'formulas

..-

log

.(a)

my = log

(3)

log

a id'

(b)
_

x + log

x ).0

and

y,> 0

x,

= y, log

for , x > 0.

a,

Logarithms tp the

for

y,;

base 10

## Logarithms to the ,base

are of increasing importance due to the use of the binary/' system in computors

base e,

where

is the symbol./.

2.72.

a, b

and

).

-logc b

r.

(4)

logab

log
e-

logc; b

so that

338
S

CI A '7
CY 4k

1 --then

If

5-7
a

## Now take the logarithm to the base

= b.

of each side.

This gives

loge ax = loge b.
Formula 3(b) gives
loge ax = x loge a
ea that

Unce loge a / 0

4

If

and

loge' b =

logb a

then

Exercises

loga3

log,5

(a)

(d)

(e)

16

(f)

32

7..",

2 logn3
(b)

(c)

log 2

1/2 loga3

log54.

r,

3.

If

ath. =

(a2)m,

hence

5.

Prove that

'
s,

x -if

52-= 4x?

## what is the value of. ml

any real.numbpr > 0,,

loga(x

= 0,, and

-loge x.

log

(N
x
2

= log x - lo r wa-x
a I
2'

'339

5-7

loge a = 1.

6.

Show that

7.

8.

(a)

log10 35 = y

(b)

log2 25 = x

(c)

2 log10 5 = x

find
128%

logio.5,

9.

logla(-5).

## Express each of the following in logarithmic form.

.

(a)

3 17

(b)

10-2 = 0.01

(c)

274/3 = 81

(d)

'0.043/2 = o.o08

= 5

(e)

log6 (x + 9) + log6 x r: 2

in terms o,

r, s, "p,nd

t,

ig
A

r = log10 2, s

(a)

logia 4

(b)

to o

(c)

logio4

(d)

loglo

lOgio 10

= log10 5.
(e)

(f)

1og16 2.5

-kJ

.

(h)

log10 8 3,6535

.11

ov

14

-51-7

log10 1000

(f)

(b)

log0.01 0.001

(g). log2

23

(h)

logio Ar)

log4

(i)

log81 27

(,j)

log2

(d)

32

(e)

13.

logo.

(a)

,(0.0001)

## In each case determine the value of

log 5

log '5
(a)

10810

x.

log 3c

- 2 log10 (x - 1) = login 3

log 5
x
14.

=5

(a)
(b)

-(c)
,

.1.5'.

10810 x = 0
10810 X*+ 1 = 0

10810 x = 1
t'.

## For what value(s) of

(0)

log

(e)

logio, ?c + 3 = 0

(f)

log10 (2x - 1) + 2 = 0

10

(x - 2)

=3

(a) :loge x= 0
(b)

logx x = 1

(c)

logic
= c

3.0gx 2x =-2

16.

17.

(a)

Show that if

(b)

Show that

(a)

## How are the graphs of

(Hint:

(b)

18.

Use

then

0, < a < 1,

log

then

is an increas.ing function.

x -4 logs X,

x -'loge x

and

is a decreasing function.
logb x

related?

(10.)

Prove formula

(5)

of the.text:

not equal to

1,

then

if

a > 1,

log

if a

and- b

1-

logb a ,

t
341

'o/

,A1-1
,'1

Appendix 1.

A1-1.

Functions

## The precise definition of function can be formulated in many ways;

as asset of ordered pairs (usually, ordered pairs Of numbers), as an pasociation or correspondence between two sets, etc.

## a set called its domain,

a set called its range, and a way of selecting a member of the range for each
member of the domain.

## EXampleA1-1a. The multiplication of integers by

defines a function.

The domain of this function is the set of all integers; the range of the
function is the set of all even integers.

## We choose to define a function as an association between elements of two

sets; thus the function of Example Al-la associates with 'each integer its
double.

element of a set

from A

to

andthe set

B.
C

B,

The set

## of all members -of

assigned to members of A

## In what folloWs we-shall be exclusively concerned with functions whose

domains are subsets of real numbers and whose ranges are also subsets of,real
numbers. More complicated functions (like 'vector valued functions;) may be

built fromthese.
c.:

The range

B,

## called an onto function, or it may be a proper subset of

we generally take for
=

343

351
4

B.

Inany case,

.7"

A1-1

## It is common practice to repres ent a function by the 1

letters such as

g,

f,

associates with

x.

AUSTotion

at

f,

or simply

x,"

"f

takes

"f

function

into

relation between

and

x,'

takes

takes

or

9,

defined as follows:

Thus, if

takes

is an element.of the

associates

with

3.

Coltcisely

f,

lat

lik

x:

## Is merely a symbolic description'Ofthe

it

x;

into

into

x.

x. ")' An aiics.,C,cs

f(x }.

In general, if

f(3) = 9,

then

of

## each number of the domain into its square.

domain, then

is an

C9nsider a function

Example Al-lb.

f(x)

or "f

with

(other

f(x)

f(x)

f(x)").

or the element

tten

'at

used). If x

0,

h,

the range which

-7-

F,

er, f

f(x) = x

or

2
.

## ,---The-function is-not adequately defined uttil we spedify its domain.

domain iS the set of all integers

If t

## (0, 1, )4, 9, 16, ...).

If

-we choose the set of all real numbers as domain, then a different function-is
defined, even thipigh the rule of,associationis the same; in this case the

## range of the function is the set of, nonnegative real numbers.

1
Observe that a function from A
reverse association from B
and

## Example Al-lb, f(3) = 9

would assign both

and!,-3

f(-3) = 9,
to

to

to

9,

## It is often useful to think of a function as a mapping, and We say that a

function maps each eldm4ntof its domain upon.one and only one element of its
In t1is vein,

range.
f(x)

x---(x)

maps
x

upon, f(x)";

is called a

## preimage of f(x).. This notion is illustrated in Figure Al-la, where

elements of the domain

and range

4,

## mapping is suggested by Arrows from the, points of the domain to corresponding

points of the range.
8

r.
341;

'52

'

Al-1

A.
A
f

Figure Al-le
Note that 'each element. of the domain is mapped into a unique element of the

range; i.e., each arrow starts from a different point in the domain.

This is
the requirement of our definition, that with each element of the domain there
is associated exactly one element Of the l'ange4

is associated."

g(x) = x2 + 3x +

7.

for

xample,

f(x) = 3x

5;

The notation

f(x)

