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# "BUOYANCY" --- BUOYANCY ANALYSIS FOR CONCRETE PIT OR TANK

Program Description:
"BUOYANCY" is a spreadsheet program written in MS-Excel for the purpose of performing a buoyancy analysis,
checking the resistance to flotation, for either an open or buried/enclosed rectangular concrete pit or tank.
This program is a workbook consisting of three (3) worksheets, described as follows:

Worksheet Name

Description

Doc
Open Pit or Tank
Enclosed Pit or Tank

## This documentation sheet

Check flotation resistance for open rectangular concrete pit or tank
Check flotation resistance for buried/enclosed rect. concrete pit or tank

## Program Assumptions and Limitations:

1. This program is based on the Archimedes Principal on buoyancy which is stated as follows:
"Any object, wholly or partially immersed in a fluid, is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid
displaced by the object". Thus, the volume of water displaced by the object multiplied times the unit weight of
water is equal to the buoyant force.
2. Use of "overhangs" (extensions) on the pit/tank base allows the user to account for a "block or wedge" of
soil around the periphery of the concrete pit/tank.
3. For soil above the water table, the dry unit weight is used for determining the weight considered to contribute
in resisting flotation. For soil below the water table, the submerged weight (s - w) is used for determining
the weight considered to contribute in resisting flotation.
4. The full concrete unit weight is used for the walls, base, top slab (if applicable), and tributary grade slab
(if applicable) as weight considered to contribute in resisting flotation.
5. The total weight resisting flotation is the sum of the pit/tank concrete weight, the tributary grade slab weight
(if applicable), the unsubmerged soil weight, and the submerged soil weight.
6. The total "buoyed volume" is determined as the total volume of water which is displaced by the pit/tank.
7. The total "buoyant force" is then determined by multiplying the "buoyed volume" times the unit weight of water.
8. The factor of safety against flotation is the total weight resisting flotation divided by the total "buoyant force".
9. This program assumes a Factor of Safety >= 1.2 to be satisfactory, taken against the highest anticipated
water table level. This also allows for some uncertainty in the contributing factors and variables. Where the
weights calculated are well established, this Factor of Safety could be reduced to 1.1. In determining the
Factor of Safety, allowance should be made for future removal of weight, for example the removal of soil.
10. This program contains comment boxes which contain a wide variety of information including explanations
of input or output items, equations used, data tables, etc. (Note: presence of a comment box is denoted
by a red triangle in the upper right-hand corner of a cell. Merely move the mouse pointer to the desired
cell to view the contents of that particular "comment box".)

"BUOYANCY.xls" Program
Version 1.2

BUOYANCY ANALYSIS
For Checking Flotation Resistance for Open Rectangular Concrete Pit or Tank
Subjected to High Ground Water Table
Job Name:
Subject:
Job Number:
Originator:
Checker:
Input Data:
Pit Inside Length, Lp =
Pit Inside Width, Bp =
Pit Inside Depth, Dp =
Pit Wall Thk., tw =
Pit Base Thk., tb =
Base Overhang, Loh =
Soil Dry Unit Wt., s =
Soil Subm. Unit Wt., ss =
Concrete Unit Wt., c =
Water Unit Wt., w =
Water Table Depth, Dwt =
Soil Wedge Angle, =

100.000
60.000
20.000
2.000
3.000
3.000
1.000
120.00
135.00
150.00
62.40
6.000
30.00

ft.

110.0
70.0

ft.

ft.
ft.

tw

Slab

ft.
ft.

Lp (length)
(x Bp width)

tw

W.T.

Slab
Wall

Wall

W.T.

Dwt

Dp

ft.

Loh

ft.
pcf

Base

pcf

ts

45+/2
tb

pcf
pcf

Lb

ft.
deg.

Nomenclature

Results:
Pit Base Dimensions:
Pit Base Length, Lb =
Pit Base Width, Bb =

## Weight of Unsubmerged Soil:

Bottom Area (soil), B = 10871.2
Top Area (soil), C = 12130.4
Vol., Vs1 = 57475.2
Pit Portion Vol., Vp1 = 33280.0
Soil Vol., Vus = 24195.2
Soil Wt., Wus =
2903.4

ft.

ft.^2
ft.^2
ft.^3
ft.^3
ft.^3
kips

## Weight of Submerged Soil:

Bottom Area (soil), A =
Top Area (soil), B =
Vol., Vs2 =
Pit Portion Vol., Vp2 =
Soil Vol., Vss =
Soil Wt., Wss =

7700.0
10871.2
129361.8
93184.0
36177.8
2626.5

ft.^2

Weight of Concrete:
Top Area (Grade Slab), C =
Pit Walls Vol., Vw =
Pit Base Vol., Vb =
Wc =

12130.4
5474.4
13120.0
23100.0
6254.2

ft.^2

ft.^2
ft.^3
ft.^3
ft.^3
kips

ft.^3
ft.^3
ft.^3
kips

Lb = Lp+2*tw+2*Loh
Bb = Bp+2*tw+2*Loh

B = (Bb+2*(Dp-Dwt)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dp-Dwt)*TAN())
C = (Bb+2*(Dp-ts)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dp-ts)*TAN())
Vs1 = 1/3*(Dwt-ts)*(B+C+SQRT(B*C))
Vp1 = (Bp+2*tw)*(Lp+2*tw)*(Dwt-ts)
Vus = Vs1-Vp1
Wus = Vus*s/1000

A = Bb*Lb
B = (Bb+2*(Dp-Dwt)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dp-Dwt)*TAN())
Vs2 = 1/3*(Dp-Dwt)*(A+B+SQRT(A*B))
Vp2 = (Bp+2*tw)*(Lp+2*tw)*(Dp-Dwt)
Vss = Vs2-Vp2
Wss = Vss*(ss-w)/1000