is particul

-t

We illustrate

## 'Example A$-le. ,Consider the function f x--- -0-3x 2 - ## who,se domain is the set of all real numbers. ;.(x) f(-2) a + 1/17 =,3(-2) ## is a real nUmber, then Then 5, = 3x2 5 = f(0) = 3(0)2 and if 5 = -5, ## f(a + 4.) ,= 3(a + A-N 2 5: I ,r 345 353 Al -1-- We note, since 3x2 25 > -5, less than ## y be any nonnegative real number, that; and hence e range of ## is the set of ail real numbers not -5. a As mentiviii earlier, a function is not completely defined unless the lh ## domain is specified -., If no'Other'information is given, it is a convenient ## practice, especially when defiling with aNfunction defined by a formula, to assume that the domain includes all real numbers for which the formula describes a real number: function ## real numbers except g(x) = -1x2, domain is -2 (x. to ## Fo4 example, if a domain is not specified for the 2x f : ti ## then the domain is assumed to be the set of all ll -= 9 and -3. Similarly, if ## is a function such theK ## we assume, in the absence of any other information, that the -2 < x < 2); ## that is, the set:of all real numbers from inclusive. ## We note here that two functions and ## they have the same domain and f(x) = g(x) ## are identical if and only if for each x in their domain. ## The graph of a function IS-perhaps its most intuitively illuminating -representation; it conveys importarit information about the function at a glance. The graph of is in the domain of ## is the set of all those points and y = f(x). ## Example Al-ld.' The graph of the function tr ## the semicircle shop in Pigure Al-lb.* (x,y) for which .x ' x --spy = 47-7x7 is ## The graph gives us a clear picture of what the function is doing to'the elements of its domain, and we can, moreover, usually infer from the graph any limitations on the domait'and range., Thus, it is easily determined from Figure Al-lb that the domain of is the sdt of all that such that 0 < y < 5. -5 < x.<:'5 ## and the range is the set of all such ## These sets are represented by the heavy segments on the ## x- and 1-axis, respectively. ## * In this figure a complete graph is displayed. The graph in Figure Al -lc, as well as most of the graphs in the text, are necessarily incomplete. Al-1 j Figure Al-lb We remind you of the fact that not every curve is the'graph of a fundtiOn. ## In particular, oar definition requires that a function map each element of its domaincnto only one Element of its range. ## In terni's of points of-a graph,. this means that the graph of a function does not contain the points( (xl,y1) and '(x ,y ) if y y 1 1 2' i.e., two p nts having the same abscissa bat ., diffeient ordinates. This is the a' s fJer the "vertical line test": if in xy-plane 'we imagine _41 possible lines which are parallel to the ylvis, 'and if any of,,thete lineS'cuts the graph in more than onepoint, then the ## graph represents a relation which is not a function. Conversely, if every line parallel to the y-agis intersects a,graph in at'most.one point, then the graph is thet,of a function. , t - Example Al-le. radiuS ## + y2 = 25, whOse graph-is a circle with ## and center at the origin, does not define'a function. 5' interval The equation x ## -5<_x<: 5, every vallie of x an (3-4) On ike open ## is associeifeci with two different ## Wiluestd". y,--'cbht43.ry to the definition.Of functibn: Specifically, ,(3,4>, .., ## are two points of the circle; they determine.a line parnllel"t6 1#. the y-axis and intersecting the 'circle intwo points, thus illustrating that t' he circle is the graph.oft. the latioh that is not a 1 ## separate the circle into two X .) ## We can, howevt,, '..- - .. 4 5.-- ## 1- circles- -the graphs of the functions .,, (Example Al-ld) and tc 127577 .... '",) '-'i o ' ^. ft. ' -1, ## Throughout this diACussion we have used dthe letters ' ,,. mi ' x and 'y. Specifically, if c' f. ls therfunction . ., ,,-,. .. a' ## ',_represent elements of sets. * ,.. -- = f(), : x..? ' ,...k.. 14 .----.4! r e TT .347 , 3 5 Lit 4_ '74 od , ' A1-1 . then ## .represents an element (unspecified, in the domain of ## represents the corresponding element.in the range of f. and f, In many textbooks ## are called variables, and since a particular value of ## range depends upon a particular choice of the independent variable and in the domain, in the is called ## the dependent variable. The functional OP relationship is then described by saying that "y is a function of x." y For the most part this language is not used in this textbook. . r ## We =elude this section with a summary of several different special functions; you 'are undoubtedly acquainted with some of them. ## The Constant Function. function ## is an arbitrary real number, then the If ## which associates with every real number ## is called a constant function. f : the value ## Morse generhlly, spy function ## whose range contains exactly one number is a constant function. a constant function, say to and ## : x--..c. for ali real x, b, The graph of is a line parallel ## units fro:1i the x-axis. icl ## The Identity Function. each number in A, ... ## function whose domain is ... ## Let, A- be the set of all real numbers; 'With: ## associate the number a. .. . ## and whose range is A, ## This association definei a A A, namely More generally[.for /any domain such a function is called the identity function. ## If the domain is the set of all real.numbers, then the graph of line with equation is the. y = x. \. _ TT , ## The Absolute Value Function. ## With each real number the absolute value * -function associates-its absolute value- :,. ._.. '1 . x for. f' x > 0 ... .... ili f 4 x---....1x1 . -x for X <'0; Alternative definitions: x f f ## lxi = max (x,-x); I X --. Ixi = x.. 3118 5.13 A' A1-1 . The-graph o ## is shown in Figure Al-lc, ## it is the union df two rayS____/- ## issuing f4qm the origin. Figure Al-lc The Integer Part FunCtion. ## the sum of an integer Eve al number .x and a real can be represented as such that 110- x = n + and r < 1. 1 , For example, 5.38 = 5 +.38, 3 =.3 O. -. + We call nthe integer part of .6 and denote it by it follows [x] = n ; Ix] < z <[x] + 1.' Tliwe see that to each real number that ## corresponds a unique integer part [x], there. ## and this correspondence defines the ## integer dirt function f 0$

/t

*
Sometimes called the greatest integer function.
I

"/
349

3 57 v

ff

A1-1

## A graph of this function is shown in Figure Al-ld; it is called a step graph;

i.e., the graph%of a step function.

Figure Al-ld
The Signum Function.

40#0.

+1,

symbolized by

-1.

sgn x.

0,

Thus

1, x

0.0

S gfl X

0,

1 0,

x = 0 ,

-1

x <0.

## EVen and Oda FuncfrOns.

"whenever it contains

x.

Let

The function

f(-x) = f(x).

-x

## For example,, the runction f with values f(x) = x

ip
2
%
( -x)2 = x
for all x. Geometrically the graph of an even

even since

## function Ls, symmetriC with respect to the y-axis.

The function
functiOn

said to be odd if

f(,

is odd. since

for' all x.

'origin.

350
es

35

.4

t4

## Periodic Functions. 'Certain functions have the property that their

function values reptit themselves.in.the,same order at regular/ intervals over
the domiin (FiKure_Al-le).
'14

Figure Al-le

Functions having this property are called periodic; included in this important
class are thg circular (trigonometric) functions, to be discussed in Chapter 2
3.

and

A function

x + p

p # 0,

p,

f(x + p) = f(x).

(1)

## From the definition we note that each successive addition or subtraction

O

of

I;

bripgs usback to

f(x)

For example,

again.

f(x + 2p) = f

(cxi p) + 4

= f(x

p)

= f(x),

and
f(x - p) = f ((x - p) +
= f(x).

is also a per

that is,

## for :ny integer, n.

'f(X + np)c:_f(x)

## For a constant function

f
it is obvious that' f

111'

## is periodic with any period

f(x + p) = c = f(x),
_.

351
0

359

'1D,

since

A141
,

'It can be. shown that for nonconstant periodic functions (continuous at

true.

a function.

44'

Example Al-lf.

x-----wx - (4

x = n + r
*
,part,
then
If

where

## real, is a periodic function:

*
is the integer part..of x and_x1 its fractional

o
n

..-;t

f(x) = f(n + r)
= (n + r) - [n

r]

=n +'r - n
= r,
and

## f(x +I) = f(n + 1 + r)

.= (n-+ 1 + r) - [n + 1 + r]
qv

= n + 1 + r - (n + 1)
= r.

1,

## graph (Figure Al-if):

9

-- Figure Ai-lf rf

## the fractional part of

We note That since' f(x) ='r,
is sometimes called the fractional part function.
.k

x,

this 'function

352

36.0
.t,

A1-1
Exercises Al-].
1.

## Lecid/w4ther each example may properly represent a function.

requires you to specify the domain and range for each function.

This also
Note that

no particular variable has to be the domain variable, and also that some
of the relations may give rise to several functions.
(a)

the number

the number

7.

## the real number

r.

2n - 5.

ti
(c)' Assign to the number
(d)

10

between them.'

(e)

Y = -3

(f)

x = 4

(g)

x + y =4""2

(h)

y = 2x2 + 3

(i)

y2 - 4 = x

(for all

x)

(for all

and

z)

y"< 2x - 1

(k)

f(x)
,x2

1/217

y2

I
16-

-2.

3.

A function

x

f(x)

4'.

'

-311

13

(a)

Describe th

(b)

If

x2 + 3x

4,

_f.

'find

f(I)

(a)

f(0)

(b)

f(2)

(e)

f(2 -

(c)

f(-1)

(f)

f(f(1)

(Hint:

of

ti

X353

.316

at

f(1).)

A1-1
-

If

5.

2x

## is a function defined by g(x) =

find, if possible,

4-77
(a)

g(0)

(d)

g(2)

(b)

g(1)

(e)

g( -3)

(f)

g(15).

*(c)

6.

(a)

(d)

(c)

7.

.

number, are

x7-....

..,

and

x
x

8.

and

(it.)f : x I- 2x

10:

and ,g : x--0.

( 6)

## h': x --- ,1)711.;.

x---1- x2

--:-11.

x - 2
Why or why not?

If

a : x--. Ix - 41

(e)

0 : x----[x]

Which of the following statements are always true for any function

-asgumingthat xl

and

x2

(a)

If

(b)

If

(d)

If

xl = x2.

(d)

If

f(x1),/ f(x2),

xl / x2.

then

x ,is

(d)
N.,

(b)

is a real

-,. x + 2
real, are

9.

If

1'6 2

fi

f,

11.

A1-1

numbers

t?

and

1(x2) =

f(x)2

12.
.

## Which of the followkfirfUnctions are even, which are odd,

a4d which are
neither even nor'odd?
(a)

(e)

(f)

(g)

t : x

(h)

x---4-x3 + 4
.

'.(b)

(c)

2x2 +
2

x--..-x

- 4x + 4

x-x3

- 2x

(d)

x=---..-

'

2x,'+ 1

...

13.

-..)
Y
:

(a) ;

I-Y

(c)

-0
r

(b)
6

3363

(f)

14.

Suppose that

x--e-f(;)

15.

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

A function

is defined by
for

x /

for

x =

f(x) : {1234
0

16.

ir

## Sketch the graph of each function, specifying iil''.domain and ranget.

(a),

f : x

(b)

(c)

f: x--.- il - xi

(i

(d)'

C : x--1- 1 -- lx1

(j)

f :_sx--..x[x]

(k)

(/)

Fc2
ixi

(g)

(h)

sgn, x

St]

f: x ---o....Ca
x-,,,

(e)
(f)

.f.

2 xo- ixi - x

.f

## x < 0, 0 < x < 1,, and

x > 1.)
I

356

3 t'S

x--4-1x2 - 2x:- 31
4240,

: xo- 11 - x
x21

Al-I
)

## Sketch the graphs of the functions in Exercises 17 to 19.

-which are periodic, indicate their periods.

17.

2x2

EA

f-:

2x2

42]

18.

x -

[c -

2x2 - 2[X]2

(a). f

ax

4f

a > 0

Ca)2
[2x]

Dx].

x(1/5' + 1) -

.1 + sgn x
2

[x]

(b)

(c)

(d)

f4

(F)

20.

.(g)

If

x--44.11(x)

x
:

H(x,- 2)

(x - 2)2

4i(X)

H(x2

and

2.)

.f

+ H(x - 2)

(f) f : X
Ah

21.

m and

n.

m and .n,

respectively

than both of

Ir

2)]x2

Give

f g.

## (a), Can a funCtion be both even and odd?

(b)

What can you say about the evenness or oddness of the product of:
(1),

an,eve!T'function by an even.fUnction?

(3)

(c)

contains

ontains

-x

whenever it

## can be expressed as the sum of ah evep function plus

an odd function./

357

365

22.

Find functions

f(x)

satisfying
2,(x)

Suggestion:
23.

f(_x) = 1

Use 21(c).

function.

functions.)

(Note:

## A rational function is the ratio of two polynomial

el

358:

a t3

4:2
A1-2.

Composite Functions

and

l'unctiona.

and

f+g

## is defined to be the function

x--;---.-f:),17.((.)x)

which has for dotain those elements contained in the intersection.of the
domains of

f and g.
Similarly there are definitions for the difference,
product, and quotient of two functions; there is, in fact, a whole algebra

## of functions, just 8.6 there is the familiar algebra of real numbers.

In this algebra of functions there is one operation that has no counterpart in the algebra of numbers:

This operation

Let
g

Old

2x + 1 4"

--4-x

2.

We observe that
g(l) =, 3. and

f(3)

g(2) = 5

f(5) = 25,

f(g(x))

and

at

g(x)

is

## (2x + 1).' this function}, defined by the mapping

by fg,

is called a composite of

and

g.

fg, by

at

x---...f(g(x))

and denoted

fg(x)

g(x).*

## The symbol fg, denoting the composite of the functions t and g

must not be confused with the product of the funCtions. In this text we
distinguish the latter by use of t
of for.multiplication; i.e., f .g.

3 6 7:

A1-2
An immediate question arises as to the or in which two functions are
composed:

general, are
that

gf(x)

fg(2) = f(5)

fg(x)

arid

equal?

## In the example above we have seen

and we calculate.

= 25,

gf(2):

fg(2)

gf(2) = g(4) = 9

## Thil counterexample is sufficient to prove that in general

The operation of composition applied to two functions
produces two different composite functions
order in which they

fg

and

gf,

generally

are composed.

## A word of caution must b /injected at this point.

defined only if

gf(x) # fg(x).

and

is in the domain of

and

The number

fg(x)

is

## .is in the domain of

4(x)

f.

For example, if
f(x)

and g(x)'43x - 9,

= -Li'

then

fg

for which

3x - 9

is

x > 3.

and

g,

we have

## gf(x) = g(-1/) =3IX'- 9

,which is defined for all nonnegative real numbers

(x.

The composite

fg

of two functions
fg

The domain of
of

fg

for which

and

fg( x) = f (g(

## is the set of all elements

is in the domain of

g(x)

is the function

g.

x
f.

in the domain'

The operation

functions.

Thus, if

## h are functions, one composite is

and

f, fig,

fgh
6

In order to evaluate
h(x),

fgh(x) =

fgh(x),

we first find
f

at

(g(h(x)))

.h(x),

gh(x).

36o

368

(l

at

te
,-

-r:

% Al-r2

.
0

-,

Exercises, A1-2

a.

Given that

x---. -x

and

': x---x

.
-,

'

(e)

## + 1. for all real

find

x,

"

f(x) .4.4.rgSx')., :

l*

(b)

g(2)

f(2)

:(f) ff(x)

ro

g(x).

.
.,

2.

3.

fg(2).

(g)

(d)

gf(2)

(h)... gf(x)

If

f(x) = 3x + 2

(a)

fg(x).

(b)

gf(x).

and

fg(x) (and

..

find

g(x). = 5,

f(x) = 2x +1 and

If
(a)

gf(x).

'

4.

-fex)

(c)

x,

g,

and

and

gf(x)

equal?

fg,

f

( a)

g: x

x
1

(b)

(c)

x
x

2x - 6

'

: x-x2

x-

- 4

'

ir

(a)

x\--;.. x2

(e)

f :

x2

(f)

f x 5(2- 1 ,,.g

g : x

x A - x

g, :

16C

5.

Given that

f(x) = x2-+ 3

and

g(x).= 1/)77.7,

'fg(x) = grflx).

## 6.'' Solve problem 5 taking

7.

Describe functions

g(x)
and

'

(a)

3(x + 2) - 4.
-%

(b)
(c)

(2X

5)?

'

(a)
(e)

- 41,

(42;

2x - 5

am=
J

361.

.a6 9

<o

,0
.

' and, gf

.f

## g ;find the composite functions.fg

and

Also,
r.
sketch the,graph of each, 'and give the period (fundamental) of those

f

(a)

x---4sgn(x - 2)

4,

x----s-IXI

(b)
-9.

## x---4=2 sgn(x - 2)-- 1

What can yoou say about the evenness or oddness ofthe composite.of
an, even function of an even function?

(a)

At(b)

10.

(c)

(d)

If the function

fg

and,

and

gf

gf

## assuming these exist

Illustrate by examples.

12.

and

and, g

tions

fg

an+1

an,

.,

and

g?

## "is defined by the equation

f(an), n = (i) 1) 2, 3,

wher

## is a given function and

and

is a given number.

a0

If

ao = 0

.then

al

f(a0)

11

a2 = f(al) = ff(a0) =

12717

## Show that for any

(a)

an < 2

(b)

N.

> 2

.2

n-1 '

n > O.
4'

I
*.f

th

A1-2
13.

e0

If c+1 = gan); n = 0, 1, 2,
of

and n,

g
f

(b)

(c)

(d)

(e)

g,

## for tne folloNing functi'Ons

find

,n

a's a function.

a + bx.

(a)

xm.

irxT:

z
-

x)-1.

ti

se.

..1.4

363

all
V

A1-3
A1.3.

Inverse Functions
Recall the vertical line test for the graph of a function (Section.A1 -1):

## Thus in FigUrp A1-3a, (i)

and (ii) illustrate graphs of functions, (iIi) is the graph of'a relation that
is not a function.'
1

(i)

(ii)

Figure A1-3a
This figure also illustrates an important distinction between two classes of
functions:

for graph (i

## there is at least one line parallel to the x-axis

which intersects the graph in more than one point; this is not the case for
graph (ii).

## The latter is typical of a class of functions called one-to-one

'

each element in the domain is mapped into one and only one image

functions:

iii the range, and each element in tl* range corresponds to one and only one

## In other words, a funCtionof this kind establishes

a'one-to-one correspondence between the domain and the range of the function:
,

A function

is one-to-one if w enever

## f(xl) = f(x2):, the

xi = x2.

Note the distinction between the definition of function and this defirli-

tion.
xl.,,='x

2'

.function

is such that

f(xl) = f(x2)

if and only if

xi. =-x2. .

## The class of one-to-one functions is important because fo; each ember

,

of ihis
class we can specify a function that, in a, loose way of speaking,
,
.

-----.

## undoes #10-7a6V7:5-r7.70 Win 4unctI-64.--#04, fo4example, if

,

II.-

04 ri,

g; i
.

is the

0.1

3-1

4,

,
,

,,

364

3 7 2

7,--

......k

104

C],

....

.:..,

.
;,

A1-3
function which maps each real number onto its double, then there is a function
g,. called 'the inverse' of

If a. function
g

x,

f,

2x;

f(x)

y
2,
1

the inverse of

is called

f,

f.

The functions

and

of

is the domain of

inverse is

It

f; Furthermore,

f.

## inverse to one another.

into

is the range of f

If

maps

## in other words, if,,y

x;

''gf(x)= g(y) = x,

f(x),

into

then

then

y,

maps

and

back

x = E(y). Fgrice,

for all

for all

y in the range of

in the domain of

f,

and

0 fJ
fay) = f(x) = Y.,

of

1\

Example Al -3a.

Here

3,"

<,

## This'suggests that the inverse of

in thd domain of

1(x)
g' is the inverse of

f.

into

## Furthermore, in the Opposite direction,

f.

in the domain of

as expected.

f(x)

(2x - 3) + 3

= g(2X - 3)

'

-I--

g maps
.4

By substitution,

fg(x) .'f(2472) -

## satisfies the definition of inverse; i.ee, show that

for all x

f.: x--0. 2x - 3;

for all

f%

g%

Hence,

'

365

3 73

Al -3

graph of

f.

If

maps

of a function

into

## is easily found from the

then.g maps

b,

(a,b)

is on the graph of

## Figure4A1-3b shops three poidts

is on the graph of

h of a function

f,

It

a.