C = (Bb+2*(Dp-ts)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dp-ts)*TAN())
Vgs = (C-((Bp+2*tw)*(Lp+2*tw)))*ts
Vw = (2*((Lp+2*tw)*tw)+2*(Bp*tw))*Dp
Vb = (Lb*Bb)*tb
Wc = (Vgs+Vw+Vb)*c/1000

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"BUOYANCY.xls" Program
Version 1.2
(continued)

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"BUOYANCY.xls" Program
Version 1.2

## Total Resisting (Down) Force:

Resisting Force, Fr = 11784.1

kips

Fr = Wc+Wus+Wss

## Buoyancy (Uplift) Force:

Total Buoyed Volume, Vb = 116284.0 ft.^3
Buoyant Force, Fb = 7256.1 kips

Vb = (Lp+2*tw)*(Bp+2*tw)*(Dp-Dwt)+(Lb*Bb)*tb
Fb = Vb*(w/1000)

F.S. =
1.624

## F.S. = Fr/Fb >= 1.2, O.K.

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"BUOYANCY.xls" Program
Version 1.2

BUOYANCY ANALYSIS
For Checking Flotation Resistance for Buried/Enclosed Rectangular Concrete Pit or Tank
Subjected to High Ground Water Table
Job Name:
Subject:
Job Number:
Originator:
Checker:
Input Data:
Pit Inside Length, Lp =
Pit Inside Width, Bp =
Pit Inside Depth, Dp =
Depth to T/Pit, Dt =
Pit Top Slab Thk., tt =
Pit Wall Thk., tw =
Pit Base Thk., tb =
Base Overhang, Loh =
Soil Dry Unit Wt., s =
Soil Subm. Unit Wt., ss =
Concrete Unit Wt., c =
Water Unit Wt., w =
Water Table Depth, Dwt =
Soil Wedge Angle, =

100.000
60.000
16.000
3.000
1.000
2.000
3.000
3.000
1.000
120.00
135.00
150.00
62.40
1.000
30.00

ft.
ft.

Lp (length)
(x Bp width)

tw

ft.

tw

ft.

ts

Slab

ft.

Dt
tt

ft.
ft.
ft.
ft.

W.T.

Top

Wall

Wall

Dp

pcf

Loh

pcf
pcf

Dwt

W.T.

45+/2

Base

pcf

tb

ft.
deg.

Lb

Results:
Pit Base Dimensions:
Pit Base Length, Lb =
Pit Base Width, Bb =

Nomenclature
110.0
70.0

## Weight of Unsubmerged Soil:

Bottom Area, B = 12130.4
Top Area, C = 12130.4
Vol., Vs1 =
0.0
Pit Portion Vol., Vp1 =
0.0
Soil Vol., Vus =
0.0
Soil Wt., Wus =
0.0

ft.

Lb = Lp+2*tw+2*Loh
Bb = Bp+2*tw+2*Loh

ft.^2

B = (Bb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-Dwt)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-Dwt)*TAN())

ft.^2

C = (Bb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-ts)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-ts)*TAN())

ft.^3

kips

Vs1 = 1/3*(Dwt-ts)*(B+C+SQRT(B*C))
Vp1 = 0 (since Dwt <= Dt)
Vus = Vs1-Vp1
Wus = Vus*s/1000

ft.

ft.^3
ft.^3

## Weight of Submerged Soil:

Bottom Area (soil), A =
Top Area (soil), B =
Vol., Vs2 =
Pit Portion Vol., Vp2 =
Soil Vol., Vss =
Soil Wt., Wss =

7700.0
12130.4
186801.6
113152.0
73649.6
5347.0

ft.^2

A = Bb*Lb

ft.^2

B = (Bb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-Dwt)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-Dwt)*TAN())

ft.^3

Vs2 = 1/3*(Dt+tt+Dp-Dwt)*(A+B+SQRT(A*B))
Vp2 = (Bp+2*tw)*(Lp+2*tw)*(tt+Dp)
Vss = Vs2-Vp2
Wss = Vss*(ss-w)/1000

Weight of Concrete:
Top Area (Grade Slab), C =
Pit Top Slab Vol., Vt =
Pit Walls Vol., Vw =
Pit Base Vol., Vb =
Wc =

12130.4
12130.4
6656.0
10496.0
23100.0
7857.4

ft.^2

ft.^3
ft.^3
kips

ft.^3
ft.^3
ft.^3
ft.^3
kips

C = (Bb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-ts)*TAN())*(Lb+2*(Dt+tt+Dp-ts)*TAN())
Vgs = C*ts

Vt = (Lp+2*tw)*(Bp+2*tw)*tt
Vw = (2*((Lp+2*tw)*tw)+2*(Bp*tw))*Dp
Vb = (Lb*Bb)*tb
Wc = (Vgs+Vt+Vw+Vb)*c/1000

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"BUOYANCY.xls" Program
Version 1.2
(continued)

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"BUOYANCY.xls" Program
Version 1.2

## Total Resisting (Down) Force:

Resisting Force, Fr = 13204.3

kips

Fr = Wus+Wss+Wc

## Buoyancy (Uplift) Force:

Total Buoyed Volume, Vb = 136252.0 ft.^3
Buoyant Force, Fb = 8502.1 kips

Vb = (Lp+2*tw)*(Bp+2*tw)*(tt+Dp)+(Lb*Bb)*tb
Fb = Vb*(w/1000)

F.S. =
1.553