,e,

if and only if

f,

g..

into
A

(b,a)

(1,-3), (2,1),

and

## and their corresponding points, obtained

by intercha 1140/P
of coordinates, on the graph of

g.

y =1g(x)

= x
4

-Ye

(1,2)

= f(x).

/,

(4,2)

-4

-3

-2

(2,1)

-1

// 0

-1

-2\

o.

(1,-3)

-3

Figure A1-3b
FroM this figure we see that the points
with res ect to the line

y = x;

(a,b) k and

## two poin s is perpendicular to," and bisected by, the line

-(b,a)

the reflection of

(a,b)

(b)a)

are symmetric,

inthaline 1y

y = x. We call

..= x.
,

mt5,

Example Al-;
g :

2
x ---)..x ,.- 2.

The function

## cannot be the inverse of

ing the domhin of

xi> 0

as it stands.

(Figure A1-3c).

51

is

## The composite functions verify that, f

: x

and

.X2
g' a'e

- 2,

fg

fg(x) = Ax2 - 2) + 2 =

x > 0;

gf

gf(x) = (477)2

x >c2.

- 2.= x,

T./

, Y

/
x > -2

x2 - 2

x > 0

-1

/ -1

//
O

 Figure Al -3c

## The relationship between the coordinateS of a point ' (a,b)

coordinates of its reflection

(1?,a)

in the line

= x

and the

suggests a formal

## method tor obtaining an equation' of the inverse of a given function assume

that the in

exists.

Example A1-3c

'Consider2the function
4

f ; x

y = 3x + 5

## for all real

x.

Yf 'we ,d4tercigginge

and
.

-,

(3.)

in the equation

y = 3x 4. 5,

, r
.

we obtair7

1'

(2)

x = 3y + 5.

f"

(a,b)

## in the solution set o

Hence, (2). is an equat

(l), a pair

(b,a)

n defining -implicitly

441

## the inverse of the given ,function

we 'solve (2) for
1 e\

in terms of x

and obtain

.1

367

0'17 r
t)
s)

A1-3

The inverse of f

is, therefore,

g :

gi(a) = a

and that

fg(b) = b.

Example Al -3d,

for any

3 5

for any

(range of

in the domain

in the domain of

f,

f).

## If the given equation defines a quadratic function, the

In the first place, the

.

## given function must be restricted to a domain which gives a one-to-one

function; in the second place, the technical details of interchanging the
variables

and

are more

1

involved.

^

2
f

+ 2x + 3

function fl
fl

is

(r

to the domain

(-1,2)

(x

x > -1),

gl.

2

The range of

gl.

## which is one-to-one and hence has an inverse

y =4i'1(x) 2: 2),

If,

We are given

+ 2x + 3,

y = x

## nd We,int rchange the variables to.obtain'

61

+ 2y + 3.

-= :pc = y

We now solve-foi y

## in the quadratic equation

+ 2y + (3 - x) = 02

obtaining
or

y"'=. LI + )x -52

y = -1.-IT72 .'

;e4
0

ation

## Which of these formulas defines the

gl?

Since

,-

here represents

any element in tile range of the inverse func'tiox, and'sinde the rage must be

## the same set of Lumbers

as

t he domain of J fl,

## we see that .x > ,1,

ig

required. 'Hem

4111

ggf

a.

/4

pEN=1=1.
.

A1-3

y = -1 + 167:7
defines the inverse function

whosedomain

is

(x :x > 2).

,

fi;)

## It is helpful to sketch the graphs of the two inverse functions in Order

to see more clearly the relationships between their domains and,ranges.
Figure A1-3d.)

more clearly
as many diffe

you may_see4

## ow its doma.n may be restricted in infinitely many ways to give *

nt one-to-one functions,, each of which has a unique inverse

function.

f,

(See'

;(

r.

r.

369

377

A1-3

ercises
/

1.

ria e

line

y = f(x) = 3x

in the line

y :-..

x?

f.
",/'

et

2.

What is the

.3.

(a)

(a,b)': to

Prove that th

(b)

## What is the reflection of

(a)

(b). y = 0?

'(e)

to

y = x.
(b,a). is bisected by the

in thl line

(1,1)

x = 0?

(a)

y
x = -3?

--

= -x?

(c)
5.

(a,b)

## and prove that

y = X.'

line
4.

segment from

(b,a),

Describe any function or functions you can think of which are their own

inverses.

y

and

## if the equations or the expressions remain unaltered by interchanging

x and y;

e.g.,

x -'xy + y.

+ y ,= 0,

x.3

+ y3.= 3xy,

lx - yl = lx + yl,

y = x line.

## Geometrically; we can consider the line y = x,

behaving as a. mirror, i.e., for any portion of the graph there must also

The equation 'x
is

+ y

to the line

y = x.

What (4h r

## axes of'Symmetry Zmirror type

does it have?

r.

/
7.

The expression
a'+ b-+

- b

obviously symmetric in
and
Hint:

+
a

re.'+

and

b+ la - to! :ITC
Show that it is also symmetric in

c:
67104 six cases (i) a

c,

p.1)

a < c <

b, < a

<t,,C,

ato.
'

370

I'

87
4

A1-3
Fnd,the inverse of eadh ,function.

9.

(a)

(b)

(c)

3x + 6
- 5
2

- 3

-x2

,(a) "f :
CP"

(b)

(c)

( d)

(e)

4: x---.-xixl

(f)

[x]

sgn x

## for all rea4 t does not have an inverse..

Do the following:
(a)

x < 0,

(b)

I',

: x ---x

for

f 1,

--0-x2

: x

for

'ane ft.
2

and V?

fl,

f,

(f1

to the domain

(x

x > 0)

';

'

and 7,f

to the domain

## (x': x < 0).)

11.

Sketch a graph of

(a)

f :

an inverse._

(b)

f
(c)

## Write an equation defining each'inverse of part (b) aria sketch the

graphs.
1

12.

DO Problem 11 for

13:

Giv9 that
fg(x)

: x--.- x

ge(x).

- 4x.

are

and

such that

inverse to one

## another? 'Give reasons for your answers.'

14.

Show that
for

S.

x _> 1

f :

x2 - 4x + 5 for

x---...

yl in the domain of

of

x > 2

f .

'ig,

## and that gf(x) = x

for all

If f(x) =12x-3 + 1 7

/..

for all

in the domain

'
.

15.

fg(y) = y

## find at least two functions

f0x) = gf(x)

e'

371

su h that

'

8--

A1-4.

Monotone Functions

increasing, oft&functIons

7olt

as

1G and

## Geometrically this means that the graph of

times decreasing.

increase

is con-

## tinually qsing as we survey it from left to right (the direction of increasing

x), ,whereas the graph of

## like a wave, is now rising, now falling.

g,

The

graph _of a function may also contain horizontal portions (parallel to the

.

function such as

Example A1-4a.

The function
-x

defined by
2
,

0 < x < 1;
1 < x < 2;

h(x)

7-

x3

x,

0.

interyal

(1,2]

## Taken as a class, the increasing, decreasing, strictly. increasing, and

strictly decreasing functions

increases are

irection.

Let

yl ..f(x1),

y2

f(x2)

'pair,of numbers

(2)

21

x2

in 'I,

with

and let

I.

then

(3)

Y1 < Y2,

then f

## 14, an 'increasing function;,

{4)

y1

then

is a degreasing function. -

Y2'

the

< x.
2'

## is a strictly increasing function;

.2?

Y1 > Y

in

then

.< y

xl, 2c2

and

corresponding values of
y

for

.

## relations is increasing; a function which reverses order relations is

decreasing. -Note.particularly that a Strictly increasing functi on is a special,
'case of an increasing function; siMilarly"a strictly decreasing function is-:a
speciril case of a decreasing function.

## A funCtionwhich is either increasing or deCreasing is called

monotone. Wunction w

r

Of

For examp

.k

the function

as

x >2.

the function

## must be one-to-one, hence must have an inverse;/4

.

t:

s. 1

i ,1;.Y

c.

'

In some texts the term "nondecreasIng" ,.s useo instead 46, "increasing";
"nonincreasing" is used instead df "decreasing4,.., ,ii Volume 1 'of this book we
usually drop the phrase "str,intly" from these defiriitions Y ,u4ing (1) or (3)
'las the definition of "increab.ing."
0, 1'.
...s..
,

'

'

03
4.

/.

N;

J
.

'

Al -1+

THEOREM

Proof.

If

## strictly decreasing is entirely similar.

f(xl) < f(x2); -'that is;

1 ,

Hence,

f(xl) # f(x2).

x2,

take

xi <'x2,

is one-to-olie,-and

f-

then

has an inverse
f(x)---44x

domain of g and
less than

yl < y2,

then

Y1 = f(x1),

and

are in the

and

y2 = f(x2)

must be

g(y2).

g(y1) = xl < x2

Therefore,

(Why?)

x2.

f.

Finally,

in the range of

f(x)

,-.

...-

/76

f : x .,--..xn,

Hence,'

x > O.

,*

1K >0.

x,

g :

domaIh

of

g;', we denote

by

g(y)

r147;:

jg

(2)

y > 0.'

of the equation

ri,g

n2'

we call

xn = Yr;

in the

'

'y

## that every.real number_ has a unique n-th root or

odd.

This means

For example,,

'

is:

## for n odd and

real,' 9/7171
n

If

is even,

incrtaginifor.all real

f2

x'7.

x >0.

If

## is ddcreasing for all real, x < 0,

f

is the, restriction of f

I

ily .

f "to x < 0,

and

to the

theh eaCh,of

A1-4

and

n,for

## For n *even,. the positive n-th.root

of
a nonnegative real, number is sometimes called its principal
n -1h root.. The,
symbol 9
always meacs,the principal n-th root.

rr.

Exercises A1-4
A

1.

o'

Prove that
' -(Hint:

2
1

Let

> x

x ---a. x2

for ,x > 0

xi > x2 > 0;

then

- x2 >.0.
2 ;

2
.)

2.

..

_

decreasing?

strictly in

.f1

(b)

x----a-c,

easing?

7ise restricted.

& constant

(h)

f8

(i)

f9

(J)

fit)

+ IX'-

--0,1x1
3

(d)

(e)

f 5 :'

strictly

f2 :

:(c)

0
increasing'?

(k) .fis

X-- IX

-441

gl

(2)
(r)

f6

(g)

f
7

x < 0

x > 0

(4c g2

f'3f4(

X.'-'6'f4f3(X)

3;

4

A1-4
C

4.

## We are given that the function.

is increasing,
#,

is strictly increasing,
g,

.g4

14Aecreasing,
is strictly detrpasing,

## in a common domain., What is the monotone, character, if any, of the

.7 0

followingfunctions:,
(a)

+ f

f
1

(b)

f2 + gi.
(k)

## (c) ,g1 + g,.

(d),,

g2 4 fl,.,

(e)

fl

(1.)

f2

6(2)* glf#21..

f2

(m).. glg2'

-Y g^c

(g)

ga.

g2

-(I;)

g2

fl

g2fi.

(P)

flg2'

,-

or# if

(0)

.
.
"

7
at

4.

...

it has coordinates

(r., e + g)

also.

(rye)

= 0'

(Lr,8)

(r,e + n)

ft

Figure Al -5b

In a cartesian
pair of coerdinates

(x,y),

## In a polar coordinate system, by contrast, this

representation.
in the.plane does not have a unique

## In both coordiP' in Figure A1-5a)

in,polar coordinates (see point
specifies a unique point in
natesysteTs, however, a given pair of coordinate's
the,plane.

A relation between

and

## r and e may be replesented

cartesian coordinate plane. A relation in
and only
coordinate system; a point lies on the'graph if
,by a graph ip a polar
satisfies the given relation:
if it.has at least one coordinate pair which

by equations. ifffiolar
We discuss the graphs of a few functions defined

coOrdinates.
'43

.370 8 (i

A1-5'

..'.

.....

## IThere are infinitely many such angles for each point

Thus; a point may be
are the others.
(n = 1, 2', 3, ...)

then 8,.2ng

(4,21),

## (FigureA1-5a), point P with polar coordinates,

(4 , ZE),

(4, .- 27-1),

and,, in

gener4

3 3
The pole (origin) is a special.qase:
pair (0,A),
e

(4

, 3 +,

2ng)

For example
also has coordinates

n.

".

## any real number.

it is customaty to
When we assign polar coordinates to locate a,point,
is located
(-1-,.8)
r > 0, the point
ff.119w 'r alp tobe negative.
with respect to the origin (Figure AL -5b);
symmetrically'to the, point (r,A)
it has coordinates

,-

(r', e + g)

also.

,e)

8 = 0'

(r,A + 1)'
Figure Al -5b

## in the plane. has a unique

In a cartesian coordinate system every ppint
by contrast, this
pair of. coardinates (x,y). In a polar coordinate system,
have a uniqpe representation.
is not tPUe; a given point in the.Plane does not
P' in Figure A1-5a), In both coordiin,polar coordinates (see point
specifies a unique point in
natessysteTs, however, a given pair of coordinate's

the,plane.

,AI

A relation between

and

## r and 8 may be reprresented

cartesian coordinate plane. A relation in
only
coordinate system; a point lies on the'graph if and
iby a graph ip a polar
satisfies the given rethion:
if Lt.has at least one coordinate pair which
by equations, id1Polar
Wd discuss the graphs of a few functions defined

coOrdinates.

'

A1:5

## The graph of the eqpation

,

r = c

.
contairis:all point

(cie), e

anY'Nlleal,

The equation

1.

circle.

e = c
.

## lie on the line'passing through the pole which formi an angle of

c
with the polar''axie;-each point of the line has coordinates (r,c) for some
.
.
real r. For r positive, the points form
.
the ray in direction e, for r
negative,' the ray has, direction 8 + It.
The0line has infinitely many equations e . c + nrc,. n an integer.
.

## The circular-functions of e

polps'coordinates be

## use the entire graph is traced out,in one period.

We

shall illustrate a

## ifocedure for 'sketching a' graph of such a function.-psing

polar.coordinate graph
I

.,.

function

## Example Al -5a,. Sketch a...graph of the function def4ined-by-

r =4 cos e.
.

Since

r .is a function of

A- the 'correspond.ing

at e=

valUe '0

valospf
rt
-f

to '1

Hence, in this.interval,
t:,

Since

=2.

increases from -0

## and the curVefor

the point
-

to

(4 cos(e

<4 <

5-

and,then decreases.to
1) ,e) 'is the same as

4

To 's16
-

values of

:0 ( -

e 'and calculate

## :r.- We,ktiow that the cosine increases from,the

at e = 0 and then decreases to 0 at e

## (-4 cos 0,,e),

we consider values of

e,

x
T,E, etc.),

## locate the corresponding Points on polar

coordinatepaper, and sketch the graph (Figure Al -5c); it appears.to be a
circle and we shall presently verify that it is.

4i

%.

379

3 87

..

A1-5 ,

(
Figure Al -5c

## Since each point- P

nates (Figure Al -5d), for

r > 0,

we

of angles

(1)

x = r cos e, y

r sin e.

## We leave it to'you to verify that

equations (1) hold for

r-< 0.

Thus

## the rectangulaand polar coordinates

of-eack-point in the plane are related
by (1).

(2)

It folloWs that .
x2

2
= r .

Figure A1-5d
O

380

,388

. A1-5
<

r = 4 cop e

(Example A1-4a)

## given equation into an equation involving rectangular coardinatqs

Nbil the given equation

(3)

r = 4 cos a

and

y,

r = 4r cos e,
r2

for if

r 1 0,

given equation

= 0

to obtain the

## corresponds to the fact that the pole is on both

graphs.

This may notle immed' tely obvious since only 'Certain pairs of.
..
coordinates representing the' le will satisfy the equation r'= 4 cos e.
e

Forexample, both

(0,0)

0

r = 4 cos e.

## We use (1) and (2) to obtain from (3) that

2

x. + y

or

(x - 2)2 + y2 = 4,
911

## equation of the circle with center at

r

(2,0

We recognize this as an

2,

verifying tne

## Example Al -5b. -.Find an equation in polar coordinates of the curve whose.

I
2
2 2
y2)2
(x2
y2).
.
equation in cartesian coordinate's is' kx
(x2 + y )
=
.

## Applying Equations (1) and (2),weJnave

t

r4 ...a2r2(cos.20

2 2

= a r

sin2e)

cos 2e

r

Since

'r2 ,= a

= 0

(th4cole)

and r

(9,t),

cos 29.'

## a set of'polar coordinates

for the pole, we see that r2 =\0 contributes no points not in the
2
2
ra cos 2e. Hence', the latter lean equation in polar.form
whie

381

389
S

of
is the

A1-5

caly the

Figure, Al-5e

For this

## (the focus) to the

;'distance between
et:ant

## e;'called.the eccentricity of the conic section. _If

section is a parabola, if
a hyperbola

the conic

0 < e < 1

i,

is

*
I

## In order to dgrive an evation in

polar coordinates of aconic section,
it is convenient to place the focus
.

## / F at the pole (origin)

direetrio .12

and the

perpendicular to the

in Figure A1-5f.

(Other orients

ons

= o
,

1.0,COS*e

%

Nos: 8-104

isaby

## Of the conic section.

FigUre Al-5f.

.
This Curve is defined as the set (locus) ofpoints''P. such that the
product of the"distapces of P from two fixed points is the square. of half
the: distance %etWeerrthe two f1Xed points.
f

382

A1-5

1.

I..
Tft lei

/.

(r,9)

DP

## + r cos 6 (Figure A1-5f). The definition of the

FP
conic sections requires that, Bis.
e or
- e.
SolV,Igg for r
p + r cos 8

1,11A1

we 'obtain
ep,

(4)

r,

e, .

e cos 0

wilizh we take to be the standard form of the polar equation of conic sections..
.

if

e < 1

## (ellipse or parabola), then

r > 0;

if

From Equation-(4),

## e > 1, (hgerboli), 'r

may b'e neggtive and these values give us the branch pf the hyperbole lying to
the left.of the directriSc.

,,
.

\
Describe and sketch the graph otthe equation

Example Al_....
-5!'.

16

114

16
r

r - 1 cos e
5
.

16.

1 -

,r)s 4

from which

and pi=

e =

Since

e < 1,

## the graph is an ellipse with

'3

focus

F1' at' the pdlesand Major axis on the polar axle:. By giiiing

values
2,n).

0 ,-and

(8,0)

.9- the

and

## Thus the length Of the major axis is

10,
the center of the ellipse
is the point (3,0).; and the other focus is, the "point F (6 0).- Since
'
16 ?
p =
(the distance betyeen. a focus and corresponding directrix of the
3

pole is

r cos e = -

16
3

the direqriX 12

21

corresponding to

F2(6,0

is

r cos 9 =

3
.

Uhen

e =

then

r =

,16

16

(latus rectum)

through F1.

y,

(-5-, .51

16 .311

(75 2 )f

## these points help us to skdtch the ellipse,as shown

-4

'3&3

419

3p,

A1-5
--

Exercises A1-5
l'. ,Find all .polar coordinates of each of the following. points:

i).

(a)

(6

(b)

(-6 ,,'-i).

(a)(-6, - 'i).
%

2.

A)

lar coordinates:
ea(

'

(4, -4).

(a)
'

(e)

(.-3

(f)

(-3 , 4).

, 0).

(b)

(:-2-2'a

(c)

(-2

(d)

,.

i).,

-2iD.

*(g)

(9, -10) 7

(h)

-1,

1)

; -,/).'

(,/'

,,

4.

## Given the cartesian coordinates

polar coordinates

(x,y)

t:

use arccos 1

r.

,,'

5.

Ane

L,

## the centroid ot the

triangle coincides with tlie pole, and one angular coordinate of a vertex
is
-

(a) .x = c,

a constant.

(b)

'a constant.

y = c,

%,

(c)

ax +by = c.

(c1)

x2 +.(y1 k)2

(f)

7.

xx

-W.
10

= k2,

..

aa

= 'a2,

(a)

r . a.

(b)

r, sin:e

(c)

2a,sin B.

(d) r
(e)

=-5.
1

1,- cos e

r i.2 tan B.

385

393_
I-

Al-5'
8.

## Derive an equation in polar.coordinates for conic sections with a focus

at the. pole and directrix perpendicular tothe polar axis and
.

units

9.

Repeat

Number(8 if the

10.

is

## units below thg focus at the pole.

Discuss and sketch each of the following curves.in polar coordinates.

11.

## Example Ai.--5c and Nos.

8', 9,

10.)

8
r'

1 7 cos

.*
5

12

36
-

sin

1.4.

16

(d) "r

5+3
sin

(e)

"-

- 3 cos

pin 0-

= 1 - r

1.2., Certain types c7f symmetry of curves in-polar coordinate's are readily
detected.

1

is replaced by

-r.

(a)

is replaced by

-0?

(b)

is replaced by

7(-

(c)

and

(d)

1.s replaced by

13.

0?

CI

are replaced by

-r

and

'N.

respectively?

n + 0?

## Without actually sketching the graphs, describe the symmetries of the

graphs of the following equations:
r2 = 4 sin 20.

. (a)

(
k

-e,

(c) ,r = cos

201

Iair

38 9

Al-5

(a)

(b)

## r= a.(1,- co's 0).

= ae.

(d)

r = a sin20 cos 8.

(e)

re = a.

-,

,

## 15. In each of the .following, find'all

pairs/of equations.

## (Recall that the polar repiesentation of a point is

x.

'snot 41.11..te.)

(a), r= 2

2 sin 0,

'r = -2 sin420,
(c)

A'

## r = 4(1 4., cos'

r = 2

2 cos.

;
r = 2 cos 0
0,

- cos

e)

'p

L
38

395.

Is.

A2-1
4

Appendix 2
POLYNONIAIIS

A2-1.

'

Signiance of Polynomi,pls
The importenceof,polynomials in applicatiots to engineering and the

accident.

## The utility of polynomial6 is based largely on mathematicq proper-.

ties that; for all practical purposes, PermAt the replacement or much more com:plicated functions by polynomial functions in a host of situatfolls.

We shall

(a)

formally.

## The sum, product, and compositetof polynomial functions,

the determination of slope End area, and the location of zeros and
!k*

0)1

## Polynomial.funotions are among the simplest functions to evaluate.

It is quite easy to find:the value of ,f(x),
x -*a

+ alx + a2x2 .+

given

+ anxn
k

number for

x.

## involved, and the-computation'can be shortened by using the method:

of synthet,ic.substitution..

them valuab

## (c) requently an experimental scientist makes a series of measurements,'

'plots them as points, and tiren tries to find a reasonably simple

## continuous curve that will pass through these points.

The graph, of

a polynomial function can,always be used for this purpose, and because it has no sharp changes of direction, and only a:limited number
of upA and downs, it is in many.ways the best curve for'the. purpose.
'4er

## Thus, for the purpose of fitting a.continuous,graph to a finite number of

points, we wou\III, prefer,to#Nork with polynomials and we need not, look beyond

follows:

389
o.

396
4if

4--

.A2-1

Given

distinct numbers

## that a function is supposed to assume, it is /5ossible,to,find

y2,*..., yn

y1,
-a polynomial,: function of degree at most

i = 01." n.

'.points

n'

you

n = 2:

founda

## the result is'

is also-differe'ntfrom. yr,

y2

If

4t,

it is a constant function.

y2 = yr,

a linear function; if

## One way of doing this is, to assume a.polynomia1,9f,the stated form,

,4
2
n-1
,
+
f(x) = ao + alx + a2x +
.

,r

f
.

## and write the

.,

equations

yi, i = 1, 2, ..., n.

f(xi)

1
.

'-o,\$This giVes.

unknowns

...

0'

l'

and

a'

4-1,

%-

,,,

Example A211a.

ft

## through the points

(-2,2),'(143), (2,-1),

## a polynomial graph of degree no greafer tlian, 3

poi&s.

Assume, therefore,

,-

## aix + a2x 2 +-a3x3.

f(x) = a0
Then, if the graph of

and

f(4) = 1;

that it,

a0 +
a

a
,

0
0

al +

a2 +

+ 2a 14 "4a
16a

4: 4a
1

a3 =

+'8a3 = -1,
2
2

+ 64a 0 to

20

3)

31

37

a2

and

, al

11

a3

Hence
4.

f(X)

= 44160

62X

37X2..4

## The labor of solving systems of linear equations such as thede can be

rather discouraging, especially if there are many equations.

## various methods have been worked,out for organizing and reducing

vplyed.

labor in-

One of the most important of these methods, called the Lagrange Intl"

## pOlation Formula, is based On the fglloWi4 simple line of reasoning.

f

390
6 Z)

We can

A2-1
easily write down a formilia for a polynomial of degree

at *n - 1

xis.

-of the,

that is zero

ti

ti

Figure A2-la

## A set of values to be taken on by a polynomial function.

instance, that we have four points

## (xl,y,1); (x2,y2), (x3,i3)

as in Figure A2-16.

The polynomial

(1)

## g (x) = C,(x -,2)(x - x )(x - x

has zerosat.i x
81

(x ),= y 1
1

2'

3'

and

By proper choice of

x4.

Let us do so!

Take

C1

such that

Suppose, for
and

(x4,y4)

we can take

Ci,

40.

= g (x ) = C
1

X2)(X1

x4)',

x3)(xl
4

## that is, take

(2)

Cl - (x1

If we substitute

C1

yi
x2)(xi - x3)(xl - x4)

## from (2)into (1), we get

(x - x2)(x.- x3). (x - xl;)

, 81(x)

-(37;

= y

- x3),(x1 - x4)

It
y,

If

at

/ 0

XLI'

and is zero at

x2, x3,

and

x4.

.(x

(4)

f35(x) =

x4)

x)(x

(X2 - xl)(x2

x3)(x2 - x1.4)

'

4
3

391

3 9
e

A2-1
N

( 5)

g3(X) = Y3

(x -

- x2) (x - x4)

(x

'

,.1-

and
*

. (6)

g4(x)

## (xi:- x15(x4 - x2)(x4 = x3)

Y4

are alsg'polynomitlp, ,each having ,the property tlot it is zero at three of the

at the fourth

This

x.

F.

Values of

dingy

Corr
Value of

g (x)

Value of

x4,-.-

Y-4.

Y4

'

0 .

P2(x)

N.

Value of

g3(x)

Value of

g4(x)

3
-10

' 0

y
1

Y4

'

.1;

g(x)

'(T)
.'

L.

..,

,1

## g(xi) = ;Y1 + 0 + 0 +0 =,y1,

g(x2) = 0

+ Y2 + + p

.-

T2'

g(X3) = 0 + 0 + y3 + 0 = y

g(x4) = 0 + 0 + 0+ y4 = y4.
.,

41r.

--.

From .Egillatlons (3), (4), (5), and (6) it is also dealt that
in
.*'

3.

_
is a polynomial

Example A2 -lb.

and

(4,2).

We find that
,-

g (x)' =
-

1.

(x

4)

## 2(-1 - 0)(-1 - 2)(-1 - 4)

-g(x) = 0,

J
392

399

2x(x - 2)(x.- 4)
-1,

)
A2-1

1)(1)2(x - 4)

(x

g3(x)

(x t 1)(x)(x - 2)

g4(x)

(()14c

))((lct.

and
i

2
...-gfx),,,,, - 15 x(x - 2)(x - 4) + 1-(x + 1)(x)(x - 4) + 2,(x + 1)(x)(x - 2)
,
12
20
.

- ix).

-1".(x2

The right hand sides of Equations (3), (4),.(5), and (6Y have the
.

4 ;

following structure:
4

Ni(x)

gi(x) = yi

'

i = 1, 2, 3, 4:

,....s,

## -Tile numerator of the fraction, is the_product_of.41.but .one, of the factors

"(x 1 xi), (x - .x2), (x :: g3);

(x - x ).

and

(x - x4),

## The denominator is the value of the_

numerator at

x4t--...x

41)/.. N (x.).

This same structure.would still hold if we had.more (or fewer) points given.
(d)

## Instead of a finite set of pdints to whixh a Simple continuous func-'

tion is to be fitted, a mathematicitn4s_sometimes 2gonfronted with a
continudus but very 'complicated function that he. wOUld-14e-tA,,,..-

## powerful theoresof higher, mathematics that enlarges the breadth of

aploliCation oflgiynomials to this situation.

16;.i*

## permits the "fitting" of a polynomial graph'tb any continuous graph.

In'other words, any continuous function whatever can be aeproxithated

## by a polynomial function over a'finite interval of its domain, with

preassigned accuracy.
is continuous over

a < x < b,

If(x)

- g(x)I < c

and
g

for all

such that
x

in

Akt.

393-

400.

a < x < b.

A2 -1

-% ,;
t\C4

../
//

vs

.
Figure A2 -lc

A strip between

f(x) - c

and

f(r) + c.

## This is known as the Weierstrass Approximation Theorem.

pretation of the theorem

## ir indicated in Figure ,A2-1c

continuous curve,

may 'have

..

and

Xhe graph of

is a

x = b.

atci.p,

## No polynomial graph behaves like that

centered on the graph'

f,- extending

st

x f(x) -.,c
and
X

where

-4.f.

(X) +

## guarantees that there is Al polynomial function

g : x -;,g(x),

whose graph on, a < x < b *lies entirely inside "this strip.
cise meaning of the statement:

o.

## approximated by a polynomial function over a finite interval of its domain,

with pfeassigned accuracy."

Exercises A2-,1
1.

3.

## Find a polynlixiiial function of degree less than or equal to

graph contains

4.

g(x)

points

and

whole

(4,2), (0,-1),,(2,3).

## Find a polynomial function whose graph contains the points

(2,91-,---(3;307

'( 1,6).

O7,

394

4'0
TO

(0,1), (1,0),

, A2-2
vt;

A2-2.

Number of Zeros
One could get, the impression that every polynomial function of degree

zeros.

n zeros.

## Let us exhibit a poly-

.nomial function for which the numberof zeros is less than the degree:
V

f
has only one zero, namely
factors

x - 3,

x2

3.

## But since the quadratic has two identical

-, 6x + 9 = (x - 3)2.

## expogntof the highest power,of

f(4) = (x - r)
where. ,q(x)

is a zero of

is a polynomial, and if
f

The

of multiplicity

of a polynomial

that diVides

f(x).

to be the

k > 0,

q(x),

## noes not divide

x - r

That is, if

q(x),

then

k.

The proof of the general theorem abput the number of zeros of a'poly:
nomial function depends on !She fact that every such function has at least one
zero.

.7.

pie

## Every polynomial function of

degree greater than zero has at least one zero, real or complex.

## This is the simplest form of the Fundamental Theordm of Algebra.

(As a

matter of fact, the theorem isicorrect even if some or all of the coefficients
of the polynomial are complex numbers.)

The first known proof of the theorem was published by the great.German
mathematician Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777 = 1855) in 1799.
has written an inteieSting'accoUni of Gauss.

## and Schuster, 1956, Volume 1, paget7295-339, or E: T. Bell, Men of Mathematics,

Simon and_Schuster, 1937, pages 218 -269.)

A

22.

## Gauss gave a total of four different ,.,

proofs of the theorem, the last in 1850. 'None of the proofs is sufficiently
9

395

14Q2

12-2.,

## A pro3f is also given

in L.. E. Dickson? New First Course in the theory of Equations, John Wiley and
Sons, 1939..

## The General Form of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.

a polynomial function of degree
and at most

Then

n > O.

Let

f be

n.

## (recall the Factor Theore) there is a polynomial

rl.

Then

of degreern - 1

q(x)

such that
k:I^e

f(x) = (x - r )q(x).

(1)

If

.o.fs q

1,

is

## is of degree-zero and we have finished.

n - 1

and'is.positive...Then

could'happen that

r2 = r1)

If

n > i,

the degree

## has at least one zero, r2

(it

and

q(x) = (x - r2)s(x),

(2),

where

s *is of degree

n - 2.

1,

(3)
If

f(x) = (x
n = 2,

then

ri)(X - r2)s(x).

## in Equation (3) is of degree zerostand we have finished.

Otherwise, the proCess may be continued until we arrive at the final stage,
(10

f(x) = (x - ri)(x

## where the degree of

r2)

n - n = O.

is

(x - rn)z(x),

Hence,

z(x)

is a constant.

Compari-

son of the expanded form of Equation (4) with the equivalent form
f(x) = anxn + a

*shows that
(5) '

z(x) = a

/ O.

n-1

xn-1 +

+..a

0,
ti

Hence,

f(x) =

(x - t )(x -'r2)
.n

(x - r ).

396

x + a

A2-2,

r

in.place of

2"

r2,

te

(r - r )..

no number except
;

r2,

r
1,

r
'

is a zero of

f,

and

Hence,

hasat most

zeros.

## Since it is possible.that soine of the -r is

zeros of

f may be less,than

has exactly

n.
Example A2-2.a..
f

x -4x5 + x

5x,

+ 8x - 4

## Find the zeros and indicate the

-

multiplicity of each.
Since the coefficient of the term of" highest degree is

we know that

1,

4.

'

Section 1-7.)

(Refer to:.

## degree obtained each time a zero is found, we discover that

multiplicity three and

-2

is a zero of

## of the multiplicities is fide, which is also the degree of the given.polynOml:al.

It may be helpful to show a practical way for putting down the synthetic
substitutions by which we obtained the zeros and their multiplicities.

This

Table A2.-2

5x

.4- x

-1

-4

-3

-4

-3

-4

-a

-4

ta,

4._

x --4x

- x

+ 8x - 4

fs a zero

1
1....1...4

0.

-4

-0

'-4

3.-

-4

of

three.

40'4

of

multiplicity

397

in

-it',

A2-2
The entries

,3, -4, 4

1,

1,*4, 4

## degreA four, three, and two, respectively.

2

x --4x

2
x

+ 4x + 4

+ 4x + 4

has

1, 3, 0, -4

in the

.
In the last-row
are coefficients of polynomialsof

## as a zero of multiplicity two since'

-2

(x + 2)2.

Thus,'the zeros, of

## (of multiplicity three) and

are .1

(of

-2

multiplicity two).
two):
."

viP

The graph of

and

(points

and

ti

f (x)

arc

Ffgure
Graph_Of

f :,x :4Z

8
4'

398
94 4:

L.

sr

t..)

A2=2

\'
.

>,
'

.-

## , The Fundamental TheorelA of Algebra implies that the.range of-any-_-,poncon-

stant polynoMial function includes zero when its domaih is the set of ail

cm-

.;

plex numbers.

The range does not always include zero "wh' en the domain-is the
,

f :.x -*.y

x2 + 1,

R,
p
-AT"

is the set.
(y

f

is > 0,

y > 1).

suppose that
plex number.

n > 0 'and

a + ib.

Foe,

is any com-

f(x)

a + ib

is equivalent to
(6)

a - ib = 0.

f(x)

'

## This is a polynomial equation of degree

of Algebra, Equation (6) has a solution.
complex number

that is mapped by

n;

f into

a + ib:

'

f(x) = a + ib.

map into

a + ib,

will be exactly

n_

## and the sum of the multiplicities of the solutions of (6)

n:
.1

The Fundamental Theorem does not tell Us how to find even one of the zeros
of

f.

## 'In the '1930's the

Bell Telephone Laboratories built a machine, the Isogiaph, for solving such
,

g
is

1Q kr less.

## See The Isograph -- A Md6'anica1

Root-Finder, by R. L. Dietzold, Bell Labs ReCord, 16, December, 1937, page 130.

## Nowadays, electronic computers are used to do this*job, and many others.

Numerous applications of computers in science and industry are discussed in a
series of articles in the book The Computing Laboratory in the University,
University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, Wisconsin, 1957, edited by Preston C.
Hammer.
'

## The followyg quotation is taken from a book called Mathematics

and CoMputers,ty GeorgekRiptibitz and Jules A. Larrivee, McGraw-Hill Book
4.01

## Co., Net; York, 1957, page 37:

399

406

A2-2.

"There is an interesting use for the roots of the 'characteristic equation' of a vibrating system in the dynamics of electromagnetic and mechanical
systems Where many.of the properties of amplifiers, filters, servos, airfo21s,
and other devices must be determined.

## -characteristic equation for a system has 0 positive real part,the system

will be'unstable:

## amplifiers will howl, servos will oscillate.uncontrolla-

, bly, and bridges will collapse under the stresses exerted by the winds.
..

The

prediction of such behavior isof great importance to designers of the amplifies that boost your voice-are ktdcrOsies the country over telephone lines,
and the servos that point guns at an attacking,plane."

Exercises A2-2

1.

3

- x

(a)

(b)

## x3.- 3x2 + 4x - 2,= 0,

(c)

x3 + 3x2 + 4x + 2 = 0

(d)

x311 x2 - 2 = 0,

(e)

x3 + 6x2 +.13x + 10 = O.

"S.

+ 2 = Q,,

12.

## Find them and, in eachcase,'

snow trat the s.m oP the malti.%licities of the roots equals...the degree of

the

olynomial.

(01 x3 - 3x - 2 = 0,
(b)

x3 - 3X + 2 = 0,
13

x4

5x3

9x2

7x + 2 = O.

Find the roots and their multiplicities of each of the following equa-

3.

tions.
.

## Compare the solution%ets of the two equations.

(a)

x5 + 4x4 + x3

(b)

X5

X4

5X

10x2 - 4x + 8 =

+ 8x -4 =0

0'

4 0,7

'

A2-2
4.

A number system is said to be algebraically closed if, and only if, every
polynomial equatipn of degree > 0,
68E: solution in that system.

(a)

The integers:

-1, 0, 1, 2; 3,

Thfreal numbers:

5,

(d)

(e)

## The complex numbers.

os,

You may have heard that it was necessary for matheMatic4ans to invent
.and,other.complex numbers in order'.to solve some ,quadratic equatiohc.

pp?

,,10.

--14

71.1'

tw

401

i0g
11

A2-4,

A2-3.

Complex Zeros

A

ax + bx + c = 0,

(1).

4.

x-

'(2)

The coefficients

a, b,

and

-)

t 42 -

C
.

2a

imaginary if

- 4ac j 0,

- 4at < 0.

EXagple

a.

bg = 4ac > 0,

## real and unequarif

real and equal if

Its sign

cff

2'

= 0'?

'

## The roots are4

-1 - i 4

-1 + i 4
2

'

We notice that these roots are complex conjugates; that 1,e, they have the
.1,

form
A
11

1.r+ ty

u - iv,

and

and v=

where .0

and

,/-

,,

2 '

Let

## Is it just a coincidence that these roots are complex con:lugates?

us look at (2), and suppose thatfa, b,, and
discriminant is negative, say

-d

2
.

## Then the roots of

ax

+ bx + c = 0

are

, d,
b
b
.d.
conjugates. Thus, if a,
- ik). Thes'e are
+ i(2a) and 2a
2a
2a
2a
t.
c are real and if the roots of (1) are imaginary, then these rbotsand
b,
.

## (In the following theorem, the letters 'a

and

represent
.

the real and imaginary parts of a complex root of an equation of any degree,

## and do ngt refer to the coeffIcientSin a Oadraticekpression.)

*4.5106

:,.._

4
I

1402

409

...1,r

A2-3'
Complex-conjugates Theorem.

coefficients, and if
imaginary part

If. f(x)

a + tb

b /-0,

then

f(x) = 0,

is also a root.

- ib

with

a

and

real and

b # 0,

then

f(p

ib) = 0.)

## We give two proofs of this result.

First PrQof.

The key to this proof is the use pfd the quadratic polynomial
tt- ,
that is the product of x + it)
and x
(a - ib). We show ,that it
.

dies f(x).

f(a - it) = 0

## pft-ted the proof.

Thd..3.- let

(3)

fx

p(x)

1(4

(a + ib)][x- (a - ib)]
a)

- it2lf.(x

+ ib)

a)

;
K

.N

Now

## a polynomial ic divided by a quadratic, a remaindet of degree les, thab

obtained,
q(x)

Henc4, if

and a remainder

'k

where

f(x)

h, k,

is divided by

f(x) = p(x)

This is an identity in
p(a + 1.0 = 0.

is

of dowiree

(but no greater),

.L,

(4)

p( ),

ossi

r(o* xli= hx +

whet

are real.

Thus,

+ k.

q(x)

## f(a + ib) = 0, and from Equatpn

By hypothesisa

Therefors, if we substitute. a + ib

for

in Equation

(4), we get
0 = 0 + ha + ihb + k.

4-

0,

we have

ha + k

(5)

and

hb = O.

(6)

-Since

b / 0

0
* , 4 0 -P'

k = 0.

h = 0.

Then Equa-

zero, and

4.10,

fr.

A2-3

Since

p(a - i

f(x) 4 p(x)

q(x).

## by Equation (3), it follows from Equation (7)/that

= 0

172.

f(a - ib) = 0.

Let

Second Proof.

f(x) = a xn + an-lx

(8)

n-1

## and suppose that

Equation (8),

f(a + ib) = 0.

we can expand

+.a lx + a

When we substitute

(a + ib)

(a + ib)3,

0'

a '+:tb

for

in

mial Theorem.

## We can prove the complex-conjugatps theorem, however, without

actually carrying out all of these` expansions, if we observe how the terms
behave.

(a + ib)

a +

= a + ib,
.,:
)

(a +'ib)

- a

+ 2aib +

(a2

iO3

(a

a3

.2.
b )

i2b2

'

+ i(2ab),

b

## either does not occur at all, or it)occurs only to even powers.

imaginary part40- b

In the

## are real and all odd powers are imaginary.

If we

change the_sign of

b,

Thus, if

## f(a + ib) = u +- iv,

then

tut by hypothesis,

'f(a + ib) = 0;
so that

u + iv = 0,

and therefore

u = V = 0..

f(a - ib)

Hence

0. r.

.404
o

A2-3
What is the degree of a polynomial function

,ExamRle A2-4a.

of mini-

and

2 + i, 1,

## mum 'degree if,

3 - 2i 'are zeros of

f?

6
I

## then we may take

'f(x) =,(x - (2 -4 i)1[
= x

+ (-6

can have

zeros, so

coefficients of

l][x - (3

is

3.

f(x)

For

5.

41

and

3 - 2i..

2 + i, 2

(9)?,

## must also be zeros of

can have the

f.

No

zeros

1, 3 - 2i, 3 + 2i.
11

But

(10). [x

(2 + ink

4 a polynomial of degree

(2

5,

(3

2i)]

## numbers listed in (9) as its zeros.,

Exercises A2-3
1.

Multiply the ,fa tors in (10) above to show that the expression does have
real coefficients.

%-

2.

(a)

(b)

2 + 3i

as a zero,

A2",1

3.

r,

(al

x3 - 1 = 0

(b)

x3 + 1 = 0

(c)

x3

(d)

(e)

x4

(f)

(g)

x6

x2 + 2,C= 8

+ 5x
-

## 2x3 + 10x2.- 18x + 9 = 0

+ 2x
-

+ 4 = 0

+ 3x

2x5-+ 3x4

+ 4X
-

+ 3x

+ 2x t 1 '=-0

(-

4x3 + 3x2 - 2x + 1 = 0

4.

## real coefficients having

2 + i, -2 + i, 2 - 1, 3 + i, -3 + i

as roots?
I

arl- b1,

5.

a - big

rational\ Then

where

and

a + big.

are

Prove

## the follo4dg theorem on conjugate surds:

If

a + b1 is a root of

f(x) = 0,

that if, u = v1 = 0,

and

then

apd

f(x)

a - big

is also a root.

,

(Note

u = v = 0.

## 6. .Find a polynomial with rational coefficients and minimum.degree'hpving

3 + 2V as a zero.

7. /State and prove a theorem similar to that in Exercise 5 abOve for numbers

of the form

## 'ford a + 1)4 ?" Give reasons for your answers.

Write a polynomial:function of minimum degree that has

8.

-1

and

3 -

as zeros, if
, ...

(b)

## thecoefficie is must be rational.

0

4
9.

,t

)
('a)

Find,a,polynomial of

## inimum degree with rational coefficicents having

If as a zero.
10.

What is the degree of a polynomial, of minimum degree with (a) real, and
(b) rational coeffici ents having

'

as a zero?

(1)

i + ig

(2)

1 + i1 as a zero?

(3)

if +

as a zero?

406.

413
.